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Estrogen receptor 2 (ER beta)

PDB rendering based on 1hj1.
Available structures
1hj1, 1l2j, 1nde, 1qkm, 1qkn, 1u3q, 1u3r, 1u3s, 1u9e, 1x76, 1x78, 1x7b, 1x7j, 1yy4, 1yye, 1zaf, 2fsz, 2giu, 2i0g, 2j7x, 2j7y
Identifiers
Symbols ESR2; ER-BETA; ESR-BETA; ESRB; ESTRB; Erb; NR3A2
External IDs OMIM601663 MGI109392 HomoloGene1100 GeneCards: ESR2 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE ESR2 211117 x at tn.png
PBB GE ESR2 211118 x at tn.png
PBB GE ESR2 211120 x at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 2100 13983
Ensembl ENSG00000140009 ENSMUSG00000021055
UniProt Q92731 Q9JM97
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001040275 NM_010157
RefSeq (protein) NP_001035365 NP_034287
Location (UCSC) Chr 14:
63.62 - 63.88 Mb
Chr 12:
77.04 - 77.1 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Estrogen receptor beta (ER-beta), also known as NR3A2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 2), is a nuclear receptor which is activated by the sex hormone estrogen. ER-beta is encoded by the human gene ESR2 (EStrogen Receptor 2).

This gene encodes a member of the family of estrogen receptors and superfamily of nuclear receptor transcription factors. The gene product contains an N-terminal DNA binding domain and C-terminal ligand binding domain and is localized to the nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondria. Upon binding to 17beta-estradiol or related ligands, the encoded protein forms homo- or hetero-dimers that interact with specific DNA sequences to activate transcription. Some isoforms dominantly inhibit the activity of other estrogen receptor family members. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been fully characterized.[1]

Contents

Tissue Distribution

ER-β is expressed by many tissues including blood monocytes and tissue macrophages, colonic and pulmonary epithelial cells and in prostatic epithelium and in malignant counterparts of these tissues. Also, ERb is found throughout the brain at different concentrations in different neurn clusters. [2][3]

Function

ER-β may have anti-proliferative effects and therefore oppose the actions of ER-α in reproductive tissue.[4] ER-β may also have an important role in adpative function of the lung during pregnancy.[5]

Interactions

Estrogen receptor beta has been shown to interact with NCOA6,[6][7] Src,[8][9] RBM39,[10] Nuclear receptor coactivator 3,[11][12] Estrogen receptor alpha[13][14] and MAD2L1.[14]

References

  1. ^ "Entrez Gene: ESR2 estrogen receptor 2 (ER beta)". http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=2100.  
  2. ^ Couse JF, Lindzey J, Grandien K, Gustafsson JA, Korach KS (1997). "Tissue distribution and quantitative analysis of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor-beta (ERβ) messenger ribonucleic acid in the wild-type and ERα-knockout mouse". Endocrinology 138 (11): 4613–21. doi:10.1210/en.138.11.4613. PMID 9348186.  
  3. ^ Koehler KF, Helguero LA, Haldosén LA, Warner M, Gustafsson JA (2005). "Reflections on the discovery and significance of estrogen receptor β". Endocr. Rev. 26 (3): 465–78. doi:10.1210/er.2004-0027. PMID 15857973.  
  4. ^ Weihua Z, Saji S, Mäkinen S, Cheng G, Jensen EV, Warner M, Gustafsson JA (2000). "Estrogen receptor (ER) β, a modulator of ERα in the uterus". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (11): 5936–41. doi:10.1073/pnas.97.11.5936. PMID 10823946.  
  5. ^ Carey MA, Card JW, Voltz JW, Germolec DR, Korach KS, Zeldin DC (2007). "The impact of sex and sex hormones on lung physiology and disease: lessons from animal studies". Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 293 (2): L272–8. doi:10.1152/ajplung.00174.2007. PMID 17575008.  
  6. ^ Lee, S K; Jung S Y, Kim Y S, Na S Y, Lee Y C, Lee J W (Feb. 2001). "Two distinct nuclear receptor-interaction domains and CREB-binding protein-dependent transactivation function of activating signal cointegrator-2". Mol. Endocrinol. (United States) 15 (2): 241–54. ISSN 0888-8809. PMID 11158331.  
  7. ^ Ko, Lan; Cardona Guemalli R, Iwasaki Toshiharu, Bramlett Kelli S, Burris Thomas P, Chin William W (Jan. 2002). "Ser-884 adjacent to the LXXLL motif of coactivator TRBP defines selectivity for ERs and TRs". Mol. Endocrinol. (United States) 16 (1): 128–40. ISSN 0888-8809. PMID 11773444.  
  8. ^ Migliaccio, A; Castoria G, Di Domenico M, de Falco A, Bilancio A, Lombardi M, Barone M V, Ametrano D, Zannini M S, Abbondanza C, Auricchio F (Oct. 2000). "Steroid-induced androgen receptor-oestradiol receptor beta-Src complex triggers prostate cancer cell proliferation". EMBO J. (ENGLAND) 19 (20): 5406–17. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.20.5406. ISSN 0261-4189. PMID 11032808.  
  9. ^ Slentz-Kesler, K; Moore J T, Lombard M, Zhang J, Hollingsworth R, Weiner M P (Oct. 2000). "Identification of the human Mnk2 gene (MKNK2) through protein interaction with estrogen receptor beta". Genomics (UNITED STATES) 69 (1): 63–71. doi:10.1006/geno.2000.6299. ISSN 0888-7543. PMID 11013076.  
  10. ^ Jung, Dong-Ju; Na Soon-Young, Na Doe Sun, Lee Jae Woon (Jan. 2002). "Molecular cloning and characterization of CAPER, a novel coactivator of activating protein-1 and estrogen receptors". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (2): 1229–34. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110417200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11704680.  
  11. ^ Wong, C W; Komm B, Cheskis B J (Jun. 2001). "Structure-function evaluation of ER alpha and beta interplay with SRC family coactivators. ER selective ligands". Biochemistry (United States) 40 (23): 6756–65. ISSN 0006-2960. PMID 11389589.  
  12. ^ Leo, C; Li H, Chen J D (Feb. 2000). "Differential mechanisms of nuclear receptor regulation by receptor-associated coactivator 3". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 275 (8): 5976–82. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 10681591.  
  13. ^ Ogawa, S; Inoue S, Watanabe T, Hiroi H, Orimo A, Hosoi T, Ouchi Y, Muramatsu M (Feb. 1998). "The complete primary structure of human estrogen receptor beta (hER beta) and its heterodimerization with ER alpha in vivo and in vitro". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (UNITED STATES) 243 (1): 122–6. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.7893. ISSN 0006-291X. PMID 9473491.  
  14. ^ a b Poelzl, G; Kasai Y, Mochizuki N, Shaul P W, Brown M, Mendelsohn M E (Mar. 2000). "Specific association of estrogen receptor beta with the cell cycle spindle assembly checkpoint protein, MAD2". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (UNITED STATES) 97 (6): 2836–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.050580997. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 10706629.  

Further reading

  • Pettersson K, Gustafsson JA (2001). "Role of estrogen receptor beta in estrogen action.". Annu. Rev. Physiol. 63: 165–92. doi:10.1146/annurev.physiol.63.1.165. PMID 11181953.  
  • Warner M, Saji S, Gustafsson JA (2004). "The normal and malignant mammary gland: a fresh look with ER beta onboard.". Journal of mammary gland biology and neoplasia 5 (3): 289–94. doi:10.1023/A:1009598828267. PMID 14973391.  
  • Saxon LK, Turner CH (2005). "Estrogen receptor beta: the antimechanostat?". Bone 36 (2): 185–92. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2004.08.003. PMID 15780944.  
  • Halachmi S, Marden E, Martin G, et al. (1994). "Estrogen receptor-associated proteins: possible mediators of hormone-induced transcription.". Science 264 (5164): 1455–8. doi:10.1126/science.8197458. PMID 8197458.  
  • Schwabe JW, Chapman L, Finch JT, Rhodes D (1993). "The crystal structure of the estrogen receptor DNA-binding domain bound to DNA: how receptors discriminate between their response elements.". Cell 75 (3): 567–78. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(93)90390-C. PMID 8221895.  
  • Mosselman S, Polman J, Dijkema R (1996). "ER beta: identification and characterization of a novel human estrogen receptor.". FEBS Lett. 392 (1): 49–53. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(96)00782-X. PMID 8769313.  
  • Chen H, Lin RJ, Schiltz RL, et al. (1997). "Nuclear receptor coactivator ACTR is a novel histone acetyltransferase and forms a multimeric activation complex with P/CAF and CBP/p300.". Cell 90 (3): 569–80. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80516-4. PMID 9267036.  
  • Pace P, Taylor J, Suntharalingam S, et al. (1997). "Human estrogen receptor beta binds DNA in a manner similar to and dimerizes with estrogen receptor alpha.". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (41): 25832–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.41.25832. PMID 9325313.  
  • Brandenberger AW, Tee MK, Lee JY, et al. (1997). "Tissue distribution of estrogen receptors alpha (ER-alpha) and beta (ER-beta) mRNA in the midgestational human fetus.". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82 (10): 3509–12. doi:10.1210/jc.82.10.3509. PMID 9329394.  
  • Enmark E, Pelto-Huikko M, Grandien K, et al. (1998). "Human estrogen receptor beta-gene structure, chromosomal localization, and expression pattern.". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82 (12): 4258–65. doi:10.1210/jc.82.12.4258. PMID 9398750.  
  • Vladusic EA, Hornby AE, Guerra-Vladusic FK, Lupu R (1998). "Expression of estrogen receptor beta messenger RNA variant in breast cancer.". Cancer Res. 58 (2): 210–4. PMID 9443393.  
  • Ogawa S, Inoue S, Watanabe T, et al. (1998). "The complete primary structure of human estrogen receptor beta (hER beta) and its heterodimerization with ER alpha in vivo and in vitro.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 243 (1): 122–6. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.7893. PMID 9473491.  
  • Alves SE, Lopez V, McEwen BS, Weiland NG (1998). "Differential colocalization of estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) with oxytocin and vasopressin in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the female rat brain: an immunocytochemical study.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95 (6): 3281–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.6.3281. PMID 9501254.  
  • Brandenberger AW, Tee MK, Jaffe RB (1998). "Estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha) and beta (ER-beta) mRNAs in normal ovary, ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma and ovarian cancer cell lines: down-regulation of ER-beta in neoplastic tissues.". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 83 (3): 1025–8. doi:10.1210/jc.83.3.1025. PMID 9506768.  
  • Moore JT, McKee DD, Slentz-Kesler K, et al. (1998). "Cloning and characterization of human estrogen receptor beta isoforms.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 247 (1): 75–8. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.8738. PMID 9636657.  
  • Ogawa S, Inoue S, Watanabe T, et al. (1998). "Molecular cloning and characterization of human estrogen receptor betacx: a potential inhibitor ofestrogen action in human.". Nucleic Acids Res. 26 (15): 3505–12. doi:10.1093/nar/26.15.3505. PMID 9671811.  
  • Lu B, Leygue E, Dotzlaw H, et al. (1998). "Estrogen receptor-beta mRNA variants in human and murine tissues.". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 138 (1-2): 199–203. doi:10.1016/S0303-7207(98)00050-1. PMID 9685228.  
  • Seol W, Hanstein B, Brown M, Moore DD (1998). "Inhibition of estrogen receptor action by the orphan receptor SHP (short heterodimer partner).". Mol. Endocrinol. 12 (10): 1551–7. doi:10.1210/me.12.10.1551. PMID 9773978.  
  • Hanstein B, Liu H, Yancisin MC, Brown M (1999). "Functional analysis of a novel estrogen receptor-beta isoform.". Mol. Endocrinol. 13 (1): 129–37. doi:10.1210/me.13.1.129. PMID 9892018.  
  • Vidal O, Kindblom LG, Ohlsson C (1999). "Expression and localization of estrogen receptor-beta in murine and human bone.". J. Bone Miner. Res. 14 (6): 923–9. doi:10.1359/jbmr.1999.14.6.923. PMID 10352100.  

External links


This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.

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