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Eskrima
GM Abaya.jpg
An eskrima teacher wielding rattan sticks
Also known as Escrima
Kali
Arnis de Máno
Focus Stick fighting
Knife fighting
Country of origin Philippines Philippines
Olympic sport No

Eskrima or escrima refers to a class of Filipino martial arts that emphasize weapon-based fighting with the stick, staff or knife. Alternative terms which have entered into common usage include kali and arnis. Eskrima and arnis are the most common among the many names often used in the Philippines today to refer to these arts.

The teaching of the basic skills in eskrima are traditionally simplified. With limited time to teach intricate moves, only techniques that were proven effective in battle and could easily be taught en masse were used. This allowed villagers, generally not professional soldiers, a measure of protection against other villages, as well as foreign invaders. This philosophy of simplicity is still used today and is the underlying base of eskrima. Because of this approach, eskrima and the Filipino martial arts in general are often mistakenly considered to be "simple". However, this refers only to its systematization, not effectiveness. To the contrary, beyond the basic skills lies a very complex structure and a refined skillset that takes years to master.[1]

Contents

Terminology

For all intents and purposes, eskrima, arnis and kali all refer to the same family of Filipino weapon-based martial arts. In Luzon they may go by the name of pagkalikali, panandata, didya, kabaroan, kaliradman, sinawali and arnis or arnis de mano. In the Visayas and Mindanao, martial arts have been referred to as kali, kalirongan, kuntaw and silat.

Eskrima is the Filipino spelling of the Spanish word for fencing (esgrima).[2][3] "Arnis" is thought to derive from the phrase "arnes de mano," Spanish for "harness of hand".

The word kali, although primarily used in the United States and Europe, is seldom used in the Visayas and in some cases is an unknown word to eskrima practitioners. The term is used mostly in Mindanao, but due to the popularity of the term outside of the Philippines and the influence of foreign practitioners the term has now been accepted as a synonym for eskrima and arnis. In their Cebu Eskrima Myth distributed by Lex libris, Dr. Ned Nepangue and Tinni Macahor contend that the word did not exist until the 1960s when two well-known eskrimadors in the United States popularized it to distinguish what they taught from other styles. However, the most widely accepted belief is that the word comes from tjakalele,[4] a tribal style of stick-fencing from Indonesia. This is supported by the similarities between tjakalele and eskrima techniques, as well as Mindanao's proximity to Indonesia. Numerous alternative theories attempt to explain the term's origin:

  • It could have come from the Baybayin word kalepo or kalibo ("kali sports" or panlarong kali). This suggests that Kalibo's name may have originated from the word "kali" because there are many eskrima schools in Kalibo today.[citation needed]
  • Kali may be a portmanteau of the Cebuano words "ka"mot, or "ka"may meaning hand or body, and "li"hok, meaning motion.[citation needed]
  • It might be traced back to the word for scales (kaliskis) because Cebuan warriors from the 8th and 9th centuries wore scale armour before bronze and copper armour were introduced in the 10th century.[citation needed]
  • There exist numerous similar terms of reference for martial arts such as kalirongan, kaliradman and pagkalikali. These may be the origin of the term kali or they may have evolved from it.[5]

An eskrimador, kalista or mangangali (as some modern practitioners called themselves) is a practitioner of Eskrima, while Arnisador is also used for the variant name Arnis.

Origins

As eskrima is an art for the common folk, most practitioners lacked the scholarly education to create any kind of written record. While the same can be said of many martial arts, this is especially true for eskrima because almost all of its history is anecdotal, oral or promotional. The origin of eskrima can be traced back to the fighting systems used by Filipinos during inter-tribal warfare. Settlers and traders travelling through the Malay Archipelago brought the influence of silat as well as Chinese and Indian martial arts.[6], [7] The Han-Filipino population still practices localised Chinese fighting methods known as kuntaw, while silat from Indonesia and Malaysia remains popular among ethnic Malays from the southern provinces.

Some believe that since eskrima is weapon-based, this suggests its roots and development were independent and autonomous of most foreign combat systems.[citation needed] In fact, it can be said that the inevitable similarities are due to the weaponry components of both Filipino, Indonesian and Chinese martial arts. Any exercises or similar hand movements to that of the Indonesian and Chinese arts were introduced only in recent years to augment the newer eskrima groups[citation needed] - something which is less apparent in the more traditional and authentic systems. Filipinos had their own empty-hand methods, such as sikaran and dumog, and all the bare-handed techniques come from weapon forms.[citation needed]

Among the earliest written records of Filipino martial arts comes from the Spanish conquistadors who fought native tribesmen armed with sticks and knives.[8] Driven back to their ships, the European colonists had to resort to fire-arms to defeat the Filipinos.[8] In 1521, Ferdinand Magellan was killed in Cebu at the Battle of Mactan by the forces of Raja Lapu-Lapu, the Mactan tribal chief. Although eskrimadors hold that Lapu-Lapu killed Magellan in a sword-fight, Spanish records tell that he was shot by an arrow, yet this information is still uncertain as many Spaniards and Portuguese exaggerated their stories to impress their kings.[citation needed] Sources differ on the degree to which eskrima was affected by the Spanish colonisation. It is generally accepted that the art was hidden from the Spaniards and passed down through familial or communal ties. Many believe that eskrimadors disguised their choreographed routines as dances or pretended they were practicing the Spanish style of fencing to avoid being caught. Consequently, a number of Filipino martial arts have some Spanish influence, most apparent in espada y daga or the sword and dagger method.

Although the turbulent and conflict-fraught history and environment of the Philippines enabled eskrima to develop into an efficient art, this has changed in the sense that some systematization allowed easier and quicker teaching of the basics. With the exception of a few older and more established systems, it was previously common to pass the art from generation to generation in an informal approach. This has made attempts to trace the lineage of a practitioner difficult. For example, Antonio Illustrisimo seemed to have learned to fight while sailing around the Philippines, while his nephew and student Floro Villabrille claimed to have been taught by a blind Moro princess in the mountains - a claim later refuted by the older Illustrisimo. Both have since died.

Modern history

Th teaching of eskrima was kept strictly within the Filipino community until the late 1960s when it was brought to the US by masters such as Angel Cabales. Even then, instructors teaching eskrima in the 1960s and 70s were often reprimanded by their elders for publicly teaching a part of their culture that had been preserved through secrecy. Americans were first exposed to eskrima during World War II when some special operations groups were stationed in the Philippines.[citation needed] Today it is taught to the Filipino military as well as American groups like Navy SEALs, Army Special Forces, and Delta Force. In addition, the Philippine Marines are required to learn the basics of Pekiti Tersia knife-fighting as part of their training.

In recent years, there has been increased interest in eskrima for its usefulness when defending against knives. As a result, many systems of eskrima have been modified in varying degrees to make them more marketable to a worldwide audience. Usually this involves increased emphasis on locking, controls, and disarms, focusing mainly on aspects of self-defense. However, most styles follow the philosophy that the best defense is a good offense rather than relying only on defense. Modern training methods tend to de-emphasize careful footwork and low stances, stressing the learning of techniques as opposed to more direct (and often lethal) tactics designed to instantly end an encounter.

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Duels

One of the most important practices in classical eskrima was dueling, without any form of protection. The matches were preceded by cock-fighting and may be held in any open space, sometimes in a specially constructed enclosure. Eskrimadors believe this tradition pre-dates the colonial period, pointing to similar practices of kickboxing matches in mainland Indochina as evidence. Spanish records tell of such duelling areas where cock-fights took place. The founders of most of the popular eskrima systems were famous duelists and legends circulate about how many opponents they killed. In rural areas throughout the Philippines today, modern eskrima matches are still held in dueling arenas. In bigger cities, recreations of duels are sometimes held at parks by local eskrima training-halls. These demonstrations are not choreographed beforehand but neither are they full-contact competitions.

In modern times, public dueling has been deemed illegal in the Philippines to reduce legal problems that arose from injury or death. Lately, eskrima has begun to be practiced as a sport, although there is as yet little standardization or uniformity. The rules, with their corresponding effect on technique, have yet to be decided upon, although several tournaments have been held with various sets of rules. The oldest and most common set is that of the WEKAF (World Eskrima Kali Arnis Federation) which works on a 10-point must system where participants spar with a body protector and helmet. This format has sometimes been criticized because it emphasizes a heavy offense at the expense of defensive techniques, giving rise to the impression that combatants are merely hitting each other in a disorganized way. This is, to some, an antithesis to traditional training methods, where training in footwork and arm/weapon movements are intricate and precise. As a consequence, WEKAF tournaments may be seen as not promoting the original art.

There are efforts amongst eskrimadors to cross train in other tournament competitions where there are noted differences of the rules applied to the contest. For example, there are competitions using padded sticks and no body armor. Judges are required to confirm a when legitimate target has been struck in a stop-and-go point system. The bladed concept using the padded stick and consideration by the judges to the effectiveness of the attack and/or defense is often visually seen by the spectator. In another variation, fighters wield padded sticks and minimal body armour but the competition is continuous similar to the WEKAF 10-point method. One major difference seen in this method is an awareness of the importance of defending oneself, even after scoring a point. In place of knife-fighting, competitors use false blades edged with lipstick. These matches are considered more similar to traditional duels than the WEKAF point-system.

Sticks

File:Arnis Sticks.JPG
A pair of rattan sticks

The most basic and common weapon in eskrima is the stick or yantok. They are typically constructed from rattan, an inexpensive stem from a type of Southeast Asian vine. Hard and durable yet lightweight, it shreds under only the worst abuse and will not splinter like other woods do - thus making it a safe training tool. This aspect also makes it useful in defending against blades. Kamagong (ironwood or ebony) and bahi (heart of the palm) are also sometimes used after being charred and hardened. These hardwoods are generally not used for sparring, however, as they are dense enough to cause serious injury, but traditional sparring does not include weapon to body contact. The participants are skilled enough to parry and counterstrike, showing respect in not intentionally hitting the training partner. In North America and Europe, eskrima practitioners wear head and hand protection while sparring with rattan sticks, or otherwise use padded batons. Some modern schools use sticks made out of aluminium or other metals, or modern high-impact plastics.

Weapons

Eskrima students start their instruction by learning to fight with weapons, and only advance to empty-hand training once the stick and knife techniques have been sufficiently mastered. This is in contrast to most other well-known Asian martial arts but it is justified by the principle that bare-handed moves are acquired naturally through the same exercises as the weapon techniques, making muscle memory an important aspect of the teaching. Most systems of eskrima apply a single set of techniques for the stick, knife and empty hands, a concept sometimes referred to as motion grouping. Since the weapon is seen as simply an extension of the body, the same angles and footwork are used either with or without a weapon. The reason for this is probably historical, because tribal warriors went into battle armed and only resorted to bare-handed fighting after losing their weapons.

Many systems begin training with two weapons, either a pair of sticks or a stick and a wooden knife. These styles emphasise keeping both hands full and never moving them in the same direction. For example, one stick may strike the head while the other hits the arm. Such training develops the ability to use both limbs independently, a skill which is valuable even when working with one weapon: the extra hand can be used to control the opponent's weapon and to strike when the range is sufficiently close. Although this technique was promoted by Anciong Bacon of the Balintawak style, it is banned in modern matches. Presently, competitors often hold the unused hand away so it doesn't get hit.

Blunt weapons

  • Yantok: stick ranging from twenty-four to twenty-eight inches long. Also called olisi, baston or garrote.
  • Largo mano yantok: longer stick ranging from twenty-eight to thirty-six inches
  • Dulo dulo: short stick about four to seven inches in length, held in the palm of the hand
  • Bankaw: six-foot pole. Staves can also be used to practice sword techniques
  • Wooden dagger measuring twelve to fourteen inches
  • Sibat: shield

Bladed weapons

  • Daga: dagger of many sizes
  • Balisong: fan knife or butterfly knife from the Balisong village. The handle is two-piece and attaches to a swivel enclosing the blade when shut.
  • Karambit: claw-shaped Indon-Malay blade held by inserting the finger into a hole at the top of the handle.
  • Bolo: a common farm tool similar to a machete
  • Pinute: a type of bolo from Cebuano
  • Sundang: a sword created by the Bugis people of Indonesia. Its blade is usually wavy.
  • Barang: flat-headed blade
  • Binikoko: long blade named after a porgy fish
  • Dinahong palay: blade named after a type of poisonous snake
  • Kalis: venomous Indon-Malay dagger, often given a wavy blade. Also known as a kris, it is most commonly used in the southern provinces
  • Kampilan: fork-tipped sword, popular in the southern Philippines
  • Bankow: spear

Flail weapons

  • Sarong: a length of fabric wrapped around the waist
  • Ecut: handkerchief
  • Tabak-toyok: chained sticks, also known as nunchaku
  • Whip consisting of a handle between 8 and 12 inches, and a lash composed of a braided thong 3-20 ft long. The "fall" at the end of the lash is a single piece of leather 10-30 inches in length.[9]

Technical aspects

Ranges

Most systems recognize that the technical nature of combat changes drastically as the distance between opponents changes, and generally classify the ranges into at least three categories. Each range has its characteristic techniques and footwork. Of course, some systems place more emphasis on certain ranges than others, but almost all recognize that being able to work in and control any range is essential. The Balintawak style for example, uses long-distance, medium-range and short-range fighting techniques, but focuses more on the short range.

In order to control the range, and for numerous other purposes, good footwork is essential. Most eskrima systems explain their footwork in terms of triangles: normally when moving in any direction two feet occupy two corners of the triangle and the step is to the third corner such that no leg crosses the other at any time. The shape and size of the triangle must be adapted to the particular situation. The style of footwork and the standing position vary greatly from school to school and from practitioner to practitioner. For a very traditional school, very conscious of battlefield necessities, stances will usually be very low, often with one knee on the ground, and footwork will be complex, involving many careful cross-steps to allow practitioners to cope with multiple opponents. The Villabrille and San Miguel styles are usually taught in this way. Systems that have been adapted to duels or sporting matches generally employ simpler footwork, focusing on a single opponent. North American schools tend to use much more upright stances, as this puts less stress on the legs, but there are some exceptions.

Strikes

Many Filipino systems focus on defending against and/or reacting to angles of attack rather than particular strikes. The theory behind this is that virtually all types of hand-to-hand attacks (barehanded or with a weapon) will hit or reach a combatant via these angles of attack and it is reasoned that it is more efficient to learn to defend against different angles of attack rather than learning to defend against particular styles, particular techniques or particular weapons. For instance, the technique for defending against an attack angle that comes overhead from the right is very similar whether the attacker uses barefists, a knife, a sword or a spear.

Older styles gave each angle a name, but more recent systems tend to simply number them. Many systems have twelve standard angles, though some have as few as 5, and others as many as 72. Although the exact angles, the order in which they are numbered (numerado), and the manner in which they're executed vary from system to system, most are based upon Filipino cosmology. These standard angles are used to describe exercises; to aid memorization, a standard series of strikes from these angles called an abecedario (Spanish for "alphabet") is often practiced. These are beginner strikes or the "ABC's" of eskrima.

Some angles of attack and some strikes have characteristic names.

  • San Miguel is a forehand strike with the right hand, moving from the striker's right shoulder toward their left hip. It is named after Saint Michael or the Archangel Michael, who is often depicted holding a sword at this angle. This is the most natural strike for most untrained people. It is also commonly referred to as "angle #1," in systems where striking angles are numbered for training purposes, because it is presumed to be the most probable angle of attack.
  • A redondo (Spanish for "round") is a strike that whips in a circle to return to its point of origin. This is especially useful when using sticks rather than swords, such a strike allows extremely fast strikes but needs constant practice.
  • An abaniko (from the Spanish for "fan") is a strike executed by whipping the stick around the wrist in a fanning motion. Not very forceful and not well suited to swords, this strike can be very quick and arrive from an unexpected angle.
  • Hakbang is a general term for footwork. For example, hakbang paiwas is pivoting footwork, while hakbang tatsulok is triangle stepping.
  • Punyo, also known as pokpok in Cebuano, is a strike delivered with the butt of the weapon. It usually targets a nerve point or other soft spot on the opponent but in skilled hands, the punyo can be used to shatter bones.

Eskrima techniques are generally based on the assumption that both the student and their opponent are very highly trained and well prepared. For this reason, eskrima tends to favor extreme caution, always considering the possibility of a failed technique or an unexpected knife. On the other hand, the practitioner is assumed to be able to strike very precisely and quickly. The general principle is that an opponent's ability to attack should be destroyed (rather than trying to hurt them to convince them to stop). Thus many strikes are aimed at the hands and arms, hoping to break the hand holding the weapon or cut the nerves or tendons controlling it. Strikes to the eyes and legs are also important. A popular mnemonic states that "stick seeks bone, blade seeks flesh".

Drills

Several classes of exercises, such as sumbrada, contrada, sinawali, hubud-lubud and sequidas, initially presented to the public as a set of organized drills by the Inosanto school, are expressly designed to allow partners to move quickly and experiment with variations while remaining safe. For example, in a sumbrada drill taken from the Villabrille style, one partner feeds an attack, which the other counters, flowing into a counterattack, which is then countered, flowing into a counterattack, and so on. The hubud-lubud or hubad-lubad from Doce Pares is frequently used as a type of "generator" drill, where one is forced to act and think fast. Initially, students learn a specific series of attacks, counters, and counter-attacks. As they advance they can add minor variations, change the footwork, or switch to completely different attacks; eventually the exercise becomes almost completely free-form. Palakat, from the Balintawak style, are un-choreographed and random defensive and offensive moves. Palakat in Cebuano means a walk-through or rehearsing the different strike angles and defenses. It may also be known as corridas or striking without any order or pattern. Disarms, take-downs, and other techniques usually break the flow of such a drill, but they are usually initiated from such a sequence of movements in order to force the student to adapt to a variety of situations. A common practice is to begin a drill with each student armed with two weapons; once the drill is flowing, if a student sees an opportunity to disarm their opponent, they will, but the drill will continue until both students are empty-handed. Some drills use only a single weapon per pair, and the partners take turns disarming each other. Seguidas drills, taken from the San Miguel system, are sets of hitting and movement patterns usually involving stick and dagger.

Rhythm, while an essential part of eskrima drills, is given more emphasis in the United States and Europe where a regular beat serves a guide for students to follow. To ensure the safety of the participants, most drills are done at a constant pace which is increased as the students progress. The rhythm, together with the southern Filipino attire of a vest and sashed pants, is commonly mistaken to be some sort of tradition when practicing eskrima in the Philippines - perhaps incorrectly derived from traditional rhythm-based dances or an attempt to add a sense of ethnicity. Eskrima is usually practiced in the Philippines without a rhythm, off-beat or out of rhythm. Although the art existed long before the European colonisation, it has been named after Spanish fencing (escrima). Filipino eskrimadors typically train in their everyday clothes. The more affluent and modernized city practitioners and foreigners practice while wearing either their studio uniform, an altered form of the Japanese gi or 3/4 length pants. However, the diversity of Filipino martial arts means that there is no officially established standard uniform in eskrima.

Cross-training

In western countries, it is common for eskrima to be practiced in conjunction with other martial arts, particularly Wing Chun, Jeet Kune Do or silat. As a result, there is some confusion between styles, systems and lineage because some people cross-train without giving due credit to the founders or principles of their arts. The Chinese and Malay communities of the Philippines have practiced eskrima together with kuntaw and silat for centuries, so much so that many North Americans mistakenly believe silat to have originated in the Philippines. Kenpo cross-training traces back to the interactions between Chinese, Japanese and Filipino immigrants in territorial/pre-statehood Hawaii, and to a lesser extent in other parts of the United States. Cross-training between eskrima and Wing Chun or Jeet Kune Do dates back to Bruce Lee and Dan Inosanto. Proponents of such training say the arts are very similar in many aspects and complement each other well. It has also become marketable to offer eskrima classes in in other traditional Asian martial arts studios in America but eskrima practitioners often dismiss these lessons as debased versions of real training methods.

Notable styles

  • Balintawak Eskrima - Founded in 1952 by Anciong Bacon after internal dispute amongst some of the original founders of the original Doce Pares club.
  • Cabales Serrada Eskrima - Founded by Angel Cabales.
  • Dacayana Eskrima System - Founded by GM A. Dacayana.[10]
  • Doce Pares Escrima - Originally encompassed 12 styles and was founded by the Saveedra and Cañete families in 1932. There are now several Doce Pares groups headed by various members of the Cañete family.
  • Garimot Arnis - Led by Gat Puno Abon "Garimot" Baet.
  • Inayan Eskrima - Developed by Suro Mike Inay from various other styles.
  • Inosanto Kali - developed by Dan Inosanto from various other styles; he does not call it a system in its own right, but rather a blend of systems (some listed here) from several of his teachers, namely John Lacoste.
  • Kali Sikaran - Founded by Jeff Espinous and Johan Skålberg, two of the leading FMA representatives in Europe. It's a fast growing blend of systems with clubs in numerous countries.
  • Kalis Ilustrisimo - Founded by Antonio Ilustrisimo; important as the ancestor of many current Eskrima systems.
  • Lameco Eskrima - Founded by Edgar Sulite. The name comes from the three ranges of the system, LArgo, MEdio, and COrto. It is a composite of many systems with heavy influence from De Campo 1-2-3 and Kali Illustrisimo.
  • Latigo y Daga - Whip and dagger method founded by Tom Meadows.
  • Lightning Scientific Arnis (LSAI)- Tercia Cerrada Cadenilla y Espada y Daga style founded by Benjamin Luna Lema in 1937.
  • Modern Arnis - Founded by Remy Presas. His brother Ernesto Presas founded the related art of Kombatan.
  • Pekiti Tirsia - Founded by Leo T. Gaje from the family system of the Tortal family, the name means "to cut into pieces at close range", although it includes techniques for all ranges.
  • Rapid arnis - Founded in 1993 by Pat O'Malley and John Harvey who are recognised as two of Europe's leading authorities on the Filipino martial arts. A fast, aggressive system which is a combination of other styles.
  • Rapido Realismo Kali - Founded on April 1997 by Punong Guro Henry Espera based on traditional styles but adapted for modern times. It was designed to work under the most stressful conditions, utilizing the person’s natural reaction to danger as a starting point for self defense.
  • San Miguel Eskrima - As one of the founders (together with the famous Doring and Ensong Saavedra) of the Labangon Fencing Club in 1920 and later the Doce Pares Club in 1932, Filemon "Momoy" Cañete created the blade based San Miguel Eskrima as his personal expression of the Doce Pares art and methodology.
  • Sayoc Kali - The Sayoc family style of kali, focuses mainly on wielding a knife

Eskrima in popular culture

Film

  • In the 2008 movie Big Stan, the title character, played by Rob Schneider, fights prison inmates with rattan sticks and his last opponent was Dan Inosanto.
  • In the 2008 movie Punisher: War Zone, Ray Stevenson (The Punisher) practiced eskrima as part of his stick-fighting and knife-fighting training.
  • In the Chronicles of Riddick series, Riddick (Vin Diesel) employs a more aggressive variation of eskrima.
  • In the 2006 movie The Sensei, Diana Lee Inosanto's character teaches a young boy eskrima.
  • In the 2004 movie Resident Evil: Apocalypse, Milla Jovovich's character was trained by Ron Balicki to use eskrima to finish off several opponents with expandable batons.
  • In the 2004 movie, The Prodigy, fight/stunt coordinator Ron Balicki stylized all the fights in the movie using eskrima techniques.
  • The 2003 movie The Hunted featured Sayoc kali.
  • Matt Damon used kali in the 2002 movie The Bourne Identity. The fight coreographer was Jeff Imada, a kali instructor who trained under Dan Inosanto. Director Doug Liman stated that the kali's principles of minimal effort influenced their development of Bourne's character.
  • In the 2002 movie Ballistic: Ecks vs. Sever, Lucy Liu's character uses eskrima to fend off her opponents with a pair of sticks.
  • In the movie Equilibrium the commentary reveals that eskrima is used in the fight between John Preston and Brandt.
  • In Mortal Kombat Annihilation, Sultan Uddin not only portrayed Reptile, but also choreographed Princess Kitana's fight sequence showcasing movements of Eskrima Serrada.
  • In the 1996 movie Barb Wire, Temuera Morrison's character uses empty-handed eskrima to fight Customs agents, Diana Lee Inosanto and Ron Balicki.
  • Dan Inosanto is shown using eskrima in the unfinished film Game of Death.

Television

Video games

  • In the Soul video game series, the character Talim uses eskrima with a pair of tonfa
  • In the Mortal Kombat series, the characters Quan Chi and Dairou use eskrima, while Sonya and Kobra wield kali sticks.
  • The video game Hitman: Blood Money features a target who is described as an accomplished eskrima-style swordfighter.
  • Eagle from Street Fighter employs a style described as a combination of kali and European cudgel-fighting

Other

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ "History of Filipino Martial Arts". http://www.seasite.niu.edu/Tagalog/Modules/Modules/escrima/eskrima.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-11. 
  3. ^ "Warriors Eskrima - Worcestershire". http://www.warriorseskrima.com/info1.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-111. 
  4. ^ Remy Presas, 1974, "Modern Arnis", pp. 10-12 ISBN 971-08-6041-0
  5. ^ Remy Presas, 1974, "Modern Arnis", pp. 10-12 ISBN 971-08-6041-0
  6. ^ Mark V. Wiley (1994). Filipino Martial Arts: Cabales Serrada Escrima. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-1913-0.
  7. ^ Sam Buot (1991-2009) 'Eskrima-Arnis, Martial Arts of the Philippines.
  8. ^ a b Donn F. Draeger & Robert W. Smith (1969). Comprehensive Asian Fighting Arts. ISBN 978-0-87011-436-6. 
  9. ^ Kali-Eskrima-Arnis Weapons by Jeff Patterson
  10. ^ Dacayana Eskrima System

References

External links


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