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Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ
ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ

ye-Ītyōṗṗyā Fēdēralāwī Dīmōkrāsīyāwī Rīpeblīk
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemWodefit Gesgeshi, Widd Innat Ityopp'ya
"March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia"
.
Capital
(and largest city)
Addis Ababa
9°1.8′N 38°44.4′E / 9.03°N 38.74°E / 9.03; 38.74
Official language(s) Amharic
Recognised regional languages .Other languages official amongst the different ethnicities and their respective regions.^ There were occasional reports that officials terminated the employment of teachers and other government workers if they were not of the dominant ethnic group in the region.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Ethnic groups  .Oromo 34.5%, Amhara 26.91%, Somali 6.20%, Tigray 6.07%; Sidama 4%, Gurage 2.5%, Welayta 2.3%[1][2] and around eighty other small ethnic groups.^ There were occasional reports that officials terminated the employment of teachers and other government workers if they were not of the dominant ethnic group in the region.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Nevertheless, small ethnic groups lacked representation in the legislature.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ There were more than 80 ethnic groups living in the country, of which the Oromo, at 40 percent of the population, was the largest.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Demonym Ethiopian
Government Federal Parliamentary republic1
 -  President Girma Wolde-Giorgis
 -  Prime Minister Meles Zenawi
Establishment
 -  Traditional date 980 BC 
 -  Current constitution 1991 
Area
 -  Total 1,104,300 km2 (27th)
426,371 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.7
Population
 -  2008 estimate 79,221,000[3] (15th²)
 -  2007 census 73,918,505 
 -  Density 79/km2 (123rd)
194/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $71.111 billion[4] 
 -  Per capita $898[4] 
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $26.393 billion[4] 
 -  Per capita $333[4] 
Gini (1999–00) 30 (medium
HDI (2007) 0.414 (low) (175th)
Currency Birr (ETB)
Time zone EAT (UTC+3)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+3)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .et
Calling code 251
1 According to The Economist in its Democracy Index, Ethiopia is a "hybrid regime", with a dominant-party system led by the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front.
2 Rank based on 2005 population estimate by the United Nations.
Ethiopia (pronounced /ˌiːθiˈoʊpiə/) (Ge'ez: ኢትዮጵያ ʾĪtyōṗṗyā), a landlocked state in the Horn of Africa, is one of the most ancient countries in the world.[citation needed] Officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, it is the second most populous nation in Africa with over 79.2 million people[5] and the tenth largest by area. The capital is Addis Ababa. Ethiopia is bordered by Djibouti and Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south, Eritrea to the north and Sudan to the west.
Though most African nations are, their modern form, less than a century old[citation needed], Ethiopia has been an independent state since ancient times. A monarchical state for most of its history, the Ethiopian dynasty traces its roots to the 10th century BC.[6] Besides being an ancient country, Ethiopia is one of the oldest sites of human existence known to scientists today—having yielded some of humanity's oldest traces,[7] it might be the place where Homo sapiens first set out for the Middle East and points beyond.[8][9][10] When Africa was divided up by European powers at the Berlin Conference, Ethiopia was one of only two countries that retained its independence. It was one of only three African members of the League of Nations, and after a brief period of Italian occupation, Ethiopia became a charter member of the United Nations. When other African nations received their independence following World War II, many of them adopted the colors of Ethiopia's flag, and Addis Ababa became the location of several international organizations focused on Africa.
The Modern Ethiopian state, and its current borders, are a result of significant territorial reduction in the north and expansion in the south, toward its present borders, owing to several migrations and commercial integration as well as conquests, particularly by Emperor Menelik II and Ras Gobena. In 1974, the dynasty led by Haile Selassie was overthrown as civil wars intensified. Since then, Ethiopia has been a secular state with a variety of governmental systems. Ethiopia is one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), G-77 and the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). Today, Addis Ababa is still the site of the headquarters of the African Union and [11] UNECA. The country has one of the most powerful militaries in Africa. Ethiopia is the only African country with its own alphabet.[12] Ethiopia also has its own time system and unique calendar, seven to eight years behind the Gregorian Calendar. It has the largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Africa.[13]
The country is a land of natural contrasts, with spectacular waterfalls and volcanic hot springs. Ethiopia has some of Africa's highest mountains as well as some of the world's lowest points below sea level. The largest cave in Africa is located in Ethiopia at Sof Omar, and the country's northernmost area at Dallol is one of the hottest places year-round anywhere on Earth. There are altogether around 80 different ethnic groups in Ethiopia today, with the two largest being the Oromo and the Amhara, both of which speak Afro-Asiatic languages. The country is also famous for its Olympic gold medalists, rock-hewn churches and as the place where the coffee bean originated. Currently, Ethiopia is the top coffee and honey-producing country in Africa, and home to the largest livestock population in Africa.
Ethiopia has close historical ties to all three of the world's major Abrahamic religions. It was one of the first Christian countries in the world, having officially adopted Christianity as the state religion in the 4th century. It still has a Christian majority, but a third of the population is Muslim. Ethiopia is the site of the first hijra in Islamic history and the oldest Muslim settlement in Africa at Negash. Until the 1980s, a substantial population of Ethiopian Jews resided in Ethiopia. The country is also the spiritual homeland of the Rastafari religious movement, which is influenced by Pan-Africanism. Ethiopia is the source of over 85% of the total Nile waters flow but it underwent a series of tragic famines in the 1980s, exacerbated by adverse geopolitics and civil wars, resulting in perhaps a million deaths. Slowly, however, the country has begun to recover, and today Ethiopia has the biggest economy in East Africa (GDP)[14] as the Ethiopian economy is also one of the fastest growing in the world and it is a regional powerhouse in the Horn and east Africa.[15][16][17][18]

Contents

Name

The Book of Aksum, a Ge'ez chronicle compiled in the 15th century, states that the Ge'ez name ʾĪtyōṗṗyā, Ethiopia, is derived from "'Ityopp'is" — a son (unmentioned in the Bible) of Cush, son of Ham, who according to legend founded the city of Axum. Pliny the Elder[19] similarly follows the tradition that the nation took its name from someone named Aethiops. Modern scholars would not accept such ideas of eponymous originators and derive the Ge'ez name ʾĪtyōṗṗyā and its English cognate from the Greek word Αἰθιοπία, Aithiopia, from Αἰθίοψ, Aithiops, ‘an Ethiopian’, derived in turn from Greek words meaning "of burned face".[20] [21] The geographical name, in its Greek form Αἰθιοπία, indeed first appears in Classical sources, in which it refers to the regions south of Egypt and Libya, so to what we would call Sub-Saharan Africa. It appears twice in the Iliad and three times in the Odyssey.[22] The Greek historian Herodotus specifically uses it for all the lands south of Egypt [23], so including Sudan and (in principle) modern Ethiopia. The name Ethiopia also occurs in many translations of the Old Testament, but there it has the above mentioned extended Greek meaning, for the Hebrew texts themselves in reality have in all such text places Kush, which refers foremost to Nubia / Sudan [24]. In the (Greek) New Testament, however, the Greek term Aithiops, ‘an Ethiopian’, does occur [25], referring to a servant of Candace or Kentakes, so to an inhabitant of the Kingdom of Meroe. This kingdom later was conquered by the Kingdom of Axum. It is thus not surprising that the earliest attested use in the region itself is as a Christianized name for the Kingdom of Aksum in the 4th century, in stone inscriptions of King Ezana.[26]
In English and generally outside Ethiopia, the country was also once historically known as Abyssinia, derived from Habesh, an early Arabic form of the Ethiosemitic name "Ḥabaśāt" (unvocalized "ḤBŚT"), modern Habesha, the native name for the country's inhabitants (while the country was called "Ityopp'ya"). In a few languages, Ethiopia is still referred to by names cognate with "Abyssinia," e.g., modern Arabic Al-Ḥabashah, meaning land of the Habasha people.[citation needed] The specific form /ABYSSINIa/ may be a pun derived from a claim to suzerainty over the entire region extending from ABYlē (a mountain in Mauretania, mentioned in Strabōn : Geographia 17:3:6) to the SINaI peninsula (in effect, all of Africa as viewed from the Mediterranean Sea).
The term Habesha, strictly speaking, refers only to the Amhara and Tigray-Tigrinya people who have historically dominated the country politically, and which combined comprise about 36% of Ethiopia's population.[citation needed] Sometimes, the term is used to label the nearly 45% of Ethiopian population who used Semitic languages since ancient times like the Amharic (30.1% of Ethiopian population), Tigray (6.2%), Gurage (4.3%) and other smaller Semitic speaking communities like the Harari people in South east Ethiopia. Though since Amharic became the official language of the country, most of the population of the SNNPR and a significant portion of the Oromia and Benishangul-Gumuz regions use it as a second language. In contrast, in contemporary Ethiopia, the word Habesha is often used to describe all Ethiopians and Eritreans.[citation needed] Abyssinia can strictly refer to just the northwestern Ethiopian provinces of Amhara and Tigray as well as central Eritrea, while it was historically used as another name for Ethiopia.[27]

History

Prehistory

Ethiopia is widely considered one of the oldest human inhabited areas, if not the oldest according to some scientific findings which is possible: Ethnographic migration studies, Anthropological artifactual discoveries, Anthropological skeletal remains and Genetic variegation radiation analyses all lend evidence to this school of thought.[28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35] As the Washington Post's David Brown put it, "the new research further shows that genetic diversity declines steadily the farther one's ancestors traveled from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia".[28] Lucy, discovered in the Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar region, is considered the world’s second oldest, but most complete, and best preserved adult Australopithecine fossil. Lucy's species is named Australopithecus afarensis, which means 'southern ape of Afar', after the Ethiopian region where the discovery was made. Lucy is estimated to have lived in Ethiopia 3.2 million years ago.[36] There have been many other notable fossil findings in the country including the recently found potential early hominin Ardipithicus ramidus, Ardi.[37]
Around the eighth century BC, a kingdom known as Dʿmt was established in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea, with its capital at Yeha in northern Ethiopia. Most modern historians consider this civilization to be a native African one, although Sabaean-influenced because of the latter's hegemony of the Red Sea,[38] while others view Dʿmt as the result of a mixture of Sabaeans and indigenous peoples.[39] However, Ge'ez, the ancient Semitic language of Ethiopia, is now thought not to have derived from Sabaean (also South Semitic). There is evidence of a Semitic-speaking presence in Ethiopia and Eritrea at least as early as 2000 BC.[40][41] Sabaean influence is now thought to have been minor, limited to a few localities, and disappearing after a few decades or a century, perhaps representing a trading or military colony in some sort of symbiosis or military alliance with the Ethiopian civilization of Dʿmt or some other proto-Aksumite state.[42]
After the fall of Dʿmt in the fourth century BC, the plateau came to be dominated by smaller successor kingdoms, until the rise of one of these kingdoms during the first century BC, the Aksumite Empire, ancestor of medieval and modern Ethiopia, which was able to reunite the area.[43] They established bases on the northern highlands of the Ethiopian Plateau and from there expanded southward. The Persian religious figure Mani listed Aksum with Rome, Persia, and China as one of the four great powers of his time.[44]
In 316 AD, a Christian philosopher from Tyre, Meropius, embarked on a voyage of exploration along the coast of Africa. He was accompanied by, among others, two Syro-Greeks, Frumentius and his brother Aedesius. The vessel was stranded on the coast, and the natives killed all the travelers except the two brothers, who were taken to the court and given positions of trust by the monarch. They both practiced the Christian faith in private, and soon converted the queen and several other members of the royal court.

Ethiopian dynasties

Zagwe dynasty ruled many parts of modern Ethiopia and Eritrea from approximately 1137 to 1270. The name of the dynasty comes from the Cushitic speaking Agaw people of northern Ethiopia. From 1270 AD on for many centuries, the Solomonic dynasty followed.

Restored contact with Europe

In the early fifteenth century Ethiopia sought to make diplomatic contact with European kingdoms for the first time since Aksumite times. A letter from King Henry IV of England to the Emperor of Abyssinia survives.[45] In 1428, the Emperor Yeshaq sent two emissaries to Alfonso V of Aragon, who sent return emissaries who failed to complete the return trip.[46] The first continuous relations with a European country began in 1508 with Portugal under Emperor Lebna Dengel, who had just inherited the throne from his father.[47]
This proved to be an important development, for when the Empire was subjected to the attacks of the Adal General and Imam, Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi (called "Grañ", or "the Left-handed"), Portugal assisted the Ethiopian emperor by sending weapons and four hundred men, who helped his son Gelawdewos defeat Ahmad and re-establish his rule.[48] This Ethiopian–Adal War was also one of the first proxy wars in the region as the Ottoman Empire and Portugal took sides in the conflict. However, when Emperor Susenyos converted to Roman Catholicism in 1624, years of revolt and civil unrest followed resulting in thousands of deaths.[49] The Jesuit missionaries had offended the Orthodox faith of the local Ethiopians, and on 25 June 1632 Susenyos's son, Emperor Fasilides, declared the state religion to again be Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, and expelled the Jesuit missionaries and other Europeans.[50][51]

Zemene Mesafint

All of this contributed to Ethiopia's isolation from 1755 to 1855, called the Zemene Mesafint or "Age of Princes". The Emperors became figureheads, controlled by warlords like Ras Mikael Sehul of Tigray, Ras Wolde Selassie of Tigray, and by the Oromo Yejju dynasty, such as Ras Gugsa of Begemder, which later led to 17th century Oromo rule of Gondar, changing the language of the court from Amharic to Afaan Oromo.[52][53]
Ethiopian isolationism ended following a British mission that concluded an alliance between the two nations; however, it was not until 1855 that Ethiopia was completely united and the power in the Emperor restored, beginning with the reign of Emperor Tewodros II. Upon his ascent, despite still large centrifugal forces, he began modernizing Ethiopia and recentralizing power in the Emperor, and Ethiopia began to take part in world affairs once again.
Yohannes IV, Emperor of Ethiopia and King of Zion, with his son, Ras Araya Selassie Yohannis.
But Tewodros suffered several rebellions inside his empire. Northern Oromo militias, Tigrayan rebellion and the constant incursion of Ottoman Empire and Egyptian forces near the Red Sea brought the weakening and the final downfall of Emperor Tewodros II, who died after his last battle with a British expeditionary force. In 1868, Ethiopia and Egypt went to war at Gura. Northern Ethiopian forces, led by Emperor Yohannes IV, defeated the Egyptians decisively.
In 1889 and the early 1890s, Sahle Selassie, as king of Shewa, and later as Emperor Menelik II, with the help of Ras Gobena's Shewan Oromo militia, began expanding his kingdom to the south and east, expanding into areas that had not been held since the invasion of Ahmed Gragn, and other areas that had never been under his rule, resulting in the borders of Ethiopia of today.[54] The Ethiopian Great famine that afflicted Ethiopia from 1888 to 1892 cost it roughly one-third of its population.[55]

European Scramble for Africa

The 1880s were marked by the Berlin Conference and modernization in Ethiopia, when the Italians began to vie with the British for influence in bordering regions. Asseb, a port near the southern entrance of the Red Sea, was bought in March 1870 from the local Afar sultan, vassal to the Ethiopian Emperor, by an Italian company, which by 1890 led to the Italian colony of Eritrea. Conflicts between the two countries resulted in the Battle of Adwa in 1896, whereby the Ethiopians defeated Italy and remained independent, under the rule of Menelik II. Italy and Ethiopia signed a provisional treaty of peace on 26 October 1896.

Selassie years

Haile Selassie's reign as emperor of Ethiopia is the best known and perhaps most influential in the nation's history. He is seen by Rastafarians as Jah incarnate.
The early twentieth century was marked by the reign of Emperor Haile Selassie I, who came to power after Iyasu V was deposed. It was he who undertook the modernization of Ethiopia, from 1916, when he was made a Ras and Regent (Inderase) for Zewditu I and became the de facto ruler of the Ethiopian Empire. Following Zewditu's death he was made Emperor on 2 November 1930.
Haile Selassie was born from parents of the three main Ethiopian ethnicities of Oromo, Amhara and Gurage. He played a leading role in the formation of the Organisation of African Unity,
The independence of Ethiopia was interrupted by the Second Italo-Abyssinian War and Italian occupation (1936–1941).[56] During this time of attack, Haile Selassie appealed to the League of Nations in 1935, delivering an address that made him a worldwide figure, and the 1935 Time magazine Man of the Year.[57] Following the entry of Italy into World War II, British Empire forces, together with patriot Ethiopian fighters, liberated Ethiopia in the course of the East African Campaign in 1941. This was followed by British recognition of full sovereignty, (i.e. without any special British privileges), with the signing of the Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement in December 1944.[58] During 1942 and 1943 there was an Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia. On 26 August 1942 Haile Selassie I issued a proclamation outlawing slavery.[59][60]
In 1952 Haile Selassie orchestrated the federation with Eritrea which he dissolved in 1962. This annexation sparked the Eritrean War of Independence. Although Haile Selassie was seen as a national hero, opinion within Ethiopia turned against him owing to the worldwide oil crisis of 1973, food shortages, uncertainty regarding the succession, border wars, and discontent in the middle class created through modernization.[61]
Haile Selassie's reign came to an end in 1974, when a Soviet-backed Marxist-Leninist military junta, the "Derg" led by Mengistu Haile Mariam, deposed him, and established a one-party communist state.

Communism

The ensuing regime suffered several coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and a huge refugee problem. In 1977, there was the Ogaden War, when Somalia captured the part of the Ogaden region, but Ethiopia was able to recapture the Ogaden after receiving military aid from the USSR, Cuba, South Yemen, East Germany and North Korea, including around 15,000 Cuban combat troops.
Hundreds of thousands were killed as a result of the red terror, forced deportations, or from the use of hunger as a weapon under Mengistu's rule.[61] The Red Terror was carried out in response to what the government termed "White Terror", supposedly a chain of violent events, assassinations and killings carried by the opposition.[62] In 2006, after a long trial, Mengistu was found guilty of genocide.[63]
In the beginning of 1980s, a series of famines hit Ethiopia that affected around 8 million people, leaving 1 million dead. Insurrections against Communist rule sprang up particularly in the northern regions of Tigray and Eritrea. In 1989, the Tigrayan Peoples' Liberation Front (TPLF) merged with other ethnically based opposition movements to form the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). Concurrently the Soviet Union began to retreat from building World Communism under Mikhail Gorbachev's glasnost and perestroika policies, marking a dramatic reduction in aid to Ethiopia from Socialist bloc countries. This resulted in even more economic hardship and the collapse of the military in the face of determined onslaughts by guerrilla forces in the north. The Collapse of Communism in general, and in Eastern Europe during the Revolutions of 1989, coincided with the Soviet Union stopping aid to Ethiopia altogether in 1990. The strategic outlook for Mengistu quickly deteriorated.
In May 1991, EPRDF forces advanced on Addis Ababa and the Soviet Union did not intervene to save the government side. Mengistu fled the country to asylum in Zimbabwe, where he still resides. The Transitional Government of Ethiopia, composed of an 87-member Council of Representatives and guided by a national charter that functioned as a transitional constitution, was set up. In June 1992, the Oromo Liberation Front withdrew from the government; in March 1993, members of the Southern Ethiopia Peoples' Democratic Coalition also left the government. In 1994, a new constitution was written that formed a bicameral legislature and a judicial system. The first free and democratic election took place in May 1995 in which Meles Zenawi was elected the Prime Minister and Negasso Gidada was elected President. Though it is widely suspected that Meles Zenawi rigged the election. This suspicion is supported by Zenawi's very low approval rating in Ethiopia.[citation needed]

Recent

In 1993 a referendum was held and supervised by the UN mission UNOVER, with universal suffrage and conducted both in and outside Eritrea (among Eritrean communities in the diaspora), on whether Eritreans wanted independence or unity with Ethiopia. Over 99% of the Eritrean people voted for independence which was declared on May 24, 1993.
In 1994, a constitution was adopted that led to Ethiopia's first multi-party elections in the following year. In May 1998, a border dispute with Eritrea led to the Eritrean-Ethiopian War that lasted until June 2000. This has hurt the nation's economy, but strengthened the ruling coalition. On 15 May 2005, Ethiopia held another multiparty election, which was a highly disputed one with some opposition groups claiming fraud. Though the Carter Center approved the preelection conditions, it has expressed its dissatisfaction with postelection matters. The 2005 EU election observers continued to accuse the ruling party of vote rigging. Many from the international community are divided about the issue with Irish officials accusing the 2005 EU election observers of corruption for the "inaccurate leaks from the 2005 EU election monitoring body which led the opposition to wrongly believe they had been cheated of victory."[64] In general, the opposition parties gained more than 200 parliamentary seats compared to the just 12 in the 2000 elections. Despite most opposition representatives joining the parliament, some leaders of the CUD party were wrongly imprisoned following the post-election violence. Amnesty International considered them "prisoners of conscience" and they were subsequently released.
The coalition of opposition parties and some individuals that was established in 2009 to oust at the general election in 2010 the regime of the TPLF, Meles Zenawi’s party that has been in power since 1991, published its 65-page manifesto in Addis Ababa on October 10, 2009.
Some of the eight member parties of this Ethiopian Forum for Democratic Dialogue (FDD or Medrek in Amharic) include the Oromo Federalist Congress (organized by the Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement and the Oromo People’s Congress), the Arena Tigray (organized by former members of the ruling party TPLF), the Unity for Democracy and Justice (UDJ, whose leader is imprisoned), and the Coalition of Somali Democratic Forces.

Politics

The politics of Ethiopia takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament.
On the basis of Article 78 of the 1994 Ethiopian Constitution, the Judiciary is completely independent of the executive and the legislature.[65] The current realities of this provision are questioned in a report prepared by Freedom House (see discussion page for link).
According to The Economist in its Democracy Index, Ethiopia is a "hybrid regime" situated between a "flawed democracy" and an "authoritarian regime". It ranks 105 out of 167 countries (with the larger number being less democratic). Georgia ranks as more democratic at 104, and Burundi as less democratic at 106, than Ethiopia.[66]
The election of Ethiopia's 547-member constituent assembly was held in June 1994. This assembly adopted the constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in December 1994. The elections for Ethiopia's first popularly chosen national parliament and regional legislatures were held in May and June 1995 . Most opposition parties chose to boycott these elections. There was a landslide victory for the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). International and non-governmental observers concluded that opposition parties would have been able to participate had they chosen to do so.
The current government of Ethiopia was installed in August 1995. The first President was Negasso Gidada. The EPRDF-led government of Prime Minister Meles Zenawi promoted a policy of ethnic federalism, devolving significant powers to regional, ethnically based authorities. Ethiopia today has nine semi-autonomous administrative regions that have the power to raise and spend their own revenues. Under the present government, some fundamental freedoms, including freedom of the press, are circumscribed.[67] Citizens have little access to media other than the state-owned networks, and most private newspapers struggle to remain open and suffer periodic harassment from the government.[67] At least 18 journalists who had written articles critical of the government were arrested following the 2005 elections on genocide and treason charges. The government uses press laws governing libel to intimidate journalists who are critical of its policies.[68]
Zenawi's government was elected in 2000 in Ethiopia's first ever multiparty elections; however, the results were heavily criticized by international observers and denounced by the opposition as fraudulent. The EPRDF also won the 2005 election returning Zenawi to power. Although the opposition vote increased in the election, both the opposition and observers from the European Union and elsewhere stated that the vote did not meet international standards for fair and free elections.[67] Ethiopian police are said to have massacred 193 protesters, mostly in the capital Addis Ababa, in the violence following the May 2005 elections in the Ethiopian police massacre.[69] The government initiated a crackdown in the provinces as well; in Oromia state the authorities used concerns over insurgency and terrorism to use torture, imprisonment, and other repressive methods to silence critics following the election, particularly people sympathetic to the registered opposition party Oromo National Congress (ONC).[68] The government has been engaged in a conflict with rebels in the Ogaden region since 2007. The biggest opposition party in 2005 was the Coalition for Unity and Democracy (CUD). After various internal divisions, most of the CUD party leaders have established the new Unity for Democracy and Justice party led by Judge Birtukan Mideksa. A member of the country's Oromo ethnic group, Ms. Birtukan Mideksa is the first woman to lead a political party in Ethiopia.

Regions, zones, and districts

Before 1996, Ethiopia was divided into 13 provinces, many derived from historical regions. Ethiopia now has a tiered government system consisting of a federal government overseeing ethnically based regional countries, zones, districts (woredas), and neighborhoods (kebele).
Ethiopia is divided into nine ethnically based administrative countries (kililoch, sing. kilil) and subdivided into sixty-eight zones and two chartered cities (astedader akababiwoch, sing. astedader akababi): Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa (subdivisions 1 and 5 in the map, respectively). It is further subdivided into 550 woredas and several special woredas.
The constitution assigns extensive power to regional states that can establish their own government and democracy according to the federal government's constitution. Each region has its apex regional council where members are directly elected to represent the districts and the council has legislative and executive power to direct internal affairs of the regions. Article 39 of the Ethiopian Constitution further gives every regional state the right to secede from Ethiopia. There is debate, however, as to how much of the power guaranteed in the constitution is actually given to the states. The councils implement their mandate through an executive committee and regional sectoral bureaus. Such elaborate structure of council, executive, and sectoral public institutions is replicated to the next level (woreda).
The regions and chartered cities of Ethiopia, numbered alphabetically
The nine regions and two chartered cities are:
  1. Addis Ababa
  2. Afar
  3. Amhara
  4. Benishangul-Gumuz
  5. Dire Dawa
  1. Gambela
  2. Harari
  3. Oromia
  4. Somali
  5. Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region
  6. Tigray

Geography

Map of Ethiopia.
At 435,071 square miles (1,126,829 km2),[70] Ethiopia is the world's 27th-largest country. It is comparable in size to Bolivia.
The major portion of Ethiopia lies on the Horn of Africa, which is the easternmost part of the African landmass. Bordering Ethiopia is Sudan to the west, Djibouti and Eritrea to the north, Somalia to the east, and Kenya to the south. Within Ethiopia is a vast highland complex of mountains and dissected plateaus divided by the Great Rift Valley, which runs generally southwest to northeast and is surrounded by lowlands, steppes, or semi-desert. The great diversity of terrain determines wide variations in climate, soils, natural vegetation, and settlement patterns.

Climate and landforms

The predominant climate type is tropical monsoon, with wide topographic-induced variation. The Ethiopian Highlands which cover most of the country have a climate which is generally considerably cooler than other regions at similar proximity to the Equator. Most of the country's major cities are located at elevations of around 2000–2500 metres (6600–8200 ft)above sea level, including historic capitals such as Gondar and Axum.
The modern capital Addis Ababa is situated on the foothills of Mount Entoto at an elevation of around 2400 metres (8000 ft), and experiences a healthy and pleasant climate year round. With fairly uniform year round temperatures, the seasons in Addis Ababa are largely defined by rainfall, with a dry season from October-February, a light rainy season from March-May, and a heavy rainy season from June-September. The average annual rainfall is around 1200mm (47 in). There are on average 7 hours of sunshine per day, meaning it is sunny for around 60% of the available time. The dry season is the sunniest time of the year, though even at the height of the rainy season in July and August there are still usually several hours per day of bright sunshine.
The average annual temperature in Addis Ababa is 16°C (61°F), with daily maximum temperatures averaging 20-25°C (68-77°F) throughout the year, and overnight lows averaging 5-10°C (41-50°F). A light jacket is recommended for the evenings, though many Ethiopians prefer to dress conservatively and will wear a light jacket even during the day.
Most major cities and tourist sites in Ethiopia lie at a similar elevation to Addis Ababa and have a comparable climate. In less elevated regions, particularly the lower lying Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands in the east of the country, the climate can be significantly hotter and drier. The town of Dallol, in the Danakil Depression in this eastern zone, has the world's highest average annual temperature of 34°C.
Ethiopia is an ecologically diverse country, ranging from the deserts along the eastern border to the tropical forests in the south to extensive Afromontane in the northern and southwestern parts. Lake Tana in the north is the source of the Blue Nile. It also has a large number of endemic species, notably the Gelada Baboon, the Walia Ibex and the Ethiopian wolf (or Simien fox). The wide range of altitude has given the country a variety of ecologically distinct areas, this has helped to encourage the evolution of endemic species in ecological isolation.

Environment

Endangered species

Historically, throughout the African continent, wildlife populations have been rapidly declining owing to logging, civil wars, hunting, pollution, poaching and other human interference.[71] A 17-year-long civil war along with severe drought, negatively impacted Ethiopia's environmental conditions leading to even greater habitat degradation.[72] Habitat destruction is a factor that leads to endangerment. When changes to a habitat occur rapidly, animals do not have time to adjust. Human impact threatens many species, with greater threats expected as a result of climate change induced by greenhouse gas emissions.[73]
Ethiopia has a large number of species listed as critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable to global extinction. To assess the current situation in Ethiopia, it is critical that the endangered species in this region are identified. The endangered species in Ethiopia can be broken down into three categories; Critically endangered, Endangered, and Vulnerable.[74]
Critically endangered Endangered Vulnerable
Bilen Gerbil Grevy's Zebra African Elephant
Black Rhinoceros Mountain Nyala Ammodile
Ethiopian Wolf Nubian Ibex Bailey's Shrew
Guramba Shrew African Wild Dog Bale Shrew
Harenna Shrew Beira Antelope
MacMillan's Shrew Cheetah
Walia Ibex Dibatag
Dorcas Gazelle
Glass's Shrew
Large-eared Free-tailed Bat
Lesser Horseshoe Bat
Lion
Moorland Shrew
Morris's Bat
Mouse-tailed Bat species
Natal Free-Tailed Bat
Nikolaus's Mouse
Patrizi's Trident Leaf-nosed Bat
Red-fronted Gazelle
Rupp's Mouse
Scott's Mouse-eared Bat
Soemmerring's Gazelle
Speke's Gazelle
Spotted-necked Otter
Stripe-backed Mouse
There are 31 endemic species, meaning that a species occurs naturally only in a certain area, in this case Ethiopia.[74] The African Wild Dog prehistorically had widespread distribution in Ethiopia; however, with last sightings at Fincha, this canid is thought to be potentially extirpated within Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Wolf is perhaps the most researched of all the endangered species within Ethiopia.

The Ethiopian Wolf

Ethiopian wolves are decreasing rapidly in population. Fewer than 500 remain today owing to the increased pressure from agriculture, high altitude grazing, hybridization with domestic dogs, direct persecution, and diseases such as rabies.[76] The EWCP (Ethiopian Wolf Conservation Project) actively works on protecting this conservation reliant species.[77] Scientists working with this project have found that this species has some resistance to the effects of small population sizes and some resilience to fragmentation.[77] A 2003 study on the Ethiopian wolf resulted in the conclusion that the key to its survival resides in securing its habitat and isolating its population from the impact of people, livestock and domestic dogs.[77] The interaction between humans and Ethiopian wolves has become increasingly threatening to their conservation as these negative interactions increase as human density increases. Human interactions include poisoning, persecution in reprisal for livestock losses, and road kills.[78] Mountainous areas are critical for Ethiopian wolves survival to provide a healthy habitat.[77] Protecting this unique creature entails securing protected status for conservation areas where ecological processes are preserved in an ecosystem, and addressing and counteracting direct threats to survival (human persecution, fragmented populations and coexistence with domestic dogs.) Biologists also recommend the goal of preserving a minimum of 90% of the existing genetic diversity of the species for 100 years, which may require establishing a Nucleus I captive breeding population (preferably in Ethiopia). These aspirations are being pursued by a group called the Ethiopian Wolf Recovery Programme (EWRP).[79]

Outreach

Several conservation programs are in effect to help endangered species in Ethiopia. A group was created in 1966 called The Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society, which focuses on studying and promoting the natural environments of Ethiopia along with spreading the knowledge they acquire, and supporting legislation to protect environmental resources.[80]
There are multiple conservation organizations one can access online, one of which connects directly to the Ethiopian Wolf. Funding supports the World Wildlife Fund’s global conservation efforts. The majority of the funds received (83%) goes towards conservation activities, while only 6% goes towards finance and administration. The remaining 11% of funds are allocated for fundraising, which is much needed. The WWF Chairman of the Board, Bruce Babbitt holds this organization accountable for the best practices in accountability, governance and transparency throughout all tiers within the organization.[81]
A critical way to help threatened animals survive would be to protect their habitat permanently through national parks, wilderness areas and nature reserves. By protecting the places where animals live, human interference is limited. Protecting farms, and any place along roadsides that harbor animals helps encourage protection.[82]

Deforestation

Deforestation is a major concern for Ethiopia as studies suggest loss of forest contributes to soil erosion, loss of nutrients in the soil, loss of animal habitats and reduction in biodiversity. At the beginning of the twentieth century around 420 000 km² or 35% of Ethiopia’s land was covered by trees but recent research indicates that forest cover is now approximately 11.9% of the area.[83] Ethiopia is one of the seven fundamental and independent centers of origin of cultivated plants of the world.
Ethiopia loses an estimated 1 410 km² of natural forests each year. Between 1990 and 2005 the country lost approximately 21 000 km².[citation needed]
Current government programs to control deforestation consist of education, promoting reforestation programs and providing alternate raw material to timber. In rural areas the government also provides non-timber fuel sources and access to non-forested land to promote agriculture without destroying forest habitat.
Organizations such as SOS and Farm Africa are working with the federal government and local governments to create a system of forest management.[84] Working with a grant of approximately 2.3 million euros the Ethiopian government recently began training people on reducing erosion and using proper irrigation techniques that do not contribute to deforestation. This project is assisting more than 80 communities.

Economy

Ethiopia has shown a fast-growing annual GDP and it was the fastest-growing non-oil-dependent African nation in 2007 and 2008.[85] Since 1991, there have been attempts to improve the economy; however, there has been some political opposition to the policies as well as a 2008 drought which slowed progress.[86] The effectiveness of these policies is reflected in the ten-percent yearly economic growth from 2003-2008. Despite these economic improvements, urban and rural poverty remains an issue in the country.
Ethiopia is often ironically referred to as the "water tower" of Eastern Africa because of the many (14 major) rivers that pour off the high tableland. It also has the greatest water reserves in Africa, but few irrigation systems in place to use it. Just 1% is used for power production and 1.5% for irrigation.[87]
Historically, Ethiopia's feudal and communist economic structure has always kept it one rainless season away from devastating droughts. But Ethiopia has a big potential and it is one of the most fertile countries. According to the New York Times, Ethiopia "could easily become the breadbasket for much of Europe if her agriculture were better organized."[citation needed]
Provision of telecommunications services is left to a state-owned monopoly. It is the view of the current government that maintaining state ownership in this vital sector is essential to ensure that telecommunication infrastructures and services are extended to rural Ethiopia, which would not be attractive to private enterprises.
Coffee farmer filling cups with coffee
The Ethiopian constitution defines the right to own land as belonging only to "the state and the people", but citizens may only lease land (up to 99 years), and are unable to mortgage or sell. Renting of land for a maximum of twenty years is allowed and this is expected to ensure that land goes to the most productive user.
Agriculture accounts for almost 41 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP), 80 percent of exports, and 80 percent of the labour force.[citation needed] Many other economic activities depend on agriculture, including marketing, processing, and export of agricultural products. Production is overwhelmingly by small-scale farmers and enterprises and a large part of commodity exports are provided by the small agricultural cash-crop sector. Principal crops include coffee, pulses (e.g., beans), oilseeds, cereals, potatoes, sugarcane, and vegetables. Recently, Ethiopia has had a fast-growing annual GDP and it was the fastest-growing non-oil-dependent African nation in 2007.[88][89] Exports are almost entirely agricultural commodities, and coffee is the largest foreign exchange earner. Ethiopia is Africa's second biggest maize producer.[90] Ethiopia's livestock population is believed to be the largest in Africa, and as of 1987 accounted for about 15 percent of the GDP.[citation needed] According to a recent UN report the GNP per capita of Ethiopia has reached $1541 (2009). The same report indicated that the life expectancy had improved substantially in recent years. The life expectancy of men is reported to be 52 years and for women 54 years.

Exports

Ethiopia was the original source of the coffee bean, and coffee beans are the country's largest export commodity.[91]
Ethiopia is also the 10th largest producer of livestock in the world. Other main export commodities are khat, gold, leather products, and oilseeds. Recent development of the floriculture sector means Ethiopia is poised to become one of the top flower and plant exporters in the world.[92]
With the private sector growing slowly, designer leather products like bags are becoming a big export business, with Taytu becoming the first luxury designer label in the country.[93] Additional small-scale export products include cereals, pulses, cotton, sugarcane, potatoes and hides. With the construction of various new dams and growing hydroelectric power projects around the country, Ethiopia has also begun exporting electric power to its neighbors.[94][95][96] However, coffee remains its most important export product and with new trademark deals around the world, including recent deals with Starbucks, the country plans to increase its revenue from coffee.[97] Most regard Ethiopia's large water resources and potential as its "white oil" and its coffee resources as "black gold".[98][99]
The country also has large mineral resources and oil potential in some the less inhabited regions. Political instability in those regions, however, has inhibited development. Ethiopian geologists were implicated in a major gold swindle in 2008. Four chemists and geologists from the Ethiopian Geological Survey were arrested in connection with a fake gold scandal, following complaints from buyers in South Africa. Gold bars from the National Bank of Ethiopia were found to be gilded metal by police, costing the state around US$17 million, according to the Science and Development Network website.[100]

Transport

Ethiopia has 681 km of railway that mainly consists of the Addis Ababa – Djibouti Railway, with a 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in) narrow gauge. At present the railway is under joint control of Djibouti and Ethiopia, but negotiations are underway to privatize this transport utility.
As the first part of a 10-year Road Sector Development Program, between 1997 and 2002 the Ethiopian government began a sustained effort to improve its infrastructure of roads. As a result, as of 2002 Ethiopia has a total (Federal and Regional) 33 297 km of roads, both paved and gravel.

Urbanization

Population growth, migration, and urbanization are all straining both governments' and ecosystems' capacity to provide people with basic services.[101] Urbanization has steadily been increasing in Ethiopia, with two periods of significantly rapid growth. First, in 1936–1941 during the Italian occupation of Mussolini’s fascist regime, and from 1967 to 1975 when the populations of urban centers tripled.[102] In 1936, Italy annexed Ethiopia, building infrastructure to connect major cities, and a dam providing power and water.[103] This along with the influx of Italians and laborers was the major cause of rapid growth during this period. The second period of growth was from 1967 to 1975 when rural populations migrated to urban centers seeking work and better living conditions.[102] This pattern slowed after to the 1975 Land Reform program instituted by the government provided incentives for people to stay in rural areas. As people moved from rural areas to the cities, there were fewer people to grow food for the population. The Land Reform Act was meant to increase agriculture since food production was not keeping up with population growth over the period of 1970–1983.[104] This program proliferated the formation of peasant associations, large villages based on agriculture.[104] The act did lead to an increase in food production, although there is debate over the cause; it may be related to weather conditions more than the reform act.[104] Urban populations have continued to grow with an 8.1% increase from 1975 to 2000.[105]
Street scene of buses on Bole Road in Addis Ababa

Rural vs. urban life

Migration to urban areas is usually motivated by the hope of better living conditions. In peasant associations daily life is a struggle to survive. About 16% of the population in Ethiopia are living on less than 1 dollar per day (2008). Only 65% of rural households in Ethiopia consume the World Health Organization's minimum standard of food per day (2,200 kilocalories), with 42% of children under 5 years old being underweight.[106] Most poor families (75%) share their sleeping quarters with livestock, and 40% of children sleep on the floor, where nighttime temperatures average 5 degrees Celsius in the cold season.[106] The average family size is six or seven, living in a 30-square-meter mud and thatch hut, with less than two hectares of land to cultivate.[106] These living conditions are deplorable, but are the daily lives of peasant associations.
The peasant associations face a cycle of poverty. Since the landholdings are so small, farmers cannot allow the land to lie fallow, which reduces soil fertility.[106] This land degradation reduces the production of fodder for livestock, which causes low milk yields.[106] Since the community burns livestock manure as fuel, rather than plowing the nutrients back into the land, the crop production is reduced.[106] The low productivity of agriculture leads to inadequate incomes for farmers, hunger, malnutrition and disease. These unhealthy farmers have a hard time working the land and the productivity drops further.[106]
Although conditions are drastically better in cities, all of Ethiopia suffers from poverty, and poor sanitation. In the capital city of Addis Ababa, 55% of the population lives in slums.[103] Although there are some wealthy neighborhoods with mansions, most people make their houses using whatever materials are available, with walls made of mud or wood. Only 12% of homes have cement tiles or floors.[103] Sanitation is the most pressing need in the city, with most of the population lacking access to waste treatment facilities. This contributes to the spread of illness through unhealthy water.[103]
Despite the living conditions in the cities, the people of Addis Ababa are much better off than people living in the peasant associations owing to their educational opportunities. Unlike rural children, 69% of urban children are enrolled in primary school, and 35% of those eligible for secondary school attend.[103] Addis Ababa has its own university as well as many other secondary schools. The literacy rate is 82%.[103]
Health is also much greater in the cities. Birth rates, infant mortality rates, and death rates are lower in the city than in rural areas owing to better access to education and hospitals.[103] Life expectancy is higher at 53, compared to 48 in rural areas.[103] Despite sanitation being a problem, use of improved water sources is also greater; 81% in cities compared to 11% in rural areas.[105] This encourages more people to migrate to the cities in hopes of better living conditions.
Many NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations) are working to solve this problem; however, most are far apart, uncoordinated, and working in isolation.[105] The Sub-Saharan Africa NGO Consortium is attempting to coordinate efforts among NGOs in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, Sudan, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Senegal, Ivory Coast, Mali, Ghana, and Nigeria.[105]

Demographics

View from the Sheraton Hotel in Addis Ababa
Ethiopia's population has grown from 33.5 million in 1983 to 75.1 million in 2006.[107] The 2007 Population and Housing Census results show that the population of Ethiopia grew at an average annual rate of 2.6% between 1994 and 2007, down from 2.8% during the period 1983–1994. The country's population is highly diverse. Most of its people speak an Afro-Asiatic language, mainly of the Semitic or the Cushitic branches. The Oromo, Amhara, Tigray and Somali make up three-quarters of the population, but there are more than 80 different ethnic groups within Ethiopia. Some of these have as few as 10,000 members.
Ethiopians and Eritreans, especially Semitic-speaking ones, collectively refer to themselves as Habesha or Abesha, though others reject these names on the basis that they refer only to certain ethnicities.[108] The Arabic form of this term (Al-Habasha) is the etymological basis of "Abyssinia," the former name of Ethiopia in English and other European languages.[109]
According to the Ethiopian national census of 2007, the Oromo are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia at 34.49%. The Amhara represent 26.89%, while the Tigray people are 6.07% of the population. Other ethnic groups are as follows: Somali 6.20%, Sidama 4.01%, Gurage 2.53%, Wolayta 2.31%, Afar 1.73%, Hadiya 1.74%, Gamo 1.50%, Kefficho 1.18% and others 11%.[1][2]
In 2007, Ethiopia hosted a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 201,700. The majority of this population came from Somalia (approximately 111,600 persons), Sudan (55,400) and Eritrea (23,900). The Ethiopian government required nearly all refugees to live in refugee camps.[110]

Languages

Ethiopia has eighty-four indigenous languages. Some of these are:
English is the most widely spoken foreign language and is the medium of instruction in secondary schools. Amharic was the language of primary school instruction, but has been replaced in many areas by local languages such as Oromifa and Tigrinya. Ethiopia has its own alphabet, called Ge'ez or Ethiopic (ግዕዝ), and calendar.

Religion

Religion in Ethiopia
religion percent
Christianity
  
62.8%
Islam
  
33.9%
Traditional
  
2.6%
Other
  
0.6%
Mosque in Harar
According to the 2007 National Census, Christians make up 62.8% of the country's population (43.5% Ethiopian Orthodox, 19.3% other denominations), Muslims 33.9%, practitioners of traditional faiths 2.6%, and other religions 0.6%[1] This is in agreement with the updated CIA World Factbook, which states that Christianity is the most widely practiced religion in Ethiopia. According to the latest CIA factbook figure Muslims constitute 32.8% of the population.[111] Orthodox Christianity has a long history in Ethiopia dating back to the first century, and a dominant presence in central and northern Ethiopia. Both Orthodox and Protestant Christianity have large representations in the South and Western Ethiopia. A small ancient group of Jews, the Beta Israel, live in northwestern Ethiopia, though most emigrated to Israel in the last decades of the twentieth century as part of the rescue missions undertaken by the Israeli government, Operation Moses and Operation Solomon.[112] Some Israeli and Jewish scholars consider these Ethiopian Jews as a historical Lost Tribe of Israel.
This leather painting depicts Ethiopian Orthodox priests playing sistra and a drum.
The Kingdom of Aksum was one of the first nations to officially adopt Christianity, when St. Frumentius of Tyre, called Fremnatos or Abba Selama ("Father of Peace") in Ethiopia, converted King Ezana during the fourth century AD. Many believe that the Gospel had entered Ethiopia even earlier, with the royal official described as being baptised by Philip the Evangelist in chapter eight of the Acts of the Apostles. (Acts 8:26–39) Today, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, part of Oriental Orthodoxy, is by far the largest denomination, though a number of Protestant (Pentay) churches and the Ethiopian Orthodox Tehadeso Church have recently gained ground. Since the eighteenth century there has existed a relatively small (uniate) Ethiopian Catholic Church in full communion with Rome, with adherents making up less than 1% of the total population.[1]
A traditional Ethiopian depiction of Jesus and Mary.
The name "Ethiopia" (Hebrew Kush) is mentioned in the Bible numerous times (thirty-seven times in the King James version). Abyssinia is also mentioned in the Qur'an and Hadith. While many Ethiopians claim that the Bible references of Kush apply to their own ancient civilization, pointing out that the Gihon river, a name for the Nile, is said to flow through the land, most non-Ethiopian scholars believe that the use of the term referred to the Kingdom of Kush in particular or Africa outside of Egypt in general. Some have argued[citation needed] that biblical Kush was a large part of land that included Northern Ethiopia, Eritrea and most of present day Sudan. The capital cities of biblical Kush were in Northern Sudan.
Islam in Ethiopia dates back to the founding of the religion; in 615, when a group of Muslims were counseled by Muhammad to escape persecution in Mecca and travel to Ethiopia via modern day Eritrea, which was ruled by Ashama ibn Abjar, a pious Christian king. Moreover, Bilal, the first muezzin, the person chosen to call the faithful to prayer, and one of the foremost companions of Muhammad, was from Abyssinia (Eritrea, Ethiopia etc.). Also, the largest single ethnic group of non-Arab Companions of Muhammad was that of the Ethiopian's.
There are numerous indigenous African religions in Ethiopia, mainly located in the far southwest and western borderlands. In general, most of the (largely members of the non-Chalcedonian Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church) Christians live in the highlands, while Muslims and adherents of traditional African religions tend to inhabit more lowland regions in the east and south of the country.
Ethiopia is also the spiritual homeland of the Rastafari movement, whose adherents believe Ethiopia is Zion. The Rastafari view Emperor Haile Selassie I as Jesus, the human incarnation of God. The Emperor himself was an Ethiopian Orthodox Christian, which also has a concept of Zion, though it represents a separate and complex concept, referring figuratively to St. Mary, but also to Ethiopia as a bastion of Christianity surrounded by Muslims and other religions, much like Mount Zion in the Bible. It is also used to refer to Axum, the ancient capital and religious centre of Ethiopian Orthodox Christians, or to its primary church, called Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion.[113] The Bahá'í Faith is concentrated primarily in Addis Ababa, but also in the suburbs of Yeka, Kirkos and Nefas Silk Lafto.[114]

Ethiopian calendar

Ethiopia has its own calendar, which is based on the Coptic calendar, and is roughly eight years behind the Gregorian calendar.

Health

According to the head of the World Bank's Global HIV/AIDS Program, Ethiopia has only 1 medical doctor per 100,000 people.[115] However, the World Health Organization in its 2006 World Health Report gives a figure of 1936 physicians (for 2003),[116] which comes to about 2.6 per 100,000. Globalization is said to affect the country, with many educated professionals leaving Ethiopia for a better economic opportunity in the West.
Ethiopia's main health problems are said to be communicable diseases caused by poor sanitation and malnutrition. These problems are exacerbated by the shortage of trained manpower and health facilities.[117]
There are 119 hospitals (12 in Addis Ababa alone) and 412 health centers in Ethiopia.[118] Ethiopia has a relatively low average life expectancy of 45 years.[119] Infant mortality rates are relatively very high, as over 8% of infants die during or shortly after childbirth,[119] (although this is a dramatic decrease from 16% in 1965) while birth-related complications such as obstetric fistula affect many of the nation's women. HIV is also prevalent in the country.

Ethiopian traditional medicine

The low availability of health care professionals with modern medical training, together with lack of funds for medical services, leads to the preponderancy of less reliable traditional healers that use home-based therapies to heal common ailments.
One medical practice that is commonly practiced irrespective of religion or economic status is female genital mutilation, a procedure by which some of the woman's genital areas are cut or burned away in order to preserve her chastity. Sometimes, most of the tissue covering the vagina may be removed. This procedure is often carried out without anesthesia and crude instruments such as broken glass, scissors or knives may be used on the woman. This procedure is carried out when the girl is usually a small child. .[120] As of 1965, close to four out of five Ethiopian women were circumcised.[120]

Education

Education in Ethiopia had been dominated by the Orthodox Church for many centuries until secular education was adopted in the early 1900s.The current system follows very similar school expansion schemes to the rural areas as the previous 1980s system with an addition of deeper regionalisation giving rural education in their own languages starting at the elementary level and with more budget allocated to the education sector. The sequence of general education in Ethiopia is six years of primary school, four years of lower secondary school and two years of higher secondary school.[121] in 2004 school enrollment was below that of many other African countries.[122] Half the population of Ethiopia are illiterate.[123]

Culture

Cuisine

Typical Ethiopian cuisine: Injera (pancake-like bread) and several kinds of wat (stew).
The best known Ethiopian cuisine consists of various vegetable or meat side dishes and entrées, usually a wat, or thick stew, served atop injera, a large sourdough flatbread made of teff flour. One does not eat with utensils, but instead uses injera to scoop up the entrées and side dishes. Tihlo prepared from roasted barley flour is very popular in Amhara, Agame, and Awlaelo (Tigrai). Traditional Ethiopian cuisine employs no pork or shellfish of any kind, as they are forbidden in the Islamic, Jewish, and Ethiopian Orthodox Christian faiths. It is also very common to eat from the same dish in the center of the table with a group of people.

Music

Mahmoud Ahmed, an Ethiopian singer of Gurage ancestry, in 2005.
The Music of Ethiopia is extremely diverse, with each of the country's 80 ethnic groups being associated with unique sounds. Ethiopian music uses a unique modal system that is pentatonic, with characteristically long intervals between some notes. Influences include ancient Christian elements and Muslim and folk music from elsewhere in the Horn of Africa, especially Sudan and Somalia. Popular old and young musicians include Teddy Afro (Tewodros Kasahune), Tilahun Gessesse, Aster Aweke, Hamelmal Abate, Dawite Mekonen, Ilfinish Keno, Ebisa Adugna, Tewodros Tadesse, Kemer Yusuf, Ephrem Tamiru, Muluken Melesse, Bizunesh Bekele, Hirut Bekele, Mahmoud Ahmed, Tadesse Alemu, Alemayehu Eshete, Asnaketch Worku, Ali Birra, Gigi, Dawit (Messay) Mellesse,Mulatu Astatke and Gossaye Tesfaye.

Sport

The main sports in Ethiopia are soccer and track. Ethiopian athletes have won many Olympic gold medals in track and field but the national football team was not successful. Some success came from a world record set by Haile Gebrselassie in the marathon in an incredible two hours, three minutes, and fifty-nine seconds. Another man, Kenenisa Bekele, is also a dominant runner, particuolary in the 5000 and 10,000 meters. Some notable Ethiopian athletes are Abebe Bikila, Mamo Wolde, Miruts Yifter, Haile Gebrselassie, Derartu Tulu, Kenenisa Bekele, Tirunesh Dibaba, Meseret Defar and Gelete Burka.

Archaeology

People and languages

Nations, nationalities and peoples

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d 2007 Census, [1]PDF (51.7 KB) . Retrieved 3 may 2009.
  2. ^ a b Embassy of Ethiopia, Washington, DC. Retrieved 6 April 2006.
  3. ^ Ethiopia Central Statistics Office -- Population Projection for mid-2008
  4. ^ a b c d "Ethiopia". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=644&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=67&pr.y=8. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  5. ^ Ethiopia, Africa's second most populous country
  6. ^ Speaking after his signing the disputed treaty between Ethiopia and Italy in 1889, Emperor Menelik II made clear his position: "We cannot permit our integrity as a Christian and civilised nation to be questioned, nor the right to govern our empire in absolute independence. The Emperor of Ethiopia is a descendant of a dynasty that is 3,016 years old — a dynasty that during all that time has never submitted to an outsider. Ethiopia has never been conquered and she never shall be conquered by anyone." Ethiopia Unbound: Studies In Race Emancipation - p. xxv by Joseph Ephraim Casely Hayford
  7. ^ "Ethiopia is top choice for cradle of Homo sapiens". Nature. 16 February 2005. http://www.nature.com/news/2005/050214/full/050214-10.html. Retrieved 2008-02-02. 
  8. ^ Li, J. Z. (February 2008). "Worldwide Human Relationships Inferred from Genome-Wide Patterns of Variation". Science 319 (5866): 1100–1104. doi:10.1126/science.1153717. PMID 18292342. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/319/5866/1100. 
  9. ^ "Humans Moved From Africa Across Globe, DNA Study Says". Bloomberg.com. 2008-02-21. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601081&sid=awJVkvnk8KjM&refer=australia. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  10. ^ By KAREN KAPLAN, Los Angeles Times (2008-02-21). "Around the world from Addis Ababa". Startribune.com. http://www.startribune.com/world/15860017.html. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  11. ^ United Nations Economic Comission for Africa UNECA
  12. ^ the only African country with its own alphabet
  13. ^ "World Heritage List – Africa". UNESCO. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/?search=&searchSites=&search_by_country=&search_yearinscribed=&type=&media=&region=5&criteria_restrication=&order=. Retrieved 2009-08-06. 
  14. ^ Ethiopia surpasses Kenya to become East Africa's Biggest Economy
  15. ^ Ethiopia has fastest growing non-Oil Economy in Africa – IMF
  16. ^ Ethiopia will be 5th fastest growing economy in the world in 2010 - economist
  17. ^ Ethiopia regional powerhouse
  18. ^ CSIS on Ethiopia regional power
  19. ^ Nat. Hist. 6.184–187
  20. ^ "Aithiops, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, ''A Greek-English Lexicon'', at Perseus". Perseus.tufts.edu. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%232329. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  21. ^ The etymology suggested by the late Ethiopian poet laureate Tsegaye Gabre-Medhin, which traces the name Ethiopia to the "old black Egyptian" words Et (Truth or Peace) Op (high or upper) and Bia (land, country), or "land of higher peace", is not taken seriously by any mainstream scholar. To begin with, you will not find any such words in an Ancient Egyptian dictionary.
  22. ^ Histories, book 2, chapters 29 and 146; book 3 chapter 17 Odyssey, book 1, lines 22-23; book 4, line 84
  23. ^ Histories, II, 29-30; III, 114; IV, 197
  24. ^ Cp. Ezekiel 29:10
  25. ^ Acts 8:27
  26. ^ Munro Hay 1991
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  30. ^ http://www.boston.com/news/science/articles/2008/02/22/dna_used_to_chart_migration_of_humans/
  31. ^ http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/05/070509161829.htm
  32. ^ http://www.wsws.org/articles/2000/may2000/foss-m29.shtml
  33. ^ http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2003/652/heritage.htm
  34. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2909803.stm
  35. ^ http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/41026000/gif/_41026369_genographic_map416.gif
  36. ^ "Mother of man - 3.2 million years ago". Bbc.co.uk. http://www.bbc.co.uk/sn/prehistoric_life/human/human_evolution/mother_of_man1.shtml. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  37. ^ "Oldest human offers new clues on evolution". cnn.com. http://www.cnn.com/2009/TECH/science/10/01/oldest.human.skeleton/index.html. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  38. ^ Stuart Munro-Hay, Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: University Press, 1991, pp.57.
  39. ^ Taddesse Tamrat, Church and State in Ethiopia: 1270–1527 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1972), pp. 5–13.
  40. ^ ibid.
  41. ^ Herausgegeben von Uhlig, Siegbert. Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, "Ge'ez". Wiesbaden:Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005, pp. 732.
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  43. ^ Pankhurst, Richard K.P. Addis Tribune, "Let's Look Across the Red Sea I", 17 January 2003.
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Bibliography

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  • Haile Selassie I. (1999). My Life and Ethiopia's Progress: The Autobiography of Emperor Haile Selassie I. Translated by Edward Ullendorff. Chicago: Frontline. ISBN 0948390409. 
  • Henze, Paul B. (2004). Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia. Shama Books. ISBN 1-931253-28-5. 
  • Marcus, Harold G. (1975). The Life and Times of Menelik II: Ethiopia, 1844–1913. Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon.  Reprint, Trenton, NJ: Red Sea, 1995. ISBN 1569020094.
  • Marcus, Harold G. (2002). A History of Ethiopia (updated ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0520224795. 
  • Mockler, Anthony (1984). Haile Selassie's War. New York: Random House.  Reprint, New York: Olive Branch, 2003. ISBN 1902669533.
  • Pankhurst, Richard. "History of Northern Ethiopia — and the Establishment of the Italian Colony or Eritrea". Civic Webs Virtual Library. http://www.civicwebs.com/cwvlib/africa/ethiopia/pankhurst/history_of_northern_ethiopia.htm. Retrieved 5 April 2008. 
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  • Siegbert Uhlig, et al. (eds.) (2005). Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, Vol. 2: D-Ha. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.
  • Siegbert Uhlig, et al. (eds.) (2007). Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, Vol. 3: He-N. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.
  • Arnaldo Mauri, The Early Development of Banking in Ethiopia, International Review of Economics, Vol. L, n. 4, 2003, pp. 521–543.
  • Arnaldo Mauri, The re-establishment of the national monetary and banking system in Ethiopia, 1941-1964, The South African Journal of Economic History, 24 (2) , 2009, pp. 82–131.

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Africa : East Africa : Ethiopia
noframe
Location
Image:LocationEthiopia.png
Flag
Image:et-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Addis Ababa
Government Federal republic; Hybrid regime
Currency birr (ETB)
Area total: 1,127,127 km2
water: 7,444 km2
land: 1,119,683 km2
Population 74,777,981 (July 2006 est.)
Language Amharic, Oromo, Tigrinya Guaragigna, Somali, Arabic, other local languages, English (major foreign language taught in schools)
Electricity 220V/50Hz (European & Italian plugs)
Calling Code +251
Internet TLD .et
Time Zone UTC+3
.Ethiopia [1] is a country situated in the Horn of Africa.^ Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the three main colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the pan-African colors .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethiopia is the tenth largest country in Africa, covering 439,580 square miles (1,138,512 square kilometers) and is the major constituent of the landmass known as the Horn of Africa.
  • Culture of Ethiopia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ethiopia – FREE Ethiopia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Ethiopia research 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major portion of Ethiopia lies on the Horn of Africa , which is the eastern-most part of the African landmass.
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is the 2nd-most populous nation in Africa ( after Nigeria ), bordered by Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south, and Sudan to the west.^ GEOGRAPHY Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan.
  • Ethiopia (12/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bordering Ethiopia is Sudan to the west, Djibouti and Eritrea to the north, Somalia to the east, and Kenya to the south.
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethiopia is bordered by Eritrea to the north, Sudan to the west, Kenya to the south, Somalia to the east and Djibouti to the north-east.
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa and the second-oldest official Christian nation in the world after Armenia.^ Ethiopia is one of the oldest countries in the world and Africa's second-most populous nation.
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world.
  • Ethiopia (12/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For country data only: In early 2006 important new data from a national community-based survey and from rural surveillance sites had become available in Ethiopia.

.Ethiopia is also the 10th richest country in Africa.^ Ethiopia is the tenth largest country in Africa, covering 439,580 square miles (1,138,512 square kilometers) and is the major constituent of the landmass known as the Horn of Africa.
  • Culture of Ethiopia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ethiopia – FREE Ethiopia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Ethiopia research 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethnologue > Web version > Country index > Africa > Ethiopia Languages of Ethiopia .
  • Ethnologue report for Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Ethiopia is one of the oldest countries in the world and Africa's second-most populous nation.
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Understand

History

.Ethiopia is one of the oldest independent nations in the world.^ Ethiopia is one of the oldest countries in the world and Africa's second-most populous nation.
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world.
  • Ethiopia (12/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the three main colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the pan-African colors .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has long been an intersection between the civilizations of North Africa, the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa.^ Other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa .

^ GEOGRAPHY Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan.
  • Ethiopia (12/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Ethiopian Orthodox Church is the oldest sub-Saharan African church, and the first mosque in Africa was built in the Tigre province.
  • Culture of Ethiopia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ethiopia – FREE Ethiopia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Ethiopia research 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unique among African countries, Ethiopia was never colonized, maintaining its independence throughout the Scramble for Africa onward, except for a five-year period (1936-41) when it was under Italian military occupation.^ Ethiopia is the only African country never to have been colonized, although an Italian occupation occurred from 1936 to 1941.
  • Culture of Ethiopia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ethiopia – FREE Ethiopia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Ethiopia research 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world.
  • Ethiopia (12/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mahmoud Ahmed truly is the voice of Ethiopia the only African country that was never colonized.
  • ETHIOPIA 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.natari.com [Source type: General]

.During this period, the Italians occupied only a few key cities and major routes, and faced continuing native resistance until they were finally defeated during the Second World War by a joint Ethiopian-British alliance.^ Remnants of the Italian occupation during World War II exist in the capital, such as the use of ciao to say "good-bye."
  • Culture of Ethiopia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ethiopia – FREE Ethiopia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Ethiopia research 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the period of European colonialism in Africa, the Ethiopian highlanders undertook an intra-African colonial enterprise.
  • Culture of Ethiopia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ethiopia – FREE Ethiopia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Ethiopia research 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Five years later, British and Ethiopian forces defeated the Italians, and the emperor returned to the throne.
  • Ethiopia (12/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ethiopia has long been a member of international organizations: it became a member of the League of Nations, signed the Declaration by United Nations in 1942, founded the UN headquarters in Africa, was one of the 51 original members of the United Nations, and is the headquarters for and one of the founding members of the former OAU and current AU.
.Ethiopia was also historically called Abyssinia, derived from the Arabic form of the Ethiosemitic name "ḤBŚT," modern Habesha.^ In English and generally outside of Ethiopia, the country was also once historically known as Abyssinia , derived from Habesh , an early Arabic form of the Ethiosemitic name "Ḥabaśāt" (unvocalized "ḤBŚT"), modern Habesha , the native name for the country's inhabitants (while the country was called "Ityopp'ya").
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a few languages, Ethiopia is still called by names cognate with "Abyssinia," e.g., and modern Arabic Al Habeshah , meaning land of the Habesha people.
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Arabic form of this term (Al-Habasha) is the etymological basis of "Abyssinia," the former name of Ethiopia in English and other European languages.
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some countries, Ethiopia is still called by names cognate with "Abyssinia," e.g.^ Aksum was an ancient name of Ethiopia, also known as Abyssinia.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Outsiders found coffee in the region of Ethiopia called Kaffa, hence the name.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Turkish Habesistan, meaning land of the Habesha people.^ In a few languages, Ethiopia is still called by names cognate with "Abyssinia," e.g., and modern Arabic Al Habeshah , meaning land of the Habesha people.
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Land is a common property of the Nations, Nationalities and Peoples of Ethiopia and shall not be subject to sale or to other means of exchange.
  • ICL - Ethiopia - Constitution 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.oefre.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ The name "Ethiopia" derives from the Greek ethio , meaning "burned" and pia , meaning "face": the land of burned-faced peoples.
  • Culture of Ethiopia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The English name "Ethiopia" is thought to be derived from the Greek word Αἰθιοπία Aithiopia, from Αἰθίοψ Aithiops ‘an Ethiopian’, derived from Greek terms meaning "of burnt (αιθ-) visage (ὄψ)".[1] However, this etymology is disputed, since the Book of Aksum, a Ge'ez chronicle first composed in the 15th century, states that the name is derived from "'Ityopp'is", a son (unmentioned in the Bible) of Cush, son of Ham who according to legend founded the city of Axum.^ However, the Book of Aksum , a Ge'ez chronicle compiled in the 15th century, states that the name is derived from "' Ityopp'is " — a son (unmentioned in the Bible) of Cush, son of Ham , who according to legend founded the city of Axum .
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Ge'ez name ʾĪtyōṗṗyā and its English cognate are thought by some recent scholars to be derived from the Greek word Αἰθιοπία Aithiopia, from Αἰθίοψ Aithiops ‘an Ethiopian’, derived in turn from Greek words meaning "of burned face".
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Ge'ez , the ancient Semitic language of Ethiopia, is now thought not to have derived from Sabaean (also South Semitic).
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Climate

.The predominant climate type is tropical monsoon, with wide topographic-induced variation.^ The great diversity of terrain determines wide variations in climate, soils, natural vegetation, and settlement patterns.
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a highland country, Ethiopia has a climate which is generally considerably cooler than other regions at similar proximity to the Equator.^ Ethiopia has vast agricultural potential because of its large areas of fertile land, a diverse climate, and generally adequate rainfall.
  • Culture of Ethiopia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ethiopia – FREE Ethiopia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Ethiopia research 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the three main colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the pan-African colors .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethiopia is safer than the neighboring countries, particularly in urban areas.
  • Culture of Ethiopia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ethiopia – FREE Ethiopia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Ethiopia research 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of the country's major cities are located at elevations of around 2000-2500 metres (6600-8200 ft)above sea level, including historic capitals such as Gondar and Axum.^ However, coffee remains its most important export product and with new trademark deals around the world, including recent deals with Starbucks , the country plans to increase its revenue from coffee.
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the 41 detainees, including all women and children, were released during the year; some were sent back to their respective countries for possible prosecution.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Crime There is a moderate level of crime in Ethiopia, including in the capital.
  • Ethiopia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.The modern capital Addis Ababa is situated on the foothills of Mount Entoto at an elevation of around 2400 metres (8000 ft), and experiences a healthy and pleasant climate year round.^ (AFP, 7/11/08) 2008 Jul 12, Ethiopia said it has arrested eight "Eritrean-trained" rebels suspected of carrying out bombings that rocked the capital Addis Ababa and killed eight people earlier this year.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ You can get relatively cheap flights to Addis Ababa, the capital, and then there are plenty of public buses that criss-cross the country.
  • ETHIOPIA - Nicholas D. Kristof Blog - NYTimes.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC kristof.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Ethiopian police are said to have massacred 193 protesters, mostly in the capital Addis Ababa , in the violence following the May 2005 elections in the Ethiopian police massacre .
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With fairly uniform year round temperatures, the seasons in Addis Ababa are largely defined by rainfall, with a dry season from October-February, a light rainy season from March-May, and a heavy rainy season from June-September.^ Rainy Season The rainy season normally extends from June to September.
  • Ethiopia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ The normal rainy season is from mid-June to mid-September (longer in the southern highlands), preceded by intermittent showers from February or March; the remainder of the year is generally dry.
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With an erratic rainy season last year and failed “short” rains that normally come during the dry season to keep water levels up, the lowlands of Ethiopia are still in drought conditions.

The average annual rainfall is around 1200mm (47in). .There are on average 7 hours of sunshine per day, meaning it is sunny for around 60% of the available time.^ By law, children between the ages of 14 and 18 were not permitted to work more than seven hours per day, work between the hours of 10 p.m.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Time is usually measured as a 12-hour day starting at 6 a.m.
  • Ethiopia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Passport information is available 24 hours, 7 days a week.
  • Ethiopia (12/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The dry season is the sunniest time of the year, though even at the height of the rainy season in July and August there are still usually several hours per day of bright sunshine.^ Time is usually measured as a 12-hour day starting at 6 a.m.
  • Ethiopia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ The normal rainy season is from mid-June to mid-September (longer in the southern highlands), preceded by intermittent showers from February or March; the remainder of the year is generally dry.
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With an erratic rainy season last year and failed “short” rains that normally come during the dry season to keep water levels up, the lowlands of Ethiopia are still in drought conditions.

.The average annual temperature in Addis Ababa is 16°C (61°F), with daily maximum temperatures averaging 20-25°C (68-77°F) throughout the year, and overnight lows averaging 5-10°C (41-50°F).^ In the capital city of Addis Ababa alone, there are an estimated 50,000 to 60,000 street children according to the government, and 100,000 according to UNICEF. .
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Ethiopia has a relatively low average life expectancy of 45 years.
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treatment for fistulae was available at only one hospital, the Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital, which annually performed over 1,000 fistula operations.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.A light jacket is recommended for the evenings, though many Ethiopians prefer to dress conservatively and will wear a light jacket even during the day.^ Oilseed consumption is widespread because the Ethiopian Orthodox Church prohibits the usage of animal fats on many days during the year.
  • Culture of Ethiopia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ethiopia – FREE Ethiopia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Ethiopia research 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even though these texts were not included in the Biblical canon, among Biblical scholars (and Ethiopian Christians) they are regarded as significant to an understanding of the origin and development of Christianity.
  • Culture of Ethiopia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ethiopia – FREE Ethiopia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Ethiopia research 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most major cities and tourist sites in Ethiopia lie at a similar elevation to Addis Ababa and have a comparable climate, though in less elevated regions, particularly the lower lying regions in the east of the country, the climate can be significantly hotter and drier.^ Addis Ababa, administrative boundaries of Ethiopia.

^ Add live 'Ethiopia' headlines to your site Regions and Countries .

^ East, walled city of Harar; Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa.
  • Ethnologue report for Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

The town of Dallol, in the Danakil Depression in this eastern zone, has the world's highest average annual temperature of 34°C.

Terrain

High plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
Elevation extremes 
lowest point: Denakil Depression -125 m
highest point: Ras Dejen 4,620 m
Natural hazards 
geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts
Geography - note 
landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993; the Blue Nile, the chief headstream of the Nile, rises in T'ana Hayk (Lake Tana) in northwest Ethiopia; three major crops are believed to have originated in Ethiopia: coffee, grain sorghum, and castor bean

Time and calendar

.Ethiopia uses the Ethiopian calendar, which dates back to the Coptic calendar 25 BC and never adopted the Julian or Gregorian reforms.^ Ethiopian dynastic history traditionally began with the reign of Emperor Menelik I in 1000 BC. The roots of the Ethiopian state are similarly deep, dating with unbroken continuity to at least the Aksumite Empire (which officially used the name "Ethiopia" in the 4th century) and its predecessor state, D`mt (with early 1st millennium BC roots).
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still using the Julian calendar, abandoned by the West in the 16th century, Ethiopia enters its new millennium on September 12 with a huge concert expected to draw hundreds of thousands of partygoers and international celebrities.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Practices Travellers should be aware that Ethiopia operates with both the Western and the Julian time and calendar systems.
  • Ethiopia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.One Ethiopian year consists of twelve months, each lasting thirty days, plus a thirteenth month of five or six days (hence the "Thirteen Months of Sunshine" tourism slogan).^ The cross symbolizes the strength and reliance of the monarchy on the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, the dominant religion for the last sixteen hundred years.
  • Ethiopia – FREE Ethiopia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Ethiopia research 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oilseed consumption is widespread because the Ethiopian Orthodox Church prohibits the usage of animal fats on many days during the year.
  • Ethiopia – FREE Ethiopia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Ethiopia research 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The annual session of the House shall begin on Monday of the final week of the Ethiopian month of Meskerem and end on the 30th day of the Ethiopian month of Sene.
  • ICL - Ethiopia - Constitution 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.oefre.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

.The Ethiopian new year begins on September 10 or 11 (in the Gregorian calendar), and has accumulated 7-8 years lag behind the Gregorian calendar: thus, for the first nine months of 2007, the year will be 1999 according to the Ethiopian calendar.^ September 29, 2007, 10:20 am .
  • ETHIOPIA - Nicholas D. Kristof Blog - NYTimes.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC kristof.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ September 12, 2007, 10:38 am .
  • ETHIOPIA - Nicholas D. Kristof Blog - NYTimes.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC kristof.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ The annual session of the House shall begin on Monday of the final week of the Ethiopian month of Meskerem and end on the 30th day of the Ethiopian month of Sene.
  • ICL - Ethiopia - Constitution 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.oefre.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

On September 11, 2007, Ethiopia celebrated New Year's Day (Enkutatesh) for 2000.
In Ethiopia, the 12-hour clock cycles do not begin at midnight and noon, but instead are offset six hours. Thus, Ethiopians refer to midnight (or noon) as 6 o'clock.
Note: Airline timetables are based on the 24-hour clock and use the Gregorian calendar.

Regions

Note: the administrative divisions of Harari, Addis Ababa, and Dire Dawa are included in Oromia for travel purposes.
Afar
Amhara
Benishangul-Gumaz
Gambela
Oromia
Somali
Southern Ethiopia
Tigray
  • Addis Ababa - Capital of Ethiopia and the city is one of the biggest shopping cities in Africa.
  • Nazret - A popular weekend destination; also known as (Adama)
  • Aksum (Axum) - home of ancient tombs and stelae fields, near Eritrea
  • Bahir Dar - Near the source of the Blue Nile and Lake Tana
  • Dire Dawa -The second largest city of Ethiopia
  • Gondar - Some of East Africa's only castles
  • Harar - Ancient walled city
  • Lalibela - Home to 11 rock-hewn churches
  • Mekele - a town in the Tigrayan Highlands.

Other destinations

.Ethiopia is placed among African countries of Kenya, South-Africa, Tanzania and Zambia for preserving and well maintaining national parks for tourist attraction.^ Ethiopia is the tenth largest country in Africa, covering 439,580 square miles (1,138,512 square kilometers) and is the major constituent of the landmass known as the Horn of Africa.
  • Ethiopia – FREE Ethiopia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Ethiopia research 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hejhopp.com - Pictures and Travel Journals from Southern and East Africa The author's travel journal and photographs of Uganda (54 images), Rwanda (48 images), Tanzania, Kenya, Malawi, Zambia (67 images), Zimbabwe, South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique, Lesotho, Namibia, Angola, Botswana, Ethiopia (120 images), recorded between November 2, 2004 and April 29, 2005.

^ Ethiopia held the most free and fair national campaign period in the country’s history prior to May 15, 2005 elections.
  • Ethiopia (12/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The southern and south-western part of the country has a stunning natural beauty with a huge potential of becoming a unique resort.^ Gambella National Regional State is situated in the south-western part of Ethiopia bordering the Sudan.

^ Ethiopia is an ecologically diverse country, ranging from the deserts along the eastern border to the tropical forests in the south to extensive Afromontane in the northern and southwestern parts.
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Get in

.All visitors to Ethiopia (except for Kenyan and Djiboutian nationals) are required to obtain an entry visa.^ Article 8  Sovereignty of the people (1) All sovereign power resides in the Nations, Nationalities and Peoples of Ethiopia.
  • ICL - Ethiopia - Constitution 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.oefre.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

.Since 2002, tourists from 33 countries (listed here: [2] with additional information) are able to obtain entry visas upon their arrival at Bole International Airport in Addis Ababa, and at the airport in Dire Dawa.^ East, walled city of Harar; Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa.
  • Ethnologue report for Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa (subdivisions 1 and 5 in the map, respectively).
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Bahá'í Faith has been established in Ethiopia since the 1950s, and today is concentrated primarily in Addis Ababa, but also in the suburbs of Yeka, Kirkos and Nefas Silk Lafto.
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In September 2009, the fees for visa-upon-arrival was 20 US$ (or 17 Euro), regardless of whether one is applying for a Tourist, Business or Transit Visa. The procedure is relatively quick and painless, look for a door with a sign "Visa" on the left hand before the immigration counters.

By plane

.Ethiopian Airlines is one of the most successful and reputable airlines in Africa.^ Ethiopia is one of the oldest countries in the world and Africa's second-most populous nation.
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Ethiopian military is called the Ethiopian National Defence Force (ENDF) and is comprised of approximately 100,000 personnel, making it one of the largest military forces in Africa.
  • Culture of Ethiopia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ethiopia – FREE Ethiopia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Ethiopia research 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bole International Airport in Addis Ababa is the main hub for Ethiopian Airlines and also hosts Lufthansa, Sudan Airways, Kenya Airways, British Airways, KLM, Turkish Airways and Emirates.^ (SFC, 6/24/99, p.A10) 1991 May 25, Foreigners fled the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa as rebels closed in on the city.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (MC, 3/7/02) 1941 Apr 6, Italian-held Addis Ababa surrendered to British and Ethiopian forces.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Yalemzewd Bekele, a human rights lawyer working for the European Commission in Addis Ababa, was arrested at the border with Kenya.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

A new runway and international terminal, which was said to be the largest in Africa, opened in 2003.
CAUTION Arriving in the country without a major currency such as Euros or American dollars is not recommended, especially if one has not obtained a visa prior to arrival. Travellers cheques and cash can be exchanged at the airport.
  • If you have a prior arrangement, many hotels will send a vehicle to pick up pre-booked guests from the airport.

By train

.There is a slow and uncomfortable railroad between Addis Ababa and Djibouti which reopened in June 2009. The main stations are Addis Ababa, Debre Ziet, Nazret/Adama, Dire Dawa and Djibouti.^ Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa (subdivisions 1 and 5 in the map, respectively).
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (WSJ, 3/29/05, p.A2) 1972 Mar 27, The Addis Ababa accords ended fighting between north and south Sudan.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ In the capital city of Addis Ababa alone, there are an estimated 50,000 to 60,000 street children according to the government, and 100,000 according to UNICEF. .
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

The train-speed will be in about 80km/hour. [3]

By car

One way to get in from Sudan is via the border village of Metema. One way to get in from Kenya is via the border town of Moyale. .The road from Kenya to Ethiopia through the town of Moyale is much better and well maintained than the road from Sudan to Ethiopia through Metema.^ Despite the living conditions in the cities, the people of Addis Ababa are much better off than people living in the peasant associations due to their educational opportunities.
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bordering Ethiopia is Sudan to the west, Djibouti and Eritrea to the north, Somalia to the east, and Kenya to the south.
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Torrential rains have pounded the Horn of Africa this month, bringing misery to large parts of Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan and Eritrea.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.On the Kenyan side of Moyale the road is horrible and is known for banditry so be careful and make sure you have plenty of time, at least 24 hours, to travel from Moyale to Nairobi.^ Make sure that you take the immunization certificate with you.
  • Ethiopia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Ethiopian Visas Online. 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ethiopia.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Public transportation brings you to the border. To/from Sudan or Kenya you just walk to the other side. If you arrive to the border towns late at night, try not to cross the border in the dark. Wait in the town and do your traveling in the morning.
  • Buses that cover some distance start in early morning. This implies that if you arrive during the day you would be stuck at least until the next morning.
  • From Gedaref (Sudan) catch a bumpy bus or truck (700 SDnr) to the border. The Sudanese side is consisted of several small villages and a tiny town. .In Ethiopia you could find better, but basic accommodation.
  • From Djibouti you can take a small bus to the border (two or three hours) where you will find buses to Dire Dawa.^ (SFC, 5/12/98, p.A14) 1998 Apr 4, A locust plague in Ethiopia was reported covering an area of 3,700 acres in the regions of Jijiga and Dire Dawa.
    • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ An Ethiopian administrator accused Eritrean forces of kidnapping a group of five Europeans and 13 Ethiopians in a remote part of Ethiopia, and taking them to a military camp near the Eritrean border.
    • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ Today there are three medical schools in Ethiopia that began training students in 1965 two of which are linked to Addis Ababa University.
    • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This road is a dirt track and the trip takes at least half a day, at nightfall the bus uses to stop and you resume travel the next day.

By boat

Ethiopia is landlocked and currently uses the seaport in Djibouti. .From there, Ethiopia can be reached by bus or car following a good road to the border and a dirt track from there onwards.^ There were no developments in the following 2006 attacks: the September bus attack by armed men; the hand grenade incident in the town of Jijiga; and the explosion in Addis Ababa.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Get around

By plane

Ethiopian Airlines [4] is reasonably priced and has fairly comprehensive domestic services. Flights are often overbooked, so it is essential to reconfirm your tickets at least a day in advance and show up at the airport on time. If you forget to reconfirm, they will assume you aren't going to show up and may give away your seats.

By train

.There is a train between Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa via Debre Ziet, Mojo, Nazret/Adama and Awash.^ East, walled city of Harar; Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa.
  • Ethnologue report for Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ (WSJ, 3/29/05, p.A2) 1972 Mar 27, The Addis Ababa accords ended fighting between north and south Sudan.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ In the capital city of Addis Ababa alone, there are an estimated 50,000 to 60,000 street children according to the government, and 100,000 according to UNICEF. .
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

By bus

There is a comprehensive network of cheap buses along the major roads, although these are slow and basic. .Buses travelling shorter distances generally leave whenever they have filled up with passengers (in practice, these means once an hour or so); nearly all long-distance buses leave at dawn (6AM on the European clock; 12AM on the Ethiopian clock).^ (SFC, 9/8/01, p.A9) 2001 Apr 26, Six hijackers seized an Ethiopian plane with 50 passengers and diverted it to Sudan where they surrendered.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Although the law provides for freedom of movement within the country, foreign travel, emigration, and repatriation, the government restricted some of these rights in practice.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Buses do not travel at night; they will stop before sundown in a town or village with accommodation for the passengers, or, between Dire Dawa and Djibouti, just in plain nature. Between some cities (e.g. Adama and Addis Ababa), minibuses will run after the larger buses have stopped for the night. .Everyone on the bus must have a seat by law -- this prevents overcrowding, but often makes it difficult to catch a bus from an intermediate point on a route.^ Traffickers often destroyed evidence, making convictions difficult.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

If planning to travel by bus, keep in mind that the vehicles are old and very dusty and the roads are bad. Ethiopians do not like opening the bus windows, so it gets hot and stuffy inside by afternoon. If you like fresh air, sit as close to the driver or one of the doors as possible as the driver keeps his window open and the conductor and his assistant often have the door windows open.
.The bus stations usually open somewhere around 5AM. If you are catching an early morning bus, you should get to the station at 5AM. They are very chaotic first thing in the morning, and many buses will sell out of seats before they leave at 6AM. To make things easier and less stressful, you can often buy a ticket in advance.^ On the other side however they pull out all the stops and produce some very inovative if still traditional sounds.
  • ETHIOPIA 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.natari.com [Source type: General]

^ Although the constitution and law provide workers with the right to strike to protect their interests, it contains detailed provisions that make legal strike actions difficult to carry out, such as a minimum of 30 days' advance notice before striking.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

In Addis, find the correct window at the bus station the day before you wish to travel and buy your ticket there. .(You will need help finding the window unless you can read Amharic, but there are usually people around who will help if you ask.^ The proposal usually involves elders, who travel from the groom's house to the parents of the bride to ask for the marriage.
  • Culture of Ethiopia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are very helpful for those who are in need of knowing Ethiopian history.
  • Culture of Ethiopia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) The ticket will be in Amharic, but there will be a legible bus number written on it somewhere. Simply find that bus the next morning at the bus station. In smaller cities, you can often buy your ticket from the conductor when the bus arrives from its previous trip the afternoon before you travel. Even if you already have a ticket, arrive early and claim a seat as soon as possible. If you don't have a ticket, you will have to ask people to show you the correct bus (unless you can read Amharic). In this case, don't waste time trying to buy a ticket from the window or from the bus conductor -- push your way on board the bus and claim a seat! The conductor will sell you a ticket later. Medium sized backpacks can usually be squeezed under the seats, but large packs and most luggage will have to go up on the roof. Claim your seat before you worry about your luggage. Anyone assisting you with your luggage, including the person passing it up to the conductor's assistant on the roof, will expect a small tip (around 2-3 birr).
.On several routes (Addis - Dire Dawa, Bahardar - Addis) you may find also a kind of informal traveler cars with no fixed departure; when looking around at a bus station you may be approached by somebody who offers you a faster connection by going with a private car; this is more expensive than the normal bus but also much faster.^ Vulnerable individuals (such as young adults from rural areas and children) who transited the Addis Ababa bus terminal were sometimes identified and targeted by agents (or traffickers) who approached them offering jobs, food, guidance, or shelter.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Girls are restricted from leaving the home and engaging in social activities with friends much more than boys are.
  • Culture of Ethiopia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The education of boys is stressed more than that of girls, who are supposed to help with household work.
  • Culture of Ethiopia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

You'll be handed a cell phone number where to call in order to make an appointment. These cars may leave before sundawn or travel even at night.

By car

A good way to tour Ethiopia is by car. You can take small airplanes to expedite your tour, but you will take in more of scenery if you travel by car. .Four reasonable touring companies are NTO [www.south-expedition.com], Dinknesh [5] and Focus Tours Ethiopia [6].^ [KF] http://www.addisart.com/ Addis Art - Nouveau Art from Ethiopia Artists include Shiferaw Girma and Lulseged Retta.

^ (HN, 8/7/98)(www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q7ZLB1-Ofyw) 1933 Count Byron De Prorok undertook an archeological expedition from Egypt into Ethiopia.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ [KF] http://www.indigo-net.com/dossiers/eth.htm Tsegaye, Gabre-Medhin - Ethiopian Poet Laureate Article - Poet Laureate Tsegaye Gabre-Medhin of Ethiopia.

as well as Ethiopia Safaris and Journeys Abyssinia with Zawdu. [www.ethiopiatjazz.com]. They can take you off the beaten track so you can see the beauty and attractions of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, hiring a car is quite expensive (starting from 600 to 900 depending on condition and quality of model.600 Birr for cheap car with driver). But if you want a car for at least 8 persons is costs from 1000 to 3000 Birr per day. Prices will vary at this time due to inflationary pressures inside the country. Drivers pass on their costs for spare parts and need to increase the price if fuel rises. A driver guide's credentials should be checked such as tourism license, insurance, engine (external and internal). Before accepting a contract, it is also a good idea to quiz the driver-guide about tourism routes via your own travel guide book (ie Lonely planet and Bradt Guide) but you must also accept that this information could be out of date. When driving to the "deep south" of Ethiopia also check the license plates, because the authorities in the south check in and log "3" plate tourism cars, take the names of the passengers and passport number. They need a letter from the tour company to show the agent is bona fide on some routes and parks. Gas comes at 11 ETB (0,70 EUR/1 USD/0,60 GBP) a liter (June. 2009).
There are a several highways in Ethiopia, majority of the roads in Ethiopia are in good conditions:
Road 1: Addis Ababa-Asmara via Dese
Road 3: Addis Ababa-Axum via Bahir Dar and Gondar
Road 4: Addis Ababa-Djibouti via Nazret (Adama), Awash and Dire Dawa
Road 5: Addis Ababa-Gambela via Alem Zena and Nekemte
Road 6: Addis Ababa-Jimma via Giyon
Road 48: Nekemte-Gambela National Park via Gambela
TAH 4 to the north: Cairo via Khartoum and Bahir Dar
TAH 4 to the south: Cape Town via Gaborone, Lusaka, Dodoma, Nairobi and Awasa
TAH 6 to the east: Djibouti via Dese
TAH 6 to the west: Ndjamena via Darfur

By bicycle

.Road conditions vary considerably around Ethiopia; some roads are smoothly sealed while others consist mostly of large stones.^ Some of those detained were released, while others were transferred without judicial process to Ethiopia.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Accommodation is cheap and available in almost every village (although these "hotels" usually double as bars and brothels). Food and drink are also easily available. You will attract considerable attention (it is not uncommon for whole schools to empty out as the children chase you).
See also: Amharic phrasebook
.Amharic is the official language of Ethiopia.^ Amharic has been the dominant and official language for the last 150 years as a result of the political power of the Amhara ethnic group.
  • Culture of Ethiopia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ethiopia – FREE Ethiopia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Ethiopia research 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The language is a Semitic language related to Hebrew and Arabic, and if you know either one you'll recognize some cognates. .In all parts of the country everyone speaks Amharic to some extent, no matter what their first language may be.^ Most of the 41 detainees, including all women and children, were released during the year; some were sent back to their respective countries for possible prosecution.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ However, it still is all about the stereotypical image of the northern part of the big country, which defies the diversity of all of the ethiopian people.
  • Culture of Ethiopia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The language is written in the Ge'ez script.^ Christian music is believed to have been established by Saint Yared in the sixth century and is sung in Ge'ez, the liturgical language.
  • Ethiopia – FREE Ethiopia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Ethiopia research 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ge'ez was also the first Semitic language to employ a vowel system.
  • Ethiopia – FREE Ethiopia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Ethiopia research 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is only in Ethiopia that proto-Ethiopian script developed and survives today in Ge'ez, Tigrean, and Amharic.
  • Ethiopia – FREE Ethiopia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Ethiopia research 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In big cities, most people under 40 speak some English.^ He added that 40 people were under arrest.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ A drought that has impoverished some 11.5 million people in the area, most of them nomads, has exacerbated tensions between the tribes.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.(English is a primary foreign language taught in schools).^ English is the most widely spoken foreign language and the language in which secondary school and university classes are taught.
  • Ethiopia – FREE Ethiopia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Ethiopia research 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In rural areas, find local school children to translate for you for a fee that could be next to nothing.^ In rural areas, schools are few and children do farm work.
  • Ethiopia – FREE Ethiopia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Ethiopia research 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In both rural and urban areas, children often begin working at young ages, with many starting work at age five.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The government is trying to alleviate this problem by building accessible schools in rural areas.
  • Ethiopia – FREE Ethiopia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Ethiopia research 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(Ethiopians have a distinct way of speaking English. Because it is heavily accented, it might be a bit difficult to understand it at the beginning. However, when you get used to the way they pronounce some English words, it will become fairly understandable)
.Up north in Tigray, Tigrinya is the primary language, and it's also written in Ge'ez.^ Ge'ez was also the first Semitic language to employ a vowel system.
  • Ethiopia – FREE Ethiopia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Ethiopia research 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Christian music is believed to have been established by Saint Yared in the sixth century and is sung in Ge'ez, the liturgical language.
  • Ethiopia – FREE Ethiopia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Ethiopia research 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The classical language of Ge'ez, which has evolved into Amharic and Tigrean, is one of the four extinct languages but is the only indigenous writing system in Africa that is still in use.
  • Ethiopia – FREE Ethiopia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Ethiopia research 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, Amharic is widely understood.
In the middle regions, Oromo is widely spoken. Oromo language uses a Latin alphabet.

Buy

The official currency is the Ethiopian Birr (ETB). You are only supposed to import and export 100 birr. Usually hotel and car rental bills must be paid in cash.
.1 USD is about 11.30 ETB, 1 EUR is about 15.00 ETB and 1 GBP is about 16.30 ETB as of September 2009 (Commercial Bank of Ethiopia).^ (Reuters, 8/11/06)(Econ, 8/19/06, p.44) 2006 Aug 14, In southern Ethiopia torrential rains spilled a river from its banks.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 12/30/05) 2005 Ethiopia’s population stood at about 75 million.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Jun 16] (SFC, 5/15/00, p.A14) 2000 May 15, In Ethiopia tens of thousands marched in Addis Ababa in support of the renewed border war with Eritrea.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

CASH MACHINES are still rare. .There are many cash machines in Addis Ababa and they only work (Sept 07) on VISA DEBIT CARDS. There are about 50 cash machines in Addis Ababa.^ Many believe they were unable to quit their jobs and fear physical, verbal, and sexual abuse from their employers while performing their work.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Yalemzewd Bekele, a human rights lawyer working for the European Commission in Addis Ababa, was arrested at the border with Kenya.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ In the capital city of Addis Ababa alone, there are an estimated 50,000 to 60,000 street children according to the government, and 100,000 according to UNICEF. .
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.(Nov 08) Dashen Bank has already 19 ATM locations in Addis Ababa.^ (AP, 11/3/08) 2008 Nov 5, In southern Ethiopian farmers stoned to death Legesse Wegi, a senior rebel figure suspected of organizing fatal blasts in the capital Addis Ababa.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 9/1/08) 2008 Sep 3, In Ethiopia an explosion rocked a bar in Addis Ababa, killing 4 people.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Most reliable ones are located at Sheraton Hotel and Dembel Shopping Center. .There is also ATM at the Hilton Addis Ababa, as well as at the DH Geda building on Bole Rd.^ In the capital city of Addis Ababa alone, there are an estimated 50,000 to 60,000 street children according to the government, and 100,000 according to UNICEF. .
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ There were no developments in the following 2006 attacks: the September bus attack by armed men; the hand grenade incident in the town of Jijiga; and the explosion in Addis Ababa.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

CHANGING CASH and Travellers Cheques
Any commercial bank in Ethiopia can change cash and travellers cheques. The rates are the same everywhere. There are dozens of commercial banks in Addis, including in the Sheraton and Hilton hotels, and in the corner of the baggage claim hall at the airport. .Most cities and towns that tourists visit will have at least one commercial bank, except for villages in the Omo valley.^ Southwest, Omo River west bank, Kuchur village.
  • Ethnologue report for Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

US dollars, Euros, or British pounds are the best currencies to carry.
It is illegal to change money on the black market and the rates aren't much better than what you can get from the banks.

US-dollar

.In cites like Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa (little accpeted in Dire Dawa, not like Addis) the US-dollar is mostly accepted.^ East, walled city of Harar; Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa.
  • Ethnologue report for Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

.In some shops in Addis Ababa the prices will be written in ETB+USD. Also some ATM in Addis Ababa gives out both US-dollar and birr.^ Still, never mind, over on side 'B' some of the Kenyan group 'Them Mushrooms' give us their versions of some more wedding songs.
  • ETHIOPIA 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.natari.com [Source type: General]

^ (SFC, 6/6/00, p.A10) 2000 Jun 5, In Ethiopia 14 children were trampled to death at the Mega Amphitheater in Addis Ababa when a crowd pushed to get out of the rain.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Although some new, small circulation newspapers were published during the year, the number of private newspapers available in Addis Ababa remained small.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Most of the hotel in Addis Ababa accepts US-dollar. .All airports in Ethiopia accepts US-dollar.^ (AP, 9/22/08)(AP, 9/23/08) 2008 Sep 23, The US said it has given Ethiopia 151 million dollars to boost its health and education services.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Carter announced the US was cutting off all military aid to Ethiopia because of its human rights violations.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Costs

Comparing to the other African countries is Ethiopia an expensive country. But Ethiopia is not a very expensive country for tourists.
.To stay at a 5-star hotel in Addis Ababa, Dire Dawa, Nazret, Bahir Dar, Gondar and Awasa costs on average 1500 birr/per night ($130, €100, £88).^ In the capital city of Addis Ababa alone, there are an estimated 50,000 to 60,000 street children according to the government, and 100,000 according to UNICEF. .
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ On a par with Tilahun Gessesse, Bzunesh Beqele or Mahmoud Ahmed, Alemayehu is a star at the top of the constellation that once lit up the wild nights in the capital city Addis Ababa.
  • ETHIOPIA 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.natari.com [Source type: General]

.Addis Ababa, Dire Dawa and Adama/Nazret has the most expensive prices in the country.^ Peace and Reconciliation Conference held in Addis Ababa from December 18 to 22, 1993 to seek peaceful solutions to the basic political problems of the country."

^ (AP, 12/31/06) 2006 Ethiopia’s economy struggled with exports of $1 billion vs. Food prices in Addis Ababa rose by 27%.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ In 2006 several bomb explosions were reported in Addis Ababa and other parts of the country.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.For example a 32 inch LCD TV costs around 15 000 birr ($1250, €1000, £850).^ Fasil Publishing and Advertising was fined $1,700 (15,000 birr).
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Food is also expensive if you buy it in the downtown.
You need about 400 birr ($33, €20, £19) per day for hotel, fuel, food, lodging and transport. .In Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa you can need 600 birr per day ($48, €32, £29).^ (WSJ, 3/29/05, p.A2) 1972 Mar 27, The Addis Ababa accords ended fighting between north and south Sudan.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

"Here is a guide, what you can get for the money (Food and Drinks):"
  • 3 ETB - Black Coffee with milk
  • 4-5 ETB - Soft Drink: Coca Cola, Fanta, Sprite, Seven up, Mirinda and Pepsi
  • 8 ETB - Juice
  • 10-15 ETB - Dessert
  • 15-20 ETB - Breakfast
  • 30-50 ETB - Coffee 1 Kilo
  • 40 ETB - Pizza, Hamburger, Fish 'n chips and Spaghetti
  • 50 ETB - Asian Restaurant or African Restaurant
  • 60 ETB - Injera with all kind of wot
  • 80-200 ETB - Cake
  • 150 ETB and upper - You can get the most elegant and luxury Restaurants for this price level.
Injera is Ethiopia's national dish. Injera is a spongy, tangy tasting bread made from the grain teff, which grows in the highlands of Ethiopia. It is eaten with wot (or wat), the traditional stews made with spices and meat or legumes. Some popular wats: Doro (chicken) wat, Key (lamb) wat and Asa (fish) wat. Another popular dish is Tibbs, spicy beef fried in butter. It can be either really bad (burnt to a crisp and resembling petrified wood) or juicy and delicious in more fancy restaurants. (The Holiday Hotel in Addis serves delicious Tibbs).
The injera sits directly on a large round plate or tray and is covered with wat placed symmetrically around a central item. The various wats are eaten with other pieces of injera, which are served on a side plate. Injera is eaten with the right hand - rip a large piece of injera from the side plate and use it to pick up one of the various flavors of wat on the main platter. Do not eat with your left hand! In Ethiopia food is a respected gift from God and eating with your left hand is a sign of disrespect.
Another popular injera dish is firfir: fried,shredded injera. It can be served with or without meat or with all sorts of veggies.
If you prefer vegetarian foods, try the 'shiro wat' which is a vegetable stew served with injera, most of the times you have to specifically ask for it as it doesn't come with most of the combinations as ethiopians prefer meat.
Kitfo is minced meat, spiced with chili. You can have it raw (the locally preferred way, but there's a risk of getting the tape worm), 'leb-leb' (lightly cooked) or fully cooked. It comes with a local cheese 'ayeb' and a spinach.
For the pickier traveler, almost every place in Ethiopia also serves spaghetti (thanks to the short lived Italian occupation.) In nice restaurants in Addis you can find excellent spaghetti (Try the Blue Tops or Top View restaurants), and in the more peripheral places you will usually find it overcooked with bland tomato paste as sauce.

Drink

The coffee ceremony involves drinking a minimum of three cups of coffee and eating popcorn. It is a special honor, or mark of respect to be invited into somebody's home for the coffee ceremony.
In preparation for the ceremony the coffee beans are roasted in a flat pan over charcoal. The beans are then ground using pestle and mortar. The coffee is brewed with water in a clay coffee pot and is considered ready when it starts to boil. Coffee in Ethiopia is served black with sugar.
Tej is a honey wine, similar to mead, that is frequently drunk in bars (in particular, in a tejbeit)
A variety of Ethiopian beers are available, all of which are quite drinkable, also Ethiopian wine - both red and white - which would not win any prizes but are drinkable.

Sleep

There is a wide range of accommodation in Ethiopia. .There is a luxurious Sheraton hotel in Addis Ababa.^ In the capital city of Addis Ababa alone, there are an estimated 50,000 to 60,000 street children according to the government, and 100,000 according to UNICEF. .
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ There were no developments in the following 2006 attacks: the September bus attack by armed men; the hand grenade incident in the town of Jijiga; and the explosion in Addis Ababa.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.At the same time, you can find a "hotel" nothing more than a small room with a tiny bed, and no running water in the border town of Moyale.^ On hearing any of its music for the first time you would find it hard to believe it came from a country in Africa.
  • ETHIOPIA 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.natari.com [Source type: General]

Staying in tourist areas generally results in a broader range of choices, but watch out for tourist prices. .It is acceptable to bargain with the hotel owner, for they usually tend to charge you "faranji" (foreigner) prices at first, which are often twenty times the local rate.^ On hearing any of its music for the first time you would find it hard to believe it came from a country in Africa.
  • ETHIOPIA 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.natari.com [Source type: General]

You won't be able to bargain down to local prices (close to nothing) but you can bargain down a lot. .This is NOT true at the government run "Ghion" chain, and the fancier private chains as well, where prices for foreigners are fixed.^ Government and privately run orphanages were unable to handle the number of street children, and older children often abused younger ones.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

(Bekale Mola, for example).
Addis: Addis is full of cheap hotels. Most tourists stay in the piazza area, where there are many hotels ranging from very cheap (2-3 USD) to moderately cheap ($12USD). Except for the cheapest most of them have running hot water, and fairly clean. Park Hotel starts at 20 Birr a single and 30 Birr a double. .Two big ones are Taitu hotel and Wutma hotel.^ Two similar attacks over the weekend killed one person and injured 41 at a restaurant and hotel in the capital.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Also if you want a taste of fame, contact athlete Haile Gebre Selassie's sister Azalitch Gebre Selassie. She arranges a good welcome for guests here in Ethiopia. She arranges accommodation. Her number is +251 911 627898. She is perfectly happy to help out when she is free.
The two biggest hotels in Addis are the Sheraton, referred to by expats as "The Sheza", and the Hilton. Both are enormous. They are also very expensive and charge over 100 USD a night. Both have swimming pools, good restaurants, souvenir shops and bakeries: the rooms are comfortable. .If you cannot afford these two hotels, visit them and chat up the expats (especially at lunch time when they take their break by the pool) and if your accommodation needs to be improved, they might be able to help out.^ You need to upgrade your Flash Player .
  • Joshua Project - Ethnic People Groups of Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.joshuaproject.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

You also could have a glimpse of a rich or famous celebrity or high powered world politician, who are in Addis to do some charity work or to deal with some sort of African politics.
.Outside Addis: up north, in every one of the cities (Axum, Lalibella, Bahir Dar, Gondar) one can find hotels ranging from the overpriced 50 USD a night government run Ghion chain hotels to cheaper hotels ranging from 3-20 USD. Even as low as 2 for a double in some places.^ In the capital city of Addis Ababa alone, there are an estimated 50,000 to 60,000 street children according to the government, and 100,000 according to UNICEF. .
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Government and privately run orphanages were unable to handle the number of street children, and older children often abused younger ones.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The government estimated the number of street children totaled 150,000 to 200,000, with approximately 50,000 to 60,000 street children in Addis Ababa.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

But also in smaller places on the major roads offer cheap places if you do not mind the most basic rooms. A tourist town like Debark that serves for trekking the Simien Mountains also offers a range of rooms, with the most popular being the Simien Park Hotel (25/30 Birr), where you could also pitch a tent for 20. It meets the normal standards for food, electricity, water, cleanliness and hygiene.
In the south, all of the cities (Shashemane, Wondo Genet, Awasa, Arba Minch, Jinka...) have decent, cheap hotels. The most basic rooms start at 15 Birr for a single and 20 Birr for a double. Many of them don't have hot water and electricity all hours of the day, so you should schedule time for a shower in advance. There are also three (fairly expensive) resort hotels on the shore of Lake Langano. In the smaller villages in and around the Omo valley (Weyto, Turmi, Key Afar, Dimeka, Konso, etc.) there are usually few .(very basic) or no hotels, but if you are travelling through the valley to see the tribes, there is always a campground or a restaurant that offers beds.^ There were no further developments in the 2005 hand grenade attacks on four hotels and a residence in Jijiga, which resulted in five deaths and 31 injuries.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

If you camp out at one of these villages, you should hire a guard to watch over your stuff overnight.

Learn

.These are some colleges and Universities in Ethiopia.^ Feb 27, University College of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, was opened.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

(Major universities in bold)
  • Adama University
  • Addis Ababa University
  • Alemaya University
  • Alfa College of Distance Education (Harar)
  • Ambo College of Agriculture
  • Arba Minch University
  • Awasa Adventist College (Awasa) (Foreign (USA Adventist church) affiliated)
  • Bahir Dar University
  • Commercial College of Addis Ababa
  • Debub University
  • Hawasa University
  • Gondar University (One of the two Medical colleges of the country)
  • Jijiga university
  • Jimma University
  • Kotoebe Teachers' Education College
  • Mekelle University
  • People to People College (Harar)
  • Theological College of the Holy Trinity
  • Unity College (Private)
  • Graduate School of Telecommunications and Information Technology (GSTIT)

Work

Ethiopia has one of the lowest unemployment rate in Africa. The unemployment rate is 5% (2005). [7] Notice that the average income is about 120 US-dollar/month per inhabitant. .But in the capital Addis Ababa you can make over 400 US-dollar/month by IT works.^ Yalemzewd Bekele, a human rights lawyer working for the European Commission in Addis Ababa, was arrested at the border with Kenya.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ In the capital city of Addis Ababa alone, there are an estimated 50,000 to 60,000 street children according to the government, and 100,000 according to UNICEF. .
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ (SFC, 6/24/99, p.A10) 1991 May 25, Foreigners fled the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa as rebels closed in on the city.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

The country's economy is based on agriculture. 69% of the people lead an agrarian lifestyle (CCO). However, in the big cities, especially in Addis-Ababa,
.
  • There is a high demand of IT professionals.
  • Many start-up companies search for individuals with computer networking and consulting backgrounds.
  • Addis-Ababa has the highest number of NGOs in Africa, and possibly among all third world countries.^ Ethiopian diplomatic missions, list of officials of the Addis Ababa Chamber of Commerce, Forum 84, and the Inter Africa Group.

    ^ Peace and Reconciliation Conference held in Addis Ababa from December 18 to 22, 1993 to seek peaceful solutions to the basic political problems of the country."

    ^ In the capital city of Addis Ababa alone, there are an estimated 50,000 to 60,000 street children according to the government, and 100,000 according to UNICEF. .
    • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

    .They are reputed for providing generous salaries to their employees.
  • Many expatriates work in NGOs and small start-up IT companies.
  • Compared with other African cities, Addis-Ababa has a high number of big, medium and small sized computer training schools, and governmental and private learning institutions.^ Many believe they were unable to quit their jobs and fear physical, verbal, and sexual abuse from their employers while performing their work.
    • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In both rural and urban areas, children often begin working at young ages, with many starting work at age five.
    • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Yalemzewd Bekele, a human rights lawyer working for the European Commission in Addis Ababa, was arrested at the border with Kenya.
    • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    Many students who attend hope to obtain an IT or consulting job, in the very scarce job market of the city.
Risks in Ethiopia
Crime/violence: Low
Alcohol-related violence, petty theft
HIV/AIDS: Low
(2-3 % of the adult population or 1 in 50 infected)
Authorities/corruption: Low - Middle
Security guards might be rude
Transportation: Low - Middle
Wild animal crossings everywhere, bad roads
Health: Middle
Tick and mosquito bites
Nature: Low
  • For the most part, Ethiopia is safe. Avoid traveling to the eastern part of the country beyond the city of Harar. The Somali separatist groups occasionally launch a guerilla attack. .Remember that Ethiopia is a relatively low-crime country compared to Kenya, Mexico and South Africa.^ Torrential rains have pounded the Horn of Africa this month, bringing misery to large parts of Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan and Eritrea.
    • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ Has full text reports on the Horn of Africa military profiles (includes Ethiopia) , Kenya, Somalia, Somaliland, Sudan, Uganda.

    ^ Full text articles on Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, with photographs, statistics.

    .Most expats who go there are US military personnel actively training the Ethiopian army's anti-terrorism unit.^ The arrests stem from reports in their Amharic-language weeklies about Ethiopian air force pilots who sought political asylum while training in Belarus.
    • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ The three Ethiopian Air Force personnel who landed a military helicopter and requested asylum in Djibouti in 2005 remained incommunicado detention in the country.
    • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There were reports that some were held incommunicado and that others were tortured or sexually assaulted by Ethiopian security personnel.
    • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

    .Many others are Chinese, Indian or Malaysian representatives of oil companies, who have been targeted in major guerilla attacks resulting in dozens of casualties.
  • Armed insurgent groups operate within the Oromiya and Afar regions of Ethiopia.
  • In 2008, a hotel in the town of Jijiga was bombed and two hotels in the town of Negele Borena were bombed.
  • Organized crime and gang violence are very unusual in most parts of the country.^ The government suspected a terrorist group planted a bomb in the hotel in Negelle Borena.
    • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ The UNHCR estimated there were approximately 200,000 IDPs in the country, including approximately 62,000 in Tigray Region, 44,700 in Gambella Region, 30,000 in the Borena area of the Oromiya Region, and 50,000 on the border of the Oromiya and Somali regions.
    • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ (AFP, 5/28/08) 2008 May 29, In Ethiopia a flash flood hit Jijiga town late at night and swept away 200 houses, killing 25 people of whom 19 were children.
    • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    .However, in the border areas of Sudan (Gambella Region) and Kenya, there are some reports indicating occurrences of banditry.^ (SFC, 5/12/98, p.A14) 1998 Apr 4, A locust plague in Ethiopia was reported covering an area of 3,700 acres in the regions of Jijiga and Dire Dawa.
    • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ Gambella National Regional State is situated in the south-western part of Ethiopia bordering the Sudan.

    ^ Has full text reports on the Horn of Africa military profiles (includes Ethiopia) , Kenya, Somalia, Somaliland, Sudan, Uganda.

    .Avoid these areas.
  • Though Ethiopia has a secular government, the Ethiopian people are very religious.^ (Econ, 5/23/09, p.61) 2009 Jun 4, Ethiopia charged 46 people, most of them ex-military, of plotting to assassinate government officials.
    • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ World Factbook - Ethiopia Information on geography, people, government, economy, transportation, communication, defense, etc.

    ^ EthioSearch - Ethiopian Search Engine Very large annotated directory of Ethiopia-related web sites.

    .The two dominant religions (the Ethiopian Orthodox Church and Islam) strongly influence people's day-to-day life.^ The Ethiopian Orthodox Church (EOC) and Sufi Islam are the dominant religions; nearly 90 percent of the population adhered to one or the other faith.
    • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Ethiopian Icons: Faith and Science This "exhibition focuses on the icon, an art form associated with the Ethiopian Orthodox church."

    ^ (AFP, 6/4/09) 2009 Jun 30, Ethiopian police shot dead two people and injured six others as they blocked an attempt by Christians to build a church at a site also claimed by Muslims.
    • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    .Therefore, according to their influence the government implements certain rules and laws that could appear unsettling to westerners.^ The law provides criminal penalties for official corruption; however, the government did not implement these laws effectively.
    • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

    .In particular, homosexuality is illegal, and not tolerated.
  • Compared to other African countries, robbery is not a major problem in the cities and towns.^ Jensen's main site has a database searchable by country, organization, city/town of African internet service providers,internet connectivity maps, inks to related web sites.

    However, travelers are adviced to look after their belongings. .Travelers should be cautious at all times when traveling on roads in Ethiopia.^ (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.13) 1Mil BC A homo erectus skull from Daka, Ethiopia, from this time was identified in 2001 as an ancestor to all modern humans.
    • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    .There have been reports of highway robbery, including carjacking, by armed bandits outside urban areas.^ There were reports that members of the federal police robbed persons during the year, including through the use of false warrants.
    • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There were numerous reports of more serious forms of harassment and violence directed against members of opposition parties in many areas of the country, including beatings, arrests, and killings.
    • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In urban areas, many children, including orphans, work in domestic service, often working long hours which may prevent them from attending school regularly.
    • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

    Some incidents have been accompanied by violence. Travelers are cautioned to limit road travel outside major towns or cities to daylight hours and travel in convoys, if possible.
  • Travelers with vehicles may often be the target of stoning by local youths when driving in rural areas.

Stay healthy

Be careful of the food you eat, and don't stay in the sun too long. If you get sick, go to one of the big private Hospitals. .The very expensive hospitals, especially in Addis-Ababa and Dire Dawa and Adama, are clean and well maintained.^ Treatment for fistulae was available at only one hospital, the Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital, which annually performed over 1,000 fistula operations.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Four regions maintained their own family law: Amhara, Tigray, Oromiya, and Addis Ababa; however, regional laws were not uniformly enforced.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital was founded by Drs.

Do not drink tap water. Bottled water, suitable for drinking, is available almost everywhere in bottles of 1.5, 1.6 or 1.8 liters. Make sure you drink enough water, especially when the weather is hot.
Consult your doctor at home before going to Ethiopia to get advice on malaria prevention drugs. .In some parts of the country, the most severe form of malaria is present.^ Most of the 41 detainees, including all women and children, were released during the year; some were sent back to their respective countries for possible prosecution.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In 2006 several bomb explosions were reported in Addis Ababa and other parts of the country.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

  • Ethiopians are very proud of their culture, identity, and country. Avoid criticizing their cultural lifestyle, especially their brand of Christianity (Oriental Orthodox). .Avoid all contentious religious discussion, or you may risk all good will and hospitality you could have been afforded.^ By law, all parties to a dispute must agree that a customary or religious court would be used before such a court may hear a case.
    • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

    .Rather than argue about the merits of Orthodoxy or Islam, it's best to ask friends to explain their customs, festivals and beliefs and to listen with respect.
  • Because they have no history of colonization , the Ethiopians' relationship with the westerners is free of racial animosity or old grudges.^ Facts about the community, Ethiopian Jewish culture, history , education & employment initiatives.

    ^ The Ethiopian Collection Catalogue Advertising for the book, published by the University of Oregon Museum of Natural History, includes a 5-frame "slide show" of illustrations from the book about the Ethiopian collection at the University of Oregon.

    ^ Has a customized toolbar to download whereby one can listen to Ethiopian radio stations.

    .However, there is considerable suspicion and even xenophobia toward foreigners in the country side.^ The government's decision to grant MIDROC, the country's largest foreign investor, an exclusive license to import cement was perceived as favoritism toward a government ally.
    • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The law prohibits trafficking in persons; however, there were reports that persons were trafficked from and within the country.
    • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

    .Ethiopians can be short-fused if they feel they are not treated as equals.
  • If a woman is with a man, ask the man's permission to talk to her beforehand.^ (AP, 4/29/07) 2007 May 9, Saudi authorities beheaded an Ethiopian woman convicted of killing an Egyptian man over a dispute.
    • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    For a man to avoid eye contact with a woman is considered a sign of respect. .If you're a foreign woman and are in public with a man, don't be upset if Ethiopian men address all questions to him.^ (AP, 4/29/07) 2007 May 9, Saudi authorities beheaded an Ethiopian woman convicted of killing an Egyptian man over a dispute.
    • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    They will do this not to slight you but to show respect. This will be the case on public transport, in restaurants, etc. Likewise, if you are a foreign man, maintaining a formal distance from women will be seen as good manners.
  • It is very important that you remove your shoes when entering a Ethiopian home.

Contact

Telephone

The country code for calling Ethiopia is 251. .The Ethiopian dialing plan changed on September 17, 2005, such that the two-digit city code changed to three digits (or, from outside the country, one to two digits) and six-digit telephone numbers changed to seven digits.^ On September 10, the government granted amnesty to 17,765 prisoners from throughout the country; this represented 22 percent of the prison population.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The three Ethiopian Air Force personnel who landed a military helicopter and requested asylum in Djibouti in 2005 remained incommunicado detention in the country.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The city code for Addis Ababa, as of Sept.^ In the capital city of Addis Ababa alone, there are an estimated 50,000 to 60,000 street children according to the government, and 100,000 according to UNICEF. .
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ (SFC, 6/24/99, p.A10) 1991 May 25, Foreigners fled the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa as rebels closed in on the city.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

17, 2005, is 011 (or 11 from outside Ethiopia). .An on-line telephone number converter, which will convert an old number to the new number, is available here: [8].^ Although some new, small circulation newspapers were published during the year, the number of private newspapers available in Addis Ababa remained small.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Mobile

.Ethiopia uses GSM network, operated by Ethiopian Telecommunications Corporation (ETC) and 3G as the western countries.^ The Ethiopian Telecommunication Corporation, which has 23,887 Internet subscribers, remained the only Internet provider.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Currently there are decent coverage around big cities such as Addis Ababa, Dire Dawa, Adama, Bahir Dar, Awasa, Harar, Dese, Gonder, Mekele, and Nekemete.^ In the capital city of Addis Ababa alone, there are an estimated 50,000 to 60,000 street children according to the government, and 100,000 according to UNICEF. .
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ (SFC, 6/24/99, p.A10) 1991 May 25, Foreigners fled the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa as rebels closed in on the city.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ There were no developments in the following 2006 attacks: the September bus attack by armed men; the hand grenade incident in the town of Jijiga; and the explosion in Addis Ababa.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

It is expanding into small cities. For all travelers, having a mobile phone is a must. It is cheap and easily available.
.There are only few stores rent SIM cards: you can rent SIM card and phone inside Addis Ababa Sheraton hotel but is it very expensive.^ In the capital city of Addis Ababa alone, there are an estimated 50,000 to 60,000 street children according to the government, and 100,000 according to UNICEF. .
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Treatment for fistulae was available at only one hospital, the Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital, which annually performed over 1,000 fistula operations.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ There were no developments in the following 2006 attacks: the September bus attack by armed men; the hand grenade incident in the town of Jijiga; and the explosion in Addis Ababa.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Your best option is to a rent SIM card and mobile phone from a local store. All local stores will have calling cards you can purchase to call the US.
Roaming charges are very steep. .For a short visit, your best option for mobile access is to rent a SIM card with a phone .^ Low rates to Ethiopia Best selection of Ethiopia phone cards .
  • Ethiopia phone cards from USA | Ethiopia calling cards | Low rates to Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.comfi.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Gift Phone Card - send a gift to your friends or family to call to Ethiopia .
  • Ethiopia phone cards from USA | Ethiopia calling cards | Low rates to Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.comfi.com [Source type: Academic]

While roaming arrangements are said to be in place in practice you may find it impossible to get a connection that works reliably, or at all.

Internet

.There are numerous internet cafes in Addis Ababa, Dire Dawa, Nazret, Bahir Dar, Gonder, Awasa and other cities.^ In the capital city of Addis Ababa alone, there are an estimated 50,000 to 60,000 street children according to the government, and 100,000 according to UNICEF. .
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ (SFC, 6/24/99, p.A10) 1991 May 25, Foreigners fled the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa as rebels closed in on the city.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ There were no developments in numerous other 2005 political killings.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Usually, within Addis Ababa, connection speeds are most of the time more than adequate for performing tasks such as checking one's e-mail.^ (MC, 1/9/02) 1937 Feb, More than 30,000 Ethiopians were massacred in Addis Ababa.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ More than one hundred opposition figures were already on trial, accused of plotting a coup after disputed 2005 elections.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Treatment for fistulae was available at only one hospital, the Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital, which annually performed over 1,000 fistula operations.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

A typical internet cafe will have a dozen computers using one broadband (usually starts from 128kbps) connection. .Ethiopia's international connection is unstable: One bad days, even a broadband connection will only deliver dial-up speed, because the whole country's traffic is running via an undersized backup satellite connection.^ The Tigrean minority made up only 5% of the country’s population.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.To use the internet costs between 20-50 Ethiopian cents/per minutes in the bigger cities but out side the cities it usually costs more than 1 birr/per minutes.^ Italians and 1593 Eritreans were killed, more than 275,000 Ethiopians were killed.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (MC, 1/9/02) 1937 Feb, More than 30,000 Ethiopians were massacred in Addis Ababa.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The daily meal budget was approximately $0.50 (4.5 birr) per prisoner, and many prisoners had family members deliver food daily, or used personal funds to purchase food from local vendors.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Most of the computers have USB, so maybe you'll interest in using a portable e-mail program (like thunderbird portable) from an usb-stick. Take care of computer viruses! Most computers or flash disks in use are infected.
Outside of bigger towns, it is harder to find a working Internet connection and the charge per minute is often much higher than in bigger towns.

Mail

Ethiopia has one of the most efficient postal services in Africa. Many attribute this success to the extensive network of Ethiopian Airlines. However, mail does not get delivered to your address. You are required to buy a post office box. Once you get a post office box, the flow of your mail will be consistent. Post cards to Europe are at 2 ETB and post cards to North America costs 5 ETB. (2007)
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.ETHIOPIA, or Aeth10pia (Gr.^ ETHIOPIA, or Aeth10pia (Gr.

.AlOt07rLa), the ancient classical name of a district of north-eastern Africa, bounded on the N. by Egypt and on the E. by the Red Sea.'^ AlOt07rLa), the ancient classical name of a district of north-eastern Africa , bounded on the N. by Egypt and on the E. by the Red Sea .'

^ NE Africa, bordering on Egypt and the Red Sea.
  • Ethiopia Definition | Definition of Ethiopia at Dictionary.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To the north of the region the Danakil depression falls away to Eritrea and the coast of the red sea.
  • Ethiopia Vacations, Luxury Tours, Cruises, Hotels and Resorts 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.travelwizard.com [Source type: News]

.The application of the name has varied considerably at different times.^ The application of the name has varied considerably at different times.

.In the Homeric poems the Aethiopes are the furthest of mankind both eastward and westward; the gods go to their banquets and probably the Sun sets in their country.^ In the Homeric poems the Aethiopes are the furthest of mankind both eastward and westward; the gods go to their banquets and probably the Sun sets in their country.

.With the growth of scientific geography they came to be located somewhat less vaguely, and indeed their name was employed as the equivalent of the Assyrian and Hebrew Cush, the Kesh or Ekosh of the Hieroglyphics (first found in Stele of Senwosri I.), i.e. a country extending from about the 24th to the 10th degree of N. lat., while its limits to the E. and W. were doubtful.^ With the growth of scientific geography they came to be located somewhat less vaguely, and indeed their name was employed as the equivalent of the Assyrian and Hebrew Cush , the Kesh or Ekosh of the Hieroglyphics (first found in Stele of Senwosri I.), i.e.

^ Bible References: Winckler long ago proved that the Assyrians designated a district in Northern Arabia by the same name which they ordinarily applied to Ethiopia.
  • Bible Map: Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC bibleatlas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Book of Aksum , an Ge'ez chronicle first composed in the 15th century, states that the name is derived from "'Ityopp'is", a son (unmentioned in the Bible) of Cush, son of Ham who according to legend founded the city of Axum .
  • Ethiopia at AllExperts 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The etymology of the name, which to a Greek ear meant "swarthy-faced," is unknown, nor can we say why in official inscriptions of the Axumite dynasty the word is used as the equivalent of Habashat (whence the 1 For the topography and later history see Sudan and Abyssinia.^ The etymology of the name, which to a Greek ear meant "swarthy-faced," is unknown, nor can we say why in official inscriptions of the Axumite dynasty the word is used as the equivalent of Habashat (whence the 1 For the topography and later history see Sudan and Abyssinia .

^ Fragments of the history of this kingdom, of which there is no authentic chronicle, have been made out chiefly by the aid of inscriptions, of which the following is a list: - (1) Greek inscription of Adulis, copied by Cosmas Indicopleustes in 545, the beginning, with the king's name, lost.

^ The Ge'ez name ʾĪtyōṗṗyā and its English cognate are thought by some recent scholars to be derived from the Greek word Αἰθιοπία Aithiopia, from Αἰθίοψ Aithiops ‘an Ethiopian’, derived in turn from Greek words meaning "of burned face".
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

modern .Abyssinia), which, from the context would appear to denote a tribe located in S. Arabia, whose 'name was rendered by the Greek geographers as Abaseni and Abissa. The inhabitants of Ethiopia, partly perhaps owing to their honourable mention in the Homeric poems, attracted the attention of many Greek researchers, from Democritus onwards.^ The inhabitants of Ethiopia, partly perhaps owing to their honourable mention in the Homeric poems, attracted the attention of many Greek researchers, from Democritus onwards.

^ Abyssinia ), which, from the context would appear to denote a tribe located in S. Arabia , whose 'name was rendered by the Greek geographers as Abaseni and Abissa.

^ Bible References: Winckler long ago proved that the Assyrians designated a district in Northern Arabia by the same name which they ordinarily applied to Ethiopia.
  • Bible Map: Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC bibleatlas.org [Source type: Original source]

.Herodotus divides them into two main groups, a straight-haired race and a woolly-haired race, dwelling respectively to the East and West, and this distinction is confirmed by the Egyptian monuments.^ Herodotus divides them into two main groups, a straight-haired race and a woolly-haired race, dwelling respectively to the East and West, and this distinction is confirmed by the Egyptian monuments.

^ The differences may be observed in the number of languages spoken - an astonishing 83, falling into four main language groups: Semitic, Cushitic, Omotic and Nilo-Saharan.
  • Ethiopian Culture 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.selamta.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The church of Bet Giorgis is a nearly perfect cube, hewn in the shape of a cross, and is oriented so that the main entrance is in the west and the holy of holies in the east.
  • Sacred Sites of Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.sacredsites.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From his time onwards various names of tribes are enumerated, and to some extent geographically located, most of these appellations being Greek words, applied to the tribes by strangers in virtue of what seemed to be their leading characteristics, e.g.^ From his time onwards various names of tribes are enumerated, and to some extent geographically located, most of these appellations being Greek words, applied to the tribes by strangers in virtue of what seemed to be their leading characteristics, e.g.

^ The Ge'ez name ʾĪtyōṗṗyā and its English cognate are thought by some recent scholars to be derived from the Greek word Αἰθιοπία Aithiopia, from Αἰθίοψ Aithiops ‘an Ethiopian’, derived in turn from Greek words meaning "of burned face".
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Abyssinia ), which, from the context would appear to denote a tribe located in S. Arabia , whose 'name was rendered by the Greek geographers as Abaseni and Abissa.

."
Long-lived," "Fish-eaters," "Troglodytes," &c.^ Long-lived," " Fish -eaters," " Troglodytes ," &c.

.The bulk of our information is derived from Egyptian monuments, whence it appears that, originally occupied by independent tribes, who were raided (first by Seneferu or Snefru, first king of the IVth or last of the IIIrd Dynasty) and gradually subjected by Egyptian kings (the steps in this process are traced by E. W. Budge, The Egyptian Sudan, 1907, i.^ The bulk of our information is derived from Egyptian monuments, whence it appears that, originally occupied by independent tribes, who were raided (first by Seneferu or Snefru, first king of the IVth or last of the IIIrd Dynasty) and gradually subjected by Egyptian kings (the steps in this process are traced by E. W. Budge, The Egyptian Sudan , 1907, i.

^ During the first Egyptian dynasties — i.e.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A description of the chief ruins and the results of Dr D. R. Maclver's researches in northern Nubia, begun in 1907, will be found under Sudan : Anglo-Egyptian.

505 sqq.), under the .XVIIIth Dynasty it became an Egyptian province, administered by a viceroy (at first the Egyptian king's son), called prince of Kesh, and paying tributes in negroes, oxen, gold, ivory, rare beads, hides and household utensils.^ During the first Egyptian dynasties — i.e.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ XVIIIth Dynasty it became an Egyptian province, administered by a viceroy (at first the Egyptian king's son), called prince of Kesh, and paying tributes in negroes, oxen, gold , ivory , rare beads, hides and household utensils.

^ The Zagwe dynasty was overthrown in 1270 by Yekuno Amlak, who claimed to be a direct descendant of Menelik I, the son of King Solomon and Makeda, Queen of Saba.
  • Christian History of Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.fhi.net [Source type: Original source]

.The inhabitants frequently rebelled and were as often subdued; records of these repeated conquests were set up by the Egyptian kings in the shape of steles and temples; of the latter the temple of Amenhotep (Amenophis) III. at Soleb or Sulb seems to have been the most magnificent.^ The inhabitants frequently rebelled and were as often subdued; records of these repeated conquests were set up by the Egyptian kings in the shape of steles and temples; of the latter the temple of Amenhotep (Amenophis) III. at Soleb or Sulb seems to have been the most magnificent.

^ Merawi) at the foot of Jebel Barkal, "the sacred mountain," which in time became formidable, and in the middle of the 8th century conquered Egypt; an Egyptian campaign is recorded in the famous stele of King Pankhi.

^ These Ethiopian kings seem to have made no attempt to reconquer Egypt, though they were often engaged in wars with the wild tribes of the Sudan.

.Ethiopia became independent towards the 11th century B.C., when the XXIst Dynasty was reigning in Egypt.^ Ethiopia became independent towards the 11th century B.C., when the XXIst Dynasty was reigning in Egypt.

^ Towards the end of the 5th century nine monks arrived, probably from Syria, though perhaps from Egypt, and introduced monasticism into Ethiopia.
  • Ethiopian Christianity: A History of the Christian Church in Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.bethel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the three main colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the pan-African colors .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A state was founded, having for its capital Napata (mod.^ A state was founded, having for its capital Napata (mod.

.Merawi) at the foot of Jebel Barkal, "the sacred mountain," which in time became formidable, and in the middle of the 8th century conquered Egypt; an Egyptian campaign is recorded in the famous stele of King Pankhi.^ In The Queen of Sheba's Footsteps Lalibela's Bet Giyorgis, most famous of the eleven rock-hewn churches in this mountainous area, is believed to have been built in the late 12th or early 13th century by King Lalibela.
  • Ethiopia to Host ATA 32ND WORLD CONGRESS 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.africa-ata.org [Source type: News]

^ A province governed by members of the Imperial dynasty in the time when the capital of Ethiopia was located at Gondar, in the north, Shewa became a semi-autonomous Kingdom in the 19th century.
  • East Africa 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Little is known of what became of the Axumite kingdom between the 8th and 11th centuries.
  • Sacred Sites of Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.sacredsites.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fortunes of the Ethiopian (XXVth) Dynasty belong to the history of Egypt.^ The fortunes of the Ethiopian (XXVth) Dynasty belong to the history of Egypt .

^ The Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt (roughly 743-656 B.C.) was actually an Ethiopian dynasty.
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt (roughly 743-656 BC) was actually an Ethiopian dynasty.
  • Ethiopia - Ethiopedia, Encyclopedia of Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.ethiopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the Ethiopian yoke had been shaken off by Egypt, about 660 B.C., Ethiopia continued independent, under kings of whom not a few are known from inscriptions.^ After the Ethiopian yoke had been shaken off by Egypt, about 660 B.C., Ethiopia continued independent, under kings of whom not a few are known from inscriptions.

^ Filed under About Ethiopia by Ethiopia_News .
  • Current Ethiopian News - Latest Ethiopia News - News About Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.checkoutethiopia.com [Source type: General]

^ For example, the BBC web pages included [in March 2001] paper about withdrawal of the Ethiopian troops from a buffer zone between Ethiopia and Eritrea.
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.crwflags.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Besides a number whose names have been discovered in cartouches at Jebel Barkal, the following, of whom all but the third have left important steles, can be roughly dated: Tandamane, son of Tirhaka (667-650), Asperta (630-600), Pankharer (600-560), Harsiotf (560-525), Nastasen (525-500).^ Besides a number whose names have been discovered in cartouches at Jebel Barkal, the following, of whom all but the third have left important steles, can be roughly dated: Tandamane, son of Tirhaka (667-650), Asperta (630-600), Pankharer (600-560), Harsiotf (560-525), Nastasen (525-500).

^ Piankhy, to whom belongs the honour of this achievement, caused an account of it to be engraved at Jebel-Barkal, near Napata.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The following is a list of the monarchs of this era who had no power, but were legitimate monarchs in whose names the nation was ruled by its many warlords.
  • IMPERIAL ETHIOPIA HOME PAGE 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

.From the evidence of the stele of the second (the Coronation Stele) and that of the fifth it has been inferred that the sovereignty early in this period became elective, a deputation of the various orders in the realm being (as Diodorus states), when a vacancy occurred, sent to Napata, where the chief god Amen selected out of the members of the royal family the person who was to succeed, and who became officially the god's son; and it seems certain that the priestly caste was more influential in Ethiopia than in Egypt both before and after this period.^ It is not the official webpage of the Imperial Family of Ethiopia or any of it's members.
  • IMPERIAL ETHIOPIA HOME PAGE 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From the evidence of the stele of the second (the Coronation Stele) and that of the fifth it has been inferred that the sovereignty early in this period became elective, a deputation of the various orders in the realm being (as Diodorus states), when a vacancy occurred, sent to Napata, where the chief god Amen selected out of the members of the royal family the person who was to succeed, and who became officially the god's son; and it seems certain that the priestly caste was more influential in Ethiopia than in Egypt both before and after this period.

^ Find out more on the Ethiopia site .
  • Ethiopia | WaterAid 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.wateraid.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another stele (called the Stele of Excommunication) records the expulsion of a priestly family guilty of murder (H. Schafer, Klio, vi.^ Another stele (called the Stele of Excommunication) records the expulsion of a priestly family guilty of murder (H. Schafer, Klio, vi.

^ Mélanges d'Assyriologie et d'Egyptologie, ii., iii.; Records of the Past, vi.; T.S.B.A. iv.; Schafer, l.c., and Zeitschrift fiir dgyptische Sprache, xxxiii.

287): the name of the sovereign who expelled them has been obliterated. .The stele of Harsiotf contains the record of nine expeditions, in the course of which the king subdued various tribes south of Meroo and built a number of temples.^ The stele of Harsiotf contains the record of nine expeditions, in the course of which the king subdued various tribes south of Meroo and built a number of temples.

^ The City's unique imperial compound contains a number of Castles built between 1632 and 1855 by the various Emperors who reigned during this period.
  • Ethiopia's Tourist Attractions 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.selamta.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The inhabitants frequently rebelled and were as often subdued; records of these repeated conquests were set up by the Egyptian kings in the shape of steles and temples; of the latter the temple of Amenhotep (Amenophis) III. at Soleb or Sulb seems to have been the most magnificent.

.The stele of the last of these sovereigns, now in the Berlin Museum, and edited by H. Schafer (Leipzig, 1901), contains valuable information concerning the state of the Ethiopian kingdom in its author's time.^ The stele of the last of these sovereigns, now in the Berlin Museum, and edited by H. Schafer (Leipzig, 1901), contains valuable information concerning the state of the Ethiopian kingdom in its author's time.

^ Note: Due to the nature of international adoption, all information contained on this webpage concerning Ethiopia adoption is subject to change without notice.
  • Ethiopia Adoption Program – Christian World Adoption 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.cwa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the pyramids of Meroe was Candace's-her picture can still be seen at Kaga-and to her belonged the wonderful treasure of jewelry found in 1834 by Ferlini and now in the Berlin museum.
  • Bible Map: Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC bibleatlas.org [Source type: Original source]

.Shortly after his accession he was threatened with invasion by Cambyses, the Persian conqueror of Egypt, but (according to his own account) destroyed the fleet sent by the invader up the Nile, while (as we learn from Herodotus) the land-force succumbed to famine (see Cambyses).^ Shortly after his accession he was threatened with invasion by Cambyses , the Persian conqueror of Egypt, but (according to his own account) destroyed the fleet sent by the invader up the Nile , while (as we learn from Herodotus) the land-force succumbed to famine (see Cambyses ).

^ In the following century, Cambyses, conqueror of Egypt , attracted by the marvelous renown of the countries along the Upper Nile, set on foot an expedition against Ethiopia, but in spite of the numbers and prowess of his troops he was obliged to retreat.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.It further appears that in his time and that of his immediate predecessors the capital of the kingdom had been removed from Napata, where in the time of Harsiotf the temples and palaces were already in ruins, to Merc y at a distance of 60 camel-hours to the south-east.^ It further appears that in his time and that of his immediate predecessors the capital of the kingdom had been removed from Napata, where in the time of Harsiotf the temples and palaces were already in ruins, to Merc y at a distance of 60 camel -hours to the south-east.

^ The Ethiopian highlands at that time were primarily Christian in the North-East, Judaic in the North-West and mostly animist in the South.
  • Christianity and Islam in Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.ethiopiatravel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A province governed by members of the Imperial dynasty in the time when the capital of Ethiopia was located at Gondar, in the north, Shewa became a semi-autonomous Kingdom in the 19th century.
  • East Africa 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

.But Napata retained its importance as the religious metropolis; it was thither that the king went to be crowned, and there too the chief god delivered his oracles, which were (it is said) implicitly obeyed.^ But Napata retained its importance as the religious metropolis ; it was thither that the king went to be crowned, and there too the chief god delivered his oracles, which were (it is said) implicitly obeyed.

.The local names in Nastasen's inscription, describing his royal circuit, are in many cases obscure.^ The local names in Nastasen's inscription, describing his royal circuit , are in many cases obscure.

^ Many believe that the Gospel had entered Ethiopia even earlier, with the royal official described as being baptised by Philip the Evangelist in chapter eight of the Acts of the Apostles .
  • Ethiopia - Ethiopedia, Encyclopedia of Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.ethiopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Archeologists have found inscriptions from the ancient Sabean kingdom but no mention of Makeda or Bilqis, the local name for Sheba in Yemen.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.A city named Pnups (Hierogl.^ A city named Pnups (Hierogl.

.Pa-Nebes) appears to have constituted the most northerly point in the empire.^ Pa-Nebes) appears to have constituted the most northerly point in the empire.

^ A case in point is the Gurages, who now constitute one of the largest and economically most important communities.
  • Ethiopia - Armeniapedia.org 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.armeniapedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.These Ethiopian kings seem to have made no attempt to reconquer Egypt, though they were often engaged in wars with the wild tribes of the Sudan.^ These Ethiopian kings seem to have made no attempt to reconquer Egypt, though they were often engaged in wars with the wild tribes of the Sudan.

^ The inhabitants frequently rebelled and were as often subdued; records of these repeated conquests were set up by the Egyptian kings in the shape of steles and temples; of the latter the temple of Amenhotep (Amenophis) III. at Soleb or Sulb seems to have been the most magnificent.

^ This region of southern Sudan has been through over 20 years of brutal civil war, and even though there is now a fragile peace treaty in the south, they are still experiencing the effects of what that long conflict has done to their region.
  • Impact Network - Crusaders Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.impactnetwork.net [Source type: Original source]

.For the 5th and 4th centuries B.C. the history of the country is a blank.^ For the 5th and 4th centuries B.C. the history of the country is a blank .

^ Ethiopia was one of the very first nations to embrace Christianity, way back in the 4th century AD. The wonderful churches, monasteries, icons and relics to be found here is a reminder of the central role the Church has played in the history of the country.

^ But from this time forward the history of this country is enveloped in darkness, and remains almost unknown to us until the thirteenth century.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.A fresh epoch was, however, inaugurated by Ergamenes, a contemporary of Ptolemy Philadelphus, who is said to have massacred the priests at Napata, and destroyed sacerdotal influence, till then so great that the king might at the priests' order be compelled to destroy himself; Diodorus attributes this measure to Ergamenes' acquaintance with Greek culture, which he introduced into his country.^ A fresh epoch was, however, inaugurated by Ergamenes, a contemporary of Ptolemy Philadelphus, who is said to have massacred the priests at Napata, and destroyed sacerdotal influence, till then so great that the king might at the priests' order be compelled to destroy himself; Diodorus attributes this measure to Ergamenes' acquaintance with Greek culture, which he introduced into his country.

^ But Napata retained its importance as the religious metropolis ; it was thither that the king went to be crowned, and there too the chief god delivered his oracles, which were (it is said) implicitly obeyed.

^ Above all things, it is a country of great antiquity, with a culture and traditions dating back more than 3,000 years.
  • Ethiopian Culture 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.selamta.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A temple was built by this king at Pselcis (Dakka) to Thoth. Probably the sovereignty again became hereditary. .Occasional notices of Ethiopia occur from this time onwards in Greek and Latin authors, though the special treatises by Agatharchides and others are lost.^ United Nations Statistics Division: National Accounts - Ethiopia "Statistics database contains a complete and consistent set of time series from 1970 onwards of main national accounts aggregates for all UN Members States and all other countries and areas in the world."

^ Other interesting differences include the calendar (it’s new year 2001 in Ethiopia, and there are 13 months in a year), and the time system (00:00 is sunrise, not midnight).
  • dsd’s weblog » ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reactivated.net [Source type: General]

^ Though not as abundant as elsewhere in east Africa, there is plenty of wildlife, and 31 rare species are only found in Ethiopia.

.According to these the country came to be ruled by queens named Candace.^ According to these the country came to be ruled by queens named Candace.

^ These rulers of ancient Ethiopia identified their country and state by the name of Daamat.
  • History of Ethiopia — 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC historyethiopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Candace appears to be found as the name of a queen for whom a pyramid was built at Meroe .

.One of them was involved in war with the Romans in 24 and 23 B.C.; the land was invaded by C. Petronius, who took the fortress Premis or Ibrim, and sacked the capital (then Napata); the emperor Augustus, however, ordered the evacuation of the country without even demanding tribute.^ One of them was involved in war with the Romans in 24 and 23 B.C.; the land was invaded by C. Petronius , who took the fortress Premis or Ibrim, and sacked the capital (then Napata); the emperor Augustus, however, ordered the evacuation of the country without even demanding tribute .

^ Thanks to a combination of recent wars, droughts, and famines, Africa’s richest country in natural beauty and human resources is also one of its poorest.

^ However, three-quarters of the country’s Internet cafés are in the capital city, and even there access is often slow and unreliable.
  • Ethiopia | OpenNet Initiative 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC opennet.net [Source type: News]

.The stretch of land between Assuan (Syene) and Maharraka (Hiera Sycaminus) was, however, regarded as belonging to the Roman empire, and Roman cohorts were stationed at the latter place.^ The stretch of land between Assuan (Syene) and Maharraka (Hiera Sycaminus) was, however, regarded as belonging to the Roman empire, and Roman cohorts were stationed at the latter place.

^ Much of the impetus for foreign conquest lay in the desire to control the maritime trade between the Roman Empire and India and adjoining lands.
  • Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.To judge by the monuments it is possible that there were queens who reigned alone.^ To judge by the monuments it is possible that there were queens who reigned alone.

.Pyramids were erected for queens as well as for kings, and the position of the queens was little inferior to that of their consorts, though, so far as monumental representations go, they always yielded precedence to the latter.^ Pyramids were erected for queens as well as for kings, and the position of the queens was little inferior to that of their consorts, though, so far as monumental representations go, they always yielded precedence to the latter.

^ After 300 bc they were superseded by the kingdom of Aksum , whose King Menilek I was, according to legend, the son of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba.
  • Ethiopia -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What he should do is explain to the people of Tigray why he has decided to let Badme go and convince them why it is in their best interest as well as the interest of humanity that they should accept his explanation."
  • MediaETHIOPIA - Your Ultimate Portal to Ethiopia. 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.ethiopians.com [Source type: General]

.Candace appears to be found as the name of a queen for whom a pyramid was built at Meroe.^ Candace appears to be found as the name of a queen for whom a pyramid was built at Meroe .

^ One of the pyramids of Meroe was Candace's-her picture can still be seen at Kaga-and to her belonged the wonderful treasure of jewelry found in 1834 by Ferlini and now in the Berlin museum.
  • Bible Map: Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC bibleatlas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to these the country came to be ruled by queens named Candace.

.A great builder was Netekamane, who is represented with his queen Amanetari on temples of Egyptian style at many points up the Nile - at Amara just above the second cataract, and at Napata, as well as at Meroe, Benaga and Naga in the distant Isle of Meroe.^ A great builder was Netekamane, who is represented with his queen Amanetari on temples of Egyptian style at many points up the Nile - at Amara just above the second cataract , and at Napata, as well as at Meroe, Benaga and Naga in the distant Isle of Meroe.

^ The town is also well known as a transit point for the Camel Caravans bringing salt up from the arid lands of the Danakil Depression.
  • Ethiopia's Tourist Attractions 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.selamta.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Arc was then hidden for two hundred years in a Jewish temple on the Egyptian sacred island of Elephantine in the Nile.
  • Sacred Sites of Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.sacredsites.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He belongs, probably, to the Ptolemaic age. .Later, in the Roman period, the type in sculpture changed from the Egyptian.^ Later, in the Roman period, the type in sculpture changed from the Egyptian.

The figures are obese, especially the women, and have pronounced negro features, and the royal person is loaded with bulging gold ornaments. Of this period also there is a royal pair, Netekamane and Amanetari, imitating the names of their conspicuous predecessors. .In the 4th century A.D. the state of Meroe was ravaged by the Nubas (?) and the Abyssinians, and in the 6th century its place was taken by the Christian state of Nubia (see Dongola).^ In the 4th century A.D. the state of Meroe was ravaged by the Nubas (?

^ Abyssinians, and in the 6th century its place was taken by the Christian state of Nubia (see Dongola ).

^ It was in the early 4th century AD that a Syro- Greek castaway, Frumentius , was taken to the court and eventually converted King Ezana to Christianity , thereby making it the official state religion.
  • Ethiopia at AllExperts 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Contrary to the opinion of the Greeks, the Ethiopians appear to have derived their religion and civilization from the Egyptians.^ The English name "Ethiopia" is thought to be derived from the Greek word Aithiopia, from Aithiops ‘an Ethiopian', derived from Greek terms meaning "of burnt ( αιθ- ) visage ()".
  • Ethiopia at AllExperts 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Traditional Ethiopian art, such as paintings, are an expression of religion, especially the Greek Orthodox religion.
  • Ethiopia Facts 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.compassion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The royal inscriptions are written in the hieroglyphic character and the Egyptian language, which, however, in the opinion of experts, steadily deteriorate after the separation of Ethiopia from Egypt.^ The tongues in the land of Kush were as varied as the people who dwelt there, but Egyptian is the language of the Ethiopian inscriptions.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "There is nothing that Israeli technicians and experts can provide Ethiopia with that we in Egypt cannot," he explained.

^ It is written by means of hieroglyphics, of which the alphabetical values, however, have been modified.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.About the time of Ergamenes, or (according to some authorities) before, a vernacular came to be employed in inscriptions, written in a special alphabet of 23 signs in parallel hieroglyphic and cursive forms.^ About the time of Ergamenes, or (according to some authorities) before, a vernacular came to be employed in inscriptions, written in a special alphabet of 23 signs in parallel hieroglyphic and cursive forms.

^ The royal inscriptions are written in the hieroglyphic character and the Egyptian language, which, however, in the opinion of experts, steadily deteriorate after the separation of Ethiopia from Egypt.

^ According to certain tales written in Gheez, the Ethiopians embraced the Jewish religion at the time of Solomon, and received a prince of that monarch's family to rule over it.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The cursive is to be read from right to left, the hieroglyphic, contrary to the Egyptian method, in the direction in which the figures face.^ The cursive is to be read from right to left, the hieroglyphic, contrary to the Egyptian method, in the direction in which the figures face.

.The Egyptian equivalents of six characters have been made out by the aid of bilingual cartouches.^ The Egyptian equivalents of six characters have been made out by the aid of bilingual cartouches.

.Words are divided from each other by pairs of dots, and it is clear that the forms and values of the signs are largely based on Egyptian writing; but as yet decipherment has not been attained, nor can it yet be stated to what group the language should be assigned (F. Ll.^ Words are divided from each other by pairs of dots, and it is clear that the forms and values of the signs are largely based on Egyptian writing; but as yet decipherment has not been attained, nor can it yet be stated to what group the language should be assigned (F. Ll.

^ When applying for a business visa , the form should be accompanied by a signed letter on headed paper from the sponsoring organisation or company, stating the nature of the visit and the work that will be conducted.

^ Linguistic diversification within each group thereafter gave rise to a large number of new languages.
  • Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Griffith in D. R. Maclver's Areika, Oxford, 1909, and later researches).^ Griffith in D. R. Maclver's Areika, Oxford , 1909, and later researches).

.Notices in Greek authors are collected by P. Paulitschke, Die geographische Erforschung des afrikanischen Continents (Vienna, 1880); the inscriptions were edited and interpreted by G, Maspero, Revue archeol. xxii., xxv.; Mélanges d'Assyriologie et d'Egyptologie, ii., iii.; Records of the Past, vi.; T.S.B.A. iv.; Schafer, l.c., and Zeitschrift fiir dgyptische Sprache, xxxiii.^ Notices in Greek authors are collected by P. Paulitschke, Die geographische Erforschung des afrikanischen Continents (Vienna, 1880); the inscriptions were edited and interpreted by G, Maspero, Revue archeol.

^ I. Case Background II. Environment Aspect III. Conflict Aspect IV. Env.
  • Untitled Document 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cismaan ('Uthman) II..........................1815-1842 Yusuf IV......................................1842-1844 Maxamuud V ibn Yusuf..........................1844-1860 Cismaan III ibn Maxamuud ( in Majertin )........1860-1927 opposed by...
  • East Africa 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

See also J. H. Breasted, "The Monuments of Sudanese Nubia," in American Journal of Semitic Languages (October 1908), and the work of E. W. Budge cited above. .A description of the chief ruins and the results of Dr D. R. Maclver's researches in northern Nubia, begun in 1907, will be found under Sudan: Anglo-Egyptian.^ With the recent development of oil in Sudan , however, Ethiopia has begun importing oil which, under the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), is not subject to tariffs.
  • Energy profile of Ethiopia - Encyclopedia of Earth 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Ras Tafari)(2 May 1936 - 5 May 1941 in exile                              in Jersusalem, then Bath, U.K and                              later Anglo-Egyptian Sudan)  1 May 1936 - 17 Dec 1936  Ras Imru - Regent                   (b.

The Axumite Kingdom. - .About
the 1st century of the Christian era a new kingdom grew up at Axum, of which a king Zoscales is mentioned in the Periplus Marls Erythraei. Fragments of the history of this kingdom, of which there is no authentic chronicle, have been made out chiefly by the aid of inscriptions, of which the following is a list: - (1) Greek inscription of Adulis, copied by Cosmas Indicopleustes in 545, the beginning, with the king's name, lost.^ KINGDOM of AXUM: best estimated list based on inscriptions and coinage.
  • East Africa 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ He was a Syrian who grew up in Axum and converted the King.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ What follows is the traditional list from the Book of Kings .
  • East Africa 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

(2) Sabaean inscription of Ela Amida in two halves, discovered by J. Theodore Bent at Axum in 1893, and completed by E. Littmann in 1906. (3) Ethiopic inscription probably of the same king, imperfect (Littmann). .(4) Trilingual inscription of Aeizanes, the Greek version discovered by Henry Salt in 1805, the Sabaean by Bent, and the Ethiopic (Geez) by Littmann.^ The name Ethiopia is used in the Greek version, while the name Habasha is used in the Geez version of the Ezana inscription.
  • History of Ethiopia — 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC historyethiopia.com [Source type: Original source]

(5) Ethiopic inscription of Aeizanes (so Littmann), son of Ela Amida, discovered by Eduard Riippell in 1833. (6) Ethiopic inscriptions of HetanaDan'el, son of Dabra Efrem. .These are all long inscriptions giving details of wars, &c.^ All these figures have been contested and other news reports simply state that “tens of thousands” or “as many as 100,000″ were killed in the war.
  • Ethiopia Military — 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ethiopiamilitary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The sixth is later than the rest, which are to be attributed to the most flourishing period of the kingdom, the 4th and 5th centuries A.D. The fourth is pagan, the fifth Christian, Aeizanes having in the interval embraced Christianity.^ Missionaries from Egypt and Syria introduced Christianity in the fourth century A.D. Following the rise of Islam in the seventh century, Ethiopia was gradually cut off from European Christendom.
  • Ethiopia 25 September 2009 1:52 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ethiopia Maps 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC mapup.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Christianity was introduced in the 4th century ad and became widespread ( see Ethiopian Orthodox Church ).
  • Ethiopia -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the Christians belonging to the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, whose 4th Century beginnings came long before Europe accepted Christianity.
  • Ethiopia's Tourist Attractions 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.selamta.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It was to this king that the emperor Constantius addressed a letter in 356 A.D.
Aeizanes and his successors style themselves kings of the Axumites, Homerites (Himyar), Raidan, the Ethiopians (Habasat), the Sabaeans, Silee, Tiamo, the Bugaites (Bega) and Kasu. .This style implies considerable conquests in South Arabia, which, however, must have been lost to the Axumites by A.D. 378. They claim to rule the Kasu'or Meroitic Ethiopians; and the fifth inscription records an expedition along the Atbara and the Nile to punish the Nuba and Kasu, and a fragment of a Greek inscription from Meroe was recognized by Sayce as commemorating a king of Axum.^ One of the greatest dates to be recorded in such annals of Ethiopian history has been the commemoration of the liberation anniversary falling on may 5th of each year.
  • Ethiopia - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ezana was a significantly successful soldier, whose military victories are recorded in numerous inscriptions at Axum.
  • IMPERIAL ETHIOPIA HOME PAGE 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ethiopian Orthodox priest with ancient Bible and crowns of Ethiopian kings, St. Mary of Zion, Axum (Order Fine Art Print) .
  • Sacred Sites of Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.sacredsites.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Except for these inscriptions Axumite history is a blank until in the 6th century we find the Axumite king sending an expedition to wreck the Jewish state then existing in S. Arabia, and reducing that country to a state of vassalage: the king is styled in Ethiopian chronicles Caleb (Kaleb), in Greek and Arabic documents El-Esbaha.^ After seeing this for himself, he is said to have replied to the Arab Kings, "Even if you were to pay me a mountain of gold, I could not in good conscience betray these people and send them to you."
  • IMPERIAL ETHIOPIA HOME PAGE 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the 18th century there has existed a relatively small Uniate Ethiopian Catholic Church in full communion with Rome , which covers a small percentage of the total population of the country.
  • Ethiopia at AllExperts 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was in the early 4th century AD that a Syro- Greek castaway, Frumentius , was taken to the court and eventually converted King Ezana to Christianity , thereby making it the official state religion.
  • Ethiopia at AllExperts 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 7th century a successor to this king, named Abraha or Abraham, gave refuge to the persecuted followers of Mahomet at the beginning of his career (see Arabia: History, ad init.^ Christianity and Islam have coexisted peacefully for hundreds of years, and the Christian kings of Ethiopia gave Muhammad refuge during his persecution in southern Arabia, causing the Prophet to declare Ethiopia exempt from Muslim holy wars.
  • Culture of Ethiopia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ethiopia – FREE Ethiopia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Ethiopia research 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is also Gonder, the site of five 17th-century castles built by King Fasil and his successors.

^ Christianity was introduced in the 4th century ad and became widespread ( see Ethiopian Orthodox Church ).
  • Ethiopia -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

).
.A few more names of kings occur on coins, which were struck in Greek characters till about A.D. 700, after which time that language seems definitely to have been displaced in favour of Ethiopic or Geez: the condition of the script and the coins renders them all difficult to identify with the names preserved in the native lists, which are too fanciful and mutually contradictory to furnish of themselves even a vestige of history.^ Of all the vast tracks of country to which the name Ethiopia was given at one or other period of history, there are two to which the name has more particularly attached itself: the one is modern Nubia and the Egyptian Sudan (the ancient Ethiopia of the Pharaohs ); the other modern Abyssinia (the Ethiopia of our own day), the last of all these regions to preserve the ancient name.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When you are with the same people for such an extended period of time, even in the best circumstances, confrontation seems to be inevitable.
  • LIA International » Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC blog.liaint.org [Source type: General]

^ HIV status was added to the U.S. regulations on visa eligibility in 1987, but since that time, much more has become known about HIV and how it is spread.

.For the period between the rise of Islam and the beginning of the modern history of Abyssinia there are a few notices in Arabic writers; so we have a notice of a war between Ethiopia and Nubia about 687 (C. C. Rossini in Giorn.^ Books about the History of Ethiopia History of Ethiopia .
  • Ethiopia - Ityopya - Country Profile 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.nationsonline.org [Source type: News]

^ Italy Abyssinia (Ethiopia) War 1935-1936 A brief history.
  • Ethiopia - Ityopya - Country Profile 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.nationsonline.org [Source type: News]

^ Why is there a war between Eritrea and Ethiopia?
  • Ethiopia Eritrea Conflict FAQS 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Soc. Asiat. Ital.
x. .141), and of a letter to George king of Nubia from the king of Abyssinia some time between 978 and 1003, when a Jewish queen Judith was oppressing the Christian population (I. Guidi, ibid. iii.^ Some of the difficulties with it can be expressed by noting that the founder, Menelik I (originally named David), is said to have been a son of King Solomon of Israel by the Queen of Sheba.
  • East Africa 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The line of rulers descended from the Axumite kings was broken several times: first by the Jewish or pagan Queen Gudit around 950 Taddesse, Church and State , pps.38-41.
  • Ethiopia at AllExperts 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The line of rulers descended from the Aksumite kings was broken several times: first by the Jewish (unknown/or pagan) Queen Gudit around 950 (or possibly around 850, as in Ethiopian histories).
  • Ethiopia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

176, 7).
.The Abyssinian chronicles, it may be noted, attribute the foundation of the kingdom to Menelek (or Ibn el-Hakim), son of Solomon and the queen of Sheba.^ B.C.) by Solomon's first son, Menelik I, whom the queen of Sheba is supposed to have borne.
  • Ethiopia News - Breaking World Ethiopia News - The New York Times 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ BC) by Solomon's first son, Menelik I, whom the queen of Sheba is supposed to have borne.
  • Ethiopia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to legend, Menelik I, the son of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, founded the Ethiopian Empire.
  • Ethiopia 25 September 2009 1:52 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • AllGov - Nations - Ethiopia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.allgov.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ethiopia Facts 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.compassion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ethiopia Maps 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC mapup.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Axumite or Menelek dynasty was driven from northern Abyssinia by Judith, but soon after another Christian dynasty, that of the Zagues, obtained power.^ About 1137 a new dynasty came to power in the Christian highlands.
  • Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In 1268 the reigning prince abdicated in favour of Yekuno Amlak, king of Shoa, a descendant of the monarch overthrown by Judith (see Abyssinia).^ Upon his death in 1285, Yekuno Amlak was succeeded by his son, Yagba Siyon (reigned 1285-94).
  • Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Yekuno Amlak's accession thus came to be seen as the legitimate "restoration" of the Solomonic line, even though the Amhara king's northern ancestry was at best uncertain.
  • Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ His reign and the period immediately following were marked by constant struggles among the sons and grandsons of Yekuno Amlak.
  • Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

See A. Dillman, Die Anfange des axumitischen Reiches (Berlin, 1879); E. Drouin, Revue archeol. xliv. (1882); T. Mommsen, Geschichte der riimsschen Provinzen, chap. xiii.; W. Dittenberger, Orientis Graeci Inscriptiones selectae, Nos. 199, 200; Littmann u. Kroncker, Vorbericht der deutschen Aksum-Expedition (Berlin, 1906), and Littman's subsequent researches.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Alternative spellings

Etymology

From Ancient Greek Αἰθιοπία (Aithiopia) < Αἰθίοψ (Aithiops) "charred complexion" < αἴθω (aithō) "I burn" + ὤψ (ōps) "eye, face, complexion".
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Proper noun

Ethiopia
.
  1. Country in Eastern Africa.^ Ethiopia - Ethiopia is a country of north-eastern Africa.
    • Ethiopia Information by Africa Trails 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.africatrails.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Polio outbreaks were reported in several previously polio-free countries in Central, Eastern, and Western Africa beginning in 2003.
    • Health Information for Ethiopia | CDC Travelers' Health 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC wwwnc.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Maps: Maps of Ethiopia Ethiopia, or People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, a country in eastern Africa.

    Official name: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.

Translations

See also


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Ethiopian History article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Infobox/Ethiopian History
Ethiopian History

Chapters

The Ethiopian Flag
  • Preface
  • Introduction
  • Early History
  • Christian Ethiopia
  • Aksumite Empire
  • The Portuguese in Ethiopia
  • Medieval Times
  • Europeans in Ethiopia
  • Recent History
  • Bibliography
  • Contributors

External links


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

Meaning: country of burnt faces
.The Greek word by which the Hebrew Cush is rendered (Gen 2:13; 2Kg 19:9; Est 1:1; Job 28:19; Ps 6831; Ps 874), a country which lay to the south of Egypt, beginning at Syene on the First Cataract (Ezek 29:10; 30:6), and extending to beyond the confluence of the White and Blue Nile.^ (WSJ, 4/19/05, p.A1) 2005 Apr 19, Ethiopians welcomed the return of the first piece of a giant, 1,700-year-old granite obelisk that was looted from the African country 68 years ago by Italian troops.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 10/31/03) 2003 Nov 26, It was reported that a $50 million irrigation project on Ethiopia's Koga River, a tributary to the Blue Nile, would include a small dam.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

It corresponds generally with what is now known as the Soudan (i.e., the land of the blacks). This country was known to the Hebrews, and is described in Isa 18:1; Zeph 3:10. They carried on some commercial intercourse with it (Isa 45:14).
Its inhabitants were descendants of Ham (Gen 10:6; Jer 13:23; Isa 18:2, "scattered and peeled," A.V.; but in R.V., "tall and smooth"). Herodotus, the Greek historian, describes them as "the tallest and handsomest of men." They are frequently represented on Egyptian monuments, and they are all of the type of the true negro. As might be expected, the history of this country is interwoven with that of Egypt.
.Ethiopia is spoken of in prophecy (Ps 6831; 87:4; Isa 45:14; Ezek 30:4-9; Dan 11:43; Nah 3:8-10; Hab 3:7; Zeph 2:12).^ (SFC, 1/30/99, p.A12)(SFC, 3/10/00, p.A12) 1998 May 12, Eritrea accused Ethiopian militiamen of invading its territory in a border skirmish.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AM, 5/01, p.10) 1869 Nov 11, Victor Emmanuel III, king of Italy (1900-46) and Ethiopia, was born.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 4/14/05) 2005 Apr 18, The Boston Marathon was won by Hailu Negusie of Ethiopia, 2:11:45; Catherine Ndereba of Kenya led the women, 2:25:13.
  • Timeline Ethiopia 15 September 2009 8:25 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)

Simple English

[[File:|right|]] Ethiopia is a country in the Horn of Africa. It has one of the most well known histories as a country in Africa and the world. Unlike other African countries, Ethiopia stayed together during the Scramble for Africa, except for 5 years when it was ruled by Italians. Ethiopia used to be called Abyssinia. The word "Ethiopia" is from the Greek word Αἰθιοπία. BNP per capita 1370 $ (IMF) (2008).

History

The Kingdom of joan lanm, the first known kingdom of great power to rise in Ethiopia, rose during the first century AD. The Persian religious figure Mani listed Axum with Rome, Persia, and China as one of the four great powers of his time. It was in the early 4th century that a Syro-Greek castaway, Frumentius, was taken to the court and over time changed King Ezana to Christianity, making Christianity Ethiopia's religion. For this, he received the title "Abba Selama". At different times, including a time in the 6th century, Axum ruled most of modern-day Yemen just across the Red Sea.

The line of rulers from the Axumite kings was broken a few times: first by the Jewish Queen Gudit around 950, then by the Zagwe dynasty. Around 1270, the Solomonid dynasty came to control Ethiopia, claiming that they were related to the kings of Axum. They called themselves Neguse Negest ("King of Kings," or Emperor), basing their claims on their direct relation to Solomon and the queen of Sheba.

During the rule of Emperor Lebna Dengel, Ethiopia made its first good contact with a European country, Portugal. This was a good development. When the Empire was attacked by Somali General and Imam, Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi, Portugal responded to Lebna Dengel's request for help with an army of 400 men, which helped his son Gelawdewos beat al-Ghazi and remake his rule. However, Jesuit missionaries over time offended the Orthodox faith of the local Ethiopians, and in the mid-17th century Emperor Fasilidos got rid of these missionaries. At the same time, the Oromo people began to question the Ethiopian Christian authorities in the Abyssinian territories, and wanted to keep their own religion.

All of this led to Ethiopia's isolation during the 1700s. The Emperors became figureheads, controlled by warlords like Ras Mikael Sehul of Tigray. Ethiopian isolationism ended following a British mission that made friendship between the two nations; however, it was not until the reign of Tewodros II that Ethiopia began to take part in world matters once again.

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bjn:Ethiopia


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Ethiopia, which are similar to those in the above article.








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