Estrogen receptor alpha: Wikis


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Estrogen receptor 1

PDB rendering based on 1a52.
Available structures
1a52, 1ere, 1err, 1g50, 1gwq, 1gwr, 1hcp, 1hcq, 1l2i, 1pcg, 1qkt, 1qku, 1r5k, 1sj0, 1uom, 1x7e, 1x7r, 1xp1, 1xp6, 1xp9, 1xpc, 1xqc, 1yim, 1yin, 1zky, 2ayr, 2b1v, 2b1z, 2b23, 2bj4, 2fai, 2g44, 2g5o, 2i0j, 2jf9, 2jfa, 2ouz, 2p15, 3erd, 3ert
Symbols ESR1; ER; DKFZp686N23123; ESR; ESRA; Era; NR3A1
External IDs OMIM133430 MGI1352467 HomoloGene47906 GeneCards: ESR1 Gene
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 2099 13982
Ensembl ENSG00000091831 ENSMUSG00000019768
UniProt P03372 Q3UT58
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000125 XM_985634
RefSeq (protein) NP_000116 XP_990728
Location (UCSC) Chr 6:
152.17 - 152.47 Mb
Chr 10:
5.34 - 5.73 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha), also known as NR3A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 1), is a nuclear receptor which is activated by the sex hormone estrogen. ER-alpha is encoded by the human gene ESR1 (EStrogen Receptor 1).[1][2][3]



The estrogen receptor (ESR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor composed of several domains important for hormone binding, DNA binding, and activation of transcription.[4] Alternative splicing results in several ESR1 mRNA transcripts, which differ primarily in their 5-prime untranslated regions. The translated receptors show less variability.[5][1]


Coactivators of ER-α include:


Estrogen receptor alpha has been shown to interact with MTA1,[10][11] Major vault protein,[12] POU4F2,[13] POU4F1,[13] PRDM2,[14] CDC25B,[15] Testicular receptor 4,[16] Testicular receptor 2,[17] MED14,[18] CREB binding protein,[19][20] Caveolin 1,[21] Nuclear receptor coactivator 2,[22][23][24][25][26] PDLIM1,[27] Cyclin D1,[28] Nuclear receptor coactivator 3,[29][30][24] NRIP1,[31][32][33] Aryl hydrocarbon receptor,[34][35] DDX5,[36][24] CRSP3,[18] FOXO1,[37] Src,[38][39][40][41] PRMT2,[42] MED1,[22][18] MED6,[18] MED24,[22][18] RBM39,[43] Nuclear receptor coactivator 1,[44][19][45][18][24] AKAP13,[46] Estrogen receptor beta,[47][48] MED16,[18] RNF12,[27] JARID1A,[49] GTF2H1,[50] TRIM24,[32][51] XBP1,[52] Thymine-DNA glycosylase,[53] Cofactor of BRCA1,[54] BRCA1,[55][56][57][20] Small heterodimer partner,[58][59] SAFB,[60][61] CCNC,[18] CEBPB,[62][63] SRA1,[24] SHC1,[64] NCOA6,[65][66] DDX17,[24] O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase,[39] SMARCE1,[67] SAFB2,[68] DNTTIP2,[69] Heat shock protein 90kDa alpha (cytosolic), member A1,[70][71] EP300,[72][20][18] MED12,[18] SMARCA4,[73][44] ISL1,[74] MNAT1[75] and COUP-TFI.[76]


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Further reading

  • Yaghmaie F, Saeed O, Garan SA, Freitag W, Timiras PS, Sternberg H. (2005). "Caloric restriction reduces cell loss and maintains estrogen receptor-alpha immunoreactivity in the pre-optic hypothalamus of female B6D2F1 mice.". Neuro Endocrinol Lett. June;26 (3): 197–203. PMID 15990721.  
  • McDonnell DP, Norris JD (2002). "Connections and regulation of the human estrogen receptor.". Science 296 (5573): 1642–4. doi:10.1126/science.1071884. PMID 12040178.  
  • Simoncini T, Fornari L, Mannella P, et al. (2003). "Novel non-transcriptional mechanisms for estrogen receptor signaling in the cardiovascular system. Interaction of estrogen receptor alpha with phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase.". Steroids 67 (12): 935–9. doi:10.1016/S0039-128X(02)00040-5. PMID 12398989.  
  • Lannigan DA (2003). "Estrogen receptor phosphorylation.". Steroids 68 (1): 1–9. doi:10.1016/S0039-128X(02)00110-1. PMID 12475718.  
  • Herrington DM (2003). "Role of estrogen receptor-alpha in pharmacogenetics of estrogen action.". Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 14 (2): 145–50. doi:10.1097/01.mol.0000064045.68936.23 (inactive 2008-10-14). PMID 12642782.  
  • Tanaka Y, Sasaki M, Kaneuchi M, et al. (2004). "Estrogen receptor alpha polymorphisms and renal cell carcinoma--a possible risk.". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 202 (1-2): 109–16. PMID 12770739.  
  • Ali S, Coombes RC (2004). "Estrogen receptor alpha in human breast cancer: occurrence and significance.". Journal of mammary gland biology and neoplasia 5 (3): 271–81. doi:10.1023/A:1009594727358. PMID 14973389.  
  • Olsson H (2004). "Estrogen receptor content in malignant breast tumors in men--a review.". Journal of mammary gland biology and neoplasia 5 (3): 283–7. doi:10.1023/A:1009546811429. PMID 14973390.  
  • Surmacz E, Bartucci M (2005). "Role of estrogen receptor alpha in modulating IGF-I receptor signaling and function in breast cancer.". J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 23 (3): 385–94. PMID 15595626.  
  • Evinger AJ, Levin ER (2005). "Requirements for estrogen receptor alpha membrane localization and function.". Steroids 70 (5-7): 361–3. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2005.02.015. PMID 15862818.  
  • Wang CL, Tang XY, Chen WQ, et al. (2007). "Association of estrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphisms with bone mineral density in Chinese women: a meta-analysis.". Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA 18 (3): 295–305. doi:10.1007/s00198-006-0239-2. PMID 17089081.  
  • Keaveney M, Klug J, Gannon F (1992). "Sequence analysis of the 5' flanking region of the human estrogen receptor gene.". DNA Seq. 2 (6): 347–58. doi:10.3109/10425179209020816. PMID 1476547.  
  • Piva R, Gambari R, Zorzato F, et al. (1992). "Analysis of upstream sequences of the human estrogen receptor gene.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 183 (3): 996–1002. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(05)80289-X. PMID 1567414.  
  • Reese JC, Katzenellenbogen BS (1992). "Characterization of a temperature-sensitive mutation in the hormone binding domain of the human estrogen receptor. Studies in cell extracts and intact cells and their implications for hormone-dependent transcriptional activation.". J. Biol. Chem. 267 (14): 9868–73. PMID 1577818.  
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  • Keaveney M, Klug J, Dawson MT, et al. (1991). "Evidence for a previously unidentified upstream exon in the human oestrogen receptor gene.". J. Mol. Endocrinol. 6 (1): 111–5. doi:10.1677/jme.0.0060111. PMID 2015052.  
  • Reese JC, Katzenellenbogen BS (1991). "Mutagenesis of cysteines in the hormone binding domain of the human estrogen receptor. Alterations in binding and transcriptional activation by covalently and reversibly attaching ligands.". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (17): 10880–7. PMID 2040605.  
  • Schwabe JW, Neuhaus D, Rhodes D (1991). "Solution structure of the DNA-binding domain of the oestrogen receptor.". Nature 348 (6300): 458–61. doi:10.1038/348458a0. PMID 2247153.  
  • Tora L, Mullick A, Metzger D, et al. (1989). "The cloned human oestrogen receptor contains a mutation which alters its hormone binding properties.". EMBO J. 8 (7): 1981–6. PMID 2792078.  
  • Ponglikitmongkol M, Green S, Chambon P (1989). "Genomic organization of the human oestrogen receptor gene.". EMBO J. 7 (11): 3385–8. PMID 3145193.  
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This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.



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