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Estonian anti-German resistance movement 1941–1944: Wikis

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Estonian resistance movement (Estonian Eesti vastupanuliikumine) was an underground movement to resist the occupation of Estonia by Nazi Germany, 1941–1944 during World War II. Due to the unusually benign measures implemented in Estonia by the German occupation authorities, especially in contrast to the preceding harsh Soviet occupation of Estonia (19401941), the movement was slower to develop effective tactics on a wide scale than in other occupied countries.

Contents

Pro-independence resistance

The September 18, 1944 appointed Government of Estonia in Riigi Teataja

The National Committee of the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariigi Rahvuskomitee) was formed by the underground resistance movements in March 1944.[1] By April 1944, a large number of the committee members were arrested by the German security agencies. [2]

Ones, mostly younger people were against Estonian conscription in Waffen-SS, others, for example Jüri Uluots, supported it.[3]

The original initiative to form the committee came from the Estonian pre-war opposition parties but it was quickly joined by Jüri Uluots, the last constitutional pre-war Prime Minister of the Republic of Estonia and his supporters. The Committee aimed to establish of a provisional government during expected German withdrawal as the Red Army had reached the border of Estonia in February 2 1944. On June 21, 1944 Jüri Uluots appointed Otto Tief as deputy prime minister.[4] On September 18, 1944 Uluots, suffering from cancer, named Otto Tief the Acting Prime Minister and appointed a Government which consisted of 11 members. Tief assumed office in accordance with the constitution and took the opportunity with the departure of the Germans to declare the legitimate Estonian government restored. The Estonian national government was proclaimed in Estonia, the Estonian military units seized the government buildings in Toompea and ordered the German forces to leave.[5] The flag of Germany was replaced with the Estonian tricolour in the Pikk Hermann, the flag tower of the seat of the Government. Tief’s government, however, failed to keep control, as Estonian military units led by Johan Pitka clashed with both Germans and Soviets. Most of the members and officials were caught, jailed, deported, or executed by the advancing Soviets.

Pro-Soviet resistance

A small number of Estonians were involved in underground resistance during World War II ranging from producing illegal publications, to espionage, to violent sabotage. They included Adolf Aitsen, Rein Alasoo[6], Eduard Aumere, Richard Ehrlich, Mercedes-Angela Jaus, Evald Kallas, Vera Kraubner, Hendrik Kuivas, Helmi Kurs, Evald Laasi[7], Georgi Loik[8][9], Aleksander Looring[10][11], Johanna Lunter, Mihkel Mihkelson, Jaan Nahodsen, Irmgard Nurmhein, Leonida Parvits, Erik Paulson, Villem Pivkan, Eduard Planken, Ludvig Prints, Kaarel Raidväli, Astra Randkivi, Ireene Reinhold, Aleksei Saar, Tarmo Talvi, and Artur Vaha, as well as others.[12]

References

  1. ^ Smith, David James (2001). Estonia: Independence and European Integration. Routledge. pp. pp. 36. ISBN 9780415267281. http://books.google.com/books?id=lx-UmTnLJv0C&pg=PA36&dq.  
  2. ^ Miljan, Toivo (2004). Historical Dictionary of Estonia. Scarecrow Press. pp. pp. 21. ISBN 9780810849044. http://books.google.com/books?id=XKWRct15XfkC&pg=PA21&dq.  
  3. ^ Eesti ajalugu VI. Tartu 2005, p. 208.
  4. ^ Chronology at the EIHC
  5. ^ By Royal Institute of International Affairs. Information Dept. Published 1945
  6. ^ Valve Raudnask, Rõõmus eluga toimetulek.
  7. ^ Suure võitluse algus, compiled by Karl Mang & August Pähklimägi, Tallinn, 1965, p. 73-79.
  8. ^ Georgi Karl Loik.
  9. ^ «Ich habe den Anzug seit der Befreiung nicht mehr gewaschen»
  10. ^ Velise Algkooli Karskusringi Vilistlaskogu.
  11. ^ Läänemaalane Aleksander Looring 1905. aasta ajaloo uurijana.
  12. ^ Rahvatasujad ("People's Avengers". In Estonian. 1963–1965)

See also

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