Ethanol: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  





































Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ethanol
Identifiers
CAS number 64-17-5 Yes check.svgY
PubChem 702
ChemSpider 682
EC-number 200-578-6
RTECS number KQ6300000
SMILES
InChI
Properties
Molecular formula C2H6O
Molar mass 46.07 g mol−1
Appearance colorless liquid
Density 0.789 g/cm3
Melting point
−114.3 °C, 159 K, -174 °F
Boiling point
78.4 °C, 352 K, 173 °F
Solubility in water miscible
Acidity (pKa) 15.9
Refractive index (nD) 1.36 (25 °C)
Viscosity 1.200 cP (1.200 mPa·s) (20 °C)
Dipole moment 1.69 D (gas)
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
EU classification Flammable (F)
R-phrases R11
S-phrases (S2) S7 S16
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
3
1
0
Flash point 13 °C (55.4 °F)
Related compounds
Related compounds methanol, propanol
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
 Yes check.svgY (what is this?)  (verify)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references
.Ethanol, also called ethyl alcohol, pure alcohol, grain alcohol, or drinking alcohol, is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid.^ Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is grain alcohol, the main ingredient in alcoholic beverages.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Ethanol , also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical ...

^ (Ethanol is the drinking type of alcohol.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It is a powerful psychoactive drug, best known as the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages and in modern thermometers.^ Ethanol is the type of alcohol in alcoholic beverages.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tax is on all ; types of alcoholic beverages.
  • State of New Jersey 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.nj.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dried residues ; on 9000-year-old pottery found in northern China imply the use of alcoholic beverages ; even among Neolithic peoples.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ethanol is one of the oldest recreational drugs.^ Ethanol is perhaps the world's most studied drug and possibly the oldest known drug.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alcohol (ethanol) is one of the most organ-toxic (liver, brain, heart, gastrointestinal tract) drugs of all.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Ethyl alcohol (ethanol, beverage alcohol) has many uses, in addition to its reputation as one of the most abused drugs.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In common usage, it is often referred to simply as alcohol or spirits.^ It is also ; referred to as ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, spirits, or simply ; alcohol.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wine-, malt-, and spirit-based coolers containing 3–7% alcohol are widely available and are often marketed to young people and packaged to look like sodas.
  • A new proposed guidance system for beverage consumption in the United States -- Popkin et al. 83 (3): 529 -- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.ajcn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Distilled spirits advertising and marketing materials should not refer to alcohol content ; except in a straightforward and factual manner.
  • Alcohol Marketing and Advertising, A Report to Congress 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.ftc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ethanol is a straight-chain alcohol, and its molecular formula is C2H5OH. Its empirical formula is C2H6O.^ Ethanol (the alcohol in beverages) is toxic because of its own molecular effects on tissues.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, the general formula ; for straight-chain alkanes is CH ; 3 ; -(CH ; 2 ; ) ; n ; -CH ; 3 ; .
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Drunk straight as "absolute" alcohol (ethanol) it really "burns" on the way down, even for heavy-duty drinkers.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.An alternative notation is CH3–CH2–OH, which indicates that the carbon of a methyl group (CH3–) is attached to the carbon of a methylene group (–CH2–), which is attached to the oxygen of a hydroxyl group (–OH).^ Alcohol is the generic name for any chemical ; compound with a hydroxyl (-OH) functional group bound to a carbon atom of an alkyl ; group.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solvents containing a hydroxyl (OH) group, such as ; water or primary alcohols, take on the properties of super-acids.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Similarly, in an alcohol such as methanol (CH ; 3 ; OH), the proton attached to the oxygen ; atom can be replaced by, for example, Na + .
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

.It is a constitutional isomer of dimethyl ether.^ So dimethyl ether boils much lower than the isomeric ethanol.
  • Latest posts of: shelanachium 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.chemicalforums.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ethanol is often abbreviated as EtOH, using the common organic chemistry notation of representing the ethyl group (C2H5) with Et.^ Ethanol (or ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol -- EtOH, C2H5OH) also goes by various other well-known names, such as whisky, vodka, gin, and so on, while methanol is a poison.
  • Make your own biodiesel: Journey to Forever 10 September 2009 15:52 UTC journeytoforever.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such changes in ; nomenclature, especially rational nomenclature, are common in organic chemistry.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Another common ; abbreviation that is commonly used is FAME (fatty acid methyl ester).
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

.The fermentation of sugar into ethanol is one of the earliest organic reactions employed by humanity.^ The dry mill process converts the starch from the kernel of corn into sugar and then the sugar into ethanol.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At one point they became interested in work on cellulose conversion to fermentable sugar being performed by Prof. Harold Hibbert at Yale University.
  • The Fuel of the Future 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fermentation is the procedure by which yeast consume sugar or starch, and ; in turn, excrete ethanol.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The intoxicating effects of ethanol consumption have been known since ancient times.^ Cigarette smoke, a known coronary risk factor, contains four times as much methanol as formaldehyde and only traces of ethanol.

^ These ; materials should not portray persons in a state of intoxication or in any way suggest that ; intoxication is socially acceptable conduct, and they should not promote the intoxicating ; effects of beverage alcohol consumption.
  • Alcohol Marketing and Advertising, A Report to Congress 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.ftc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sail% S.L. (1978) ; A ; trial closure of Alko retail outlets on Saturdays and its effect ; on alcohol consumption ; and disturbances caused ; by intoxication.
  • LEGAL, ADMINISTRATIVE AND CONTROLS 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC whqlibdoc.who.int [Source type: Academic]

.In modern times, ethanol intended for industrial use is also produced from by-products of petroleum refining.^ As ethanol production increases, gasoline use should decrease.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surprise, surprise Detroit doesn't want to be forced to make more fuel efficient vehicles, but they want the oil industry to be forced to use ethanol.

^ Currently, the majority of ethanol production is based on a dry milling technique that utilizes more than 1 billion bushels of corn to produce 3 billion gallons per year of ethanol.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.Ethanol has widespread use as a solvent of substances intended for human contact or consumption, including scents, flavorings, colorings, and medicines.^ The data characterizing individual ethanol tolerance were obtained, which can be used for differential diagnosis of ethanol poisoning in practical forensic medicine."
  • Ethyl Alcohol Hangover Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The compound has widespread solvent applications, and is used ; as a component of household and personal products including aerosol ; sprays, topically applied pharmaceutical products, and cosmetics.
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Alcohol consumption is also associated with high-risk behaviors, ; including unsafe sex and the use of other psychoactive ; substances.
  • Alcohol and Public Health in the Americas A CASE FOR ACTION 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

.In chemistry, it is both an essential solvent and a feedstock for the synthesis of other products.^ Occupational Exposure ; ; Workers are potentially exposed to 2-propanol during production ; of the compound itself or of acetone and other derivatives, or ; during its use in solvent type applications.
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Synthesis from Petrochemical Feedstocks ; 2.3.3.1 Ziegler-Alcohol-Processes ; Two processes for the production of synthetic fatty alcohols are based on the work of Prof. Dr.
  • Dr. Z Presents All about fatty alcohols 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.zenitech.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Workers are exposed to 2-propanol during the production of the ; compound itself, and of acetone and other derivatives, and also ; during its use as a solvent.
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.It has a long history as a fuel for heat and light, and more recently as a fuel for internal combustion engines.^ So this is energy that can't be released in internal combustion engines.
  • John Stossel : The Many Myths of Ethanol - Townhall.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reduced engine emissions and long term fuel cost savings make Autogas the fuel of the future.

^ This is why the first trains operated on steam and did not change when the automobile, with its internal combustion engine, was invented.
  • John Stossel : The Many Myths of Ethanol - Townhall.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

History

Ethanol being used as fuel for a burner
.Ethanol has been used by humans since prehistory as the intoxicating ingredient of alcoholic beverages.^ Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is grain alcohol, the main ingredient in alcoholic beverages.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For beverages containing ethanol , see alcoholic beverage.

^ Licensing of bakeries using alcoholic beverages as ingredients; fee; restriction on use.
  • S.C. Code of Laws Title 61 Chapter 6 Alcoholic Beverage Control Act - www.scstatehouse.gov-LPITS 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.scstatehouse.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Dried residues on 9,000-year-old pottery found in China imply that alcoholic beverages were used even among Neolithic people.^ Alcoholic beverages for use in air; commerce.

^ Dried residues ; on 9000-year-old pottery found in northern China imply the use of alcoholic beverages ; even among Neolithic peoples.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alcoholic beverages for use on oceangoing; ships.

[2] Its isolation as a relatively pure compound was first achieved by the Persian alchemist, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes, 865–925).
.Two other chemists who contributed to the development of distillation techniques were Geber (Jabir ibn Hayyan) and Al-Kindi (Alkindus).^ The Hannoverians developed their own version of a wheat ale, the Broyhan beer, so-named after Cord Broyhan, a Hannoverian native who had left his home town to apprentice with a Hamburg brewer.

^ RETAIL DEALER ; WHO IS CONSIDERED A "RETAIL DEALER" UNDER FEDERAL LAW? ; Every person who sells, or offers for sale, distilled spirits, wine or beer to any person other than a dealer is ; considered a retail dealer.
  • State of New Jersey 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.nj.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Alcoholic Beverage Control Law prohibits any person ; who has an interest in an alcoholic beverage license which is revoked from having any interest in any other ; license for a period of two years from the effective date of revocation.
  • State of New Jersey 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.nj.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Writings attributed to Geber (721–815) mention the flammable vapors of boiled wine. Al-Kindi (801–873) unambiguously described the distillation of wine.[3]
.In 1796, Johann Tobias Lowitz obtained pure ethanol by filtering distilled ethanol through activated charcoal.^ These results suggest that acetaldehyde, induced by blocking ethanol metabolism, is able to activate the HPA axis operating through a central mechanism."
  • Ethyl Alcohol Hangover Research -- Neurotransmitter.net 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Distilled (Drinkable) Spirits Distilled (drinkable) spirits are normally produced through a process that can produce a maximum ethanol concentration of 95.6% by weight.
  • The Super Cat Alcohol Stove 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC jwbasecamp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Antoine Lavoisier described ethanol as a compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and in 1808 Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure determined ethanol’s chemical formula.^ Beverage alcohol (ethanol, ethyl alcohol) is a simple compound consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Molecules with a certain chemical formula (calculated without hydrogens) can be selected by the a_ formula1,formula2..
  • ICM Language Reference : Functions 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.molsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The bonds can be ; formed to a mixture of other atoms, for example, one carbon atom can form a bond to one ; hydrogen, one oxygen and two carbon atoms to meet the requirement of four bonds.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

[4] .Fifty years later, Archibald Scott Couper published the structural formula of ethanol, which placed ethanol among the first compounds whose chemical structure had been determined.^ Ethanol , CH3CH2OH, is an alcohol, a group of chemical compounds whose molecules ...

^ A compound is a chemically distinct substance formed by the union of two or more ingredients ; (as elements) in definite proportion by weight and with definite structural arrangement.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For a first offense, the license must either be revoked for one year, or the licensee must pay a penalty of two hundred fifty dollars to the department.
  • S.C. Code of Laws Title 61 Chapter 6 Alcoholic Beverage Control Act - www.scstatehouse.gov-LPITS 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.scstatehouse.gov [Source type: Original source]

[5]
Ethanol was first prepared synthetically in 1826 through the independent efforts of Henry Hennel in Great Britain and S.G. Sérullas in France. .In 1828, Michael Faraday prepared ethanol by acid-catalyzed hydration of ethylene, a process similar to that which is used today for industrial ethanol synthesis.^ While no specific process technology is favored in this description, ; an effort has been made to describe the major approaches currently in use in the industry.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ There are approximately 80,000 chemicals in common industrial use today (almost none of which existed before World War II).

^ The following discussion ; describes current practice for processing soybean oil in the U.S. Similar processes are used for ; rapeseed oil in Europe.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

[6]
.Ethanol was used as lamp fuel in the United States as early as 1840, but a tax levied on industrial alcohol during the Civil War made this use uneconomical.^ "Alcohol use is a serious problem among ; teenagers in the United States.

^ Paul_the_engineer on January 14, 2009 - 8:46am A little known historical note is the switch over of rail gauge in the Southern States following the Civil War.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think petro-fuels should have a floor price the same time as the ethanol tax credit is phased out.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This tax was repealed in 1906,[7] and from 1908 onward Ford Model T automobiles could be adapted to run on ethanol.^ In April, 1906, a bill to repeal the alcohol sales tax sailed through the House on a 224 to 7 vote with widespread support from farm-belt representatives.

^ Over $5 billion in 2006 to subsidize ethanol as hybrid tax credits run out .

^ Yet, Ford sells Ford Explorers and receives a tax advantage from the government because those Explorers 'could' fill up with ethanol gasoline, but don't.

[8] .With the advent of Prohibition in 1920 though, sellers of ethanol fuel were accused of being allied with moonshiners,[7] and ethanol fuel again fell into disuse until late in the 20th century.^ Ethanol Fueling a New Economy?, Billions of dollars are being spent on new technologies and industries dealing with the advent of ethanol as an energy ...

^ Across the Midwest, farmers are building facilities to turn corn into clean-burning ethanol fuel.

^ Atheism turns people into animals, and the results are clear from the rivers of blood of the 20th Century.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

Physical properties

Ethanol burning with its spectrum depicted
.Ethanol is a volatile, colorless liquid that has a strong characteristic odor.^ Reacts with strong hydrochloric acid to form tert-butyl chloride, a; volatile liquid.

^ At room temperature ethyl alcohol is a clear, colorless liquid that has a slight odor and is ; miscible with water.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It burns with a smokeless blue flame that is not always visible in normal light.^ It burns with a clean, blue flame similar to that seen with most denatured alcohols.
  • The Super Cat Alcohol Stove 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC jwbasecamp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The physical properties of ethanol stem primarily from the presence of its hydroxyl group and the shortness of its carbon chain.^ SUMMARY ; ; 1.1 Identity, Physical and Chemical Properties, Analytical Methods ; ; 2-Propanol is a colourless highly flammable liquid with an ; odour resembling that of a mixture of ethanol and acetone.
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Triglycerides are esters of ; glycerol (see above; an alcohol with a hydroxy group on each of its three carbon atoms) with ; long-chain acids, commonly called fatty acids .
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It markets its ; products primarily through distributors, wholesalers, corporate chains, ; and cooperative buying groups that distribute the product through retail ; outlets .
  • Beverage, Food, and Health Stocks Directory - BeverageStocks.com - Beverage Stocks Research: Beverage Stocks, Beverage Industry, Beverage Stock News, Bottled Water News, Beverage News and Articles, Health and Nutrition News, Exclusive BeverageStocks.com A 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.investorideas.com [Source type: Reference]

.Ethanol’s hydroxyl group is able to participate in hydrogen bonding, rendering it more viscous and less volatile than less polar organic compounds of similar molecular weight.^ Sugars have numerous hydrogen-bonding O-H groups.
  • Latest posts of: shelanachium 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.chemicalforums.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The C-O bond in alcohols is also polar, but the attached organic group such as C2H5 (in ethanol) is much larger than a hydrogen atom so the positive charge in it is less concentrated, and its attraction to negative ions much less.
  • Latest posts of: shelanachium 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.chemicalforums.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The maximum initial velocity (V max ) ; of rat liver ADH and the substrate 2-propanol in vivo was 1.7 times ; less than that with the substrate ethanol.
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Ethanol is a versatile solvent, miscible with water and with many organic solvents, including acetic acid, acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethylene glycol, glycerol, nitromethane, pyridine, and toluene.^ Methanol is fully miscible with water and with glycerol.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The compound is completely miscible with water, ethanol, acetone, ; chloroform, and benzene.
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Worldwide capacity was; projected to rise to 30 million tonnes by 1995.; ; Methanol is used in the industrial production of many important; organic compounds, principally methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE),; formaldehyde, acetic acid, glycol methyl ethers, methylamine, methyl; halides and methyl methacrylate.; ; Methanol is a constituent of a large number of commercially; available solvents and consumer products including paints, shellacs,; varnishes, paint thinners, cleansing solutions, antifreeze solutions,; automotive windshield washer fluids and deicers, duplicating fluids,; denaturant for ethanol, and in hobby and craft adhesives.
  • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[9][10] .It is also miscible with light aliphatic hydrocarbons, such as pentane and hexane, and with aliphatic chlorides such as trichloroethane and tetrachloroethylene.^ PEER; REVIEWED** ; ;  ; Solubilities: ; MISCIBLE IN ESTERS, AROMATIC AND ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS ; ; [Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.

[10]
.Ethanol’s miscibility with water contrasts with that of longer-chain alcohols (five or more carbon atoms), whose water miscibility decreases sharply as the number of carbons increases.^ A non-alcoholic drink made from extracts of various roots and prepared for the; fountain by the addition of syrup and carbonated water.
  • The;Food Timeline--beverages 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to one pamphlet, alcohol cost five to ten times more than gasoline, depending on the price of corn, and had technical problems.
  • The Fuel of the Future 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a rise in food prices results from corn ethanol, the decrease in our collective carbon footprint from what we eat.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .The miscibility of ethanol with alkanes is limited to alkanes up to undecane, mixtures with dodecane and higher alkanes show a miscibility gap below a certain temperature (about 13 °C for dodecane[12]).^ Some companies also ; used higher placement standards to limit the likelihood that ads would appear on shows of this ; type.
  • Alcohol Marketing and Advertising, A Report to Congress 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.ftc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The amount of ethanol in the urine is proportional, within certain limits, to the ; ethanol concentration in the blood.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ; maximum alcohol concentration produced by this method is about 12-15% because any ; higher alcohol concentration kills the yeast.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The miscibility gap tends to get wider with higher alkanes and the temperature for complete miscibility increases.^ Anisotropic growth of the {001} plane is ; reflected in an increased mean diameter of the needles in materials activated at higher ; temperature.
  • Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Berlin 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.fhi-berlin.mpg.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Lager yeasts, on the other hand, can still ferment wort at higher temperatures, but then produce off-flavors that tend to be undesirable in beer.

^ Dreger observes that ethanol and higher alcohols allow the use of higher reaction temperatures ; but he says that this increases the tendency toward soap formation.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

.Ethanol-water mixtures have less volume than the sum of their individual components at the given fractions.^ The maximum initial velocity (V max ) ; of rat liver ADH and the substrate 2-propanol in vivo was 1.7 times ; less than that with the substrate ethanol.
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At $4 per gallon for gasoline ethanol is an alternative - at $2 per gallon , it is not , mainly because the corn , which can be regrown is more expensive than crude oil per unit volume .
  • John Stossel : The Many Myths of Ethanol - Townhall.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Studies indicate that the standard mixture of 90 percent ethanol and 10 percent gasoline pollutes worse than gasoline.
  • John Stossel : The Many Myths of Ethanol - Townhall.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mixing equal volumes of ethanol and water results in only 1.92 volumes of mixture.^ In the life cycle of making corn ethanol, 99% of the water used grows the corn, and only 1% is used in the industrial process.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But even after 1516, when only barley, hops and water were used, the result of the brewing process was still a matter of luck.

^ As a result of the slow reaction rate, only very minor amounts of free fatty acids are formed ; during transesterification if the reaction is free of water at the beginning.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

[9][13] Mixing ethanol and water is exothermic. .At 298 K up to 777 J/mol[14] are set free.^ For purposes of simplification, I'll describe fueling and lighting a "naked" Super Cat stove that's set up in a wind-free environment.
  • The Super Cat Alcohol Stove 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC jwbasecamp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mixtures of ethanol and water form an azeotrope at about 89 mole-% ethanol and 11 mole-% water[15] or a mixture of about 96 volume percent ethanol and 4% water at normal pressure and T = 351 K. This azeotropic composition is strongly temperature- and pressure-dependent and vanishes at temperatures below 303 K[16].^ Ethanol forms an azeotrope with water so it is expensive to purify ; the ethanol during recovery.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The temperature required to induce gelling ; (freezing) in biodiesel is generally higher than that of conventional diesel fuel and depends on ; the composition of the biodiesel.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Type III Operator Manual - Ethanol ; Page 10 of 15 ; Last modified: 07/08 by BML ; ; ; • Another form of natural tolerance is physical tolerance.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Hydrogen bonding in solid ethanol at −186 °C
.Hydrogen bonding causes pure ethanol to be hygroscopic to the extent that it readily absorbs water from the air.^ Unfortunately, all the lower alcohols are hygroscopic and are capable of ; absorbing water from the air.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Ethanol is readily absorbed through all ; mucosal surfaces, including the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fact that alcohol mixes easily with water is because it easily forms hydrogen bonds with water.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The polar nature of the hydroxyl group causes ethanol to dissolve many ionic compounds, notably sodium and potassium hydroxides, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, ammonium chloride, ammonium bromide, and sodium bromide.^ Sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide can cause severe burns and death.
  • Make your own biodiesel: Journey to Forever 10 September 2009 15:52 UTC journeytoforever.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Water dissolves many ionic compounds because it is itself highly polar, the bent H2O molecule has a positive end, the H atoms, which are attracted to the negative ions (anions), so the water molecules surround them with the H atoms next to the anion.
  • Latest posts of: shelanachium 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.chemicalforums.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Actually, common table salt (NaCl) is an example as it can be seen ; as arising from sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid: NaOH + HCl → NaCl + H ; 2 ; O. ; Many other salts are possible.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

[10] .Sodium and potassium chlorides are slightly soluble in ethanol.^ Measure out the lye and mix it with the methanol to make sodium methoxide or potassium methoxide -- it will get slightly hotter and take a little longer to mix as there's more lye this time.
  • Make your own biodiesel: Journey to Forever 10 September 2009 15:52 UTC journeytoforever.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Na+ and Cl- ions remain in solution as sodium chloride is soluble in water.
  • Latest posts of: shelanachium 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.chemicalforums.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] .Because the ethanol molecule also has a nonpolar end, it will also dissolve nonpolar substances, including most essential oils[17] and numerous flavoring, coloring, and medicinal agents.^ At $4 per gallon for gasoline ethanol is an alternative - at $2 per gallon , it is not , mainly because the corn , which can be regrown is more expensive than crude oil per unit volume .
  • John Stossel : The Many Myths of Ethanol - Townhall.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can alternative fuels, such as ethanol or biodiesel, end the world's oil dependency?

^ Water dissolves many ionic compounds because it is itself highly polar, the bent H2O molecule has a positive end, the H atoms, which are attracted to the negative ions (anions), so the water molecules surround them with the H atoms next to the anion.
  • Latest posts of: shelanachium 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.chemicalforums.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The addition of even a few percent of ethanol to water sharply reduces the surface tension of water.^ Hybrid technology can make any vehicle 20 - 30 percent more fuel efficient, today, whether that vehicle is fueled by gasoline, diesel, ethanol or even hydrogen.

^ David was the first one to convince me at least that ethanol could "reduce oil imports", even if due more to nonliquid fossil fuels, and value of coproducts.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The projections are that reduced weight, bulk and friction would cut fuel consumption by roughly 30%, far more than the few percent of ethanol consumed.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This property partially explains the “tears of wine” phenomenon. When wine is swirled in a glass, ethanol evaporates quickly from the thin film of wine on the wall of the glass. .As the wine’s ethanol content decreases, its surface tension increases and the thin film “beads up” and runs down the glass in channels rather than as a smooth sheet.^ If a woman has one glass of wine before she knows she's pregnant, she should not be consumed with guilt if the child grows up with a perceived cognitive deficit (even ADHD).
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This reactivity can be related to the ; presence of C=C (olefinic) bonds in the fuel with increased content of the C=C bonds correlated ; to decreased oxidative stability of the diesel fuel.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This can be reached in most people by the continuous drinking of 3-4 standard drinks (defined as a beer, a glass of wine, a mixed drink), with women requiring less alcohol to reach the level than men.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Mixtures of ethanol and water that contain more than about 50% ethanol are flammable and easily ignited.^ No wholesale ; distributor of beverages containing not more than 5% ; alcohol by weight shall purchase such beverages ; from anyone other than a licensed manufacturer, ; importer, or other Tennessee wholesaler.
  • 2009 Alcoholic Beverage Tax Guide 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC state.tn.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This article from the Green Car Congress provides details on a proposed piece of legislation that, if adopted, would grant significantly more regulatory certainty to the ethanol industry than to just about any other alternative energy industry in America.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently, the majority of ethanol production is based on a dry milling technique that utilizes more than 1 billion bushels of corn to produce 3 billion gallons per year of ethanol.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An alcohol stove has been developed in India which runs on 50% ethanol/water mixture.^ Nonetheless, this 95%+ pure, waterless ethanol is probably the best alcohol stove fuel available.
  • The Super Cat Alcohol Stove 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC jwbasecamp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The practice was to start the tractors with gasoline (which cost 40 to 50 cents per gallon) and then run them on alcohol (at 5 cents per gallon) for the rest of the day.
  • The Fuel of the Future 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because the genetics of alcohol problems have been studied for over 20 years, and such studies have clearly shown that over 50% of the causes of alcohol dependence are related to the genetic tendency to develop the disease.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

[18] .Alcoholic proof is a widely used measure of how much ethanol (i.e., alcohol) such a mixture contains.^ How much to use.
  • Make your own biodiesel: Journey to Forever 10 September 2009 15:52 UTC journeytoforever.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethanol (or ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol -- EtOH, C2H5OH) also goes by various other well-known names, such as whisky, vodka, gin, and so on, while methanol is a poison.
  • Make your own biodiesel: Journey to Forever 10 September 2009 15:52 UTC journeytoforever.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methanol, which is used in a wide range of applications, is also known as methyl alcohol, wood alcohol, carbinol, wood naphtha and wood spirits.
  • The Super Cat Alcohol Stove 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC jwbasecamp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 18th century, proof was determined by adding a liquor (such as rum) to gunpowder.^ The commissioner will determine the full ; value of the goods or property seized, and such ; determination will be presumed to be correct in the ; absence of any proof to the contrary being submitted ; by the claimant.
  • 2009 Alcoholic Beverage Tax Guide 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC state.tn.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the gunpowder still just exploded, that was considered to be “100 degrees proof” that it was “good” liquor — hence it was called “100 degrees proof”.^ Regular Heet ("Yellow Heet") The first variety is named just "Heet" and is packaged in a yellow bottle (and hence often called "Yellow Heet").
  • The Super Cat Alcohol Stove 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC jwbasecamp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ethanol-water solutions that contain less than 50% ethanol may also be flammable if the solution is first heated.^ The typical glycerol ; produced by a biodiesel plant is 50% glycerol or less and contains water, salts, methanol, methyl ; esters, and unreacted glycerides, color and odor bodies, dimers, timers, and other minor ; compounds.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The maximum initial velocity (V max ) ; of rat liver ADH and the substrate 2-propanol in vivo was 1.7 times ; less than that with the substrate ethanol.
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A bottle charge of; one cent (1¢) on each bottle containing 50 milliliters or less and five cents; (5¢) on each bottle containing more than 50 milliliters.

.Some cooking methods call for wine to be added to a hot pan, causing it to flash boil into a vapor, which is then ignited to burn off excess alcohol.^ Then, boil off the alcohol and water.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When ignited, Red Heet burns with a low temperature, yellow flame that will quickly deposit a coating of black soot on cook pots.
  • The Super Cat Alcohol Stove 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC jwbasecamp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the alcoholic vapors come into contact with the lungs and ; mucous membranes lining the nasal passages and throat, then the ethanol can diffuse ; through these membranes into the blood.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ethanol is slightly more refractive than water, having a refractive index of 1.36242 (at λ=589.3 nm and 18.35 °C).^ At $4 per gallon for gasoline ethanol is an alternative - at $2 per gallon , it is not , mainly because the corn , which can be regrown is more expensive than crude oil per unit volume .
  • John Stossel : The Many Myths of Ethanol - Townhall.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Assuming the same body ; type, a 200 pound man must consume more ethanol ; than a 100 pound man to reach the same alcohol ; concentration.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MJ/kg of ethanol far more than the refinery input of 19.2 MJ/kg.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]

Chemical properties

.Ethanol is classified as a primary alcohol, meaning that the carbon to which its hydroxyl group is attached has at least two hydrogen atoms attached to it as well.^ The C-O bond in alcohols is also polar, but the attached organic group such as C2H5 (in ethanol) is much larger than a hydrogen atom so the positive charge in it is less concentrated, and its attraction to negative ions much less.
  • Latest posts of: shelanachium 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.chemicalforums.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two primary ways that tolerance to alcohol occurs.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Ammonium fluoride is strongly hydrogen-bonded, since two highly electronegative small atoms, N and F, are involved.
  • Latest posts of: shelanachium 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.chemicalforums.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of the reactions of ethanol occur at its hydroxyl group.^ Chemical Properties ; The industrial importance of fatty alcohols is based on the large number of reactions the hydroxyl group may ; undergo.
  • Dr. Z Presents All about fatty alcohols 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.zenitech.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Half-lives of 7-18 days have; been reported for the atmospheric reaction of methanol with hydroxyl; radicals.; ; Many genera and strains of microorganisms are capable of using; methanol as a growth substrate.
  • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Ester formation

In the presence of acid catalysts, ethanol reacts with carboxylic acids to produce ethyl esters and water:
RCOOH + HOCH2CH3RCOOCH2CH3 + H2O
.This reaction, which is conducted on large scale industrially, requires the removal of the water from the reaction mixture as it is formed.^ If the water is not removed it will interfere with the reactions.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If ; part of the V=O groups is removed by electron irradiation, methanol adsorption leads to ; the formation of methoxy groups which are transformed to FA above 470 K. Also ; methane and water form.
  • Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Berlin 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.fhi-berlin.mpg.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The ; problem with this strategy is that the soapstock system contains a large amount of water that ; must be removed before the product esters can meet the biodiesel standard.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

.Esters react in the presence of an acid or base to give back the alcohol and carboxylic acid.^ People who really don't need to drink will cut back on alcohol consumption (or give it up altogether), whereas people with the disease will use alcohol any way they can get it.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Since biodiesel is a ; mono-alkyl fatty acid ester, the primary alcohol used to form the ester is the other major ; feedstock.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Presumably [MnO4]- and Mn2+ react to give other Mn species - Mn(III) and/or (IV) presumably as the V and VI states are unstable in acid solution.
  • Latest posts of: shelanachium 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.chemicalforums.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This reaction is known as saponification because it is used in the preparation of soap.^ However, stainless steel will not be good choice for use in the acid-catalyzed ; esterification reaction because stainless steel is subject to attack by acids.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Dreger observes that ethanol and higher alcohols allow the use of higher reaction temperatures ; but he says that this increases the tendency toward soap formation.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ KIE of 146 at 498 K. Although an accurate PES is not known, Austin Model ; 1 (AM1) gives a reasonable PES, and we used it to study this reaction.
  • chapter for Isotope Effects in Chemistry and Biology , edited by Hans Limbach and Amnon Kohen, to be published by Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC static.msi.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Ethanol can also form esters with inorganic acids.^ H 2 , forms esters with carboxylic; acids or acid chlorides.
  • Isomerism 1. Introduction Structural Isomerism chain positional isomers functional group isomers tautomerism 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.docbrown.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Ethanol can also form esters with inorganic acids.
  • Ethanol - Drug information from Medic8.com 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: Academic]
  • evidence of life in the universe. 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC setiathome.ssl.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ethanol - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ethanol oxidises to form acetic acid.
  • Home Distillation of Alcohol (Homemade Alcohol to Drink) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC distillers.tastylime.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Diethyl sulfate and triethyl phosphate are prepared by treating ethanol with sulfur trioxide and phosphorus pentoxide respectively. .Diethyl sulfate is a useful ethylating agent in organic synthesis.^ Hydrothermal synthesis has been performed ; using ammonium heptamolybdate, telluric acid, vanadyl sulfate and ammonium ; niobium oxalate as starting materials.
  • Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Berlin 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.fhi-berlin.mpg.de [Source type: Academic]

.Ethyl nitrite, prepared from the reaction of ethanol with sodium nitrite and sulfuric acid, was formerly a widely-used diuretic.^ In 1860, Otto used ethyl alcohol as a fuel in an early engine because it was widely available for spirit lamps throughout Europe.
  • The Fuel of the Future 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.radford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Novel preparation method of Co/SiO2 catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reaction using chelating agents .
  • http://www.shokubai.org/intern/TOCAT5/scientific_program.html 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.shokubai.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, stainless steel will not be good choice for use in the acid-catalyzed ; esterification reaction because stainless steel is subject to attack by acids.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

Dehydration

.Strong acid desiccants cause the dehydration of ethanol dehydration to form diethyl ether, although under certain conditions ethylene is the product.^ Unfortunately the conditions also favour the formation of side-products ; and coke, which is a major cause of deactivation of dehydrogenation catalysts.
  • Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Berlin 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.fhi-berlin.mpg.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Conclusion: Although ethanol produces vasodilation at the level of the distribution artery as well as at an arteriolar level, it causes a decrease in flow-mediated vasodilation.
  • CORK Bibliography: Alcohol, Beneficial Effects 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Certain Canadian-produced beer qualified under the ; statutes, although some Canadian brewers had apparently chosen not to compete in this market.

Millions of kilograms of diethyl ether are produced annually using sulfuric acid catalyst:
2 CH3CH2OH → CH3CH2OCH2CH3 + H2O (on 120'C)

Combustion

Complete combustion of ethanol forms carbon dioxide and water:
C2H5OH + 3 O2 → 2 CO2 + 3 H2O(l);(ΔHc = −1371 kJ/mol[19]) specific heat = 2.44 kJ/(kg·K)

Acid-base chemistry

Ethanol is a neutral molecule and the pH of a solution of ethanol in water is nearly 7.00. Ethanol can be quantitatively converted to its conjugate base, the ethoxide ion (CH3CH2O), by reaction with an alkali metal such as sodium:[11]
2 CH3CH2OH + 2 Na → 2 CH3CH2ONa + H2
or a very strong base such as sodium hydride:
CH3CH2OH + NaH → CH3CH2ONa + H2
.The acidity of water and ethanol are nearly the same, as indicated by their pKa of 15.7 and 16 respectively.^ Ethanol is also a commodity, but it has the interesting property that it can't be shipped through the same pipelines as other liquid fuels because it's water soluble.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Canada indicated that, with respect to Minnesota , to the extent that the tax credit applied to all ; qualifying brewers, it relied on its arguments in paragraph 3.16.

^ Canada ; indicated that the same arguments it made with respect to the reduced federal excise tax for beer were ; fully applicable with respect to these state measures.

Thus, sodium ethoxide and sodium hydroxide exist in an equilbrium that is closely balanced:
CH3CH2OH + NaOH is in equilibrium with CH3CH2ONa + H2O

Halogenation

.Ethanol is not used industrially as a precursor to ethyl halides, but the reactions are illustrative.^ Surprise, surprise Detroit doesn't want to be forced to make more fuel efficient vehicles, but they want the oil industry to be forced to use ethanol.

^ The only process that has been used in an industrial scale is the EPAL ® process developed by the Ethyl ; Corporation (today BP/Amoco).
  • Dr. Z Presents All about fatty alcohols 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.zenitech.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the life cycle of making corn ethanol, 99% of the water used grows the corn, and only 1% is used in the industrial process.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ethanol reacts with hydrogen halides to produce ethyl halides such as ethyl chloride and ethyl bromide:
CH3CH2OH + HCl → CH3CH2Cl + H2O
.These reactions require a catalyst such as zinc chloride.^ As discussed elsewhere, these free ; fatty acids will react with alkali catalysts to produce soaps that inhibit the reaction.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Alkane isomerization catalysts such as chlorided alumina, mordenite and anion- ; modified zirconia require Pt doping and addition of H ; 2 ; to the feed to stabilize ; performance 5,6 .
  • Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Berlin 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.fhi-berlin.mpg.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The spectrum of the 1% V/alumina post-reaction catalyst ; contained a shoulder similar to that of styrene, which is in agreement with literature ; which suggests that the carbon is similar to that of polyaromatic compounds such as ; polystyrene [3].
  • Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Berlin 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.fhi-berlin.mpg.de [Source type: Academic]

[20] .HBr requires refluxing with a sulfuric acid catalyst.^ Acid catalysts include sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In this case, an acid-resistant catalyst is required, and catalyst ; consumption is increased.
  • Dr. Z Presents All about fatty alcohols 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.zenitech.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Direct esterification may also require rather large amounts of the acid ; catalyst depending on the process used.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

[20] .Ethyl halides can, in principle, also be produced by treating ethanol with more specialized halogenating agents, such as thionyl chloride or phosphorus tribromide.^ Currently, the majority of ethanol production is based on a dry milling technique that utilizes more than 1 billion bushels of corn to produce 3 billion gallons per year of ethanol.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methyl halides produced from; methanol include methyl chloride, methylene chloride and chloroform.; ; Nearly all the formaldehyde manufactured worldwide is produced by; oxidation of methanol with atmospheric oxygen.
  • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The differences in enzyme concentrations of the species suggest that animals studied are more sensitive to the more common ethanol found in alcoholic beverages.

[11][20]
CH3CH2OH + SOCl2 → CH3CH2Cl + SO2 + HCl
.Upon treament with halogens in the presence of base, ethanol gives the corresponding haloform (CHX3, where X = Cl, Br, I).^ Heterogeneous hydrogenation of the oxo aldehydes at 5 - 20 MPa and 150 - 250°C in the presence of catalysts ; based on nickel, molybdenum, copper or cobalt yields the corresponding alcohols.
  • Dr. Z Presents All about fatty alcohols 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.zenitech.com [Source type: Academic]

This conversion is called the haloform reaction.[21]" An intermediate in the reaction with chlorine is the aldehyde called chloral:
4 Cl2 + CH3CH2OH → CCl3CHO + 5 HCl

Oxidation

.Ethanol can be oxidized to acetaldehyde and further oxidized to acetic acid, depending on the reagents and conditions.^ Palladium-containing supported ; catalysts are also frequently used in selective oxidation of hydrocarbons, for example of ; ethylene to acetaldehyde or acetic acid and of ethylene plus acetic acid to vinyl acetate.
  • Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Berlin 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.fhi-berlin.mpg.de [Source type: Academic]

^ CH ; 3 ; OH ; CH ; 3 ; -CH ; 2 ; -OH CH ; 3 ; -CH ; 2 ; -CH ; 2 ; -OH CH ; 3 ; -CH-CH ; 3 ; CH ; 2 ; —CH---CH ; 2 ; Methanol Ethanol 1-Propanol 2-Propanol Glycerol ; ( ; iso -Propanol) ; (Glycerine; ; 1,2,3-Propanetriol) ; O ; O O ; || ; || ; || ; CH ; 3 ; -C-OH ; CH ; 3 ; -C-OCH ; 3 ; CH ; 3 ; -C-O-CH ; 2 ; CH ; 3 ; Acetic acid ; Methyl acetate ; Ethyl acetate ; (Acetic acid methyl ester) (Acetic acid ethyl ester) ; Figure 9.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

[20] .This oxidation is of no importance industrially, but in the human body, these oxidation reactions are catalyzed by the enzyme liver alcohol dehydrogenase.^ Alcohol dehydrogenase is the primary enzyme for the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde, and this oxidation reaction is the rate-limiting step in the metabolism of methanol.

^ LUNDBERG, I. & HAKANSSON, M. (1985) Normal serum activities ; of liver enzymes in Swedish paint industry workers with heavy ; exposure to organic solvents.
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Alcohol is partially metabolized (broken down) in the stomach by an enzyme called gastric alcohol dehydrogenase (GADH).
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The oxidation product of ethanol, acetic acid, is a nutrient for humans, being a precursor to acetyl CoA, where the acetyl group can be spent as energy or used for biosynthesis.^ If that free market doesn't want and encourage the use of Ethanol, then this 'alternative energy source' just won't fly.
  • John Stossel : The Many Myths of Ethanol - Townhall.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As ethanol production increases, gasoline use should decrease.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Test animals being used are 8 -10 times less sensitive than humans to the effects of aspartic acid and glutamates (Bowen and Evangelista, 2002).

Industrial uses

As a fuel

Energy content of some fuels compared with ethanol:[22]
Fuel type MJ/L MJ/kg Research
octane
number
Dry wood (20% moisture) ~19.5
Methanol 17.9 19.9 123
Ethanol 23.5 [23] 31.1 129
E85
(85% ethanol, 15% gasoline)
25.2 33.2 105
Liquefied natural gas 25.3 ~55
Autogas (LPG)
(60% Propane + 40% Butane)
26.8 50.
Aviation gasoline
(high-octane gasoline, not jet fuel)
33.5 46.8
Gasohol
(90% gasoline + 10% ethanol)
33.7 47.1 93/94
Regular Gasoline 34.8 [24] 44.4 min. 91
Premium Gasoline max. 104
Diesel 38.6 45.4 25
Charcoal, extruded 50 23
.The largest single use of ethanol is as a motor fuel and fuel additive.^ Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors all recommend ethanol fuels, ...

^ For decades GM has used fuel cell vehicles as an excuse not to compete with Japanese efficiency, now they are using ethanol.

^ Ford's interest in using ethanol as an alternative fuel goes back to the days ...

.Brazil has the largest national fuel ethanol industry.^ Surprise, surprise Detroit doesn't want to be forced to make more fuel efficient vehicles, but they want the oil industry to be forced to use ethanol.

^ The food processing industry has even more reason to dislike fuel ethanol.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Infrastructure requirements for an expanded fuel ethanol industry.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gasoline sold in Brazil contains at least 25% anhydrous ethanol, but blending requirements will be reduced to 20% ethanol for a 90-day period beginning February 1, 2010 by government mandate due to low supplies of the biofuel.^ Finished gasoline contains ethanol.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethyl alcohol , (ethanol) made from farm crops or cellulose, which can be blended with gasoline to boost octane (anti-knock) ratings; and .

^ In recent years ethyl alcohol blends in gasoline have been called "gasohol" or "ethanol enhanced" gasoline.

[25] .The U.S. has used ethanol and gasoline blends up to E85 or 15% gasoline and 85% ethanol.^ Ethanol can be blended with gasoline to create E85, a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline.

^ Ethanol is a liquid that can be used as a fuel by itself or blended with gasoline.

^ Vehicles fueled by ethanol actually use E85, a blend of 85 percent ethanol ...

.Hydrous ethanol (about 95% ethanol and 5% water) can be used as fuel in more than 90% of new cars sold in the country.^ More than 90 % of the vegetable oils are used in food applications.
  • Dr. Z Presents All about fatty alcohols 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.zenitech.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nuclear plants will produce more electricity than we can ever use to heat our homes and to produce more SUVs.
  • John Stossel : The Many Myths of Ethanol - Townhall.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ KMnO4 could indeed be used, but is a much more powerful oxidant than dichromate.
  • Latest posts of: shelanachium 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.chemicalforums.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Brazilian ethanol production is praised for the high carbon sequestration capabilities of the sugar cane plantations, thus making it a real option to combat climate change.^ As such, it can promote products that pose risks to health (eg, high fat and high sugar foods) or it can promote health-supporting products ( eg, sporting equipment and services).
  • CORK Bibliography: Alcohol Beverage Industry 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ With high gas prices making alternative fuels increasingly attractive, no alternative fuel has received as much attention as ethanol .

^ Redline Oil makes the most advanced synthetic engine oils, fuel additives, coolant products, and high performance fluids available for your street or race ...

[26]
.Henry Ford designed the first mass-produced automobile, the famed Model T Ford, to run on pure anhydrous (ethanol) alcohol – he said it was "the fuel of the future". Today, however, 100% pure ethanol is not approved as a motor vehicle fuel in the U.S. Added to gasoline, ethanol reduces volatile organic compound and hydrocarbon emissions, carcinogenic benzene and butadiene emissions, and particulate matter emissions from gasoline combustion through the internal combustion engine.^ Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors all recommend ethanol fuels, ...

^ General Motors sees ethanol , fuel cell future while hybrids are ...

^ So this is energy that can't be released in internal combustion engines.
  • John Stossel : The Many Myths of Ethanol - Townhall.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27]
.Ethanol combustion in an internal combustion engine yields many of the products of incomplete combustion produced by gasoline and significantly larger amounts of formaldehyde and related species such as acetaldehyde.^ So this is energy that can't be released in internal combustion engines.
  • John Stossel : The Many Myths of Ethanol - Townhall.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Otherwise we just have to realize that pollution is a by-product of the internal combustion engine.
  • Damn Interesting • The Ethyl-Poisoned Earth 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.damninteresting.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tom Kloza, a gasoline-markets analyst for the Oil Price Information Service, figures ethanol producers such as Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) are enjoying profits as high as $65 out of every $115 barrel.

[28] .This leads to a significantly larger photochemical reactivity that generates much more ground level ozone.^ In this case, however, I believe many of your ideas could be expressed much more simply resulting in a wider accessibility to your ideas by the general public.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Only significantly more fuel efficient automobiles can lead to real change.

^ The consequences of this document are likely to be much more serious for public health and safety, as it is intended to eviscerate any possibility of effective action on alcohol issues at the local level.
  • CORK Bibliography: Alcohol Beverage Industry 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[29] .These data have been assembled into The Clean Fuels Report comparison of fuel emissions[30] and show that ethanol exhaust generates 2.14 times as much ozone as does gasoline exhaust.^ I think petro-fuels should have a floor price the same time as the ethanol tax credit is phased out.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors all recommend ethanol fuels, ...

^ That the addition of benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons to paraffin base gasoline greatly reduces the tendency of these fuels to detonate [knock] ...

When this is added into the custom "Localised Pollution Index (LPI)" of The Clean Fuels Report the local pollution, i.e. that which contributes to smog, is 1.7 on a scale where gasoline is 1.0 and higher numbers signify greater pollution. .This issue has been formalized by the California Air Resources Board in 2008 by recognizing control standards for formaldehydes as an emissions control group much like the conventional NOx and Reactive Organic Gases (ROGs).^ Air emissions can be controlled by incineration, gas stripping, ; or biological oxidation in biofiltration systems [72].
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Creates the California Gambling Control Board and delegates specified duties to the board.
  • http://www.senate.ca.gov/sfa/1997/_7sfa10.htm 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.senate.ca.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The consequences of this document are likely to be much more serious for public health and safety, as it is intended to eviscerate any possibility of effective action on alcohol issues at the local level.
  • CORK Bibliography: Alcohol Beverage Industry 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[31]
.Before electronic fuel injection (EFI) and computerized engine management, the lower energy content of ethanol required engine carburetors to be rejetted to permit a larger volume of fuel to mix with the intake air.^ I get that ethanol has a lower energy content than gasoline.
  • John Stossel : The Many Myths of Ethanol - Townhall.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethanol Fueling a New Economy?, Billions of dollars are being spent on new technologies and industries dealing with the advent of ethanol as an energy ...

^ Labels: clean diesel , energy independence , Ethanol , Flex-fuel , Ford , fuel efficiency , hybrid trucks , Hybrid Vehicles , plug-in hybrids , toyota .

.EFI is able to actively compensate for varying fuel energy densities by monitoring the oxygen content of exhaust gases.^ Boof on January 13, 2009 - 3:49pm We may have to produce some liquid or gaseous fuel with low or perhaps even slightly negative net energy.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Int Arch Occup Environ Health, 48 :; 257-271.; ; Seizinger DE & Dimitriades B (1972) Oxygenates in exhaust from simple; hydrocarbon fuels.
  • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, they have ; high densities and thus help elevate the energy contained in a gallon of the fuel.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

.However, a standard EFI gasoline engine can typically only tolerate up to 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline.^ In the absence of a free market, however, we are forced to use some methology to provide a comparison between ethanol and gasoline, for example.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ M-85 methanol-fuelled engines (methanol with 15%; gasoline), without a catalyst, on Fischer-344 rats for periods up to; 12 weeks.
  • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, vehicles could fill up with gasoline that is 85% ethanol, and this ethanol doesn't have to be just corn.

.Higher ethanol ratios require either larger-volume fuel injectors or an increase in fuel rail pressure to deliver the greater liquid volume needed to equal the energy content of pure gasoline.^ Ethanol is a liquid that can be used as a fuel by itself or blended with gasoline.

^ I get that ethanol has a lower energy content than gasoline.
  • John Stossel : The Many Myths of Ethanol - Townhall.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethanol is also a commodity, but it has the interesting property that it can't be shipped through the same pipelines as other liquid fuels because it's water soluble.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The poor lubricant properties of ethanol can cause friction based engine seizures and a significantly reduced life-span of an internal combustion engine.^ So this is energy that can't be released in internal combustion engines.
  • John Stossel : The Many Myths of Ethanol - Townhall.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is why the first trains operated on steam and did not change when the automobile, with its internal combustion engine, was invented.
  • John Stossel : The Many Myths of Ethanol - Townhall.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to an interesting article, Ethanol: Is it the answer ?, a combination of cheap oil and droughts - which caused poor harvests and less ethanol - led Brazilians back to oil.

[citation needed]
Ethanol pump station in Sao Paulo, Brazil where the fuel is available commercially.
.World production of ethanol in 2006 was 51 gigalitres (1.3×1010 US gal), with 69% of the world supply coming from Brazil and the United States.^ Detroit area that supplies our products to thousands of locations around the United States.

^ About one out of every 40 cars and trucks in the United States can now run on a commercial mix of gasoline and ethanol , mostly made from corn.

^ David Murphy on January 13, 2009 - 10:49pm New strains of corn will increase US ethanol production and efficiency greatly in a few years.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] .More than 20% of Brazilian cars are able to use 100% ethanol as fuel, which includes ethanol-only engines and flex-fuel engines.^ Labels: Ethanol , flex fuel .

^ "Injecting small quantities of ethanol into car engines at moments of peak demand -- such as accelerating sharply or climbing a steep hill -- could improve the fuel economy of gasoline engines by 20 percent to 30 percent, a scientist said on Wednesday."

^ Nuclear plants will produce more electricity than we can ever use to heat our homes and to produce more SUVs.
  • John Stossel : The Many Myths of Ethanol - Townhall.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33] .Flex-fuel engines in Brazil are able to work with all ethanol, all gasoline or any mixture of both.^ Labels: Ethanol , flex fuel .

^ Flex-fuel credit all but guaranteed .

^ Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors all recommend ethanol fuels, ...

.In the US flex-fuel vehicles can run on 0% to 85% ethanol (15% gasoline) since higher ethanol blends are not yet allowed or efficient.^ Ethanol is a liquid that can be used as a fuel by itself or blended with gasoline.

^ A blend of 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent unleaded gasoline ...

^ Over two trillion miles have been driven on ethanol -blended fuels in the US since 1980.

.Brazil supports this population of ethanol-burning automobiles with large national infrastructure that produces ethanol from domestically grown sugar cane.^ Finally, Brazil produces 4.5 billion gallons of ethanol from sugar cane and blends ...

^ Canada maintained that the exception to national treatment for subsidies to ; domestic producers did not permit the exemption of such producers from an internal tax nor allowed for ; a credit against such taxes.

^ Besides the US, cellulosic ethanol will undoubtedly, once it can be produced on a cost-competitive basis, spread to other ethanol majors, most notably Brazil .
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sugar cane not only has a greater concentration of sucrose than corn (by about 30%), but is also much easier to extract.^ After all chaotic dynamics itself is a relatively new area and is much better understood now than 30 years ago.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, if you are worried about the environment, or foreign oil dependency, many flex fuel vehicles cause much more harm than good.

^ Ethanol is a domestic fuel, that puts corn to a much better use than high fructose corn syrup that contributes to growing epidemics of obesity and diabetes.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The bagasse generated by the process is not wasted, but is used in power plants as a surprisingly efficient fuel to produce electricity.^ Nuclear plants will produce more electricity than we can ever use to heat our homes and to produce more SUVs.
  • John Stossel : The Many Myths of Ethanol - Townhall.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surprise, surprise Detroit doesn't want to be forced to make more fuel efficient vehicles, but they want the oil industry to be forced to use ethanol.

^ Larger volumes of material are processed in plants that produce so-called "inedible" products, ; although the products are suitable for use in animal feeds.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

[citation needed]
A Ford Taurus "fueled by clean burning ethanol" owned by New York City.
.The United States fuel ethanol industry is based largely on corn.^ A large scale ethanol plant in Stanley, Wisconsin, United States.

^ The United States provided a statement from the Oklahoma ; Alcoholic Beverage Law Enforcement Commission, the state agency with jurisdiction over the alcoholic ; beverage industry, which indicated that this was the case.

^ Also, even though Lutz defended ethanol, he did admit that corn-based ethanol has some problems and he stated that cellulosic ethanol was needed.

.According to the Renewable Fuels Association, as of October 30, 2007, 131 grain ethanol bio-refineries in the United States have the capacity to produce 7.0 billion US gallons (26 GL) of ethanol per year.^ In the United States, ethanol is typically produced from corn and other grain products.

^ The US ethanol industry produced more than 3.4 billion gallons in 2004, ...

^ It wastes more than 2.3 billion gallons of fuel each year."

.An additional 72 construction projects underway (in the U.S.) can add 6.4 billion gallons of new capacity in the next 18 months.^ Additionally, yesterday I blogged about the potential of a billion new drivers from Asia and asked, "Where will the oil come from?"

^ From a pre-war peak production of 100 million gallons of alcohol per year, well over 600 million gallons of new capacity was created.

^ Workforce Factors Given the volume of growth expected in the stores, the agency projects additional new classified positions within the next two years and further increases over the next ten years.

.Over time, it is believed that a material portion of the ≈150 billion gallon per year market for gasoline will begin to be replaced with fuel ethanol.^ There is not a market when gasoline is $.89 per gallon.
  • John Stossel : The Many Myths of Ethanol - Townhall.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a market for ethanol when gasoline is $2.25 per gallon wholesale.
  • John Stossel : The Many Myths of Ethanol - Townhall.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It wastes more than 2.3 billion gallons of fuel each year."

[34]
United States Postal Service vehicle running on E85, a "flex-fuel" blend in Saint Paul, Minnesota.
.The U.S. federal government gives ethanol producers a 51-cent-per-gallon tax credit and mandates that their fuel be blended into the nation's gasoline supplies.^ Most ethanol is blended into the gasoline as E10.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The gasoline tax for ethanol-blended gasoline is 19 cpg.

^ There is a market for ethanol when gasoline is $2.25 per gallon wholesale.
  • John Stossel : The Many Myths of Ethanol - Townhall.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires that 4 billion gallons of "renewable fuel" be used in 2006 and this requirement will grow to a yearly production of 7.5 billion gallons by 2012.[35] In the United States, ethanol is most commonly blended with gasoline as a 10% ethanol blend nicknamed "gasohol". This blend is widely sold throughout the U.S. Midwest, and in cities required by the 1990 Clean Air Act to oxygenate their gasoline during the winter.^ Tax on gasoline is based on the amount of ethanol sold in the state.

^ Ethanol is a liquid that can be used as a fuel by itself or blended with gasoline.

^ The energy bill passed by Congress in 2005 requires an increase in ethanol use by refiners to 7.5 billion gallons by the year 2012.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36] .Ethanol and isobutene are also the feedstocks for ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), an oxygenated antiknock additive.^ Butyl alcohol is also a likely; degradation product of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and has been detected in; MTBE contaminated wells.

^ Beverage alcohol contains ethyl alcohol (ethanol), a simple molecule consisting of two carbon atoms, 6 hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ PEER REVIEWED** ; ; t-Butyl alcohol is a likely degradation product of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE); and has been detected in MTBE contaminated wells(1).

.The use of ethanol makes ETBE partially a biofuel, but also more expensive than the similar additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), made from methanol and isobutene.^ At these 2 ; sites, used for the disposal of domestic waste, the 2-propanol ; concentrations were 17 mg/m 3 and more than 46 mg/m 3 , respectively ; [288].
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Surprise, surprise Detroit doesn't want to be forced to make more fuel efficient vehicles, but they want the oil industry to be forced to use ethanol.

^ In order for that happen, more than just 600 of the Nation's 180,000 gas pumps will have to start selling ethanol.

[36]
.One problem with ethanol is that because it is easily miscible with water, it cannot be efficiently shipped through modern pipelines, like liquid hydrocarbons, over long distances.^ Upgrading legacy communications system to improve local, long distance and international voice and data solutions through a single network, ?

^ Since 2-propanol is completely ; miscible with water, it can be expected to be very mobile in the ; soil [72] and it has been shown to increase the permeability of ; soil to aromatic hydrocarbons [81].
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Alcohol does not cause alcohol dependence ("alcoholism") - it is merely one drug through which a brain chemistry problem is manifested.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

[37]
.Ethanol is also used as a cooking and lighting fuel.^ For decades GM has used fuel cell vehicles as an excuse not to compete with Japanese efficiency, now they are using ethanol.

^ Ford's interest in using ethanol as an alternative fuel goes back to the days ...

^ Ethanol is a domestic fuel, that puts corn to a much better use than high fructose corn syrup that contributes to growing epidemics of obesity and diabetes.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In India, ethanol stoves and lanterns have been developed that can run on 50% by weight ethanol–water mixture.^ Able to run on both gasoline, ethanol, or a mixture of the two, flex fuel vehicles allow Brazilians to take advantage of which ever fuel they choose.

.This mixture (hooch or illicit liquor) is easy to distill, safer to handle and use than 100% ethanol, can be produced by small local producers, and uses less energy in its production.^ The maximum initial velocity (V max ) ; of rat liver ADH and the substrate 2-propanol in vivo was 1.7 times ; less than that with the substrate ethanol.
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If the mandate was fulfilled only by ethanol produced in Iowa, which has a refinery-gate EROI of 1.32:1 (Table 1), the net energy profit provided by the ethanol is actually 9 billion gallons.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This matter is significant because the energy credits allotted to the use of co-products as a by-product of the corn-based ethanol process account for 19% of the total energy gains of the corn-based ethanol process (co-products are allotted 4.13 MJ/L while ethanol is 21.46 MJ/L).
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38].
.Sri Lankan automobile manufacturer Micro Cars Ltd manufactured a car running on ethanol discharged by local sugar factories in 2009.[39].^ About one out of every 40 cars and trucks in the United States can now run on a commercial mix of gasoline and ethanol, mostly made from corn.

^ According to your argument, the entire Indy Car racing sport is as stupid as I am, as they run their 200+ mph cars on ethanol.
  • John Stossel : The Many Myths of Ethanol - Townhall.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About one out of every 40 cars and trucks in the United States can now run on a commercial mix of gasoline and ethanol , mostly made from corn.

Food versus fuel debate

Ethanol plant under construction, Butler County, Iowa
.It is disputed whether corn ethanol as an automotive fuel results in a net energy gain or loss.^ We conclude that the net energy value of corn ethanol has become ...

^ If the mandate was fulfilled only by ethanol produced in Iowa, which has a refinery-gate EROI of 1.32:1 (Table 1), the net energy profit provided by the ethanol is actually 9 billion gallons.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This matter is significant because the energy credits allotted to the use of co-products as a by-product of the corn-based ethanol process account for 19% of the total energy gains of the corn-based ethanol process (co-products are allotted 4.13 MJ/L while ethanol is 21.46 MJ/L).
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As reported in "The Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol: an Update,"[40] the energy returned on energy invested (EROEI) for ethanol made from corn in the U.S. is 1.34 (it yields 34% more energy than it takes to produce it).^ Even more corn-ethanol?

^ Thus, 70 percent more energy is required to produce ethanol than the energy ...

^ Also, even though the neon sign list is updated frequently, many more neon beer signs are available than pictured at this site.
  • Neon Beer Signs List From NeonSign.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.neonsign.com [Source type: General]

.Input energy includes natural gas-based fertilizers, farm equipment, transformation from corn or other materials, and transportation.^ Values for non-spatial costs include: herbicides, insecticides, seed, transport energy, gasoline, diesel, natural gas, LPG, electricity, farm labor, labor transportation, farm machinery, and inputs packaging.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He mentioned the local supply of corn, access to rail transport, other uses of corn in the area, access to water, and local demand for distiller's grains, all unsurprising considerations.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other potential substitutes for corn in feed include some of the other options which are being considered for cellulosic ethanol, such as corn cobs (which have long been fed to cattle) and stover .
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, other researchers report that the production of ethanol consumes more energy than it yields.^ Virginia’s line of distilled spirit products, however, is 42% larger than operations in North Carolina and more than double the distilled spirits product line found in Pennsylvania.

^ That is if you wanted to increase copper production by 20% then you would need 20% more labor, 20% more capital, 20% more energy, etc.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This article from the Green Car Congress provides details on a proposed piece of legislation that, if adopted, would grant significantly more regulatory certainty to the ethanol industry than to just about any other alternative energy industry in America.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41][42] .In comparison, sugar cane ethanol EROEI is at around 8 (it yields 8 joules for each joule used to produce it).^ Using those energy yields, the gross costs of producing 36 billion gallons of ethanol would be 576 x 10 9 MJ in Iowa and 952 x 10 9 MJ in Texas (0.4 liters ethanol/kg corn, 25.4 kg/bushel of corn).
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethanol uses the starch in corn to create sugar, then ethanol .

^ It is obvious that the intent of the EROEI folks is to 'taint' biomass as an energy source using incomplete analysis of corn, an agricultural crop which is not a true energy crop such as switchgrass, sugar cane and miscanthus.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] .Recent research suggests that cellulosic crops such as switchgrass and Miscanthus grass provide a much better net energy production than corn, producing over five times as much energy as the total used to produce the crop and convert it to fuel.^ Corn is not an energy crop!
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recently, cellulosic ethanol has been much in the news.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethanol is a fuel that comes from agricultural crops such as corn, barley, ...

[44] .If this research is confirmed, cellulosic crops will most likely displace corn as the main fuel crop for producing bioethanol.^ With the reduced demand for liquid fuel, it is possible that we could fuel most cars with the ethanol WE ALREADY PRODUCE...
  • John Stossel : The Many Myths of Ethanol - Townhall.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At its most basic, ethanol is grain alcohol, produced from crops such as corn.

^ January 14, 2009 - 11:35pm As I posted above, corn ethanol is not an energy crop--a crop grown solely to produce energy.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Michael Grunwald reports that one person could be fed for one year "on the corn needed to fill an ethanol-fueled SUV".[45] He further reports that though "hyped as an eco-friendly fuel, ethanol increases global warming, destroys forests and inflates food prices". Environmentalists, livestock farmers, and opponents of subsidies say increased ethanol production will not meet energy goals and may damage the environment, while at the same time causing worldwide food prices to soar.^ In a way, ethanol is the co-product, an by-product of a food system and a net positive energy one at that!
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Purchases Allowed.; – Without a permit, a person may purchase at one time: .

^ Neither increases in government subsidies to corn-based ethanol fuel nor hikes in the price of petroleum can overcome what one Cornell University ...

.Some of the subsidies in the past have included more than $10 billion to Archer-Daniels-Midland since 1980.[46] Critics speculate that as ethanol is more widely used, changing irrigation practices could greatly increase pressure on water resources.^ Pursuing energy independence is ironically using more resources than not pursuing it!!"
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This potential change will increase the cost of refining and also greatly increase the usage ethanol.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pursuing energy independence is ironically using more resources than not pursuing it!!
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In October 2007, 28 environmental groups decried the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS), a legislative effort intended to increase ethanol production, and said that the measure will "lead to substantial environmental damage and a system of biofuels production that will not benefit family farmers...will not promote sustainable agriculture and will not mitigate global climate change."^ Climate change demands fuel efficiency, not ethanol .

^ Hantas 12 December 2007 at 01:29 pm sd9sd said: But is this problem similar to the tetra ethyl lead cover up?
  • Damn Interesting • The Ethyl-Poisoned Earth 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.damninteresting.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For decades, GM has lobbied Congress and the White House not to increase fuel economy standards.

[47][48]
.Some have blamed subsidized ethanol production for the nearly 200% increase in milk prices since 2004, since the price of fuel has driven up the costs to cultivate, grow, harvest, ship, refine, bring to market, etc., all commodities including, but not limited to, milk, although that is disputed by some.^ I think petro-fuels should have a floor price the same time as the ethanol tax credit is phased out.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As ethanol production increases, gasoline use should decrease.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is if you wanted to increase copper production by 20% then you would need 20% more labor, 20% more capital, 20% more energy, etc.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some blame the presence of speculators, and the recent growing interest in the commodities market by investors who have been scared away from a falling stock market.^ But at some point, falling away from this (due to arrogance and greed) led humans to become dispersed.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I seem to recall that John recently published the findings of a group that dealt with the after life and had some interesting things to say about Purgatory.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is why some liquid cold and vitamin remedies (which are easier to consume than tablets or capsules) are on the market, especially for older patients who cannot swallow tablets or capsules.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

[49]
.Ethanol production uses the starch portion of corn, but the leftover protein can be used to create a high-nutrient, low-cost animal feed.^ Ethanol uses the starch in corn to create sugar, then ethanol .

^ Corn ethanol production is easy to establish.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As ethanol production increases, gasoline use should decrease.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50]
.In 2007 the United Nations' independent expert on the right to food called for a five-year moratorium on biofuel production from food crops, to allow time for development of non-food sources.^ Using Non-food crops .
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each commissioner at the time of appointment and qualification shall be a resident of this state and shall have resided in this state for at least five years next preceding appointment and qualification.
  • http://landru.leg.state.or.us/ors/471.html 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC landru.leg.state.or.us [Source type: Original source]

^ As new products have been introduced over the last five years, these expenditures have ; increased dramatically, from 2% of beer advertising in 1998 to approximately 17% of beer ; advertising in 2002.
  • Alcohol Marketing and Advertising, A Report to Congress 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.ftc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He called recent increases in food costs because of fuel production, such as the quadrupling of world corn price in one year, a growing "catastrophe" for the poor.^ Conversely, the opportunity to double the amount of corn available to ethanol production may confound analysts who expect the ethanol boom to end due to rising corn prices.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The facility infrastructure will be capable of expanding to 60 million gallons per year (and further expansion capabilities could reach 100-million gallons per year), ranking them among the largest fuel production facilities in the world.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, a promotion that limits the offer to one free drink on the DJ would be lawful because the ; licensee itself could conduct such a promotion.
  • State of New Jersey 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.nj.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51] .In February 2007, riots occurred in Mexico because of the skyrocketing price of tortillas.^ Grains traders have forecast tortilla prices to rise between 20 percent and 25 percent during the last quarter of 2006 and the first quarter of 2007.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Even more funny, in the story I heard on NPR, Wal-Mart Mexico is taking advantage of the tortilla price run up to undercut independent tortilla shops.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ethanol has been credited as the reason for this increase in food prices.^ I think petro-fuels should have a floor price the same time as the ethanol tax credit is phased out.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a rise in food prices results from corn ethanol, the decrease in our collective carbon footprint from what we eat.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ USA Today Money comments about a potential for future increases in gas prices and also shortages in Ethanol.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52] .The demand for corn has had a rippling effect on many corn-based products, like tortillas.^ Like many environmentalists, I'm not a big fan of the ethanol industry , especially corn ethanol.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clearly, we are not going to see 1.8 billion bushels of corn a year diverted from cattle feed to ethanol overnight, but the changing economics are likely already having an effect.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a local value added product to low value commodity corn, they keep more jobs in the community, which in turn create more jobs through economic multiplier effects...
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The effects of ethanol and the increasing cost of food have been felt in Pakistan, Indonesia, and Egypt.^ Because ethanol retards the elimination of 2-propanol and is ; also a CNS depressant, interaction between ethanol and propanol may ; be expected to increase the CNS effects of either agent.
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, if we triple or quadruple ethanol consumption, how much will food prices increase?

[53]
.Oil has historically had a much higher EROEI than corn-produced ethanol, according to some.^ Biodiesel produced from crude soybean oil ; retains somewhat more color than biodiesel from refined oil but phosphorus and free fatty acid ; levels seem to be equivalent [8].
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In reality, the proportion of corn used for corn-based ethanol production will come from both optimal and marginal land, but some marginal land will be required.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While I'd rather use my tax dollars to subsidize American industries, such as ethanol producers, rather than foreign oil companies, I'd rather subsidize hybrid cars and other clean vehicle technologies more than ethanol.

[54] .However, oil must be refined into gasoline before it can be used for automobile fuel.^ Surprise, surprise Detroit doesn't want to be forced to make more fuel efficient vehicles, but they want the oil industry to be forced to use ethanol.

^ Gasoline originally referred to any liquid used as the fuel for a ...

^ In the absence of a free market, however, we are forced to use some methology to provide a comparison between ethanol and gasoline, for example.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Refining, as well as exploration and drilling, consumes energy.^ Oil & Gas Journal Online focuses on oil and gas, petroleum, refining, petrochemicals, processing, oil and gas news, oil exploration, oil drilling, ...

.The difference between the energy in the fuel (output energy) and the energy needed to produce it (input energy) is often expressed as a percent of the input energy and called net energy gain (or loss).^ If the mandate was fulfilled only by ethanol produced in Iowa, which has a refinery-gate EROI of 1.32:1 (Table 1), the net energy profit provided by the ethanol is actually 9 billion gallons.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ; energy difference between the lowest-energy saddle point and the energy of the reactant ; is called the classical barrier height or zero-point exclusive barrier height, denoted V ‡ .
  • chapter for Isotope Effects in Chemistry and Biology , edited by Hans Limbach and Amnon Kohen, to be published by Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC static.msi.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Boof on January 13, 2009 - 3:49pm We may have to produce some liquid or gaseous fuel with low or perhaps even slightly negative net energy.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Several studies released in 2002 estimated that the net energy gain for corn ethanol is between 21 and 34 percent.^ We conclude that the net energy value of corn ethanol has become ...

^ If the mandate was fulfilled only by ethanol produced in Iowa, which has a refinery-gate EROI of 1.32:1 (Table 1), the net energy profit provided by the ethanol is actually 9 billion gallons.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I’ve seen at least one piece predicting that additions to ethanol production have been under estimated and that significant corn feedstock shortages will occur in 2008."
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The net energy loss for MTBE is about 33 percent.^ By substituting 2 MJ for the “Gross Energy Gains”, and 0.5 for the EROI, the Net Energy Profit calculates to -2, which means that the production of ethanol is a net energy loss, even though it has a gross energy gain of 2MJ, in this example.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, without the energy contained in the co-products, the production of corn-based ethanol on marginal lands creates net energy losses rather than profits.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol The Oil Drum: Net Energy Discussions about Energy and Our Future .
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When added to gasoline, ethanol can replace MTBE as an anti-knock agent without poisoning drinking water as MTBE does.^ MTBE did *not* replace TEL in gasoline.
  • Damn Interesting • The Ethyl-Poisoned Earth 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.damninteresting.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cellulosic ethanol also has the potential to alleviate the greatest stumbling block of corn ethanol as a potential replacement of gasoline: that there is simply not enough of it.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This price also does not include the added cost of disposing of the water after it is removed ; or the cost of landfilling the solids.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

.In Brazil, where the broadest and longest ethanol producing experiment took place, improvements in agricultural practices and ethanol production improvements led to an increase in ethanol net energy gain from 300% to over 800% in recent years.^ Over the years, the practice of placing branded products within films has gained popularity worldwide.
  • CORK Bibliography: Alcohol Beverage Industry 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As ethanol production increases, gasoline use should decrease.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is if you wanted to increase copper production by 20% then you would need 20% more labor, 20% more capital, 20% more energy, etc.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55] .Brazil produces ethanol more efficiently because its primary input is the sugar from sugar cane rather than starches from corn.^ Even more corn-ethanol?

^ Philippines, is known to be 3-4 times more productive than sugar cane in producing alcohol.
  • CORK Bibliography: Alcohol Beverage Industry 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ethanol uses the starch in corn to create sugar, then ethanol .

.Consuming known oil reserves is increasing oil exploration and drilling energy consumption, which is reducing oil EROEI (and energy balance) further.^ Hunt Oil Company is a leading independent energy company, with oil exploration and production operations worldwide.

^ You say we can reduce oil consumption after I post that we can reduce phosphate use which results in water pollution and show how to do it.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They increase every year, even faster than total oil consumption because domestic production is post-peak.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56]
.Opponents claim that corn ethanol production does not result in a net energy gain or that the consequences of large-scale ethanol production to the food industry and environment offset any potential gains from ethanol.^ We conclude that the net energy value of corn ethanol has become ...

^ In a way, ethanol is the co-product, an by-product of a food system and a net positive energy one at that!
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Feasibility of large-scale biofuel production.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It has been estimated that "if every bushel of U.S. corn, wheat, rice and soybean were used to produce ethanol, it would only cover about 4% of U.S. energy needs on a net basis."[57] Many of the issues raised could likely be fixed by techniques now in development that produce ethanol from agricultural waste, such as paper waste, switchgrass, and other materials, but EIA Forecasts Significant Shortfall in Cellulosic Biofuel Production Compared to Target Set by Renewable Fuel Standard.[58]
.Proponents cite the potential gains to the U.S. economy both from domestic fuel production and increased demand for corn.^ For decades, GM has lobbied Congress and the White House not to increase fuel economy standards.

^ Still, demand fueled by the increase in domestic ethanol production capacity is expected to outpace the production rise.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethanol is a domestic fuel, that puts corn to a much better use than high fructose corn syrup that contributes to growing epidemics of obesity and diabetes.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Optimistic calculations project that the United States is capable of producing enough ethanol to completely replace gasoline consumption.^ Better yet, we can dispense with calculated predictions altogether, and look at actual experience with ethanol vs. We are now producing enough ethanol that there should be a noticeable effect on gasoline consumption, if ethanol is really a benefit.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ; burdens resulting from these regulations thus do not fall more heavily on Canadian than on ; United States producers.

^ Cellulosic ethanol also has the potential to alleviate the greatest stumbling block of corn ethanol as a potential replacement of gasoline: that there is simply not enough of it.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[59] .In comparison, Brazil's ethanol consumption today covers more than 50% of all energy used by vehicles in that country.^ Pursuing energy independence is ironically using more resources than not pursuing it!!"
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pursuing energy independence is ironically using more resources than not pursuing it!!
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This article from the Green Car Congress provides details on a proposed piece of legislation that, if adopted, would grant significantly more regulatory certainty to the ethanol industry than to just about any other alternative energy industry in America.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[60]
.In the United States, preferential regulatory and tax treatment of ethanol automotive fuels introduces complexities beyond its energy economics alone.^ Ethanol fuels: Energy balance, economics and environmental impacts are negative.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think petro-fuels should have a floor price the same time as the ethanol tax credit is phased out.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oregon exempted from the normal tax the first 40,000 gallons of wine sold ; annually in Oregon from small United States manufacturers of alcoholic beverages.

.North American automakers have in 2006 and 2007 promoted a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline, marketed as E85, and their flex-fuel vehicles, e.g. GM's "Live Green, Go Yellow" campaign.^ Labels: Congress , E85 , Ethanol , fuel efficiency , GM , Hybrid Vehicles .

^ I have not been a big fan of E85 or Flex-fuel vehicles.

^ Ethanol is a liquid that can be used as a fuel by itself or blended with gasoline.

[61] .The apparent motivation is the nature of U.S. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, which give an effective 54% fuel efficiency bonus to vehicles capable of running on 85% alcohol blends over vehicles not adapted to run on 85% alcohol blends.^ For decades, GM has lobbied Congress and the White House not to increase fuel economy standards.

^ CHP can displace heating fuels such as natural gas, propane, or electricity, and often have combined efficiency from 50% to 80%.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Labels: clean diesel , Ethanol , fuel efficiency , Hybrid Vehicles , prius , toyota .

[62] .In addition to this auto manufacturer-driven impetus for 85% alcohol blends, the United States Environmental Protection Agency had authority to mandate that minimum proportions of oxygenates be added to automotive gasoline on regional and seasonal bases from 1992 until 2006 in an attempt to reduce air pollution, in particular ground-level ozone and smog.^ The Environmental Protection Agency has mandated that sulfur levels for petroleum-based ; diesel fuel must drop to 15 ppm from 500 ppm by 2006.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Recent research [see links at end of post] supports his focus on the methanol to formaldehyde toxic process: The United States Environmental Protection Agency in their Multimedia Environmental Goals for Environmental Assessment recommends a minimum acute toxicity concentration of methanol in drinking water at 3.9 parts per million, with a recommended limit of consumption below 7.8 mg/day (8).

^ Recent research [see links at end of post] supports his focus on the methanol to formaldehyde toxic process: "The United States Environmental Protection Agency in their Multimedia Environmental Goals for Environmental Assessment recommends a minimum acute toxicity concentration of methanol in drinking water at 3.9 parts per million, with a recommended limit of consumption below 7.8 mg/day (8).

[63] .In the United States, incidents of methyl tert(iary)-butyl ether (MTBE) groundwater contamination have been recorded in the majority of the 50 states,[64] and the State of California's ban on the use of MTBE as a gasoline additive has further driven the more widespread use of ethanol as the most common fuel oxygenate.^ Ethanol is a liquid that can be used as a fuel by itself or blended with gasoline.

^ The ; burdens resulting from these regulations thus do not fall more heavily on Canadian than on ; United States producers.

^ Gasoline originally referred to any liquid used as the fuel for a ...

[65]
.A February 7, 2008 Associated Press article stated, "The widespread use of ethanol from corn could result in nearly twice the greenhouse gas emissions as the gasoline it would replace because of expected land-use changes, researchers concluded Thursday.^ Corn ethanol already is a substitute for gasoline.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Current corn- ethanol production technologies are far less petroleum-intensive than gasoline, though both fuels have similar greenhouse gas emissions, ...

^ Thus, a promotion that limits the offer to one free drink on the DJ would be lawful because the ; licensee itself could conduct such a promotion.
  • State of New Jersey 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.nj.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The study challenges the rush to biofuels as a response to global warming."^ Labels: biofuels , Congress , Ethanol , Foreign Oil Dependency , global warming , Hybrid Vehicles , tax credits .

^ The fact that as I study the climate in depth I become more and more convinced that global warming is a non-issue.
  • Damn Interesting • The Ethyl-Poisoned Earth 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.damninteresting.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you do, then you realize how important it is that humans start taking much more responsibility for their contribution to global warming.

[66] .The article does not take into account that even when grown in an industrial, soil-depleting manner, corn still sequesters carbon through its unharvested root and stalk tissues, which form soils, while gasoline production does not have a carbon-sequestration component in its production cycle.^ An estimated seven million tons of the stuff were burned through gasoline in Ethyl’s sixty-three years of use; and since lead does not decay, every particle that traversed a tailpipe still lingers in the air today, aside from some that settled onto the ground and into the sea.
  • Damn Interesting • The Ethyl-Poisoned Earth 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.damninteresting.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even if the in-state wholesaler were wholly owned and operated by the Canadian producer, that ; wholesaler still represented an additional layer of distribution and costs through which Canadian ; products had to pass before reaching the in-state retailer.

^ If Godel's work does through a wrench into the works, why hasn't the physics community caught on to this?
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

.One acre of land can yield about 7,110 pounds of corn (797 kg/ha), which can be processed into 328 US gallons of ethanol (307 l/ha).^ As it is the newer ones are down to about 2.5 gallons/gal of ethanol.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new strains of corn planned for ethanol in the US actually DO NOT require traditional feed corn fertilizers.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, it remains the case that there are inputs into the ethanol production process which are clearly not renewable.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That is about 26.1 pounds of corn per US gallon (3.13 kg/l).^ Corn Ethanol can produce about 200 gallons per acre, while soy biodiesel can produce about 50 gallons per acre of biodiesel .
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, the 1 billion bushels of corn currently used in the dry mill ethanol process contain roughly 300 million gallons of corn oil that is currently sold for about $0.03 per pound as commercial feed.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 13, 2009 - 10:09pm New strains of corn will increase US ethanol production and efficiency greatly in a few years.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Much overlooked in most discussions about ethanol from corn are the by-products from the production of ethanol.^ Corn ethanol production is easy to establish.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Already, ethanol is an incredibly subsidized product, as is the corn from which most ethanol is derived.

^ Although only about 10-15% of price rises in food are due to ethanol-induced corn price rises , ethanol makes a convenient whipping boy for price rises which arise from many factors, most importantly the rising price of energy.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In general, the waste product from corn distillation is DDGS, distillers grains, a protein-rich food.^ He mentioned the local supply of corn, access to rail transport, other uses of corn in the area, access to water, and local demand for distiller's grains, all unsurprising considerations.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And, since distiller's grains, a byproduct of ethanol production is usually fed to cattle, not all of the current feed corn would have to be replaced with hay to do so.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Value and use of ‘new generation’ distiller’s dried grains with solubles in swine diets.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The vast majority of corn produced in the US and the world goes to feed not people, but livestock, which in turn feed people.^ Currently, the majority of ethanol production is based on a dry milling technique that utilizes more than 1 billion bushels of corn to produce 3 billion gallons per year of ethanol.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new strains of corn planned for ethanol in the US actually DO NOT require traditional feed corn fertilizers.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Besides the US, cellulosic ethanol will undoubtedly, once it can be produced on a cost-competitive basis, spread to other ethanol majors, most notably Brazil .
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The main result of feeding corn to a ruminant is excessive flatulence (production of methane gas, being a greenhouse gas), but the same animals can readily digest DDGS[67].^ When it comes to greenhouse gas reduction, ethanol, even corn ethanol, is not the enemy.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Advanced biofuels are defined as fuels other than corn-based ethanol and with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions half that of the fuel they replace.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He claims a 61% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions for corn ethanol compared to gasoline.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Seen in this light, all corn destined for livestock feeding should probably be distilled to harvest the ethanol fuel potential while simultaneously making the feed more nutritious to the livestock and avoiding unnecessary methane pollution.^ I think petro-fuels should have a floor price the same time as the ethanol tax credit is phased out.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors all recommend ethanol fuels, ...

^ Cellulosic ethanol also has the potential to alleviate the greatest stumbling block of corn ethanol as a potential replacement of gasoline: that there is simply not enough of it.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wherever corn is used to feed livestock, farmers can take advantage of this process to make a profit on both food and fuel from the same bushel of corn.^ Larger volumes of material are processed in plants that produce so-called "inedible" products, ; although the products are suitable for use in animal feeds.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Hydrogen Amplification Technology Development using a by-product gas (hot COG(Coke Oven Gas)) in the steel making process .
  • http://www.shokubai.org/intern/TOCAT5/scientific_program.html 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.shokubai.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Since the same batteries used by gasoline hybrid vehicles will probably be used by fuel cell vehicles, fuel cell vehicles could also gain from these advancements.

.CO2 is also produced as a biproduct of making Ethanol out of corn..which is tanked and sold.^ Cornell ecologist's study finds that producing ethanol and biodiesel from corn and ...

^ In the life cycle of making corn ethanol, 99% of the water used grows the corn, and only 1% is used in the industrial process.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the United States, ethanol is typically produced from corn and other grain products.

[citation needed] .The CO2 is a high grade CO2 used in beverages such as soda or in medical application.^ THE; CONDITION OF THIS OBLIGATION IS SUCH, That whereas, the Principal has made; application for either a class “A” beer permit, class “A” wine permit, or a; class “F” beer permit to be issued by the Alcoholic Beverages Division.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ My main problem with corn ethanol lies in the negative externalities of corn production, such as high water use, fertilizer runoff , and soil mineral depletion .
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whatever indirect land use impact we attribute to ethanol , we should be attributing a similar indirect land-use impact to the soda we drink that's so full of high fructose corn syrup.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.However, there are supporters of the switch to ethanol fuel.^ However, it remains the case that there are inputs into the ethanol production process which are clearly not renewable.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now that it's obvious that fuel cells are still decades away, GM has switched to ethanol - not just as an alternative fuel, but as a bridge to hydrogen.

^ Moreover, there are plenty of questions still left unresolved regarding bio-fuels, especially until cellulosic ethanol is economically achieved.

.A federal government-sponsored study found a gallon of ethanol makes almost twice as much energy as it consumes, while it has the potential to cut greenhouse gases by 54% if cars ran on ethanol, rather than gasoline.^ The fact is: I can do More Work with a gallon of ethanol than you can with a gallon of "gasoline."
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Around 95% of the (rather minimal) research on alcohol and the problems it produces is funded by the federal government (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) in this nation.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This article from the Green Car Congress provides details on a proposed piece of legislation that, if adopted, would grant significantly more regulatory certainty to the ethanol industry than to just about any other alternative energy industry in America.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[68]

Ethanol fuel cells

.Ethanol may be used as a fuel to power Direct-ethanol fuel cells (DEFC) in order to produce electricity and the by-products of water and carbon dioxide.^ Carbon monoxide poisoning from use of gasoline -fueled powered washers in an ...

^ Ethanol is also a commodity, but it has the interesting property that it can't be shipped through the same pipelines as other liquid fuels because it's water soluble.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As ethanol production increases, gasoline use should decrease.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[69] .Platinum is commonly used as an anode in such fuel cells in order to achieve a power density that is comparable to competing technologies.^ For decades GM has used fuel cell vehicles as an excuse not to compete with Japanese efficiency, now they are using ethanol.

^ Since the same batteries used by gasoline hybrid vehicles will probably be used by fuel cell vehicles, fuel cell vehicles could also gain from these advancements.

^ While I'm not opposed to alternative fuels, technologies, such as hybrid cars, demonstrate that fuel is becoming less and less important.

.Until recently the high price of platinum has been cost prohibitive.^ Will increases in production be accompanied by increases in profit, or will ethanol producers find they cannot sell their product at a price high enough to cover their full costs?
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A company called Acta Nanotech has created platinum free nanostructured anodes using more common and therefore less expensive metals.^ Thermocouples are categorized by the metals used in their junctions, with ; different metal junction combinations being more appropriate for different temperature ranges.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The first, "Difficult Diagnosis: A Guide to the Interpretation of Obscure Illness (W.B. Saunders Company, 1958), has been used by more than 60,000 physicians in the United States.

^ Why not make gas more expensive while using the gas tax revenue to reward consumers whom buy more fuel efficient technologies?

[70] .A vehicle using a DEFC and non-platinum nanostructured anodes was used in the Shell Eco-Marathon 2007 by a team from Offenburg Germany which achieved an efficiency of 2716 kilometers per liter (6388 miles per gallon).^ Case in Point "Imagine a car that gets 82 miles a gallon -- doubling the average fuel efficiency of the green-automotive market leader Toyota Prius .

^ Surprise, surprise Detroit doesn't want to be forced to make more fuel efficient vehicles, but they want the oil industry to be forced to use ethanol.

^ For decades GM has used fuel cell vehicles as an excuse not to compete with Japanese efficiency, now they are using ethanol.

[71]

Rocket fuel

.Ethanol was commonly used as fuel in early bipropellant rocket vehicles, in conjunction with an oxidizer such as liquid oxygen.^ Surprise, surprise Detroit doesn't want to be forced to make more fuel efficient vehicles, but they want the oil industry to be forced to use ethanol.

^ Where are the flex-fuel hybrid vehicles, such as this Saab flex-fuel hybrid ?

^ Labels: clean diesel , Ethanol , Ford , fuel efficiency , global warming , GM , Hybrid Vehicles , toyota .

.The German V-2 rocket of World War II, credited with beginning the space age, used ethanol, mixed with 25% of water to reduce the combustion chamber temperature.^ There are approximately 80,000 chemicals in common industrial use today (almost none of which existed before World War II).

^ In the life cycle of making corn ethanol, 99% of the water used grows the corn, and only 1% is used in the industrial process.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most biodiesel processes use ; relatively intense mixing, at least at the beginning of the reaction, to incorporate the sparingly ; soluble alcohol into the oil phase.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

[72][73] .The V-2's design team helped develop U.S. rockets following World War II, including the ethanol-fueled Redstone rocket, which launched the first U.S. satellite.^ There are approximately 80,000 chemicals in common industrial use today (almost none of which existed before World War II).

^ Can alternative fuels, such as ethanol or biodiesel, end the world's oil dependency?

^ The Oregon ethanol facility will provide ethanol for the Pacific Northwest gasoline markets, helping to increase supply in that area and provide a CO2-reducing fuel for the transportation sector.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[74] .Alcohols fell into general disuse as more efficient rocket fuels were developed.^ Along the way, any number of hybrid breakthroughs just might result in even more efficient, fuel cell hybrid vehicles - available at cost-effective prices.

^ Hybrid technology can make any vehicle 20 - 30 percent more fuel efficient, today, whether that vehicle is fueled by gasoline, diesel, ethanol or even hydrogen.

^ Toyota, for example, has focused on incentives for building more fuel efficient automobiles , such as hybrid cars .

[73]

Alcoholic beverages

.Ethanol is the principal psychoactive constituent in alcoholic beverages, with depressant effects on the central nervous system.^ For beverages containing ethanol , see alcoholic beverage.

^ The major effects are gastritis, depression of the ; central nervous system with hypothermia and respiratory depression, ; and hypotension.
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Propanol depresses the central nervous system.
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.It has a complex mode of action and affects multiple systems in the brain; most notably ethanol acts as an agonist to the GABA receptors.^ The easy answer is "most of them", since ethanol affects most neurotransmitter systems.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Which brain neurotransmitter receptors are affected by alcohol?
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In reality, alcohol affects several receptors that exist for other brain chemicals to act upon.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

[75] .Similar psychoactives include those which also interact with GABA receptors, such as gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB).^ Recent research is focusing on glutamate, GABA, and NMDA brain receptors and how alcohol changes those receptors to produce its pharmacologic effects.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The fatty acids whose methyl esters are now used as biodiesel also ; are long-chain compounds similar to long-chain alkanes such as hexadecane which make good ; petrodiesel.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ What is GABA? GABA, or gamma-amino butyric acid, is one of the major message-carrying chemicals called neurotransmitters in the brain.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

[76] .Ethanol is metabolized by the body as an energy-providing carbohydrate nutrient, as it metabolizes into acetyl CoA, an intermediate common with glucose metabolism, that can be used for energy in the citric acid cycle or for biosynthesis.^ Citric acid is a common ; chelator used in the food industry [1].
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Owing to a lowered level of oxidative metabolism and low glucose levels in the cells, pyruvate would not be converted into acetyl CoA, necessary for production of acetylcholine in synapses (Figure 6).

^ If the mandate was fulfilled only by ethanol produced in Iowa, which has a refinery-gate EROI of 1.32:1 (Table 1), the net energy profit provided by the ethanol is actually 9 billion gallons.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Alcoholic beverages vary considerably in their ethanol content and in the foodstuffs from which they are produced.^ The alcoholic content varies from 7-16; percent.
  • Fibers & Fiber Plants 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.faculty.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For beverages containing ethanol , see alcoholic beverage.

^ Main article: Alcoholic beverage Alcoholic beverages vary considerably in their ethanol content and in the foodstuffs from which they are produced.

.Most alcoholic beverages can be broadly classified as fermented beverages, beverages made by the action of yeast on sugary foodstuffs, or as distilled beverages, beverages whose preparation involves concentrating the ethanol in fermented beverages by distillation.^ For beverages containing ethanol , see alcoholic beverage.

^ Alcohol (ethanol) is made from fermentation of various plant products.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ No samplings of distilled spirits, beers or malt alcoholic beverages may be provided by a ; Plenary Retail Distribution Licensee.
  • State of New Jersey 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.nj.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ethanol content of a beverage is usually measured in terms of the volume fraction of ethanol in the beverage, expressed either as a percentage or in alcoholic proof units.^ For beverages containing ethanol , see alcoholic beverage.

^ The ; alcoholic content of wine is indicated in percentage by volume.
  • State of New Jersey 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.nj.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term can also be ; used to describe the alcohol equivalence, or the ratio of volume to percentage of alcohol.
  • State of New Jersey 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.nj.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fermented beverages can be broadly classified by the foodstuff from which they are fermented.^ Fermented beverages can be broadly classified by the foodstuff from which they are fermented.

^ Most alcoholic beverages can be broadly classified as fermented beverages , beverages made by the action of yeast on sugary foodstuffs, or as distilled beverages , beverages whose preparation involves concentrating the ethanol in fermented beverages by distillation .

^ Main article: Alcoholic beverage Alcoholic beverages vary considerably in their ethanol content and in the foodstuffs from which they are produced.

.Beers are made from cereal grains or other starchy materials, wines and ciders from fruit juices, and meads from honey.^ Wine means any beverage containing more than 5; percent, but not more than 17 percent, of alcohol by weight obtained by the; fermentation of the natural sugar content of fruits or other agricultural; products by excluding any product containing alcohol derived from malt or by; the distillation process from grain cereal, molasses, or cactus.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The commission may not refuse to issue a winery license to a person for the production of wine or cider on specified premises based on the fact that other winery licensees also produce wine or cider on those premises.
  • http://landru.leg.state.or.us/ors/471.html 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC landru.leg.state.or.us [Source type: Original source]

^ RETAIL DEALER ; WHO IS CONSIDERED A "RETAIL DEALER" UNDER FEDERAL LAW? ; Every person who sells, or offers for sale, distilled spirits, wine or beer to any person other than a dealer is ; considered a retail dealer.
  • State of New Jersey 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.nj.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cultures around the world have made fermented beverages from numerous other foodstuffs, and local and national names for various fermented beverages abound.^ Cultures around the world have made fermented beverages from numerous other foodstuffs, and local and national names for various fermented beverages abound.
  • Ethanol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Ethanol - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Distilled beverages are made by distilling fermented beverages.
  • Ethanol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Ethanol - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Wine" means all beverages made from fresh fruits, berries, or grapes, either by natural fermentation or by natural fermentation with brandy added, in the ...
  • Florida Statutes - Alcoholic Beverages And Tobacco - Florida Attorney Resources - Florida Laws 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC law.onecle.com [Source type: Original source]

.Distilled beverages are made by distilling fermented beverages.^ Distilled beverages are made by distilling fermented beverages.
  • Ethanol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Ethanol - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Wine" means all beverages made from fresh fruits, berries, or grapes, either by natural fermentation or by natural fermentation with brandy added, in the ...
  • Florida Statutes - Alcoholic Beverages And Tobacco - Florida Attorney Resources - Florida Laws 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC law.onecle.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Applejack is traditionally made by freeze distillation, by which water is frozen out of fermented apple cider, leaving a more ethanol-rich liquid behind.
  • Ethanol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.Broad categories of distilled beverages include whiskeys, distilled from fermented cereal grains; brandies, distilled from fermented fruit juices, and rum, distilled from fermented molasses or sugarcane juice.^ "Spirituous; liquor" or "liquor" means distilled spirits or ethyl alcohol,; including spirits of wine, whiskey, rum, brandy, gin and all other distilled; spirits and mixtures of cordials, liqueur, and premixed cocktails, in closed; containers for beverage use regardless of their dilution.

^ Wine means any beverage containing more than 5; percent, but not more than 17 percent, of alcohol by weight obtained by the; fermentation of the natural sugar content of fruits or other agricultural; products by excluding any product containing alcohol derived from malt or by; the distillation process from grain cereal, molasses, or cactus.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Why are there no fermented beverages from some fruits or vegetables such as broccoli, asparagus, cantaloupe, cauliflower, etc.?
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Vodka and similar neutral grain spirits can be distilled from any fermented material (grain or potatoes are most common); these spirits are so thoroughly distilled that no tastes from the particular starting material remain.^ Trayed distillation columns are the most common.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ No samplings of distilled spirits, beers or malt alcoholic beverages may be provided by a ; Plenary Retail Distribution Licensee.
  • State of New Jersey 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.nj.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The concentration of methanol in 50% grain alcohol was; found to be approximately 1 mg/litre (Majchrowicz & Mendelson,; 1971).The presence of methanol in distilled spirits is directly linked; to the pectin content of the raw materials.
  • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Numerous other spirits and liqueurs are prepared by infusing flavors from fruits, herbs, and spices into distilled spirits.^ RETAIL DEALER ; WHO IS CONSIDERED A "RETAIL DEALER" UNDER FEDERAL LAW? ; Every person who sells, or offers for sale, distilled spirits, wine or beer to any person other than a dealer is ; considered a retail dealer.
  • State of New Jersey 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.nj.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While gin is a clear alcoholic spirit made from the fermentation of juniper berries, sloe gin is a cordial or liqueur flavored with sloe -- a small, sour, blackish fruit of the blackthorn shrub.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It is a 38-50% distilled spirit, with over a hundred different flavors, which is drunk chilled, straight, or in various mixed drinks.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.A traditional example is gin, which is created by infusing juniper berries into a neutral grain alcohol.^ While gin is a clear alcoholic spirit made from the fermentation of juniper berries, sloe gin is a cordial or liqueur flavored with sloe -- a small, sour, blackish fruit of the blackthorn shrub.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Distilling grain into alcohol has been around for all of human history, and while the techniques have been refined, the basic production process is well known.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a few beverages, ethanol is concentrated by means other than distillation.^ Distilled liquor” means any alcoholic beverage other than a wine, cider or malt beverage.
  • http://landru.leg.state.or.us/ors/471.html 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC landru.leg.state.or.us [Source type: Original source]

^ In a few beverages, ethanol is concentrated by means other than distillation.
  • Ethanol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Ethanol - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Alcoholic liquor ; means any spirits, wine, beer, ale or other liquid containing more than one ; half ( 2 ) ; of one percent (1%) of alcohol by volume, which is fit for beverage purposes ; and being capable of being consumed as a beverage by a human being.

.Applejack is traditionally made by freeze distillation, by which water is frozen out of fermented apple cider, leaving a more ethanol-rich liquid behind.^ Ethanol is also a commodity, but it has the interesting property that it can't be shipped through the same pipelines as other liquid fuels because it's water soluble.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the purposes of this chapter, “cider” means an alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of the juice of apples or pears that contains not more than seven percent of alcohol by volume, including, but not limited to, flavored, sparkling or carbonated cider.
  • http://landru.leg.state.or.us/ors/471.html 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC landru.leg.state.or.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Rogue Ales ; Rogue Ales are made with the finest hops and barley malt, free range coastal water and Pacman top fermenting proprietary...

.Ice beer (also known by the German term Eisbier or more specifically as Eisbock) is also freeze-distilled, with beer as the base beverage.^ Beer containing not more than 3.2% alcohol is classified as a nonintoxicating ; beverage and is sold for off-premises consumption only in packages at licensed retail stores.

^ No samplings of distilled spirits, beers or malt alcoholic beverages may be provided by a ; Plenary Retail Distribution Licensee.
  • State of New Jersey 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.nj.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While many people think of ale as a type of beer, it is traditionally a malt beverage, darker, heavier, and more bitter than beer.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Fortified wines are prepared by adding brandy or some other distilled spirit to partially-fermented wine.^ To purchase from or through the commission brandy or other distilled liquors for fortifying wines.
  • http://landru.leg.state.or.us/ors/471.html 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC landru.leg.state.or.us [Source type: Original source]

^ RETAIL DEALER ; WHO IS CONSIDERED A "RETAIL DEALER" UNDER FEDERAL LAW? ; Every person who sells, or offers for sale, distilled spirits, wine or beer to any person other than a dealer is ; considered a retail dealer.
  • State of New Jersey 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.nj.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WHOLESALE DEALER ; WHO IS CONSIDERED A "WHOLESALE DEALER" UNDER FEDERAL LAW? ; Every person who sells, or offers for sale, distilled spirits, wine or beer to another dealer is considered a ; wholesale dealer.
  • State of New Jersey 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.nj.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This kills the yeast and conserves some of the sugar in grape juice; such beverages are not only more ethanol-rich, but are often sweeter than other wines.^ In a few beverages, ethanol is concentrated by means other than distillation.
  • Ethanol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ However, some Scotches are more Scotch than others.
  • Nuts's Guide to Alcoholic Beverages 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.anandnatrajan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some diesel engines are more suitable than others.
  • Straight vegetable oil as diesel fuel: Journey to Forever 10 September 2009 15:52 UTC journeytoforever.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Alcoholic beverages are sometimes used in cooking, not only for their inherent flavors, but also because the alcohol dissolves hydrophobic flavor compounds which water cannot.^ Alcoholic beverages for use in air; commerce.

^ Alcoholic beverages for use on oceangoing; ships.

^ Retailers may also advertise a reduction in the cost of an ; alcoholic beverage product based on a manufacturer's rebate provided the retailer has the rebates to ; distribute and if the retailer conspicuously advertises that the reduction in cost is because of the ; manufacturer's rebate.
  • State of New Jersey 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.nj.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Just as industrial ethanol is used as feedstock for the production of industrial acetic acid, alcoholic beverages are made into culinary/household vinegar: wine and cider vinegar are both named for their respective source alcohols, while malt vinegar is derived from beer.^ For beverages containing ethanol , see alcoholic beverage.

^ Distilled liquor” means any alcoholic beverage other than a wine, cider or malt beverage.
  • http://landru.leg.state.or.us/ors/471.html 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC landru.leg.state.or.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Is alcohol found only in social beverages (beer, wine, spirits)?
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

Feedstock

.Ethanol is an important industrial ingredient and has widespread use as a base chemical for other organic compounds.^ And, what about the pollution from chemical fertilizers and other pesticides that will run off into our ever more important aquifers, lakes and rivers?

^ Surprise, surprise Detroit doesn't want to be forced to make more fuel efficient vehicles, but they want the oil industry to be forced to use ethanol.

^ There are approximately 80,000 chemicals in common industrial use today (almost none of which existed before World War II).

.These include ethyl halides, ethyl esters, diethyl ether, acetic acid, ethyl amines and to a lesser extent butadiene.^ His suggestions for acceptable acids include formic, acetic, propionic, hydrochloric, sulfuric, ; sulfamic, and phosphoric.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ CH ; 3 ; OH ; CH ; 3 ; -CH ; 2 ; -OH CH ; 3 ; -CH ; 2 ; -CH ; 2 ; -OH CH ; 3 ; -CH-CH ; 3 ; CH ; 2 ; —CH---CH ; 2 ; Methanol Ethanol 1-Propanol 2-Propanol Glycerol ; ( ; iso -Propanol) ; (Glycerine; ; 1,2,3-Propanetriol) ; O ; O O ; || ; || ; || ; CH ; 3 ; -C-OH ; CH ; 3 ; -C-OCH ; 3 ; CH ; 3 ; -C-O-CH ; 2 ; CH ; 3 ; Acetic acid ; Methyl acetate ; Ethyl acetate ; (Acetic acid methyl ester) (Acetic acid ethyl ester) ; Figure 9.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

Antiseptic use

.Ethanol is used in medical wipes and in most common antibacterial hand sanitizer gels at a concentration of about 62% (percentage by volume, not weight) as an antiseptic.^ The most common ; pressure measurement instruments used in chemical processes are electrical sensing devices, ; which are known as strain gauges.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The term can also be ; used to describe the alcohol equivalence, or the ratio of volume to percentage of alcohol.
  • State of New Jersey 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.nj.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Isn't it ironic that most buying this technology aren't using ethanol, yet GM still receives CAFE credits for using the technology?

.Ethanol kills organisms by denaturing their proteins and dissolving their lipids and is effective against most bacteria and fungi, and many viruses (including SARS [1]), but is ineffective against bacterial spores.^ Ethyl alcohol (ethanol, beverage alcohol) has many uses, in addition to its reputation as one of the most abused drugs.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Ethanol is expensive most places it's offered, and ethanol isn't offered in very many places.

[77]

Antidote use

.Ethanol can be used as an antidote for poisoning by other, more toxic alcohols, in particular methanol[78] and ethylene glycol.^ Since biodiesel is a ; mono-alkyl fatty acid ester, the primary alcohol used to form the ester is the other major ; feedstock.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The minimum lethal dose of methanol in the rat, rabbit, and dog is 9.5, 7.0 , and 8.0 g/kg, respectively (43); ethyl alcohol is more toxic than methanol to these test animals (43)."

^ There is substantial clinical and; experimental evidence that formic acid is the toxic metabolite; responsible for the metabolic and visual toxicity characteristic of; methanol poisoning.
  • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Ethanol competes with other alcohols for the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme, preventing metabolism into toxic aldehyde and carboxylic acid derivatives,[79] and it reduces the glycols' tendency to crystallize in the kidneys (which is one of its more serious toxic effects).^ What is alcohol's effect on the kidney?
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The main metabolizing (break-down) enzyme for alcohol is known as alcohol dehydrogenase.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The conversion of; methanol to its toxic by-products is slowed in the presence of ethanol; due to competition for the enzyme.; ; 4-Methyl pyrazole (4-MP) is a more specific inhibitor of alcohol; dehydrogenase, less toxic than pyrazole and has been shown to; dramatically inhibit production of formic acid from methanol in; experimental animals (Blomstrand et al., 1979; McMartin et al.,; 1980b).
  • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Other uses

.
  • Ethanol is easily miscible in water and is a good solvent.^ Methanol is miscible with water, alcohols,; esters, ketones and most other solvents and forms many azeotropic; mixtures.
    • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The compound is completely miscible with water, ethanol, acetone, ; chloroform, and benzene.
    • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The ; compound is completely miscible with water, ethanol, acetone, ; chloroform, and benzene.
    • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    Ethanol is less polar than water and is used in perfumes, paints and tinctures.
  • Ethanol is also used in design and sketch art markers, such as Copic, and Tria.
  • Ethanol is also found in certain kinds of deodorants.

Use in history

.Before the development of modern medicines, ethanol was used for a variety of medical purposes.^ Using figures up to 2006 (before the wild swings in financial and energy markets), ethanol production had no effect on gasoline use.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol) is used as rubbing alcohol for disinfecting skin and instruments (although ethanol is also used for this purpose, check the label on the bottle).
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

It has been known to be used as a truth drug (as hinted at by the maxim "in vino veritas"), as medicine for depression and as an anesthetic.

Pharmacology

.Ethanol binds to acetylcholine, GABA, serotonin, and NMDA receptors.^ Another recent study suggests that ethanol affects cannabis (i.e., for marijuana-like effects) binding sites, called CB1 receptors, in the brain.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent research is focusing on glutamate, GABA, and NMDA brain receptors and how alcohol changes those receptors to produce its pharmacologic effects.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As discussed above, aspartame may act on the NMDA receptors, leading to continuous activation of these receptor sites, resulting in no binding space for glutamate.

[80]

Drug effects

.Pure ethanol will irritate the skin and eyes.^ Especially fatty ; alcohols with a shorter C-chain length irritate the skin in higher concentrations, in animal tests eye irritations ; were observed as well.
  • Dr. Z Presents All about fatty alcohols 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.zenitech.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Skin and eye irritation; sensitization ; 7.5.
  • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Guido, J. und Martens, M. (1987): Skin and Eye Irritation Tests on Hexanol, ; J. Am.
  • Dr. Z Presents All about fatty alcohols 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.zenitech.com [Source type: Academic]

.Nausea, vomiting and intoxication are symptoms of ingestion.^ Abstract] "Many of the signs and symptoms of intoxication due to methanol ingestion are not specific to methyl alcohol.

^ Many of the signs and symptoms of intoxication due to methanol ingestion are not specific to methyl alcohol.

.Long term use can result in serious liver damage.^ The story concluded by reporting that fortunately no one had suffered any serious, long-term, or irremediable harm.

^ Alcohol causes shrinkage of brain tissue in people after long-term use of large amounts of alcohol, according to new brain-imaging studies.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This study did not monitor long-term use of aspartame.

[81] .Atmospheric concentrations above one in a thousand are above the European Union Occupational exposure limits.^ After one week of static exposure to ; 2-propanol in an open system at 30 °C, 100% growth inhibition ; occurred at concentrations of 80 000 - 100 000 mg/litre of medium.
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Geneva, International Labour Office, vol 2,; pp 1356-1358.; ; ILO (1991) Occupational exposure limits for airborne toxic substances,; 3rd ed.
  • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends an exposure limit of 0.016 ppm.

[81]

Short-term

BAC (mg/dL) BAC
(% v/v)
Symptoms[82]
50 0.05% Euphoria, talkativeness, relaxation
100 0.1 % Central nervous system depression, nausea, possible vomiting, impaired motor and sensory function, impaired cognition
>140 >0.14% Decreased blood flow to brain
300 0.3% Stupefaction, possible unconsciousness
400 0.4% Possible death
>550 >0.55% Death

Effects on the central nervous system

.Ethanol is a central nervous system depressant and has significant psychoactive effects in sublethal doses; for specifics, see effects of alcohol on the body by dose.^ Is there any effect of alcohol on the body's immune system?
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For beverages containing ethanol , see alcoholic beverage.

^ The major effects are gastritis, depression of the ; central nervous system with hypothermia and respiratory depression, ; and hypotension.
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Based on its abilities to change the human consciousness, ethanol is considered a psychoactive drug.[83] .Death from ethyl alcohol consumption is possible when blood alcohol level reaches 0.4%.^ What does "blood alcohol level" mean?
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ What happens at certain blood alcohol levels?
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ INTOXICATION WITH ETHANOL ; When the alcohol concentration reaches a certain level, the individual concerned is ; intoxicated.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A blood level of 0.5% or more is commonly fatal. .Levels of even less than 0.1% can cause intoxication, with unconsciousness often occurring at 0.3–0.4%.^ The levels of GADH are higher in men than women, so that when women drink, less alcohol is broken down in the stomach.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Species such as rodents with; high hepatic THF levels are less sensitive to the toxic effects of; methanol than species with low hepatic THF levels such as humans and; non-human primates.
  • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This can be reached in most people by the continuous drinking of 3-4 standard drinks (defined as a beer, a glass of wine, a mixed drink), with women requiring less alcohol to reach the level than men.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

[84]
.The amount of ethanol in the body is typically quantified by blood alcohol content (BAC), the milligrams of ethanol per 100 milliliters of blood.^ Kansas ; Beer with an alcohol content of over 3.2 per cent by weight is classified as an "alcoholic liquor" ; and must be sold at separate retail premises than beer under 3.2 per cent.

^ For example, in Kansas , beer over 3.2 per cent by weight was ; required to be labelled as "Kansas strong", whereas no such labelling requirement was imposed on beer ; of lower alcohol content.

^ A number of states restrict the ; location at which beer with over 3.2 per cent alcohol content may be sold, while not imposing the same ; restrictions on sales of beer at 3.2 per cent alcohol content or lower.

The table at right summarizes the symptoms of ethanol consumption. .Small doses of ethanol generally produce euphoria and relaxation; people experiencing these symptoms tend to become talkative and less inhibited, and may exhibit poor judgment.^ Each of these symptoms may be continuous or ; periodic.
  • The Business of Alcohol 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.voai.org [Source type: Academic]

^ [Translator's Note] 75 Alcohol also affects the mood, as it causes an initial euphoria and aggression, then anxiety, panic attacks and depression; it also affects the intellect by impeding the drinker’s sense of judgment, leading to poor memory and loss of inhibitions.
  • Alcoholic Beverages 6 February 2010 10:12 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ethanol producers have taken a beating in the stock market, but if this campaign and others like it are successful, they may spur demand for ethanol in precisely the region where we have over-capacity.
  • Alternative Energy Stocks: Ethanol Archives 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At higher dosages (BAC > 100 mg/dl), ethanol acts as a central nervous system depressant, producing at progressively higher dosages, impaired sensory and motor function, slowed cognition, stupefaction, unconsciousness, and possible death.^ This is a phenomenon produced by alcohol causing nervous system depression.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This is because alcohol is primarily a depressant of the central nervous system.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Last year ethanol producers received subsidies and tax incentives worth more than $5 billion dollars, and those subsidies will probably be much higher next year.

More specifically, ethanol acts in the central nervous system by binding to the GABA-A receptor, increasing the effects of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (i.e. it is a positive allosteric modulator)[85].
.Prolonged heavy consumption of alcohol can cause significant permanent damage to the brain and other organs.^ Does alcohol damage brain receptors?
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Why does alcohol cause hangovers in some people but not other people?
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A new animal study suggests that a brain chemical (called galanin) increases the tendency to overeat and is also linked to increased alcohol consumption.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.See Alcohol consumption and health.^ "Public-health problems associated with alcohol consumption have reached alarming proportions and alcohol has become one of the most important risks to health globally," the report said.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The health benefits of alcohol are always of concern to those who see only the dangerous side of the beverages.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In America, about half of the deaths in car accidents occur in alcohol-related crashes.^ Not all the deaths were related to alcohol overdose.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ About one-half to two-thirds of boating accidents are alcohol-related.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ While this might seem like a way to increase drinking because of convenience (or an invasion of personal privacy), the advantage might be in tracking alcohol use and abuse in alcohol-related car crashes, homicides, or overdose deaths.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

[86] .The risk of a fatal car accident increases exponentially with the level of alcohol in the driver's blood.^ What happens at certain blood alcohol levels?
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ What does "blood alcohol level" mean?
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Acetone levels in alveolar air, blood, and urine increase ; with the extent and the duration of exposure to 2-propanol.
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[87] .Most drunk driving laws governing the acceptable levels in the blood while driving or operating heavy machinery set typical upper limits of blood alcohol content (BAC) between 0.05% and 0.08%.^ Driving with excessive blood alcohol content.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While state laws set the blood alcohol content (BAC) limit at 0.08%, there is evidence that lower BACs can also affect driving skills.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The most accurate measure of blood alcohol content is through blood samples.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Discontinuing consumption of alcohol after several years of heavy drinking can also be fatal.^ People who really don't need to drink will cut back on alcohol consumption (or give it up altogether), whereas people with the disease will use alcohol any way they can get it.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Both of these types of tolerance are at work when a person drinks large amounts of alcohol - leading to the eventual consumption of quantities that would kill a social drinker.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Alcohol, 6 :; 451-454.; ; Jones AW (1986) Abnormally high concentrations of methanol in breath:; A useful biochemical marker of recent heavy drinking.
  • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Alcohol withdrawal can cause anxiety, autonomic dysfunction, seizures and hallucinations.^ This mistaken impression is held by many who don't understand the way benzodiazepines block potentially lethal withdrawal seizures during alcohol dependence treatment.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ How much alcohol can cause withdrawal signs and symptoms?
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In drinkers who consume alcohol on a constant, heavy basis, and then stop drinking for a few days, withdrawal can consist of anxiety, sleeplessness, muscle pains, and craving for alcohol.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Delirium tremens is a condition that requires people with a long history of heavy drinking to undertake an alcohol detoxification regimen.^ People who really don't need to drink will cut back on alcohol consumption (or give it up altogether), whereas people with the disease will use alcohol any way they can get it.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, people will think they can drink more without gaining weight and with a reduced chance of alcohol abuse and "addiction".
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If the examination required under this section shows that the person has a problem condition involving alcohol, a program for rehabilitation for alcoholism approved by the director.
  • http://landru.leg.state.or.us/ors/471.html 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC landru.leg.state.or.us [Source type: Original source]

Effects on metabolism

.Ethanol within the human body is converted into acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and then into acetic acid by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase.^ In addition, Mehl-Madrona (2005) observed that when the temperature of aspartame exceeds 86 degrees F, the wood alcohol in aspartame is converted into formaldehyde and then to formic acid, which in turn causes metabolic acidosis.

^ Any remaining free fatty acids will be converted into soaps in the ; transesterification stage.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ However, they can be converted into ; aldehydes or carboxylic acids using strong oxidants or by catalytic oxidation with air or oxygen [16] -[20].
  • Dr. Z Presents All about fatty alcohols 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.zenitech.com [Source type: Academic]

.The product of the first step of this breakdown, acetaldehyde,[88] is more toxic than ethanol.^ In addition, its first breakdown product (acetaldehyde) is even more toxic.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Virginia’s line of distilled spirit products, however, is 42% larger than operations in North Carolina and more than double the distilled spirits product line found in Pennsylvania.

^ The minimum lethal dose of methanol in the rat, rabbit, and dog is 9.5, 7.0 , and 8.0 g/kg, respectively (43); ethyl alcohol is more toxic than methanol to these test animals (43)."

.Acetaldehyde is linked to most of the clinical effects of alcohol.^ In man, the most likely acute effects of exposure to high ; levels of 2-propanol through ingestion or inhalation are alcoholic ; intoxication and narcosis.
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The fascinating similarities linking unusual clinical features of methanol toxicity and alcoholism are worth noting.

^ In man, the most likely acute effects of exposure to high ; levels of 2-propanol by ingestion or inhalation are alcoholic ; intoxication and narcosis.
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.It has been shown to increase the risk of developing cirrhosis of the liver,[76] multiple forms of cancer, and alcoholism.^ Can alcohol increase stomach cancer?
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Does alcohol increase the risk of some types of cancer?
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, phenylalanine (formed by breakdown of aspartame) will increase in the brain owing to the ingestion of aspartame, and tyrosine will increase as a breakdown byproduct of phenylalanine in the liver (Fernstorm, 1988; Filer and Stegink, 1988).

Drug interactions

Ethanol can intensify the sedation caused by other central nervous system depressant drugs such as barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opioids, and phenothiazines[84]

Magnitude of effects

.
Most significant of the possible long-term effects of ethanol.
^ With the reduced demand for liquid fuel, it is possible that we could fuel most cars with the ethanol WE ALREADY PRODUCE...
  • John Stossel : The Many Myths of Ethanol - Townhall.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How the writer could have determined within one day that no one would suffer any long-term or irreversible adverse effects was not explained.

^ Most importantly, delocalization effects are corrected so that ; artifact-free imaging of the perimeter of a sample is possible.
  • Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Berlin 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.fhi-berlin.mpg.de [Source type: Academic]

Additionally, in pregnant women, it causes fetal alcohol syndrome.
.Some individuals have less-effective forms of one or both of the metabolizing enzymes, and can experience more-severe symptoms from ethanol consumption than others.^ It is a more severe form than the so-called Type I, which occurs in both men and women.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ (B) Malt beverages containing six percent or less alcohol by volume and that contain at least 51 percent alcohol by volume obtained by the fermentation of grain, as long as not more than 49 percent of the beverage’s overall alcohol content is obtained from flavors and other added nonbeverage ingredients containing alcohol; and .
  • http://landru.leg.state.or.us/ors/471.html 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC landru.leg.state.or.us [Source type: Original source]

^ As little as 15 ml of 40% methanol resulted in; the death of one individual while others survived following the; consumption of 500 ml of the same solution in the Atlanta, Georgia,; epidemic of 1951.
  • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Conversely, those who have acquired alcohol tolerance have a greater quantity of these enzymes, and metabolize ethanol more rapidly.^ Of course those who profit from making ethanol will defend it.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The differences in enzyme concentrations of the species suggest that animals studied are more sensitive to the more common ethanol found in alcoholic beverages.

^ Both of these types of tolerance are at work when a person drinks large amounts of alcohol - leading to the eventual consumption of quantities that would kill a social drinker.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

[89]

Long-term

Birth defects

Ethanol is classified as a teratogen. .See fetal alcohol syndrome.^ These are some or lesser problems (compared to fetal alcohol syndrome, FAS) seen in a child, caused by a mother's drinking during pregnancy.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a major cause of birth defects around the world.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Is the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) a100% preventable birth defect?
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

Other effects

.Frequent drinking of alcoholic beverages has been shown to be a major contributing factor in cases of elevated blood levels of triglycerides.^ What happens at certain blood alcohol levels?
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ What does "blood alcohol level" mean?
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The United States provided a statement from the Oklahoma ; Alcoholic Beverage Law Enforcement Commission, the state agency with jurisdiction over the alcoholic ; beverage industry, which indicated that this was the case.

[90]
Ethanol is not a carcinogen.[91][92] .However, the first metabolic product of ethanol, acetaldehyde, is toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic.^ In addition, its first breakdown product (acetaldehyde) is even more toxic.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ However, it remains the case that there are inputs into the ethanol production process which are clearly not renewable.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, soon after ingestion by a creature, its 11% methanol component is released and quickly metabolized into the potent, cumulative, mutagenic toxicants, formaldehyde and formic acid.

Production

94% denatured ethanol sold in a bottle for household use
.Ethanol is produced both as a petrochemical, through the hydration of ethylene, and biologically, by fermenting sugars with yeast.^ However, humans have learned how to make alcoholic beverages through fermentation, which produces lower concentrations of alcohol, plus a generally pleasant taste.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Additionally, Brazil uses sugar to produce its ethanol fuel, the U.S. uses corn, which is far less efficient than sugar.

^ The ethanol produced from the fermentation of corn kernals represents less than 20% of the weight of the plant.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[93] .Which process is more economical is dependent upon the prevailing prices of petroleum and of grain feed stocks.^ For many, this isn't a problem because of the belief than ethanol is more green than petroleum, or that ethanol helps reduce foreign oil dependency.

Ethylene hydration

Ethanol for use as an industrial feedstock or solvent (sometimes referred to as synthetic ethanol) is often made from petrochemical feed stocks, primarily by the acid-catalyzed hydration of ethylene, represented by the chemical equation
C2H4(g) + H2O(g) → CH3CH2OH(l).
.The catalyst is most commonly phosphoric acid,[94] adsorbed onto a porous support such as silica gel or diatomaceous earth.^ Acid catalysts include sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The most commonly used catalyst is sodium hydroxide, with potassium hydroxide also used.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The most ; common catalysts used are strong mineral bases such as sodium hydroxide and potassium ; hydroxide.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

.This catalyst was first used for large-scale ethanol production by the Shell Oil Company in 1947.[95] The reaction is carried out with an excess of high pressure steam at 300 °C. In the U.S., this process was used on an industrial scale by Union Carbide Corporation and others; but now only LyondellBasell uses it commercially.^ Background in the commercialization process of food products within the food industry.

^ Feasibility of large-scale biofuel production.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The production process and the other materials used in this process.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

In an older process, first practiced on the industrial scale in 1930 by Union Carbide,[96] but now almost entirely obsolete, ethylene was hydrated indirectly by reacting it with concentrated sulfuric acid to produce ethyl sulfate which was hydrolysed to yield ethanol and regenerate the sulfuric acid:[20]
C2H4 + H2SO4CH3CH2SO4H
CH3CH2SO4H + H2O → CH3CH2OH + H2SO4

Fermentation

.Ethanol for use in alcoholic beverages, and the vast majority of ethanol for use as fuel, is produced by fermentation.^ Persons; producing fuel alcohol .
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ For alcoholic beverages, ethyl alcohol and water account for the vast majority of the ; beverage.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethanol is the type of alcohol in alcoholic beverages.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When certain species of yeast (e.g., Saccharomyces cerevisiae) metabolize sugar they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.^ This means the possibility of metabolism in the GI tract to methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, and, finally, carbon dioxide and water, was bypassed.

^ In step 2, formaldehyde is oxidized by; formaldehyde dehydrogenase to formic acid/or formate depending on the; pH. In step 3, formic acid is detoxified to carbon dioxide by folate-; dependent reactions.; ; Elimination of methanol from the blood via the urine and exhaled; air and by metabolism appears to be slow in all species, especially; when compared to ethanol.
  • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the liver metabolizes acetaldehyde very quickly through enzymatic action, to acetate, water and carbon dioxide.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

The chemical equation below summarizes the conversion:
.C6H12O6 → 2 CH3CH2OH + 2 CO2.^ CH ; 2 ; -O-C-R ; CH ; 2 ; -OH ; Triacylglycerol ; Alcohol ; Alkyl ester ; Glycerol ; (Vegetable oil) ; (Biodiesel) ; Figure 12.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Gupta ML, McGrath MP, Cicerone RJ, Rowland FS, Wolfsberg M. 12 C/ 13 C ; kinetic isotope effects in the reactions of CH ; 4 ; with OH and Cl.
  • chapter for Isotope Effects in Chemistry and Biology , edited by Hans Limbach and Amnon Kohen, to be published by Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC static.msi.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ CH ; 2 ; - O - C - (CH ; 2 ; ) ; 7 ; CH=CH(CH ; 2 ; ) ; 7 ; CH ; 3 ; Triolein ; Methanol ; (885.46 g) ; (3 x 32.04 = 96.12 g) ; O ; CH ; 2 ; - OH ; || ; .
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

.The process of culturing yeast under conditions to produce alcohol is called fermentation.^ Larger volumes of material are processed in plants that produce so-called "inedible" products, ; although the products are suitable for use in animal feeds.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the examination required under this section shows that the person has a problem condition involving alcohol, a program for rehabilitation for alcoholism approved by the director.
  • http://landru.leg.state.or.us/ors/471.html 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC landru.leg.state.or.us [Source type: Original source]

^ A malt beverage produced under this; subdivision may not contain more than six percent (6%) alcohol by volume.

.This process is carried out at around 35-40 °C. Ethanol's toxicity to yeast limits the ethanol concentration obtainable by brewing.^ To get the same output work out of an identical volume of ethanol would require roughly 40% better thermal efficiency: 60% or so.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To overcome this limitation a combination of molecular dynamics and ; Brownian dynamics simulations were carried out to calculate the EPR line shape and ; gain molecular insight into the molecular dynamics involved.
  • Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Berlin 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.fhi-berlin.mpg.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The amount of ethanol in the urine is proportional, within certain limits, to the ; ethanol concentration in the blood.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most ethanol-tolerant strains of yeast can survive up to approximately 15% ethanol by volume.^ While most processes ; can tolerate up to 1% water, even this low level will increase soap production and measurably ; affect the completeness of the transesterification reaction.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

[97]
.In order to produce ethanol from starchy materials such as cereal grains, the starch must first be converted into sugars.^ This means that a person must drink more and more alcohol to produce the same effects as the first time they drank.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For a convicted person to be employed by a licensee, such person must first apply to the Division of A.B.C. ; for a Rehabilitation Employment Permit by filing an application together with the appropriate fee.
  • State of New Jersey 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.nj.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the United States, ethanol is typically produced from corn and other grain products.

.In brewing beer, this has traditionally been accomplished by allowing the grain to germinate, or malt, which produces the enzyme amylase.^ Malt Beverage suppliers include Beck's, High Falls Brewing Co., Boston Beer...

^ "Brew" also relates to the making of beer or other concoctions by steeping, boiling, and fermenting ingredients such as malts and hops.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Sprecher Brewing Co Inc ; Sprecher Brewing Company, established 1985 in Milwaukee-Wisconsin, produces over eleven fine European styles of beer and seven different ...

.When the malted grain is mashed, the amylase converts the remaining starches into sugars.^ Any remaining free fatty acids will be converted into soaps in the ; transesterification stage.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

.For fuel ethanol, the hydrolysis of starch into glucose can be accomplished more rapidly by treatment with dilute sulfuric acid, fungally produced amylase, or some combination of the two.^ Surprise, surprise Detroit doesn't want to be forced to make more fuel efficient vehicles, but they want the oil industry to be forced to use ethanol.

^ Therefore, biodiesel producers needs to be aware of the ; sulfur content of their fuel, and must incorporate sulfur reduction technology if needed before ; that date.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction ; between the oil and water that produces free fatty acids and glycerin.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

[98]

Cellulosic ethanol

Sugars for ethanol fermentation can be obtained from cellulose.[99][100] Until recently, however, the cost of the cellulase enzymes capable of hydrolyzing cellulose has been prohibitive. The Canadian firm Iogen brought the first cellulose-based ethanol plant on-stream in 2004.[101] Its primary consumer so far has been the Canadian government, which, along with the United States Department of Energy, has invested heavily in the commercialization of cellulosic ethanol. .Deployment of this technology could turn a number of cellulose-containing agricultural by-products, such as corncobs, straw, and sawdust, into renewable energy resources.^ However, it remains the case that there are inputs into the ethanol production process which are clearly not renewable.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such technology would probably cost about $1000.00 per vehicle and could be mass produced by 2011.

^ The remainder of ABC’s positions is contained in the Richmond Central Office performing functions such as Information Technology, Financial Management, Property Management, Public Relations, Human Resources, Policy, Analysis & Support Services and Internal Audit.

.Other enzyme companies are developing genetically engineered fungi that produce large volumes of cellulase, xylanase, and hemicellulase enzymes.^ Some people have a vulnerability for the disease (some of which is genetic), while others will never develop the disease.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It was originally developed (38,151) ; for reactions catalyzed by enzymes, and implementation details (151,152,161) were also ; worked out in that context, but it is also applicable to other condensed-phase reactions.
  • chapter for Isotope Effects in Chemistry and Biology , edited by Hans Limbach and Amnon Kohen, to be published by Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC static.msi.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Itching eczematous lesions developed in a laboratory worker, in ; a company manufacturing hair cosmetics, in patch tests with ; chemically pure 2-propanol solutions (2.5 - 99.7% by volume).
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.These would convert agricultural residues such as corn stover, wheat straw, and sugar cane bagasse and energy crops such as switchgrass into fermentable sugars.^ Corn is not an energy crop!
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This would then apply to the crops sugar cane, sugar beet and sweet sorghum.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethanol is a fuel that comes from agricultural crops such as corn, barley, ...

[102]
.Cellulose-bearing materials typically also contain other polysaccharides, including hemicellulose.^ Tens of thousands of posters, brochures and other printed materials are available to key communities including K-12 schools, colleges, business and community groups free of charge.

^ These materials contain triglycerides, free fatty acids, and other contaminants ; depending on the degree of pretreatment they have received prior to delivery.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A proposed rule may incorporate other materials by; reference only if it complies with all of the requirements applicable to the; incorporation by reference of other materials in an adopted rule that are; contained in subrule 2.12 (2) of this chapter.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

.When undergoing hydrolysis, hemicellulose decomposes into mostly five-carbon sugars such as xylose.^ In a fire, it may ; decompose to form toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide.
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.S. cerevisiae, the yeast most commonly used for ethanol production, cannot metabolize xylose.^ S. cerevisiae , the yeast most commonly used for ethanol production, cannot metabolize xylose.
  • Ethanol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Ethanol - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ethanol is used in medical wipes and in most common antibacterial hand sanitizer gels at a concentration of about 62% ( percentage by weight, not volume) as an antiseptic .

^ Like making bread, wine, or beer, ethanol production depends on fermentation , the process by which certain species of yeast or bacteria metabolize simple sugars and convert them into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
  • Ethanol Opportunities and Questions 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

Other yeasts and bacteria are under investigation to ferment xylose and other pentoses into ethanol.[103]
On January 14, 2008, General Motors announced a partnership with Coskata, Inc. .The goal is to produce cellulosic ethanol cheaply, with an eventual goal of US$1 per U.S. gallon ($0.30/L) for the fuel.^ Why cellulosic ethanol will not save us.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From seed to fuel, this requires 1,500 gallons of water per gallon of ethanol.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yahoo.com Save $.20 $.50 per Gallon Help Stop Global Warming Patented Fuel Catalyst That Works!

.The partnership plans to begin producing the fuel in large quantity by the end of 2008. In June 2009, this goal is still ahead of the firm.^ Boof on January 13, 2009 - 3:49pm We may have to produce some liquid or gaseous fuel with low or perhaps even slightly negative net energy.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 13, 2009 - 2:44pm It's simply criminal to produce fuel from food in a world in which hunger exists.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 2010 December 2009 November 2009 October 2009 September 2009 August 2009 July 2009 June 2009 May 2009 April 2009 March 2009 February 2009 January 2009 December 2008 November 2008 .
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 2011 a full-scale plant will come on line, capable of producing 50 to 100 million gallons of ethanol a year (200–400 ML/a).^ Sizes: 50 ML 200 ML .

^ A 15 million gallon a year dry mill ethanol plant.

^ Sizes: 50 ML 200 ML 375 ML .

[104]

Prospective technologies

Ethanol plant in Turner County, South Dakota
.The anaerobic bacterium Clostridium ljungdahlii, discovered in commercial chicken wastes, can produce ethanol from single-carbon sources including synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen that can be generated from the partial combustion of either fossil fuels or biomass.^ Cellulosic ethanol production substitutes biomass for fossil fuels, ...

^ The artificial sweetener aspartame is widely used and,; on hydrolysis, 10% (by weight) of the molecule is converted to free; methanol, which is available for absorption.; ; About 20 million tonnes of methanol were produced worldwide in; 1991, principally by catalytic conversion of pressurized synthesis gas; (hydrogen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide).
  • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Methanol was also produced as; one of the products of the non-catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons (a; procedure discontinued in the USA in 1973), and as a by-product of; Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, which is no longer industrially important; (Grayson, 1981).; ; Modern industrial scale methanol production is based exclusively; on the catalytic conversion of pressurized synthesis gas (hydrogen,; carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide) in the presence of metallic; heterogenous catalysts.
  • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Use of these bacteria to produce ethanol from synthesis gas has progressed to the pilot plant stage at the BRI Energy facility in Fayetteville, Arkansas.^ A subset ; of these configurations will also be used in stage 2.
  • chapter for Isotope Effects in Chemistry and Biology , edited by Hans Limbach and Amnon Kohen, to be published by Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC static.msi.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Larger volumes of material are processed in plants that produce so-called "inedible" products, ; although the products are suitable for use in animal feeds.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This is steam reformed to produce synthesis gas, which is; converted to methanol by low-pressure processes.
  • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[105]. The BRI technology has been purchased by INEOS.
.Another prospective technology is the closed-loop ethanol plant.^ Another prospective technology is the closed-loop ethanol plant.
  • Ethanol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Ethanol - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the closed-loop ethanol plant attempts to address this criticism.
  • Ethanol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Ethanol - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This plant is another step forward for a rapidly growing ethanol industry in Kansas, according to the Kansas Corn Growers Association (KCGA) and Kansas Grain Sorghum Producers Association (KGSPA).
  • Ethanol News--Kansas Ethanol Info 20 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.ksgrains.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[106] .Ethanol produced from corn has a number of critics who suggest that it is primarily just recycled fossil fuels because of the energy required to grow the grain and convert it into ethanol.^ This is because in cellulose ethanol, the entire plant can be utilized instead of just the grain as in corn ethanol.
  • Biofuel Guide - Ethanol and Biodiesel as alternative energy 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC biofuelguide.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the fossil fuel forms of energy that are limited.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The minuscule amount of net energy derived from growing corn for fuel."
  • Why is there ethanol in gasoline? — Autoblog Green 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC green.autoblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is also the issue of competition with use of corn for food production.^ I understand there are some definitional issues, but corn is used to make an energy product, so......
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She eventually suspected that there was a possible link between her symptoms and artificial sweeteners, which she had begun using in diet sodas and other foods 18 months earlier.

^ Nonbeverage food products described in subsection (6) of this section may be imported, stored and distributed in this state without a license issued by the commission.
  • http://landru.leg.state.or.us/ors/471.html 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC landru.leg.state.or.us [Source type: Original source]

.However, the closed-loop ethanol plant attempts to address this criticism.^ Another prospective technology is the closed-loop ethanol plant.

^ However, the closed-loop ethanol plant attempts to address this criticism.

^ However, there are ; only two commercial whey-ethanol plants with an ; annual production of 8 million gallons.
  • Whey to Ethanol: A Biofuel Role for Dairy Cooperatives? 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.rurdev.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In a closed-loop plant, renewable energy for distillation comes from fermented manure, produced from cattle that have been fed the DDSG by-products from grain ethanol production.^ Alcohol (ethanol) is made from fermentation of various plant products.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Ethanol is a clean-burning, renewable, domestically produced product made from fermented ...

^ Products from ruminants(cattle) are not ; fed to other cattle.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

.The concentrated compost nutrients from manure are then used to fertilize the soil and grow the next crop of grain to start the cycle again.^ In the life cycle of making corn ethanol, 99% of the water used grows the corn, and only 1% is used in the industrial process.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Food and fertilizer policy, farmer education, research and technology development, and other actions will be required to counter soil nutrient depletion.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conclusion]..While the model does not include the soil nutrients from animal manure or the N fixed by legumes, it provides a preliminary global perspective on the relationship of fertilizer demand and soil fertility maintenance.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such a process is expected to lower the fossil fuel consumption used during conversion to ethanol by 75%.^ For biodiesel, this test is an important indicator of the quantity of residual metals in the fuel that ; came from the catalyst used in the esterification process.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For decades GM has used fuel cell vehicles as an excuse not to compete with Japanese efficiency, now they are using ethanol.

^ Ford's interest in using ethanol as an alternative fuel goes back to the days ...

[107]
.Though in an early stage of research, there is some development of alternative production methods that use feed stocks such as municipal waste or recycled products, rice hulls, sugarcane bagasse, small diameter trees, wood chips, and switchgrass.^ Biodiesel Production Process Options ; Batch Processing ; The simplest method for producing alcohol esters is to use a batch, stirred tank reactor.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Alcohol is also used as a solvent in pharmaceuticals, which is why some products contain relatively high concentrations of alcohol (e.g., Nyquil, Geritol liquid, cough medicines, etc.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Noradrenergic neurons appear at an early stage in the development of the central nervous system.

[108]

Testing

Near infrared spectrum of liquid ethanol.
.Breweries and biofuel plants employ two methods for measuring ethanol concentration.^ Construction on two plants to produce ethanol in Oregon is scheduled to ...

^ Two methods are used to process corn into ethanol – wet milling and dry.

.Infrared ethanol sensors measure the vibrational frequency of dissolved ethanol using the CH band at 2900 cm−1.^ The increase in gasoline use parallels the increase in miles driven, with no measurable benefit from ethanol.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We first used this approach to measure the infrared radiative lifetime of ; vibrationally excited OH radicals, and we have more recently used this to measure the ; radiative lifetimes of CO molecules in the electronically excited, metastable a 3 Π ; state.
  • Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Berlin 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.fhi-berlin.mpg.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Recently, level measurement devices have ; been developed that use signal reflectance from an ; ultrasonic transducer or radio frequency, which measures the change in impedance between two ; capacitor electrodes.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

.This method uses a relatively inexpensive solid state sensor that compares the CH band with a reference band to calculate the ethanol content.^ This method uses a relatively inexpensive solid state sensor that compares the CH band with a reference band to calculate the ethanol content.
  • Ethanol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Ethanol - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unlike modern cars, small engines lack an oxygen sensor feedback control and cannot compensate for higher oxygen content in ethanol-containing fuels.
  • Mulch Blog: Search Results 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.mulchblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Calcium hypochlorite is cheap, relatively stable, and easily stored and used solid hypochlorite oxidant, was found to oxidize secondary alcohols to ketones in excellent yields.

.The calculation makes use of the Beer-Lambert law.^ The Beer-Lambert law ; states that the amount of energy absorbed by a particular substance is directly ; proportional to the number of absorbing molecules in the sample.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The; local authority by itself, in the case of retail beer permits, shall make the; refund on a quarterly use basis starting from the effective date of the; permit.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The Beer-Lambert law ; states that the amount of energy absorbed by a particular substance is proportional to the ; number of absorbing molecules in the sample.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Alternatively, by measuring the density of the starting material and the density of the product, using a hydrometer, the change in specific gravity during fermentation indicates the alcohol content.^ The production process and the other materials used in this process.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ That not all ; fifty states maintained discriminatory distribution systems indicated that such alternative measures ; existed.

^ Larger volumes of material are processed in plants that produce so-called "inedible" products, ; although the products are suitable for use in animal feeds.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

.This inexpensive and indirect method has a long history in the beer brewing industry.^ Sierra Nevada Brewing Company has a proud history as one of the pioneers of the; craft brewing industry ...

Purification

.Ethylene hydration or brewing produces an ethanol–water mixture.^ It's polluting our water systems, and it probably takes as much energy to produce ethanol as it provides, if not more.

^ It is also possible to use fluids such as glycerol and ethylene glycol to ; wash the water from the mixture.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

.For most industrial and fuel uses, the ethanol must be purified.^ For most industrial and fuel uses, the ethanol must be purified.
  • Ethanol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Ethanol - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ethanol is used in medical wipes and in most common antibacterial hand sanitizer gels at a concentration of about 62% ( percentage by weight, not volume) as an antiseptic .

^ The study provided USCP with the most current data concerning the use of sorghum to produce ethanol, any obstacles facing the increased use of sorghum in ethanol and possible solutions to removing those obstacles.
  • Sorghum playing bigger role in ethanol production 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC southeastfarmpress.com [Source type: News]

Fractional distillation can concentrate ethanol to 95.6% by volume (89.5 mole%). .This mixture is an azeotrope with a boiling point of 78.1 °C, and cannot be further purified by distillation.^ Distillation ; Another means of separating chemicals in a fluid mixture is by exploiting the differences in ; boiling points between the chemicals.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ An important separation device for miscible fluids with similar boiling points (e.g., methanol and ; water) is the distillation column.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Separation in a distillation column is predicated on the ; difference in volatilities (boiling points) between chemicals in a liquid mixture.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

.Common methods for obtaining absolute ethanol include desiccation using adsorbents such as starch, corn grits, or zeolites, which adsorb water preferentially, as well as azeotropic distillation and extractive distillation.^ Ethanol uses the starch in corn to create sugar, then ethanol .

^ In the life cycle of making corn ethanol, 99% of the water used grows the corn, and only 1% is used in the industrial process.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At its most basic, ethanol is grain alcohol, produced from crops such as corn.

.Most ethanol fuel refineries use an adsorbent or zeolite to desiccate the ethanol stream.^ Surprise, surprise Detroit doesn't want to be forced to make more fuel efficient vehicles, but they want the oil industry to be forced to use ethanol.

^ For decades GM has used fuel cell vehicles as an excuse not to compete with Japanese efficiency, now they are using ethanol.

^ If ethanol were useful as a fuel source, it should be viable without a government subsidy.
  • The Oil Drum: Net Energy | The Effect of Natural Gradients on the Net Energy Profits from Corn Ethanol 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC netenergy.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In another method to obtain absolute alcohol, a small quantity of benzene is added to rectified spirit and the mixture is then distilled.^ Another direct method for the ; determination of C 1 - C 3 alcohols and water in gasoline is size-; exclusion liquid chromatography and detection by a differential ; refractometry [292].
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ No samplings of distilled spirits, beers or malt alcoholic beverages may be provided by a ; Plenary Retail Distribution Licensee.
  • State of New Jersey 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.nj.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WHOLESALE DEALER ; WHO IS CONSIDERED A "WHOLESALE DEALER" UNDER FEDERAL LAW? ; Every person who sells, or offers for sale, distilled spirits, wine or beer to another dealer is considered a ; wholesale dealer.
  • State of New Jersey 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.nj.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Absolute alcohol is obtained in the third fraction, which distills over at 78.3 °C (351.4 K).[11] .Because a small amount of the benzene used remains in the solution, absolute alcohol produced by this method is not suitable for consumption, as benzene is carcinogenic.^ Larger volumes of material are processed in plants that produce so-called "inedible" products, ; although the products are suitable for use in animal feeds.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Small amounts of alcohol itself are lost from the body through sweat, urine, and expired air.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This "toxicity" is experienced as a small withdrawal syndrome in which certain body systems have been depressed by high amounts of alcohol.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

[109]
.There is also an absolute alcohol production process by desiccation using glycerol.^ The production process and the other materials used in this process.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Hydrogen Amplification Technology Development using a by-product gas (hot COG(Coke Oven Gas)) in the steel making process .
  • http://www.shokubai.org/intern/TOCAT5/scientific_program.html 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.shokubai.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Supercritical esterification process ; The refining of glycerol is discussed in a separate chapter, although it is a topic of great ; importance to the choice of biodiesel production process.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

.Alcohol produced by this method is known as spectroscopic alcohol—so called because the absence of benzene makes it suitable as a solvent in spectroscopy.^ What does calling alcohol a "solvent" mean?
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ However, humans have learned how to make alcoholic beverages through fermentation, which produces lower concentrations of alcohol, plus a generally pleasant taste.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The so-called Type II alcoholism is also known as early onset alcoholism.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

Grades of ethanol

Denatured alcohol

.Pure ethanol and alcoholic beverages are heavily taxed, but ethanol has many uses that do not involve consumption by humans.^ For beverages containing ethanol , see alcoholic beverage.

^ Alcoholic beverages were heavily taxed.

^ Many alcohols have been used to make biodiesel.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

.To relieve the tax burden on these uses, most jurisdictions waive the tax when an agent has been added to the ethanol to render it unfit to drink.^ Sure it would be expensive, but not too expensive if we simply made better use of current tax subsidies - Not by adding new ones.

^ Plug-in technology could be added to these hybrid vehicles and most urban drivers might rarely, if ever, need any fuel other than a little electricity.

^ One of the most widely used screening tests for problem drinking is the CAGE: - Have you ever felt the need to Cut down on your drinking?
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These include bittering agents such as denatonium benzoate and toxins such as methanol, naphtha, and pyridine.^ These include antianxiety agents (benzodiazepines such as Xanax, Valium), antihistamines (Benadryl, Claritin), and powerful pain-killers (opioids, such as Vicodin and Percocet).
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

Products of this kind are called denatured alcohol.[110][111]

Absolute ethanol

.Absolute or anhydrous alcohol refers to ethanol with a low water content.^ This has been considered as a feedstock for biodiesel as its cost is low, but its high ; water content and converting the soaps to methyl esters are significant obstacles to cost-effective ; utilization.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When they present their original data relating to the methanol content of French wines (range 14-265 ppm) or when the methanol content of any alcoholic beverage is given, the ration of methanol to ethanol is also presented.

^ The ; initial free fatty acid content and the water content are generally low.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

.There are various grades with maximum water contents ranging from 1% to ppm levels.^ Heating the oil under pressure and then spraying into a vacuum chamber can bring the ; water content to a very low level.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When they present their original data relating to the methanol content of French wines (range 14-265 ppm) or when the methanol content of any alcoholic beverage is given, the ration of methanol to ethanol is also presented.

^ Because alcohol is freely miscible with water, any bodily fluid with significant water ; content will also possess meaningful levels of alcohol during intoxication.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Absolute alcohol is not intended for human consumption.^ Alcohol ; synthetically produced is not sold for human consumption and is therefore ; not taxed by the federal government.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Certain practices, however, which do unduly promote the consumption of alcoholic beverages, are ; absolutely prohibited.
  • State of New Jersey 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.nj.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It may contain trace amounts of toxic benzene if azeotropic distillation is used to remove water.^ The ; problem with this strategy is that the soapstock system contains a large amount of water that ; must be removed before the product esters can meet the biodiesel standard.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Under no circumstance may a licensee use as a container for the pre-mixed drink a previously filled ; or emptied originally labeled alcoholic beverage container.
  • State of New Jersey 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.nj.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ FFA may be the limit if traces ; of water are present.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

.Absolute ethanol is used as a solvent for laboratory and industrial applications, where water will react with other chemicals, and as fuel alcohol.^ No, alcohol (ethanol) is also used as a solvent for pharmaceutical preparations.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Ethanol is used as a solvent, an antiseptic, or as an additive in certain fuels.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surprise, surprise Detroit doesn't want to be forced to make more fuel efficient vehicles, but they want the oil industry to be forced to use ethanol.

Pure ethanol is classed as 200 proof in the USA, equivalent to 175 degrees proof in the UK system.

Wine spirits

.Wine spirits are about 188 proof.^ For purposes of this text, one ; "drink" equals one 12 ounce serving of regular beer, one and a half ; ounces of 80 proof distilled spirits, or 5-6 ounces of wine.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One standard "beverage unit" of alcohol consists of one 5-ounce glass of wine, one 12-ounce beer, or one cocktail containing 1.5 ounce of 80 proof spirits.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ (A beverage unit is one beer, 5 oz of wine, or one drink containing about 1.5 ounces of 40% spirits.
  • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

The impurities are different from those in 190 proof laboratory ethanol.[112]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Myers, Richard L.; Myers, Rusty L. (2007). The 100 most important chemical compounds: a reference guide. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. p. 122. ISBN 0313337586. http://books.google.com/books?id=0AnJU-hralEC&pg=PA122. 
  2. ^ Roach, J. (July 18, 2005). "9,000-Year-Old Beer Re-Created From Chinese Recipe". National Geographic News. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/07/0718_050718_ancientbeer.html. Retrieved 2007-09-03. 
  3. ^ Hassan, Ahmad Y. "Alcohol and the Distillation of Wine in Arabic Sources". History of Science and Technology in Islam. http://www.history-science-technology.com/Notes/Notes%207.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-29. 
  4. ^ Alcohol in the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
  5. ^ Couper AS (1858). "On a new chemical theory" (online reprint). Philosophical magazine 16 (104–16). http://web.lemoyne.edu/~giunta/couper/couper.html. Retrieved 2007-09-03. 
  6. ^ Hennell, H. (1828). "On the mutual action of sulfuric acid and alcohol, and on the nature of the process by which ether is formed". Philosophical Transactions 118: 365. doi:10.1098/rstl.1828.0021. 
  7. ^ a b Siegel, Robert (2007-02-15). "Ethanol, Once Bypassed, Now Surging Ahead". NPR. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=7426827. Retrieved 2007-09-22. 
  8. ^ DiPardo, Joseph. "Outlook for Biomass Ethanol Production and Demand" (PDF). United States Department of Energy. http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/FTPROOT/features/biomass.pdf. Retrieved 2007-09-22. 
  9. ^ a b c Lide, D. R., ed (2000). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition. CRC press. ISBN 0849304814. 
  10. ^ a b c d Windholz, Martha (1976). The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemicals and drugs (9th ed.). Rahway, N.J., U.S.A: Merck. ISBN 0-911910-26-3. 
  11. ^ a b c d Morrison, Robert Thornton; Boyd, Robert Neilson (1972). Organic Chemistry (2nd ed.). Allyn and Bacon, inc.. 
  12. ^ Dahlmann U, Schneider GM (1989). "(Liquid + liquid) phase equilibria and critical curves of (ethanol + dodecane or tetradecane or hexadecane or 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane) from 0.1 MPa to 120.0 MPa". J Chem Thermodyn. 21: 997. doi:10.1016/0021-9614(89)90160-2. 
  13. ^ "Encyclopedia of chemical technology". Encyclopedia of chemical technology. 9. 1991. p. 813. 
  14. ^ Costigan MJ, Hodges LJ, Marsh KN, Stokes RH, Tuxford CW (1980). "The Isothermal Displacement Calorimeter: Design Modifications for Measuring Exothermic Enthalpies of Mixing". Aust. J. Chem. 33 (10): 2103. doi:10.1071/CH9802103 (inactive 2010-01-08). 
  15. ^ Lei Z, Wang H, Zhou R, Duan Z (2002). "Influence of salt added to solvent on extractive distillation". Chem Eng J. 87: 149. doi:10.1016/S1385-8947(01)00211-X. 
  16. ^ Pemberton RC, Mash CJ (1978). "Thermodynamic properties of aqueous non-electrolyte mixtures II. Vapour pressures and excess Gibbs energies for water + ethanol at 303.15 to 363.15 K determined by an accurate static method". J Chem Thermodyn. 10: 867. doi:10.1016/0021-9614(78)90160-X. 
  17. ^ Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs, 9th ed.; monographs 6575 through 6669
  18. ^ Anil K. Rajvanshi, S.M. Patil, and B. Mendonca (2007). "Low-concentration ethanol stove for rural areas in India". Energy for Sustainable Development 11: 94. doi:10.1016/S0973-0826(08)60568-2. 
  19. ^ Frederick D. Rossini (1937). "Heats of Formation of Simple Organic Molecules". Ind. Eng. Chem. 29: 1424. doi:10.1021/ie50336a024. 
  20. ^ a b c d e Streitweiser, Andrew Jr.; Heathcock, Clayton H. (1976). Introduction to Organic Chemistry. MacMillan. ISBN 0-02-418010-6. 
  21. ^ Chakrabartty, in Trahanovsky, Oxidation in Organic Chemistry, pp 343-370, Academic Press, New York, 1978
  22. ^ Appendix B, Transportation Energy Data Book from the Center for Transportation Analysis of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  23. ^ Calculated from heats of formation. Does not correspond exactly to the figure for MJ/l divided by density.
  24. ^ Thomas, George (2000). "Overview of Storage Development DOE Hydrogen Program". Sandia National Laboratories. http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/storage.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  25. ^ "Brazil cuts ethanol blend in gasoline to 20 pct". January 11, 2010. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE60A4RI20100111. 
  26. ^ Reel, M. (August 19, 2006) "Brazil's Road to Energy Independence", Washington Post.
  27. ^ "Ethanol Fuel". http://journeytoforever.org/ethanol.html#E. 
  28. ^ California Air Resources Board, Definition of a Low Emission Motor Vehicle in Compliance with the Mandates of Health and Safety Code Section 39037.05, second release, October 1989
  29. ^ Lowi, A. and Carter, W.P.L.; A Method for Evaluating the Atmospheric Ozone Impact of Actual Vehicle emissions, S.A.E. Technical Paper, Warrendale, PA; March 1990
  30. ^ Jones, T.T.M. The Clean Fuels Report: A Quantitative Comparison Of Motor Fuels, Related Pollution and Technologies (2008)
  31. ^ "Adoption of the airborne toxic control measure to reduce formaldehyde emissions from composite wood products". http://www.wdma.com/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=4181. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  32. ^ "Renewable Fuels Association Industry Statistics". http://www.ethanolrfa.org/industry/statistics/#E. 
  33. ^ "Tecnologia flex atrai estrangeiros". Agência Estado. http://www.estadao.com.br/economia/not_eco178105,0.htm. 
  34. ^ "First Commercial U.S. Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery Announced". Renewable Fuels Association. 2006-11-20. http://www.ethanolrfa.org/view/?id=909. Retrieved May 21, 2006. 
  35. ^ "Renewable Fuel Standard Program". United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2007-04-10. http://www.epa.gov/otaq/renewablefuels/. Retrieved May 21, 2007. 
  36. ^ a b "Ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE); status review and alternative use". http://www.envirofacs.org/Pre-prints/Vol%2040%20No%201/mtbe/Session%207/p241.PDF. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  37. ^ W. Horn and F. Krupp. Earth: The Sequel: The Race to Reinvent Energy and Stop Global Warming. 2006, 85
  38. ^ Dual purpose lantern run on ethanol
  39. ^ Ethanol Powered Car, Youtube
  40. ^ Hosein Shapouri, James A. Duffield, and Michael Wang. "The Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol: an Update" (PDF). United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.transportation.anl.gov/pdfs/AF/265.pdf. Retrieved May 21, 2007. 
  41. ^ Pimentel D, Patzek TW (2005). "Ethanol Production Using Corn, Switchgrass, and Wood; Biodiesel Production Using Soybean and Sunflower". Natural Resources Research 14: 65. doi:10.1007/s11053-005-4679-8. 
  42. ^ Lang, Susan S.. "Cornell ecologist's study finds that producing ethanol and biodiesel from corn and other crops is not worth the energy". Cornell University. http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/July05/ethanol.toocostly.ssl.html. Retrieved July 5, 2005. 
  43. ^ "The Guide to Energy Articles Using “EROEI”". December 2007. http://newenergyandfuel.com/http:/newenergyandfuel/com/2007/12/24/the-guide-to-energy-articles-using-%E2%80%9Ceroei%E2%80%9D/. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  44. ^ Schmer, M.R.; Vogel, K.P.; Mitchell, R.B.; Perrin, R.K. (2007-11-21). "Net energy of cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass". U.S. Dept. of Agrigulture. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/reprint/0704767105v1. Retrieved 2008-01-13. 
  45. ^ "The Clean Energy Scam", TIME, April 7, 2008, pages 40–41.
  46. ^ Doug Bandow (1997-10-02). "Ethanol Keeps ADM Drunk On Tax Dollars.". CATO Institute. http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=6079. Retrieved 2007-09-03. 
  47. ^ The Politics of Ethanol Outshine its Costs
  48. ^ Herbst, Moira (March 19, 2007). "Ethanol's Growing List of Enemies". Business Week. http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/content/mar2007/db20070316_016207.htm?campaign_id=rss_topStories. Retrieved 2007-09-03. 
  49. ^ Cox, Jeff (June 19, 2007). "Corn and milk: A 1-2 inflation combo". CNNMoney.com. http://money.cnn.com/2007/06/19/news/economy/commodity_prices/index.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-03. 
  50. ^ Fuel, Food Demand Raise Corn, Soybean Prices
  51. ^ Edith M. Lederer, Associated Press (2007-10-27). "UN Expert Calls Biofuel 'Crime Against Humanity'". http://www.livescience.com/environment/071027-ap-biofuel-crime.html. 
  52. ^ Mexicans stage tortilla protest , BBC News, February 7, 2007.
  53. ^ Posted by Hans Bader (2008-04-08). "Ethanol Subsidies Cause Food Riots in Mexico, Pakistan, Indonesia, Yemen, and Egypt". Open Market blog. http://www.openmarket.org/2008/04/08/ethanol-subsidies-cause-food-riots-in-mexico-pakistan-indonesia-yemen-and-egypt. 
  54. ^ "Why Ethanol Can't "Solve" the Fuels Problem". July 2005. http://www.peakoilandhumanity.com/delaney_folder/ethanol.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  55. ^ "Ethanol". http://www.valentinebiofuels.com/Ethanol.html. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  56. ^ David Andress & Associates (November 2002). "Ethanol Energy Balances". http://oregon.gov/ENERGY/RENEW/Biomass/forum.shtml. 
  57. ^ "Forget the Ethanol Myth -- Avoid Biofuel Bubble: John F. Wasik". Bloomberg.com. 2007-07-23. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601039&refer=columnist_wasik&sid=aOS8e5kvDESE. Retrieved 2007-07-25. 
  58. ^ "Study Finds Net Energy of Cellulosic Ethanol from Switchgrass Much Higher Than Expected". Green Car Congress. 2008-01-07. http://www.greencarcongress.com/cellulosic_ethanol/index.html. Retrieved 2008-01-13. 
  59. ^ "Ethanol Can Replace Gasoline With Big Energy Savings, Comparable Impact on Greenhouse Gases". January 2006. http://www.monsanto.co.uk/news/ukshowlib.phtml?uid=9849. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  60. ^ Agência Brasil (2008-07-15). "ANP: consumo de álcool combustível é 50% maior em 2007" (in Portuguese). Invertia. http://br.invertia.com/noticias/noticia.aspx?idNoticia=200807152306_ABR_77211977. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  61. ^ "GM Announces E85 Fuel Card Promotion On FlexFuel Vehicles". The Auto Channel. http://theautochannel.com/news/2006/05/02/005502.html. Retrieved 2007-09-04. 
  62. ^ "CAFE Credits for Flex Fuel Vehicles Undermine Improvements in Fuel Economy". Public Citizen. 2006-09-27. http://www.citizen.org/autosafety/vehicles/enviro/articles.cfm?ID=15763. Retrieved 2007-09-03. 
  63. ^ "Regulations & Standards". United States Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/otaq/rfg_regs.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-04. 
  64. ^ "MTBE Contamination from Underground Storage Tanks" (PDF). United States General Accounting Office. 2002-05-21. http://gao.gov/new.items/d02753t.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-09. 
  65. ^ "Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE)". United State Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/mtbe/faq.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-04. 
  66. ^ "Study: Ethanol may add to global warming". USA Today. 2/8/2008. http://www.usatoday.com/weather/climate/globalwarming/2008-02-08-ethanol-study_N.htm. 
  67. ^ edited by Wilson G. Pond, Alan W. Bell. (2004). Wilson G. Pond, Alan W. Bell. CRC Press. p. 184. ISBN 0824754964. http://books.google.co.jp/books?id=1SQl7Ao3mHoC&pg=PA184. 
  68. ^ "Ethanol—Better Than We Thought?". PopSci.com.au. 2009-01-30. http://www.popsci.com/environment/article/2009-01/ethanol%E2%80%94better-we-thought. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  69. ^ "Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC)". FCTec. http://www.fctec.com/fctec_types_dmfc.asp. 
  70. ^ Offenburg students test world's first ethanol powered fuel cell vehicle Acta.
  71. ^ Willkommen beim Projekt "Schluckspecht" der Hochschule Offenburg .
  72. ^ David Darling. "The Internet Encyclopedia of Science: V-2". http://daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/V/V-2.html. 
  73. ^ a b Braeunig, Robert A. "Rocket Propellants." (Website). Rocket & Space Technology, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-08-23.
  74. ^ "A Brief History of Rocketry." NASA Historical Archive, via science.ksc.nasa.gov.
  75. ^ Chastain G (2006). "Alcohol, neurotransmitter systems, and behavior". The Journal of general psychology 133 (4): 329. doi:10.3200/GENP.133.4.329-335. PMID 17128954. 
  76. ^ a b Dr. Bill Boggan. "Effects of Ethyl Alcohol on Organ Function". Chemases.com. http://chemcases.com/alcohol/alc-07.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-29. 
  77. ^ McDonnell G, Russell AD (1999). "Antiseptics and disinfectants: activity, action, and resistance". Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12 (1): 147. PMID 9880479. 
  78. ^ "Methanol Poisoning". Cambridge University School of Clinical Medicine. http://www-clinpharm.medschl.cam.ac.uk/pages/teaching/topics/poison/poison9.html. Retrieved 2007-09-04. 
  79. ^ Barceloux DG, Bond GR, Krenzelok EP, Cooper H, Vale JA (2002). "American Academy of Clinical Toxicology practice guidelines on the treatment of methanol poisoning". J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. 40 (4): 415. doi:10.1081/CLT-120006745. PMID 12216995. 
  80. ^ "The Brain from Top to Bottom - Alcohol (Intermediate, Molecular)". Canadian Institute of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Addiction. McGill University. http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/i/i_03/i_03_m/i_03_m_par/i_03_m_par_alcool.html. Retrieved 2010-02-13. 
  81. ^ a b Safety data for ethyl alcohol
  82. ^ Pohorecky LA, Brick J (1988). "Pharmacology of ethanol". Pharmacol. Ther. 36 (2-3): 335. doi:10.1016/0163-7258(88)90109-X. PMID 3279433. 
  83. ^ MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Alcohol Use
  84. ^ a b David A. Yost, MD (2002). Acute care for alcohol intoxication. 112. Postgraduate Medicine Online. http://www.my.lecom.edu/library/internetresources/journal%20articles/Acute%20Care%20for%20Alcohol%20Intoxication.pdf. Retrieved 2007-09-29. 
  85. ^ Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS (May 2007). "Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition". Alcohol 41 (3): 211–21. doi:10.1016/j.alcohol.2007.04.011. PMID 17591544. 
  86. ^ Hingson R, Winter M (2003). "Epidemiology and consequences of drinking and driving". Alcohol research & health : the journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism 27 (1): 63. PMID 15301401. 
  87. ^ Naranjo CA, Bremner KE (1993). "Behavioural correlates of alcohol intoxication". Addiction 88 (1): 25. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1993.tb02761.x. PMID 8448514. 
  88. ^ Boggan, Bill. "Metabolism of Ethyl Alcohol in the Body". Chemases.com. http://chemcases.com/alcohol/alc-06.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-29. 
  89. ^ Agarwal DP, Goedde HW (1992). "Pharmacogenetics of alcohol metabolism and alcoholism". Pharmacogenetics 2 (2): 48. doi:10.1097/00008571-199204000-00002. PMID 1302043. 
  90. ^ "Triglycerides". American Heart Association. http://americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4778. Retrieved 2007-09-04. 
  91. ^ "Material Data Safety Sheet" (PDF). Burdick and Jackson. http://www.cise.columbia.edu/clean/msds/ethanol.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  92. ^ Chavez, Pollyanna R.; Wang, Xiang-Dong; Meyer, Jean. "Animal Models for Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention, abstract #C42: Effects of Chronic Ethanol Intake on Cyclin D1 Levels and Altered Foci in Diethylnitrosamine-initiated Rats" (PDF). USDA. http://www.aacr.org/PDF_files/2004Prevention/Program/2004_Prevention_Abstracts.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  93. ^ Mills, G.A.; Ecklund, E.E. "Mills GA, Ecklund EE (1987). "Alcohols as Components of Transportation Fuels". Annual Review of Energy 12: 47. doi:10.1146/annurev.eg.12.110187.000403. 
  94. ^ Roberts, John D.; Caserio, Marjorie C. (1977). Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry. W. A. Benjamin, Inc. ISBN 0-8053-8329-8. 
  95. ^ "Encyclopedia of chemical technology". .Encyclopedia of chemical technology.^ Encyclopedia of ; chemical technology, 3rd ed., New York, Wiley Interscience.
    • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology,; 3rd ed.
    • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    9. 1991. p. 82.
     
  96. ^ Lodgsdon, J.E. (1994). p. 817
  97. ^ Morais PB, Rosa CA, Linardi VR, Carazza F, Nonato EA (1996). "Production of fuel alcohol by Saccharomyces strains from tropical habitats". Biotechnology Letters 18: 1351. doi:10.1007/BF00129969. 
  98. ^ Badger, P.C. "Ethanol From Cellulose: A General Review." p. 17–21. In: J. Janick and A. Whipkey (eds.), Trends in new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, 2002, Alexandria, VA. Retrieved on September 2, 2007.
  99. ^ Taherzadeh MJ, Karimi K (2007). "Acid-based hydrolysis processes for ethanol from lignocellulosic materials: A review". BioResources 2: 472. http://www.ncsu.edu/bioresources/BioRes_02/BioRes_02_3_472_499_Taherzadeh_K_BioEthanol_Review.pdf. 
  100. ^ Taherzadeh MJ, Karimi K (2007). "Enzymatic-based hydrolysis processes for ethanol from lignocellulosic materials: A review". BioResources 2: 707. http://www.ncsu.edu/bioresources/BioRes_02/BioRes_02_4_707_738_Taherzadeh_K_EnzymeBased_Ethanol_Review.pdf. 
  101. ^ Ritter SK (2004). "Biomass or Bust". Chemical & Engineering News 82: 31. 
  102. ^ Clines, Tom (July 2006). "Brew Better Ethanol". Popular Science Online. http://www.popsci.com/popsci/energy/6756226d360ab010vgnvcm1000004eecbccdrcrd.html. 
  103. ^ Kompala, Dhinakar S.. "Maximizing Ethanol Production by Engineered Pentose-Fermenting Zymononas mobilis" (PDF). Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder. http://www.metabolicengineering.gov/me2001/2001Kompala.pdf. Retrieved May 21, 2007. 
  104. ^ Mick, Jason (2008-01-14). "Cellulosic Ethanol Promises $1 per Gallon Fuel From Waste". DailyTech.com. http://www.dailytech.com/Cellulosic+Ethanol+Promises+1+per+Gallon+Fuel+From+Waste/article10320.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-15. 
  105. ^ "Providing for a Sustainable Energy Future". Bioengineering Resources, inc. http://www.brienergy.com/. Retrieved May 21, 2007. 
  106. ^ Closed-Loop Ethanol Plant to Start Production. www.renewableenergyaccess.com. November 2, 2006. http://www.renewableenergyaccess.com/rea/news/story?id=46414. Retrieved 2007-09-03. 
  107. ^ Rapier, R. (June 26, 2006) "E3 Biofuels: Responsible Ethanol" R-Squared Energy Blog
  108. ^ "Air Pollution Rules Relaxed for U.S. Ethanol Producers". Environmental News Service. April 12, 2007. http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/apr2007/2007-04-12-02.asp. Retrieved 2009-06-26. 
  109. ^ Snyder R, Kalf GF (1994). "A perspective on benzene leukemogenesis". Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 24 (3): 177. doi:10.3109/10408449409021605. PMID 7945890. 
  110. ^ "U-M Program to Reduce the Consumption of Tax-free Alcohol; Denatured Alcohol a Safer, Less Expensive Alternative" (PDF). University of Michigan. http://www.procurement.umich.edu/Contracts/Denatured_Alchohol.pdf. Retrieved 2007-09-29. 
  111. ^ Great Britain (2005). The Denatured Alcohol Regulations 2005. Statutory Instrument 2005 No. 1524.
  112. ^ Ralph E. Kunkee and Maynard A. Amerine (1968). "Sugar and Alcohol Stabilization of Yeast in Sweet Wine". Appl Microbiol. 16 (7): 1067. 

Further reading

.
  • The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism maintains a database of alcohol-related health effects.^ Around 95% of the (rather minimal) research on alcohol and the problems it produces is funded by the federal government (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) in this nation.
    • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ But when physicians, who have great opportunities to affect patients' drinking habits (or refer to treatment if necessary), are not trained about the effects of alcohol, then public health suffers.
    • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Alcohol is a solvent that dissolves people" is an old quotation relating to the "addictive" effects of alcohol.
    • ASREC : Alcohol Facts to Share With Others 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ETOH Archival Database (1972–2003) Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database.
  • "Alcohol." (1911). In Hugh Chisholm (Ed.) Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition. Online reprint
  • Boyce, John M., and Pittet Didier. (2003). .“Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings.” Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia, United States.
  • Lodgsdon, J.E (1991).^ Too much of the oil industry is controlled outside of the United States.

    ^ The Oregon Liquor Control Commission may issue a wine self-distribution permit to a United States manufacturer of wine or cider.
    • http://landru.leg.state.or.us/ors/471.html 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC landru.leg.state.or.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This dosage is much less than the acceptable daily intake for humans, with current limits set at 50 mg/kg in the United States and 40 mg/kg in Europe.

    ."Encyclopedia of chemical technology". in Howe-Grant, Mary; Kirk, Raymond E.; Othmer, Donald F.; Kroschwitz, Jacqueline I..^ Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology,; 3rd ed.
    • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Encyclopedia of ; chemical technology, 3rd ed., New York, Wiley Interscience.
    • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Encyclopedia of chemical technology.^ Encyclopedia of ; chemical technology, 3rd ed., New York, Wiley Interscience.
    • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology,; 3rd ed.
    • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    9 (4th ed.). .New York: Wiley.^ Edible Oil and Fat Products: ; Oils and Oilseeds, Chapter 11 Soybean Oil, Fifth Edition, Wiley-Interscience, New York.
    • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Encyclopedia of ; chemical technology, 3rd ed., New York, Wiley Interscience.
    • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    pp. 812–60. .ISBN 0-471-52669-X. 
  • Rene Martinez VitalSensors Technologies LLC. "VS1000A Series In-Line Ethanol Sensors for the Beverage and BioFuel Industry" (PDF).^ For many years this technology was simply used to violate CAFE, and I seriously doubt that a line of Flex Fuel Hummers or Tahoes is really going to help the world.

    ^ [PDF] The US Dry-Mill Ethanol Industry Biobased Products and Bioenergy ...

    .http://vitalsensorstech.com/VitalSensors%20VS-1000A%20Ethanol%20Alcohol%20Sensor%20Data%20Sheet.pdf.
      Martinez describes the theory and practice of measuring brix on-line in beverages.
  • Sci-toys website explanation of US denatured alcohol designations
  • Smith, M.G., and M. Snyder.^ Standard Beverage Corp ; Standard Beverage Corporation is a full-line wholesale distributor of alcoholic beverages to licensed customers in Kansas...

    ^ Malt beverages may not be labeled or otherwise designated as beer for purposes of retail sale in this state unless the malt beverage contains six percent or less alcohol by volume.
    • http://landru.leg.state.or.us/ors/471.html 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC landru.leg.state.or.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ PROOF - See "Measurement of Alcoholic Content" ; PROOF GALLON ; WHAT IS A "PROOF GALLON?" ; "Proof Gallon" is a term used to describe the alcoholic strength of distilled spirits.
    • State of New Jersey 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.nj.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (2005). ."Ethanol-induced virulence of Acinetobacter baumannii". American Society for Microbiology meeting.^ Denatured Fuel Ethanol as specified in The American Society for Testing and Materials ...

    June 5 – June 9. Atlanta.

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Please help
.This page was created, but no useful content has been added.^ You will ; ; use PowerPoint, HyperStudio or TimeLiner or create a web page using Front Page."

^ It seems that Evolution is one of the principles, like Gravity, which God has used to create the Universe: there is no more a conflict between Evolution and Creation than between Gravity and Creation.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Understanding Alcohol—Information about Alcohol ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; This web site uses JavaScript to dynamically create content.

Everyone is invited to help add educational content to Wikiversity. .If you need help learning how to add content, see the editing tutorial.^ I hope this helps and will see what John has to add.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ John adds : You might find it helpful to look at Ch 6 of Exploring Reality .
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With KOH, the process is the same as with NaOH, but you need to use 1.4 times as much (1.4025), and it comes in various concentrations -- see More about lye and Using KOH .
  • Make your own biodiesel: Journey to Forever 10 September 2009 15:52 UTC journeytoforever.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Wikipedia-logo.png Run a search on Ethanol at Wikipedia.
Commons-logo.svg Search Wikimedia Commons for images, sounds and other media related to: Ethanol
Wikimedia-logo.svg Search for Ethanol on the following projects:
Smiley green alien whatface.svg Lost on Wikiversity? Please help by choosing project boxes to classify this resource by:
  • subject
  • educational level
  • resource type

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also ethanol

German

Wikipedia-logo.png
German Wikipedia has an article on:
Ethanol
Wikipedia de

Pronunciation

Noun

Ethanol n. (genitive Ethanols, no plural)
  1. ethanol

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|The chemical structure of ethanol. The symbols are: C is carbon, H is hydrogen and O is oxygen. The lines show what atoms are linked together by chemical bonds.]]

File:Ethanol - Space filling
An ethanol molecule showing atoms filing space (hydrogen is white, carbon is gray, and oxygen is red)
File:Ethanol
A bottle of Ethanol

Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic drinks. When people talk about it, they often name it simply as alcohol. Its chemical formula is C2H5OH, also written as C2H6O. It´s a solvent which isn´t very toxic.

Ethanol fuel for transportation

Ethanol fuel is an alternative to gasoline. It can be combined with gasoline in any concentration up to pure ethanol.

In Brazil, ethanol fuel from sugar cane now provides 18 percent of the country's automotive fuel. As a result, Brazil, which years ago had to import a large share of the petroleum needed for domestic consumption, recently reached complete self-sufficiency in oil.[1] To do this, Brazil cut down much of the rain forests to grow more sugar cane, which is then fermented into Ethanol.

Most cars on the road today in the U.S. can run on blends of up to 10% ethanol, and motor vehicle manufacturers already produce vehicles designed to run on higher ethanol blends. Ford, DaimlerChrysler, and GM are among the automobile companies that sell “flexible-fuel” cars, trucks, and minivans that can use gasoline and ethanol blends ranging from pure gasoline up to 85% ethanol (E85). By mid-2006, there were about six million E85-compatible vehicles on U.S. roads.[2]

References

  1. America and Brazil Intersect on Ethanol
  2. American energy: The renewable path to energy security

Other websites


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Alcoholic beverage, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message