The Full Wiki

More info on Establishment (Pakistan)

Establishment (Pakistan): Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pakistan's Establishment is a term used commonly by Pakistani analysts for the Military dominant oligarchy in Pakistan. This group of individuals, while not exclusively Military, are considered key decision makers in major policy decisions like Pakistan's nuclear programme, the defence budget and the use of Intelligence Agencies in Pakistan.[1]

The best description of the Establishment has been by Stephen P. Cohen in his book the Idea of Pakistan.

Cohen calls this establishment a "moderate oligarchy" and defines it as "an informal political system that [ties] together the senior ranks of the military, the civil service, key members of the judiciary, and other elites." Membership in this oligarchy, Cohen contends, requires adherence to a common set of beliefs: that India must be countered at every turn; that nuclear weapons have endowed Pakistan with security and status; that the fight for Kashmir is unfinished business from the time of partition; that large-scale social reforms such as land redistribution are unacceptable; that the uneducated and illiterate masses deserve only contempt; that vociferous Muslim nationalism is desirable but true Islamism is not; and that Washington is to be despised but fully taken advantage of. Underlying these "core principles," one might add, is a willingness to serve power at any cost. [2]

In addition to influencing policy and accused of manipulating elections, the establishment is considered to be responsible for the creation of a variety of political parties and alliances.[3] Secular and liberal groups in particular accuse it of helping in the formation of the Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal a conservative religious parties alliance.[4]

General Zia-ul Haq also introduced the concept of strategic depth as part of the establishments politics. He coined this term in the context of politics and military strategy. After Afghanistan was invaded by the Soviets, he looked at Afghanistan as a source of political and military strategic depth for Pakistan. He saw Pakistan's strength in a Pakistani dominated Afghanistan. [5]

Establishment Leaders (Past and Present)

See also


  1. ^ Without a trace The Guardian Friday March 16, 2007[1]
  2. ^ The Idea of Pakistan. Stephen Philip Cohen. Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 2004.
  3. ^ Cowasjee, Ardeshir We never learn from history Dawn Newspaper, August 19, 2007
  4. ^ Pakistan's frontier passes Islamic law, rankling Islamabad
  5. ^ Zahid Hussain ( April 2008) Frontline Pakistan: the struggle with militant Islam. IB Tauris


Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address