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Estat Català is a historical pro-independence party in Catalonia, Spain, and one of the oldest in Europe.[citation needed]

Despite its role in the 20th and 21st centuries both in Catalan and Spanish politics, ever since Spain returned to democracy in the 1970s, the party has not managed to get any of its candidates elected, having achieved less than 0.6% of the total votes at elections they have run for. Estat Català has not run for elections since 2004 except to the elections to the town halls.

History

Estat Català was founded by Francesc Macià in 1922 on its origins as a political and paramilitary (actually only political) organisation whose purpose was to bring about the independence of Catalonia from Spain. During the 1920s, the party was active in the fight against the General Primo de Rivera and the monarchy. Their actions included a failed assassination attempt against the King of Spain Alfonso XIII in an operation of your secret paramilitary unit named Santa Germandat Catalana de la Bandera Negra (Holy Catalan Brotherhood of the Black Flag)that was known as the Complot de Garraf (Conspiracy of Garraf). Estat Català also raised a small army named Exèrcit Català (Catalan Army) led by Francesc Macià to invade the Principality from Prats-de-Mollo-la-Preste, in the French Northern Catalonia.

Monument to Francesc Macià in Plaça Catalunya (Barcelona).

When the government of Primo de Rivera banned separatist movements, the party became clandestine and Francesc Macià went into exile. Nonetheless, Estat Català was one of the parties promoting the "San Sebastian pact" with Basque nationalism, Galician nationalists and Spanish republicans they agreed to push for a democratic process in the Spanish monarchy.

During the so called Conferència d'Esquerres (Conference of the left), held on the 17 and 19 of March 1931 at the Cros street in the Sants district of Barcelona, Estat Català joined the Partit Republicà Català and the political group L'Opinió to form Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya. Nevertheless, inside Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya, the organizational autonomy of Estat Català are preserved and controlled the influent youth section of the party (named Joventuts d'Esquerra Republicana-Estat Català and, across Francesc Macià, his controlled the leadership of the new party.

In April 1931, Francesc Macià proclaimed the Catalan Republic in Barcelona , and established the Generalitat de Catalunya. Francesc Macià, with the support of a wide majority of the Catalan people,[citation needed] was the first president of the re-established Generalitat. After Francesc Macià's death (December, 1933) Estat Català tried to preserve the control of Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya competing with the successor of Macià, the regionalist and not independentist Lluís Companys (proceeding from the sector of the former Partit Republicà Català). The leadership of Estat Català happens to Josep Dencàs i Puigdollers and Estat Català take the control of the Council of Interior and the policial forces of Catalonia. After the failure of the armed insurrection of October 1934, that faced the autonomous government of Catalunya and your police with the Spanish government and the Spanish Army, Estat Català, after accusing of perfidy Lluís Companys, leaves Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya and recovers his status of independent party. The youth section of Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya, traditionally strongly paramilitary, leaves also the party and enters in Estat Català. In 1936 the Spanish Civil War began.

Estat Català fought actively on the war fronts, creating its own corps of volunteers, the most important military units of Estat Català being the Pyrenaic mountain militias named Regiment Pirinenc de Catalunya, the Columna Macià-Companys and the expeditionary corp that fought in Majorca named Columna Volant Catalana (later 132 Brigada Mixta.[citation needed]

Estat Català demonstrate to be opposite to revolutionary process in Catalonia during the war and to president Lluís Companys delivery of power to anarchistic sindicates. The relations between Estat Català and Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya to be very bad. Estat Català to plan conspiracy to take control of Autonomous government of Catalonia using your military units and the police of Catalonia for re-lead the situation using the force to be able to proclaim Catalonia's independence. The conspiracy to be discovered in September 1936 and principal leaders of Estat Català to be forced to flee towards France.

From 1939, having lost the war, many of the combatants of the party were executed or died in exile. Also, some militants exiling to France were captured by the French government, handed to the German nazis and deported to the extermination camps of Mathausen and Gusen. Those who stayed free joined the French Resistance and had worked intensely to help allied airmen and Jews to escape from occupied France and against the regime of the Spanish general Franco up to his death.[citation needed]

Estat Català also gave Catalan nationalism a globalised vision of the Catalan nation:[citation needed] as early as in 1942, the party published the first map of the so-called "Catalan Countries" which included the Principality (with Northern Catalonia included), the Valencian Community, the Balearic Islands, the coterminous area of Catalonia with Aragón (known as La Franja or The Stripe) and the ancient Catalan town of Alghero in Sardinia.

In 1975, after the death of Franco, Spain started a democratic process. In 1976, after decades of secrecy, Estat Català claimed again his legalization under the direction of historical members of party like Josep Planchart i Martori, Ramon Rius, Xavier Balagueró i Ràfols, Jaume Ros i Serra, Martí Torrent i Blanchart, etc. Supporter of the independence movement of the Catalan Countries were declared, and interclass-conscious and they received the adhesion of historical militants of the years of the foundation of the party like Ventura Gassol i Rovira. In the date in that the Spanish general elections of 1977 were produced Estat Català yet had not been legalized and had to form a coalition with other parties in the same situation (like Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya). Estat Català achieved his legalization that same year and, on 16 September 1977 he achieved finally to be registered in the Registry of Political Parties of the Ministerio del Interior. Later it spoke against the approval of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 and the regional political autonomy, since it considered them tools contrary to the full freedoms of the Catalans, like this like continuation of the regime of the dictator Franco. According to the positioning of Estat Català, sustained already during the dictatorship on considering the possibility of a claim future of Statute, a Statute like that of 1979 remained subordinated to a Constitution on he denying the inalienable national rights and imposing a Borbonic monarchy heiress that of 1714 and of the Franco's regime.

Estat Català has been presented to the Spanish general elections, but it did initially not make it to the Catalan autonomic ones, in order to not reduce votes to the other nationalist parties. In the Spanish general elections of 1979 it obtained 6.328 votes, which they represented 0,29%. At municipal level Estat Català use the name Acció Municipal Democràtica has been presented repeatedly in the elections or in proper noun or lamb through its coalition.

In the 80's and 90's Estat Català have two internal schism, one of this after his expulsion he gave rise to a new party named Unitat Nacional Catalana.

Estat Català has been presented in different elections but has never attained a result upper to the 0'6 % of the votes of Catalonia. At municipal level, through its municipal coalition Acció Municipal Democràtica has achieved a variable number of town councilors depending on the electoral contest and also the government of some towns (45 town councilors 1979, 9 town councilors and two mayor's offices 2007, etc...)

Regarding the recent results Estat Català presented to the elections to the Parliament of Catalonia (1999) obtaining 1.174 votes (0,06%). To the Spanish general elections of 2000, he obtained 2.321 votes to the Congress of Deputies (0,07%) and 17.825 in the Senate (0,53%), to the elections in the Parliament of Catalonia (2003) he obtained 1.890 votes (0,06%) and to the Elections in the European Parliament of 2004 he obtained 1.540 votes (0,07%). From 2004 the party has not been presented to the elections except for to the local elections through his municipal coalition Acció Municipal Democràtica with which he obtained, in 2007, 9 town councilors who allowed him to sustain the government of two town councils.

References

  • Josep Carner i Ribalta. El Complot de Prats de Molló Barcelona. Dalmau editors, 1987.
  • Joan Crexell i Playà. Origen de la bandera independentista. Barcelona: el Llamp, 1984.
  • Imma Tubella i Casadevall. Jaume Compte i el Partit Català Proletari. Barcelona: la Magrana, 1979.
  • Albert Viladot i Presas. Nacionalisme i premsa clandestina (1939–1951). Barcelona: Curial, 1987.

External links

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