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.An ethnic group is a group of people whose members identify with each other, through a common heritage that is real or assumed- sharing cultural characteristics[1][2] This shared heritage may be based upon putative common ancestry, history, kinship, religion, language, shared territory, nationality or physical appearance.^ Qawm may also be indistinguishable from ethnic group, which is also based on an extension of family.
  • Afghanistan Country Study 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethnic groups are groups with ascribed membership, usually but not always based on claims or myths of common history, ancestry, language, race, religion, culture and territory.
  • SoulCast - GENDER SENSITIVITY AMONG NIGERIA ETHNIC GROUP 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.soulcast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this sense, an ethnic group is also a cultural community.
  • Ethnic group - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Members of an ethnic group are conscious of belonging to an ethnic group; moreover ethnic identity is further marked by the recognition from others of a group's distinctiveness.^ Other ethnic groups are to be added in the future.

^ In other words, members of an ethnic group define who they are by who they are not.
  • Journal of Religion and Society 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC moses.creighton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Simultaneously, the term denies the identities of other ethnic groups in the country.
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[3] [4]
According to "Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science, politics, and reality", a conference organised by Statistics Canada and the United States Census Bureau (April 1–3, 1992), "Ethnicity is a fundamental factor in human life: it is a phenomenon inherent in human experience."[5] However, many social scientists, like anthropologists Fredrik Barth and Eric Wolf, do not consider ethnic identity to be universal. .They regard ethnicity as a product of specific kinds of inter-group interactions, rather than an essential quality inherent to human groups.^ Ethnicity is the quality of belonging to an ethnic group.
  • What is the difference between ethnicity and race? - Yahoo! Answers 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Conflict is an essential part of human existence, be it inter-individual or inter-group.
  • Ethnic Groups: Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ethnicity Ethnicity is an inherent characteristic of humanity.
  • Ethnicity in the Cities 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC orvillejenkins.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
.Processes that result in the emergence of such identification are called ethnogenesis.^ While the census process in some nations allow people to specify where their ancestors came from, this can be contentious; controversy over the ‘ethnic question’ may call results into question.
  • How many Irish people live abroad? An Ean factsheet | globalirish.ie – about Irish emigration and the diaspora 17 January 2010 17:36 UTC www.ean.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Depending on the solvent and the end result of the process, the product may be called candy, caramel, toffee, fudge, praline, tablet or taffy.
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^ The sharpening social cleavages that result from such identifications and tactics based on these identifications lead to greater ethnic tension, as the "middle ground" between groups disappears.
  • ETHNIC CONFLICT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www1.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Members of an ethnic group, on the whole, claim cultural continuities over time.^ Cultural and ethnic groups .
  • Cultural and ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.mcgill.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cultural and ethnic groups McGill University .
  • Cultural and ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.mcgill.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cultural and ethnic groups Cultural and ethnic groups .
  • Cultural and ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.mcgill.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Historians and cultural anthropologists have documented, however, that often many of the values, practices, and norms that imply continuity with the past are of relatively recent invention.^ Indeed, like language, traditions, and values, religion is often one of the key building blocks of ethnic cultures (see Gordon 1964, Schermerhorn 1978).
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^ In the past many Copts who become Muslims in order to secure divorces (which is not permissible under Coptic practice) were allowed to reconvert toChristianity.
  • Secular Pashtuns under attack | openDemocracy 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many complain about an influx of Han Chinese and government restrictions on Islamic practices, and fear their culture is being eroded.
  • Han Chinese revenge attackers should be punished, says Beijing official | World news | guardian.co.uk 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[7][8]
.According to Thomas Hylland Eriksen, the study of ethnicity was dominated by two distinct debates until recently.^ Ethnicity and nationalism / Thomas Hylland Eriksen.

^ Thomas Hylland Eriksen 1993 .
  • Ethnicity & Nationalism 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC folk.uio.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethnicity and nationalism : anthropological perspectives / Thomas Hylland Eriksen.

.One is between "primordialism" and "instrumentalism". In the primordialist view, the participant perceives ethnic ties collectively, as an externally given, even coercive, social bond.^ Ethnic Dance Chicago provides a safe haven where all folks (and sometimes their pets too) are accepted and no one has to give up their own ethnicity to participate.

^ I think one distinction you need to draw in this post, though, is the difference between ethnic and national identities.
  • Ben Ross' Blog » Was Chinggis Khaan Chinese? 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.benross.net [Source type: Original source]

^ How will one define the rules for participation in this Ethnic Olympiad?
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[9] .The instrumentalist approach, on the other hand, treats ethnicity primarily as an ad-hoc element of a political strategy, used as a resource for interest groups for achieving secondary goals such as, for instance, an increase in wealth, power or status.^ On the other hand, politics is fair game.

^ It is easy and useful and interesting for others.
  • Ethnicity - CouchSurfing Wiki 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC wiki.couchsurfing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We are making such material available to our readers under the provisions of "fair use" in an effort to advance a better understanding of political, economic and social issues.
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  • Corrupt election campaign unfolds in US-occupied Afghanistan 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10][11] .This debate is still an important point of reference in Political science, although most scholars' approaches fall between the two poles.^ The role of the "go-between" is still important.
  • Chinese - Introduction, Location, Language, Han dialects (spoken by 1.04 billion han) 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the four games, the Olympic Games became the most important and sacred, where hostilities between two warring city-states were temporarily curbed during the games, so all men can compete (except for foreigners, women and slaves).
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^ It is up to the scholars of different fields of science to work and discover the truth related to this striking correspondence in the culture of two well separated groups of peoples.
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[12]
.The second debate is between "constructivism" and "essentialism". Constructivists view national and ethnic identities as the product of historical forces, often recent, even when the identities are presented as old.^ Yet the intended slur had just the opposite effect: it deepened the connection between ethnic identity, Catholicism, and nationalism.

^ For this reason, important figures from the past such as Avicenna and Rumi, who were of ethnic Persian (Tajik) identity, are often not identified as ethnic Afghans or even as Afghan people, at least according to academics, while they are generally included within the context of the collective history of the modern nation-state in the geographic sense.
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^ Understanding Pashtun identity and governance is essential to understanding current relationships between Afghanistan and Pakistan, and indeed the Afghanistan War (2001-) .
  • Pashtun people - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13][14] .Essentialists view such identities as ontological categories defining social actors, and not the result of social action.^ Today, we speak of ethnicity as a mode of action and of representation, for the politicization of ethnic identities continues to be a defining characteristic of the early twenty-first century.

^ He defined religious communities as social forces which "try to become economic powers, then try to shape the socio-political life, and assert their identities as a way of life based on religion."
  • The White Path: From 'Turkish People' to 'People of Turkey' 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.thewhitepath.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While all these variables need not be present before a group is so defined, the important thing is that such a group is classified or categorised as having a common identity that distinguishes it from others.
  • SoulCast - GENDER SENSITIVITY AMONG NIGERIA ETHNIC GROUP 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.soulcast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15][16]
.According to Eriksen, these debates have been superseded, especially in anthropology, by scholars' attempts to respond to increasingly politicised forms of self-representation by members of different ethnic groups and nations.^ Ethnic and national groups .
  • Ethnic, Religious and Language Groups: Towards a Set of Rules for Data Collection and Statistical Analysis 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.eumap.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The other fifty-five ethnic groups form the "national minorities."
  • Chinese - Introduction, Location, Language, Han dialects (spoken by 1.04 billion han) 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People can share the same nationality but have different ethnic groups.
  • Ethnicity 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is in the context of debates over multiculturalism in countries, such as the United States and Canada, which have large immigrant populations from many different cultures, and post-colonialism in the Caribbean and South Asia.^ For example, citizens of the United States are of many different ethnic backgrounds.
  • Ethnicity 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethnic differences in stroke: black-white differences in the United States population.
  • Introduction to Sociology/Race and Ethnicity - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Guyana is definitely different from the United States.

[17]

Contents

Defining ethnicity

.The terms "ethnicity" and "ethnic group" are derived from the Greek word ethnos, normally translated as "nation" or commonly said people of the same race that share a distinctive culture.^ Ethnicity also encompasses the behaviour of ethnic groups.
  • SoulCast - GENDER SENSITIVITY AMONG NIGERIA ETHNIC GROUP 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.soulcast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cultural and ethnic groups .
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^ Broader terms: Ethnic groups Kenya Narrower term: Ethnicity -- Kenya .

.The term "ethnic" and related forms were used in English in the meaning of "pagan/ heathen" from the 14th century through the middle of the 19th century.^ The term "clan" is used this way in English.
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^ Pashtuns are also historically referred to as ethnic Afghans, as the terms Pashtun and Afghan were synonymous until the advent of modern Afghanistan and the division of the Pashtuns by the Durand Line which is a border drawn by the British in the late 19th century.
  • Can any one tell me the details of origin of dilazak pathans? - Yahoo! Answers 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Earlier in the 19th century a tajik bandit named "bache-i-sequio...meaning water boy" worked as a spy for the British mI6.
  • MySpace - PASHTUN REVOLUTIONARY ELITE GUARDS - 27 - Male - loy kandahar - myspace.com/thepashtunelite 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.ThiE. Tonkin, M. McDonald and M. Chapman, History and Ethnicity (London 1989), pp.^ Tonkin, Elisabeth, Maryon McDonald, and Malcolm Chapman (eds) .
  • Journal of Religion and Society 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC moses.creighton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Gender, Kinship, Power: A Comparative and Interdisciplinary History (New York and London: Routledge Press, 1996), pp.

^ In Elizabeth Tonkin, Malcolm Chapman, and Maryon McDonald, eds.
  • How can a woman give birth to one Greek and one Macedonian 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.gate.net [Source type: Original source]

.11-17 (quoted in J. Hutchinson & A.D. Smith (eds.^ August 17, 2009 at 11:59 am Log in to Reply 1.1 Nice quote selection, cfukara.
  • Afghan Election This Week - Swampland - TIME.com 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC swampland.blogs.time.com [Source type: General]

), .Oxford readers: Ethnicity (Oxford 1996), pp.^ In W. Sollars (1996), Theories of ethnicity: A classical reader (pp.

^ Sollars, W. (1996), Theories of ethnicity: A classical reader .

18-24)</ref>
.The modern usage of "ethnic group", however, reflects the different kinds of encounters industrialised states have had with subordinate groups, such as immigrants and colonised subjects; "ethnic group" came to stand in opposition to "nation", to refer to people with distinct cultural identities who, through migration or conquest, had become subject to a foreign state.^ Can two groups be culturally identical and yet constitute two different ethnic groups?
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^ An ethnic group is also called a "people" or a "people group."
  • What is an Ethnic Group? - SPARK 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.vernacularmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fwd: What is an Ethnic Group ? - Yoruba Affairs | Google Groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethnic and national groups .
  • Ethnic, Religious and Language Groups: Towards a Set of Rules for Data Collection and Statistical Analysis 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.eumap.org [Source type: Academic]

The modern usage of the word is relatively new—1851[18] — with the first usage of the term ethnic group in 1935,[19] and entering the Oxford English Dictionary in 1972.[20][21]
The modern usage definition of the Oxford English Dictionary' is:
a[djective]
...
2.a. Pertaining to race; peculiar to a race or nation; ethnological. Also, pertaining to or having common racial, cultural, religious, or linguistic characteristics, esp. designating a racial or other group within a larger system; hence (U.S. colloq.), foreign, exotic.
b ethnic minority .(group), a group of people differentiated from the rest of the community by racial origins or cultural background, and usu.^ And we have chosen the term Panethnic to describe cultural formations in which people of different ethnic backgrounds have mixed to such degree that they have lost all notions of their roots.
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^ Remember that some people were converted to a certain ethnicity by adopting a culture or being conquered by it, so no country has 100% of it's own original people.
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^ Please Note: The creation of this thread isn't to imply what one should call themselves, or opposes what the following people identify as racially/culturally.
  • Suspected Mulatto Ancestry. Post 'em, let's discuss - Mulatto.org: Debate And Free Speech Board 31 January 2010 12:10 UTC mulattodebate.websitetoolbox.com [Source type: Original source]

claiming or enjoying official recognition of their group identity. Also attrib.
n[oun]
...
3 A member of an ethnic group or minority. orig. U.S.
.
—Oxford English Dictionary "ethnic, a.^ The Oxford English dictionary (2nd ed., Vol.

^ A natural starting point is the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) , which supports both usages of the word in late period.
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^ The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology .
  • mestizo Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about mestizo 22 January 2010 21:35 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

and n."[22]
Writing about the usage of the term "ethnic" in the ordinary language of Great Britain and the United States, Wallman notes that
The term 'ethnic' popularly connotes 'race' in Britain, only less precisely, and with a lighter value load. In North America, by contrast, 'race' most commonly means color, and 'ethnics' are the descendents of relatively recent immigrants from non-English-speaking countries. 'Ethnic' is not a noun in Britain. In effect there are no 'ethnics'; there are only 'ethnic relations'.[23]
.Thus, in today's everyday language, the words "ethnic" and "ethnicity" still have a ring of exotic peoples, minority issues and race relations.^ Should the study of race relations, in this meaning of the word, be distinguished from the study of ethnicity or ethnic relations?
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^ Issue III - Inter-ethnic Relations .
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^ Theories of race and ethnic relations (pp.

.Within the social sciences, however, the usage has become more generalized to all human groups that explicitly regard themselves and are regarded by others as culturally distinctive.^ Others may not lick themselves at all.
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^ It is a focus of analysis in the social sciences and humanities .
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^ They have a distinct culture and social environment.
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[24] Among the first to bring the term "ethnic group" into social studies was the German sociologist Max Weber, who defined it as:
[T]hose human groups that entertain a subjective belief in their common descent because of similarities of physical type or of customs or both, or because of memories of colonization and migration; this belief must be important for group formation; furthermore it does not matter whether an objective blood relationship exists.[25]

Conceptual history of ethnicity

Weber maintained that ethnic groups were künstlich (artificial, i.e. a social construct) because they were based on a subjective belief in shared Gemeinschaft (community). .Secondly, this belief in shared Gemeinschaft did not create the group; the group created the belief.^ Then following these relationships, look for the largest relational grouping of families, villages, or languages who share the same beliefs and social obligations.
  • What is an Ethnic Group? - SPARK 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.vernacularmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Rather, I share the Common Council for American Unitys statement, which called for appreciation of the contributions of each group, of diversity, for the creation of an American culture truly representative of an American culture.
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^ Unlike Marx, Weber did not regard classes as potential corporate groups; he did not believe that members of social classes necessarily would have shared political interests.
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.Third, group formation resulted from the drive to monopolise power and status.^ The blatant abuse of power by centrally appointed officials has resulted in the victimisation of rival Pashtun groups, who are then forced to seek protection by joining the Taliban.
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^ A third fraternity--Alpha Delta Chi, a local group--was recognized in March of 1965, while Theta Delta Pi, a local sorority, was granted organizational status as of May 7, 1965.
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This was contrary to the prevailing naturalist belief of the time, which held that socio-cultural and behavioral differences between peoples stemmed from inherited traits and tendencies derived from common descent, then called "race".[26]
.Another influential theoretician of ethnicity was Fredrik Barth, whose "Ethnic Groups and Boundaries" from 1969 has been described as instrumental in spreading the usage of the term in social studies in the 1980s and 1990s.^ Ethnicity also encompasses the behaviour of ethnic groups.
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^ Broader terms: Ethnic groups Kenya Narrower term: Ethnicity -- Kenya .

^ Why was it appropriate to describe them as an ethnic group?
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[27] .Barth went further than Weber in stressing the constructed nature of ethnicity.^ Other analysts stress that ethnicity is socially constructed, with people choosing a history and common ancestry and creating, as much as discovering, differences from others.
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^ That Brazilians have more racial classifications than do people in the United States illustrates the socially constructed nature of race.
  • Introduction to Sociology/Race and Ethnicity - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

.To Barth, ethnicity was perpetually negotiated and renegotiated by both external ascription and internal self-identification.^ Thus, ethnicity is not so much a matter of ‘shared traits or cultural commonalities’, but the result of the interplay between external categorization and self-identification (Brubaker, Loveman and Stamatov 2004:31-32).
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^ Only the reading which best satisfies the requirements of both external and internal criteria can be original.
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^ To protect their traditional mode of life, borderland societies have often stood in the way of both internal and external conquerors.
  • Himal Southasian/Essay: Violence as nation-building 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.himalmag.com [Source type: Original source]

.Barth's view is that ethnic groups are not discontinuous cultural isolates, or logical a prioris to which people naturally belong.^ Cultural and ethnic groups .
  • Cultural and ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.mcgill.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An ethnic group is also called a "people" or a "people group."
  • What is an Ethnic Group? - SPARK 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.vernacularmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fwd: What is an Ethnic Group ? - Yoruba Affairs | Google Groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cultural and ethnic groups McGill University .
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.He wanted to part with anthropological notions of cultures as bounded entities, and ethnicity as primordialist bonds, replacing it with a focus on the interface between groups.^ What is the relationship between ethnicity and culture?
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^ While Cheri Peach (1980) has reexamined Kennedy's findings and questioned whether or not religion actually did replace ethnicity as a determinant in mate selection, the notion of the triple melting pot had larger cultural implications.
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^ There may be a high correlation between ethnicity and class, which means that there is a high likelihood that persons belonging to specific ethnic groups also belong to specific social classes.
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."Ethnic Groups and Boundaries", therefore, is a focus on the interconnectedness of ethnic identities.^ They share many similarities with other immigrant groups seeking to establish an ethnic identity in a heterogeneous country, but they also face additional challenges.
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^ It is also a place for people to learn about the origins and traditional cultural identities of every ethnic group in Vietnam.
  • Museum of the Cultures of Vietnam�s Ethnic Groups - Attraction in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam Attractions and Beauty Spots, Way to Travel Vietnam, Vietnam Travel, Explore Vietnam World Heritages, Vietnam Mountain and Forest, Traditional Villages, Vietnam Caves and Grottos 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.waytovietnam.com [Source type: General]

^ Thus, while Afghans share a genuine national identity, their immediate concern in any political process is to advance or preserve the welfare of their ethnic or extended family group.
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.Barth writes: "[...] categorical ethnic distinctions do not depend on an absence of mobility, contact and information, but do entail social processes of exclusion and incorporation whereby discrete categories are maintained despite changing participation and membership in the course of individual life histories."^ Individual differences in social identity processes .
  • An Integrative Evolutionary Perspective on Ethnicity 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.csulb.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I teach courses in the writing and history of poetry.
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^ National, religious, and educational leaders used similar information lines to make contacts and to bring residents within the fold of the ethnic community at large.
  • Ethnicity in Wyoming 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC uwacadweb.uwyo.edu [Source type: Academic]

In 1978 anthropologist Ronald Cohen claimed that the identification of "ethnic groups" in the usage of social scientists often reflected inaccurate labels more than indigenous realities:
... the named ethnic identities we accept, often unthinkingly, as basic givens in the literature are often arbitrarily, or even worse inaccurately, imposed.[27]
.In this way he pointed to the fact that identification of an ethnic group by outsiders, e.g.^ Anderson points out the futility of attempting to locate Afghan ethnic groups on a map because "boundaries are not all of a piece .
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^ This way of delineating ethnic groups has become very influential in social anthropology (cf.
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^ Ethnic groups were thus presented with the problems of accepting the stereotypes, which found its way in self-deprecatory humor; and in combating it by printing its own material.
  • 88.02.04: Ethnic Humor 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

anthropologists, may not coincide with the self-identification of the members of that group. .He also described that in the first decades of usage, the term ethnicity had often been used in lieu of older terms such as "cultural" or "tribal" when referring to smaller groups with shared cultural systems and shared heritage, but that "ethnicity" had the added value of being able to describe the commonalities between systems of group identity in both tribal and modern societies.^ It is sometimes used as a proxy for socioeconomic status and is very often used synonymously with such terms as ethnicity and culture.
  • Resource Centers for Minority Aging Research - Race/Ethnicity References - Conceptualization 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.rcmar.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The two cultures are often referred to as the two traditions, communities or identities.
  • Irish FAQ: Basics [1/10] 17 January 2010 17:36 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Values of 4 to 10 are commonly used in rifles, with 6 being the most common.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 19 November 2009 17:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cohen also suggested that claims concerning "ethnic" identity (like earlier claims concerning "tribal" identity) are often colonialist practices and effects of the relations between colonized peoples and nation-states.^ These people are caught between mutually exclusive national identities.
  • How can a woman give birth to one Greek and one Macedonian 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.gate.net [Source type: Original source]

^ People who share an ethnic identity can be of different nationalities.
  • Ethnicity 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Uyghur identity and the Chinese nation-state .
  • Chinese Curriculum Units for NEH Workshops 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC web.jccc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27]
.Social scientists have thus focused on how, when, and why different markers of ethnic identity become salient.^ Individual differences in social identity processes .
  • An Integrative Evolutionary Perspective on Ethnicity 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.csulb.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ More specifically, the course focuses on several related questions: How are the myths and legends of Celtic heritage different from the reality of the Irish past?
  • Irish Culture (Bitel & Conrad, Spring 2000) 17 January 2010 17:36 UTC people.ku.edu [Source type: General]

^ Thus, while Afghans share a genuine national identity, their immediate concern in any political process is to advance or preserve the welfare of their ethnic or extended family group.
  • Strategic Forum No. 205 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.ndu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, anthropologist Joan Vincent observed that ethnic boundaries often have a mercurial character.^ A second core element of a definition of ethnicity is that the ethnic boundary is most often characterized on the inside by a past-oriented, subjective belief in common descent, and thus a common ancestral history or mythology.
  • Journal of Religion and Society 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC moses.creighton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The terminological switch from "tribe" to "ethnic group" may also mitigate or even transcend an ethnocentric or Eurocentric bias which anthropologists have often been accused of promoting covertly.
  • Ethnicity & Nationalism 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC folk.uio.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] .Ronald Cohen concluded that ethnicity is "a series of nesting dichotomizations of inclusiveness and exclusiveness".[27] He agrees with Joan Vincent's observation that (in Cohen's paraphrase) "Ethnicity ...^ Ronald Cohen remarks: "Quite suddenly, with little comment or ceremony, ethnicity is an ubiquitous presence" (R. Cohen, 1978: 379).
  • Ethnicity & Nationalism 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC folk.uio.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

can be narrowed or broadened in boundary terms in relation to the specific needs of political mobilization.[27] .This may be why descent is sometimes a marker of ethnicity, and sometimes not: which diacritic of ethnicity is salient depends on whether people are scaling ethnic boundaries up or down, and whether they are scaling them up or down depends generally on the political situation.^ That is why they feel politics is letting them down.
  • A People's Parliament? | - The Scottish Labour Party 23 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.scottishlabour.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ They may lock up the aliens.

^ Sometimes they are actual cousin peoples.
  • What is an Ethnic Group? - SPARK 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.vernacularmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fwd: What is an Ethnic Group ? - Yoruba Affairs | Google Groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ethnies and ethnic categories

In order to avoid the problems of defining ethnic classification as labelling of others or as self-identification, it has been proposed to distinguish between concepts of "ethnic categories", "ethnic networks" and "ethnic communities" or "ethnies".[29][30]
.
  • An "ethnic category" is a category set up by outsiders, that is, those who are not themselves members of the category, and whose members are populations that are categorised by outsiders as being distinguished by attributes of a common name or emblem, a shared cultural element and a connection to a specific territory.^ Instead of defining ethnic groups as "culture bearing units," groups whose members share a common culture which distinguishes them from members of other groups, Barth defined them as "categories of ascription and identification."
    • How can a woman give birth to one Greek and one Macedonian 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.gate.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Like soldiers of German or Japanese heritage who served in earlier wars, they are fighting in Iraq an adversary with whom they share a common culture and language.
    • Ethnic Groups & Race Relations - United States Diplomatic Mission to South Africa 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC southafrica.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Much of it is based on cultural stereotypes which don’t apply to an entire population anyway, and even less so for those French who have come to the US and particularly to Silicon Valley to work and live.
    • SiliconFrench Events and News 11 January 2010 7:52 UTC www.siliconfrench.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .But, members who are ascribed to ethnic categories do not themselves have any awareness of their belonging to a common, distinctive group.
  • At the level of "ethnic networks", the group begins to have a sense of collectiveness, and at this level, common myths of origin and shared cultural and biological heritage begins to emerge, at least among the élites.^ "Common Americans" are not categorized as an ethnic group.
    • Ethnicity - Keywords 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC depts.washington.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Does this imply that ethnic groups do not necessarily have a distinctive culture?
    • Ethnicity & Nationalism 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC folk.uio.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A rich heritage of tradition and culture can be found in this ethnic group.
    • 54 Ethnic Groups Vietnam, Hill Tribes, Tribal, Montagnard People 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.offroadvietnam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [30]
  • .
  • At the level of "ethnies" or "ethnic communities", the members themselves have clear conceptions of being "a named human population with myths of common ancestry, shared historical memories, and one or more common elements of culture, including an association with a homeland, and some degree of solidarity, at least among the élites". That is, an ethnie is self-defined as a group, whereas ethnic categories are set up by outsiders whether or not their own members identify with the category given them.^ Some other common ethnic factors that define or distinguish a people are: 1.
    • Fwd: What is an Ethnic Group ? - Yoruba Affairs | Google Groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This will be to set up members of this branch of the Westminster Liaison Group.

    ^ Some persons identify more with their ancestry than with "Black" as a racial category.
    • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_race-ethnicity/ 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [31]
  • .
  • A "Situational Ethnicity" is an Ethnic identity that is chosen for the moment based on the social setting or situation.^ The distinctive ritual is a prime example of situational ethnicity and situated ethnic identity.

    ^ Credits: 3 hours A study of Spanish-American life and culture based on ethnic, historical, social, religious and literary considerations.
    • Spanish course offerings 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.wmich.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ There may be a high correlation between ethnicity and class, which means that there is a high likelihood that persons belonging to specific ethnic groups also belong to specific social classes.
    • Ethnicity & Nationalism 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC folk.uio.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [32]

Approaches to understanding ethnicity

.Different approaches to understanding ethnicity have been used by different social scientists when trying to understand the nature of ethnicity as a factor in human life and society.^ Nature affects human life.

^ That was until they tried a different approach.
  • Synergy Spanish, lessons that makes it easy to learnSpanish quickly 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.synergyspanish.com [Source type: General]

^ We should always acknowledge the diverse cultures and ethnicities and their contributions to our society, but in a way that is natural and organic and not forced and contrived.
  • Ethnicity vs. Culture in Advertising - The Big Tent - Advertising Age 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC adage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Examples of such approaches are: primordialism, essentialism, perennialism, constructivism, modernism and instrumentalism.^ The instruments and the procedures reflect approaches that are part of the native culture(s), for example, story telling, life histories, respect for nature, spirituality, and a sense of community and humanity.
  • Occasional Paper No. 46 22 January 2010 21:35 UTC www.jsri.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Essentialism, the earliest of the four approaches, arose from cultural cartographies and greatly influenced modernization theorists whose positions became the points of departure of the other three approaches.
  • SoulCast - GENDER SENSITIVITY AMONG NIGERIA ETHNIC GROUP 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.soulcast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Indo-European p sound at the beginning of words, for example, was retained in Sanskrit and Latin, and in the modern descendants of the latter, such as French.
  • The Celts: Part 1 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.natvan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • "Primordialism", holds that ethnicity has existed at all times of human history and that modern ethnic groups have historical continuity into the far past.^ Ethnicity also encompasses the behaviour of ethnic groups.
    • SoulCast - GENDER SENSITIVITY AMONG NIGERIA ETHNIC GROUP 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.soulcast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New people-group (ethnic) streams are developing all the time.
    • Ethnicity in the Cities 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC orvillejenkins.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ An ethnic group can be divided into smaller groups.
    • What is an Ethnic Group? - SPARK 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.vernacularmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Fwd: What is an Ethnic Group ? - Yoruba Affairs | Google Groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .For them, the idea of ethnicity is closely linked to the idea of nations and is rooted in the pre-Weber understanding of humanity as being divided into primordially existing groups rooted by kinship and biological heritage.^ She will turn the child into a human being.
    • Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956) 11 September 2009 19:22 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ An ethnic group can be divided into smaller groups.
    • What is an Ethnic Group? - SPARK 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.vernacularmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Fwd: What is an Ethnic Group ? - Yoruba Affairs | Google Groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We will divide into three groups, each taking one of the three sources linked above.
    • HIS 270: IMMIGRATION AND ETHNICITY IN AMERICAN HISTORY, 1815 TO THE PRESENT 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.assumption.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • "Essentialist primordialism" further holds that ethnicity is an a priori fact of human existence, that ethnicity precedes any human social interaction and that it is basically unchanged by it.^ Ethnicity, while related to race, refers not to physical characteristics but social traits that are shared by a human population.
      • Introduction to Sociology/Race and Ethnicity - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

      ^ Used when expressing dissatisfaction in unchanged human behavior or the fact that one never learns from one's mistakes.

      ^ Such a claim avoids a basic fact of American history: elections do not deliver much in the way of social change.
      • The Rag Blog: Rabbi Arthur Waskow : Jobs Now or President Palin? 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC theragblog.blogspot.com [Source type: News]

      .This theory sees ethnic groups as natural, not just as historical.^ See also Demographics of the Philippines and Ethnic groups of the Philippines .
      • Mestizo - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 22 January 2010 21:35 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Mestizo - NativeWiki 22 January 2010 21:35 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Ethnic groups in simple terms are large families, usually claiming some historical common origin, though not always blood descent.
      • Ethnicity in the Cities 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC orvillejenkins.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ However, the book’s title is incredibly misleading, given China’s treatement of these ethnic groups and insistence on cultural dominance over them, both currently and historically.
      • Family Portraits of all 56 ethnic groups in China | ChinaHush 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.chinahush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .This understanding does not explain how and why nations and ethnic groups seemingly appear, disappear and often reappear through history.^ How does changing geopolitics alter ethnic and national identities?
      • Chinese Curriculum Units for NEH Workshops 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC web.jccc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Ethnic and national groups .
      • Ethnic, Religious and Language Groups: Towards a Set of Rules for Data Collection and Statistical Analysis 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.eumap.org [Source type: Academic]

      ^ How does one define nationalism?
      • Chinese Curriculum Units for NEH Workshops 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC web.jccc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .It also has problems dealing with the consequences of intermarriage, migration and colonization for the composition of modern day multi-ethnic societies.^ On the Chinese side there is rapid colonization and modernization, with ethnic groups struggling to maintain their identities.
      • nations layered upon ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.oldroads.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ In this high quality recorded audio you will hear how a professional Australian dog trainer manages the day to day dog behavior problems many dog owners have had to deal with.

      ^ The problem rests with the negative images which persist in the American consciousness as a consequence of early examples of ethnic humor.
      • 88.02.04: Ethnic Humor 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      [31]
    • .
    • "Kinship primordialism" holds that ethnic communities are extensions of kinship units, basically being derived by kinship or clan ties where the choices of cultural signs (language, religion, traditions) are made exactly to show this biological affinity.^ In the U.K. language ability is being made in to a prerequisite.
      • debito.org » Blog Archive » GOJ floats trial balloon: Japanese language improvement for visas 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.debito.org [Source type: General]

      ^ In showing affinity with the clans, cultures, and heritages that contribute to who a person becomes, one expresses the very pluralism this site is supposed to celebrate.
      • Ethnicity - CouchSurfing Wiki 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC wiki.couchsurfing.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ However, developing the relevant cultural forms (of kinship, past and future tenses in language, the ability to communicate complex concepts, to maintain rule based social organizations required to avoid wasting fights over resources, etc.
      • Stalking the Wild Taboo - Miller: The Evolution of Australian and Amerindian Intelligence 31 January 2010 12:10 UTC www.lrainc.com [Source type: Academic]

      .In this way, the myths of common biological ancestry that are a defining feature of ethnic communities are to be understood as representing actual biological history.^ Explaining Diversity - Different groups have different ways of responding to the common concerns of life: finding food and shelter, building relationships, defining ourselves, coming of age, forming communities, traveling from place to place-and many others.

      ^ This ritual or stylistic emphasis frequently occurs, too, when ethnic group members meet or gather in geographic areas that differ from their homelands or communities of common origin.

      ^ Ethnic groups are groups with ascribed membership, usually but not always based on claims or myths of common history, ancestry, language, race, religion, culture and territory.
      • SoulCast - GENDER SENSITIVITY AMONG NIGERIA ETHNIC GROUP 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.soulcast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .A problem with this view on ethnicity is that it is more often than not the case that mythic origins of specific ethnic groups directly contradict the known biological history of an ethnic community.^ Ethnicity also encompasses the behaviour of ethnic groups.
      • SoulCast - GENDER SENSITIVITY AMONG NIGERIA ETHNIC GROUP 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.soulcast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Are they more myth than history?

      ^ It can be more than one group.
      • Assessment of Pashtun insurgency - Small Wars Council 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC council.smallwarsjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      [31]
    • .
    • "Geertz's primordialism", notably espoused by anthropologist Clifford Geertz, argues that humans in general attribute an overwhelming power to primordial human "givens" such as blood ties, language, territory, and cultural differences.^ After listing a number of criteria commonly used by anthropologists to demarcate cultural groups, such as language, political organisation and territorial contiguity, he states: "Since language, culture, political organization, etc., do not correlate completely, the units delimited by one criterion do not coincide with the units delimited by another" (Moerman, 1965: 1215).
      • Ethnicity & Nationalism 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC folk.uio.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Katakana are generally used for representing non-Japanese words, from other languages such as English, French, etc.

      ^ The more heterogeneous a population from a historical, cultural and racial viewpoint, and the more society and politics highlight such differences, the more true this will be.
      • Ethnic, Religious and Language Groups: Towards a Set of Rules for Data Collection and Statistical Analysis 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.eumap.org [Source type: Academic]

      .In Geertz' opinion, ethnicity is not in itself primordial but humans perceive it as such because it is embedded in their experience of the world.^ "Amongst the Celts the human head was venerated above all else, since the head was to the Celt the soul, centre of the emotions as well as of life itself, a symbol of divinity and of the powers of the other-world."
      • Celts - a knol by Anonymous 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ The tourism sector is very important for developing a country because it encourages socioeconomic development, such as communication, transport, agriculture, handicrafts, urban growth, and human resources.
      • ETHNIC GROUPS IN LAOS 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.laoembassy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ The horrors perpetrated during the Second World War in the name of such a mistaken belief led largely to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948.

      [31]
    • .
  • "Perennialism" holds that ethnicity is ever changing, and that while the concept of ethnicity has existed at all times, ethnic groups are generally short lived before the ethnic boundaries realign in new patterns.^ Ethnicity also encompasses the behaviour of ethnic groups.
    • SoulCast - GENDER SENSITIVITY AMONG NIGERIA ETHNIC GROUP 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.soulcast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ And like a person changing all the time, Han Chinese group is changing too.

    ^ The number is changing all the time.
    • Armed Muslim Uighur and Han Chinese mobs spread ethnic strife in China’s restive west 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: News]

    .The opposing perennialist view holds that while ethnicity and ethnic groupings has existed throughout history, they are not part of the natural order.^ They are part of a group called "tarento".
    • JAPANESE CULTURE -- A PRIMER FOR NEWCOMERS 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.thejapanfaq.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They are part of a traveling study group.
    • The Angry Arab News Service 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC angryarab.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Ethnicity also encompasses the behaviour of ethnic groups.
    • SoulCast - GENDER SENSITIVITY AMONG NIGERIA ETHNIC GROUP 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.soulcast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • "Perpetual perennialism" holds that specific ethnic groups have existed continuously throughout history.
    • "Situational perennialism" holds that nations and ethnic groups emerge, change and vanish through the course of history.^ Group-specific courses should count.
      • Ethnicity and Education Forum 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC gseweb.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ What ethnic group is identified with Chinese nationalization?
      • Chinese Curriculum Units for NEH Workshops 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC web.jccc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ When Mao Zedong went on his Long March of 1934-35 he and other Communist leaders traveled through many areas inhabited by Chinas ethnic groups.
      • Chinese Curriculum Units for NEH Workshops 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC web.jccc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .This view holds that the concept of ethnicity is basically a tool used by political groups to manipulate resources such as wealth, power, territory or status in their particular groups' interests.^ Nationalism is a powerful political tool for unification.
      • Ben Ross' Blog » Was Chinggis Khaan Chinese? 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.benross.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ And it's interesting how sex is used as a tool for power in so many different ways: accusing someone of molesting students, making children feel ashamed, forcing someone to sleep with you to save her husband and child ...
      • Growing up Han in a Fictional Xinjiang 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC paper-republic.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ After listing a number of criteria commonly used by anthropologists to demarcate cultural groups, such as language, political organisation and territorial contiguity, he states: "Since language, culture, political organization, etc., do not correlate completely, the units delimited by one criterion do not coincide with the units delimited by another" (Moerman, 1965: 1215).
      • Ethnicity & Nationalism 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC folk.uio.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .Accordingly, ethnicity emerges when it is relevant as means of furthering emergent collective interests and changes according to political changes in the society.^ The Celtic culture was a tribal society, meaning the basic social and political unit was the extended family, and not the individual.
      • Druidism Guide -- Page One 17 September 2009 1:47 UTC wildideas.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ But if one day they really changed something quickly, they must have been literati selected by some political interests.
      • China News: Han Han | China Digital Times (CDT) 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC chinadigitaltimes.net [Source type: General]

      ^ Arab political blogging is changing and becoming more politically relevant.

      .Examples of a perennialist interpretation of ethnicity are also found in Barth,and Seidner who see ethnicity as ever-changing boundaries between groups of people established through ongoing social negotiation and interaction.
    • "Instrumentalist perennialism", while seeing ethnicity primarily as a versatile tool that identified different ethnics groups and limits through time, explains ethnicity as a mechanism of social stratification, meaning that ethnicity is the basis for a hierarchical arrangement of individuals.^ Ethnicity also encompasses the behaviour of ethnic groups.
      • SoulCast - GENDER SENSITIVITY AMONG NIGERIA ETHNIC GROUP 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.soulcast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ To accomplish that, mechanisms of social identity, including establishing and maintaining group boundaries, are required.
      • An Integrative Evolutionary Perspective on Ethnicity 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.csulb.edu [Source type: Academic]

      ^ An ethnic group is also called a "people" or a "people group."
      • What is an Ethnic Group? - SPARK 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.vernacularmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Fwd: What is an Ethnic Group ? - Yoruba Affairs | Google Groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .According to Donald Noel, a sociologist who developed a theory on the origin of ethnic stratification, ethnic stratification is a "system of stratification wherein some relatively fixed group membership (e.g., race, religion, or nationality) is utilized as a major criterion for assigning social positions".[33] Ethnic stratification is one of many different types of social stratification, including stratification based on socio-economic status, race, or gender.^ The population of Afghanistan includes many different ethnic groups.
      • FASIC - Forum for Area Studies and Information Center 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.fasicp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ China is so big with so many different ethnic people groups.
      • Ben Ross' Blog » Was Chinggis Khaan Chinese? 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.benross.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The patterns of change develop differently with each ethnic group or ethnic variation in the cities.
      • Ethnicity in the Cities 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC orvillejenkins.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .According to Donald Noel, ethnic stratification will emerge only when specific ethnic groups are brought into contact with one another, and only when those groups are characterized by a high degree of ethnocentrism, competition, and differential power.^ An ethnic group can be divided into smaller groups.
      • Fwd: What is an Ethnic Group ? - Yoruba Affairs | Google Groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ This brought them into contact with Egyptian ideas.
      • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 19 November 2009 17:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Ethnocentrism and in-group/out-group differentiation.
      • An Integrative Evolutionary Perspective on Ethnicity 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.csulb.edu [Source type: Academic]

      .Ethnocentrism is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of one's own culture, and to downgrade all other groups outside one’s own culture.^ All levels, groups or one-to-one tuition.
      • Spanish Teachers / Spanish Tutors - SpaniCity 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.spanicity.com [Source type: General]

      ^ All articles in Other World .
      • gulfnews : Armed Han Chinese seek revenge against Uighurs 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC gulfnews.com [Source type: News]

      ^ All levels and groups or one-to-one tuition.
      • Spanish Teachers / Spanish Tutors - SpaniCity 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.spanicity.com [Source type: General]

      .Some sociologists, such as Lawrence Bobo and Vincent Hutchings, say the origin of ethnic stratification lies in individual dispositions of ethnic prejudice, which relates to the theory of ethnocentrism.^ Ethnic groups in simple terms are large families, usually claiming some historical common origin, though not always blood descent.
      • Ethnicity in the Cities 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC orvillejenkins.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Their origins were obscure; most were believed to have descended from ancient Aryan tribes, but some, such as the Ghilzai, may have been Turks.
      • Afghanistan Country Study 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Even some physicists have played with alchemical ideas in books such as The Tao of Physics and The Dancing Wu Li Masters .
      • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 19 November 2009 17:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      [34] .Continuing with Noel's theory, some degree of differential power must be present for the emergence of ethnic stratification.^ Even in authoritarian systems their tenure may be precarious, because a degree of support from at least some factions is necessary to remain in power.
      • ETHNIC CONFLICT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www1.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Below I review some of the theories for its genesis, and end my presentation by offering a synthesis of these views.
      • Greek Cultural History: In search of Excellence 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC webs.csu.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Groups and boundaries Ascription as decisive feature of ethnicity Boundary maintenance Boundary transcendence Degrees of ethnic incorporation Ethnicity as resource competition Levels of ethnicity The theory of plural societies Ethnicity and rank The interrelationship between criteria Some controversies 4.
      • Ethnicity & Nationalism 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC folk.uio.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .In other words, an inequality of power among ethnic groups means "they are of such unequal power that one is able to impose its will upon another".[33] In addition to differential power, a degree of competition structured along ethnic lines is a prerequisite to ethnic stratification as well.^ In other words, members of an ethnic group define who they are by who they are not.
      • Journal of Religion and Society 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC moses.creighton.edu [Source type: Academic]

      ^ Zionism means one group is entitled to another's land.
      • Michael J. Totten: The Taliban and Pashtun Nationalism 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ If a group is relatively powerful, it will try to impose its definitions on other groups.
      • http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/identity_issues/ 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.beyondintractability.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .The different ethnic groups must be competing for some common goal, such as power or influence, or a material interest, such as wealth or territory.^ "Common Americans" are not categorized as an ethnic group.
      • Ethnicity - Keywords 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC depts.washington.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ It is also different for some very particular racial or ethnic groups.
      • Racial and Ethnic Distribution of ABO Blood Types - BloodBook.com, Blood Information for Life 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.bloodbook.com [Source type: Academic]

      ^ This course explores the history of different ethnic groups in America through the study of their material remains: living quarters, burials, food remains, tools, jewelry, etc.
      • The Archaeology of Ethnicity in America: Syllabus 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

      .Lawrence Bobo and Vincent Hutchings propose that competition is driven by self-interest and hostility, and results in inevitable stratification and conflict.^ Objective: Methods: Results: Conclusions: Materials and methods Results Discussion Conflict of interest References Acknowledgements Figures and Tables The authors declare no conflict of interest.
      • British Journal of Cancer - Awareness of cancer symptoms and anticipated help seeking among ethnic minority groups in England 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

      ^ Objective: Methods: Results: Conclusions: Materials and methods Results Discussion Conflict of interest References Acknowledgements Figures and Tables .
      • British Journal of Cancer - Awareness of cancer symptoms and anticipated help seeking among ethnic minority groups in England 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

      [34]
    • .
  • "Constructivism" sees both primordialist and perennialist views as basically flawed,[34] and rejects the notion of ethnicity as a basic human condition.^ Both are deeply flawed world views.

    ^ With hindsight it is easy to see both the value and the problems in Plato's views.
    • PSYCHOLOGY IN GREEK PHILOSOPHY 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.sonoma.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Both from time to time insist on the basic need for humanity within slavery.
    • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

    .It holds that ethnic groups are only products of human social interaction, maintained only in so far as they are maintained as valid social constructs in societies.^ Ethnic groups in "plural societies".
    • Ethnicity & Nationalism 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC folk.uio.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They do, but it only holds for 10 lashes.
    • French Jokes 11 January 2010 7:52 UTC www.oddrob.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Gender alignment between parents and children may exert influence on ethnic and racial socialization particularly when they have good relationships and are mutually held in esteem" (p.

    .
    • "Modernist constructivism" correlates the emergence of ethnicity with the movement towards nationstates beginning in the early modern period.^ There can be little question that the number of extended critiques of Neo-Confucian thinking in the early-modern period were in part an outgrowth of the invitation to doubt advocated by proponents of Neo-Confucianism.
      • Japanese Confucian Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ In the early twentieth century, many social theorists held that ethnicity and nationalism would decrease in importance and eventually vanish as a result of modernisation, industrialisation and individualism.
      • Ethnicity & Nationalism 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC folk.uio.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Many other examples of theConfucian reassertion of meaning in the early-modern period could be given.
      • Japanese Confucian Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

      [35] .Proponents of this theory, such as Eric Hobsbawm, argue that ethnicity and notions of ethnic pride, such as nationalism, are purely modern inventions, appearing only in the modern period of world history.^ This period of the Macedonian history set the foundations for the development of the modern Macedonian nation.
      • Macedonia FAQ: Macedonian - Greek Conflict 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC faq.macedonia.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The objectives of my writings would be i) to re-ignite the patriotic passion of ethnic Chinese overseas; ii) to rectify the modern Chinese history to its original truth; and iii) to expound the Chinese traditions, humanity, culture and legacy to the world community.
      • JAPANESE 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.imperialchina.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • Han Dynasty -- Political, Social, Cultural, Historical Analysis Of China 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.imperialchina.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ For this reason, important figures from the past such as Avicenna and Rumi, who were of ethnic Persian (Tajik) identity, are often not identified as ethnic Afghans or even as Afghan people, at least according to academics, while they are generally included within the context of the collective history of the modern nation-state in the geographic sense.
      • FASIC - Forum for Area Studies and Information Center 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.fasicp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      They hold that prior to this, ethnic homogeneity was not considered an ideal or necessary factor in the forging of large-scale societies.

Ethnicity and race

.Before Weber, race and ethnicity were often seen as two aspects of the same thing.^ I REPEAT these two things are NOT the same.
  • George Lopez Asks Kim & Khloe “What’s Up With Ya’ll and Black Guys???” | Bossip.com 22 January 2010 21:35 UTC bossip.com [Source type: General]

^ In most aspects, the project is the same as when first assigned, except for the following: Now students do two oral presentations per semester, not just one.
  • D27: Create Semantic Lexicon 19 November 2009 17:34 UTC www.csis.ul.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You really thought things through before starting this venture and this sets you apart from those amateurs who are trying to do the same.

.Around 1900 and before the essentialist primordialist understanding of ethnicity was predominant, cultural differences between peoples were seen as being the result of genetically inherited traits and tendencies.^ Striving for better equality between different cultures and ethnicity should not be seen as unnecessary.

^ What is the difference between race and ethnicity?
  • Ethnicity and Education Forum 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC gseweb.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I do understand that different people's homes are different.
  • Do you give a shit about your heritage? - ClubSi 23 January 2010 8:11 UTC forums.clubsi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36] .This was the time when "sciences" such as phrenology claimed to be able to correlate cultural and behavioral traits of different populations with their outward physical characteristics, such as the shape of the skull.^ Anthropologists went around measuring people's skulls, and assigning them to different "races" on the basis of such factors as how far their jaws protruded.

^ If you feel physical facial features are irrelevant, fine, but consider that different cultures *do often* employ the muscles of their faces differently, in expressing the same emotions.
  • Composite Faces of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Women « AllLookSame 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC alllooksame.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethnicity, while related to race, refers not to physical characteristics but social traits that are shared by a human population.
  • Introduction to Sociology/Race and Ethnicity - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

.With Weber's introduction of ethnicity as a social construct, race and ethnicity were divided from each other.^ Is race merely a social construction?
  • Race and Ethnicity 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.fiu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Race and ethnicity in public health surveillance: Criteria for the scientific use of social categories.
  • ETHNICITY AND ALCOHOL-RELATED FATALITIES 1990 TO 1994 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Through such a discussion, students of different races and ethnicities can reflect on the representation of themselves and other s and the position of Whiteness as the dominant referent.
  • HER Summer 1997 Issue Contents 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC gseweb.harvard.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A social belief in biologically well-defined races lingered on.^ Each social group had well-defined roles.
  • Comparison between Roman and Han Empires - Wikiversity 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Health is defined in WHO's Constitution as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."
  • SEELRC : Turkish Webliography 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.seelrc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • SEELRC : Greek Webliography 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.seelrc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Social identity mechanisms are triggered by crowds of ethnically identical people on opposing sides at football games as well as when the outgroup is a different race or ethnic group.
  • An Integrative Evolutionary Perspective on Ethnicity 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.csulb.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In 1950, the UNESCO statement, "The Race Question", signed by some of the internationally renowned scholars of the time (including Ashley Montagu, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Gunnar Myrdal, Julian Huxley, etc.^ In a final section, we ask the question of whether the Turkish banking sector is or will be ready in due time for EU accession and formulate some policy recommendations.

^ In addition to these numbers, data producers are strongly encouraged to provide the detailed distributions, including all possible combinations, of multiple responses to the race question.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_1997standards/ 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Dataon Race and Ethnicity 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.census.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asking about ancestry focuses the questions back in time and conveys an historical and geographic context which some feel is clearer than the ambiguity of "race" or "ethnicity."
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_race-ethnicity/ 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

), suggested that: ."National, religious, geographic, linguistic and cultural groups do not necessarily coincide with racial groups: and the cultural traits of such groups have no demonstrated genetic connection with racial traits.^ Many traditions such as art, music, architecture, marriage customs, cuisine, and religious practices vary from province to province and between sublanguage groups.

^ Ethnic is not as clearly defined as you seem to think, it can denote "groups of people classed according to common racial, national, tribal, religious, linguistic, or cultural origin or background" (from M-W).
  • Are Koreans and Japanese part of Turkish people? [Archive] - Japan Forum 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As to their culture, little is known but remnants remain primarily in the naming of certain geographical features, such as the rivers Clyde, Tamar, Thames and Tyne.

Because serious errors of this kind are habitually committed when the term 'race' is used in popular parlance, it would be better when speaking of human races to drop the term 'race' altogether and speak of 'ethnic groups'."[37]
In 1982, American cultural anthropologists, summing up forty years of ethnographic research, argued that racial and ethnic categories are symbolic markers for different ways that people from different parts of the world have been incorporated into a global economy:
The opposing interests that divide the working classes are further reinforced through appeals to "racial" and "ethnic" distinctions. Such appeals serve to allocate different categories of workers to rungs on the scale of labor markets, relegating stigmatized populations to the lower levels and insulating the higher echelons from competition from below. Capitalism did not create all the distinctions of ethnicity and race that function to set off categories of workers from one another. It is, nevertheless, the process of labor mobilization under capitalism that imparts to these distinctions their effective values.
.According to Wolf, races were constructed and incorporated during the period of European mercantile expansion, and ethnic groups during the period of capitalist expansion.^ The formation of the Han people was a process of continuous expansion by integration of numerous tribes or ethnic groups; it began with the ancient Huaxia tribe, which was formed during the 21st–8th centuries b.c.
  • Phylogeographic Differentiation of Mitochondrial DNA in Han Chinese 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Ethnic Groups : homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990 East Europeans have entered Portugal    .
  • Portugal Facts | Portuguese Republic Information | Portugal Statistics | Portugal 2 February 2010 9:25 UTC www.phrasebase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Frank Diktter 1990 Group Definition and the Idea of `Race in Modern China (1793-1949) Ethnic and Racial Studies 13(3):420-431.
  • http://faculty.ncf.edu/baram/RaceandEthnicitycourse.htm 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC faculty.ncf.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38]
.At present the prevailing understanding of race among social scientists is that it is, like ethnicity, a social construct.^ Is race merely a social construction?
  • Race and Ethnicity 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.fiu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Race and ethnicity in public health surveillance: Criteria for the scientific use of social categories.
  • ETHNICITY AND ALCOHOL-RELATED FATALITIES 1990 TO 1994 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Standards for Maintaining, Collecting, and Presenting Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity This classification provides a minimum standard for maintaining, collecting, and presenting data on race and ethnicity for all Federal reporting purposes.
  • Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Dataon Race and Ethnicity 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.census.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39][40] .Often, ethnicity also connotes shared cultural, linguistic, behavioural or religious traits.^ Thus, ethnicity is not so much a matter of ‘shared traits or cultural commonalities’, but the result of the interplay between external categorization and self-identification (Brubaker, Loveman and Stamatov 2004:31-32).
  • SoulCast - GENDER SENSITIVITY AMONG NIGERIA ETHNIC GROUP 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.soulcast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just as the western Finns have had Germanic influence, the eastern Finnish cultures have developed with many Turkic/Indo-Iranian and Slavic cultural, religious and linguistic influences.
  • Finns and Related People 22 September 2009 16:39 UTC uralica.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ethnicity, while related to race, refers not to physical characteristics but social traits that are shared by a human population.
  • Introduction to Sociology/Race and Ethnicity - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

.For example, to call oneself Jewish or Arab is to immediately invoke a clutch of linguistic, religious, cultural and racial features that are held to be common within each ethnic category.^ In Shakespeare’s Cross-Cultural Encounters , Prof. Sousa explores an ethnographic perspective in Shakespeare’s dramatic representation of ethnic, racial, religious, and gender issues arising from the encounter of a dominant European society and members of foreign cultures.
  • KU Department of English / People / Graduate Program Faculty 10 January 2010 12:30 UTC www.english.ku.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Ethnic is not as clearly defined as you seem to think, it can denote "groups of people classed according to common racial, national, tribal, religious, linguistic, or cultural origin or background" (from M-W).
  • Are Koreans and Japanese part of Turkish people? [Archive] - Japan Forum 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Just as the western Finns have had Germanic influence, the eastern Finnish cultures have developed with many Turkic/Indo-Iranian and Slavic cultural, religious and linguistic influences.
  • Finns and Related People 22 September 2009 16:39 UTC uralica.com [Source type: Original source]

.Such broad ethnic categories have also been termed macroethnicity.^ If we instead talk of ethnic groups or categories, such a sharp distinction becomes difficult to maintain.
  • Ethnicity & Nationalism 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC folk.uio.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As long as people in ethnic categories are continually redistributed as such, subordination based on ethnicity will always be a concept with great social force in the United States.
  • Ethnicity - Keywords 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC depts.washington.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mestizo and such comparable terms imply outcast (i.e., belonging to no ethnic group or casta).
  • The Mestizo Concept: A Product of European Imperialism 22 January 2010 21:35 UTC descendantofgods.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

[41] .This distinguishes them from smaller, more subjective ethnic features, often termed microethnicity.^ Indeed, "George Smiths money," as it was termed, often proved more sound than state or federal currency.
  • Historians and the Scottish-American Connection 23 January 2010 8:11 UTC www.electricscotland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While this is a fairly clear cut matter to the 'Gaelophile' it is perhaps the most difficult area to convince the cynic as the arguments are less clear cut and often more subjective than objective.
  • D27: Create Semantic Lexicon 19 November 2009 17:34 UTC www.csis.ul.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, protracted ethnic conflict is, more often than not, a negative sum game in which both dominant and subordinate groups lose.
  • ETHNIC CONFLICT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www1.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42][43]

Ethnicity and nation

.In some cases, especially involving transnational migration, or colonial expansion, ethnicity is linked to nationality.^ Ethnicity in history The historical development of ethnic relations Expansions of system boundaries Capitalism "Black" ethnogenesis Indians in new worlds "Ethnic revitalisation": From people to a people Colonialism and migration The semantics of ethnic labelling Modern education and ethnic identity Ethnicity, history and culture Cultural history in ethnic identity 6.
  • Ethnicity & Nationalism 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC folk.uio.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I just hope it has more to do with particulars of the story than preconceptions and biases for or against the ethnicities and nationalities of the characters involved.
  • Beijing University Student Embarrasses Japanese Reporter | chinaSMACK 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinasmack.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the peoples studied by social anthropologists have become involved in national liberation movements or ethnic conflicts in post-colonial states.
  • Ethnicity & Nationalism 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC folk.uio.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Anthropologists and historians, following the modernist understanding of ethnicity as proposed by Ernest Gellner[44] and Benedict Anderson[45] see nations and nationalism as developing with the rise of the modern state system in the seventeenth century.^ State of the Nation: See key indicators .
  • Afghan Contenders Claim Leads - WSJ.com 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ From the seventeenth to nineteenth century the literacy rate for males in America jumped from 60% to as high as 90% in the northern states.
  • Greek and Latin Words 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.lifeafter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ethnicity in history The historical development of ethnic relations Expansions of system boundaries Capitalism "Black" ethnogenesis Indians in new worlds "Ethnic revitalisation": From people to a people Colonialism and migration The semantics of ethnic labelling Modern education and ethnic identity Ethnicity, history and culture Cultural history in ethnic identity 6.
  • Ethnicity & Nationalism 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC folk.uio.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They culminated in the rise of "nation-states" in which the presumptive boundaries of the nation coincided (or ideally coincided) with state boundaries.^ They belong to nation-states!
  • The Mestizo Concept: A Product of European Imperialism 22 January 2010 21:35 UTC descendantofgods.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite the national boundaries dividing the Arabs into nation states in the post-colonial period, Arabs generally view themselves as a unified entity (17).
  • Arab-American Culture and Health Care 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.case.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They provide examples of state and Congressional political figures and national mass media personalities to make their argument concrete.
  • HER Summer 1997 Issue Contents 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC gseweb.harvard.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, in the West, the notion of ethnicity, like race and nation, developed in the context of European colonial expansion, when mercantilism and capitalism were promoting global movements of populations at the same time that state boundaries were being more clearly and rigidly defined.^ At the same time, his brain can be more and more talent and developed.

^ "At the same time they are being massacred."
  • The Irish left (people) 17 January 2010 17:36 UTC markhumphrys.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Race and Ethnicity in Global Perspective is being offered as a class.
  • http://faculty.ncf.edu/baram/RaceandEthnicitycourse.htm 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC faculty.ncf.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the nineteenth century, modern states generally sought legitimacy through their claim to represent "nations."^ In the nineteenth century, modern states generally sought legitimacy through their claim to represent "nations."
  • Ethnic group - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Through a kind of sympathetic magic James Flannery has captured the impact Moore had, famously, on his live audiences in the early nineteenth century.

^ The Pashtun have long been the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan, so much so that until the creation of the modern state in the 20th century, Pashtun and Afghan were synonymous as ethnic descriptors.
  • The Online NewsHour: Afghanistan and the War on Terror | Map: Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups | PBS 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nation-states, however, invariably include populations that have been excluded from national life for one reason or another.^ In fact he states that the willingness of the Scotch-Irish to intermarry with others of different nationalities and backgrounds is one of their distinguishing cultural features.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Born Fighting: How the Scots-Irish Shaped America 17 January 2010 17:36 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ However, gender role norms for women and men can vary significantly from one country or culture to another, even within a country or culture.
  • SoulCast - GENDER SENSITIVITY AMONG NIGERIA ETHNIC GROUP 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.soulcast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The social aspect of Greek life is one of the many reasons that students get involved in fraternities and sororities; however, alcohol and substance abuse is not tolerated.
  • Greek Recruitment Frequently Asked Questions: Fraternities and Sororities: Get Involved: Dean of Students Office 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.deanofstudents.ilstu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Members of excluded groups, consequently, will either demand inclusion on the basis of equality, or seek autonomy, sometimes even to the extent of complete political separation in their own nation-state.^ Members of excluded groups, consequently, will either demand inclusion on the basis of equality, or seek autonomy, sometimes even to the extent of complete political separation in their own nation-state.
  • Ethnic group - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Others, most notably the nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, were able to prosper and grow powerful, even taking on imperialistic aspirations of their own.
  • Books in Review - The Early America Review, Fall-Winter 1998-1999 31 January 2010 12:10 UTC www.earlyamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1992, the University of Mississippi joined an elite group of universities when it was granted a local chapter (the first in the state) of Phi Lambda Beta, the national Portuguese Honor Society.
  • Portuguese -- Modern Languages Department -- The University of Mississippi 2 February 2010 9:25 UTC www.olemiss.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46] .Under these conditions—when people moved from one state to another,[47] or one state conquered or colonized peoples beyond its national boundaries—ethnic groups were formed by people who identified with one nation, but lived in another state.^ We are born to live under conditions.

^ Some will identify one way, and some will identify another way.
  • Ethnicity and Education Forum 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC gseweb.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The modern European countries are derived from the states formed by these peoples.
  • Comparison between Roman and Han Empires - Wikiversity 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ethno-national conflict

.Sometimes ethnic groups are subject to prejudicial attitudes and actions by the state or its constituents.^ Sometimes ethnic groups are subject to prejudicial attitudes and actions by the state or its constituents.
  • Ethnic group - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Pashtun have long been the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan, so much so that until the creation of the modern state in the 20th century, Pashtun and Afghan were synonymous as ethnic descriptors.
  • The Online NewsHour: Afghanistan and the War on Terror | Map: Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups | PBS 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of the ethnic groups are portrayed in professionally composed group portraits, with the subjects wearing traditional dress and often carrying traditional instruments or tools.
  • China's 56 Ethnic Groups - Neatorama 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]
  • China’s 56 Ethnic Groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.impactlab.com [Source type: General]

.In the twentieth century, people began to argue that conflicts among ethnic groups or between members of an ethnic group and the state can and should be resolved in one of two ways.^ An ethnic group is also called a "people" or a "people group."
  • What is an Ethnic Group? - SPARK 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.vernacularmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So that was one way I interacted with Greek people.
  • Listening to the Next Generation >> Georgia : Got Greek? 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC gotgreek.hellenext.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Intermarriage between the two groups was forbidden.
  • Imperial Era: III 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www-chaos.umd.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some, like Jürgen Habermas and Bruce Barry, have argued that the legitimacy of modern states must be based on a notion of political rights of autonomous individual subjects.^ I know that some people don't like the term "Celtic" given to modern things as music, etc.
  • Celts - a knol by Anonymous 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Those who participate in the politics of their home countries in some manner are actually more likely to vote in the United States than those who do not (65% versus 50%)."
  • SAJAforum: Race & Ethnicity 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.sajaforum.org [Source type: General]

^ The State and the Turkish intellectuals cannot keep going around and trying to make political groups or individuals they don’t approve disappear.
  • ARI FOUNDATION BLOG » Turkish Domestic Politics 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.arifoundation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to this view, the state should not acknowledge ethnic, national or racial identity but rather instead enforce political and legal equality of all individuals.^ To what extent should the state permit ethnic identity?
  • Ethics Updates - Race, Ethnicity, and Multiculturalism 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC ethics.sandiego.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All nationalities are equal under the law.
  • Chinese - Introduction, Location, Language, Han dialects (spoken by 1.04 billion han) 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For this reason, important figures from the past such as Avicenna and Rumi, who were of ethnic Persian (Tajik) identity, are often not identified as ethnic Afghans or even as Afghan people, at least according to academics, while they are generally included within the context of the collective history of the modern nation-state in the geographic sense.
  • FASIC - Forum for Area Studies and Information Center 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.fasicp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Others, like Charles Taylor and Will Kymlicka, argue that the notion of the autonomous individual is itself a cultural construct.^ In itself, its just a crap piece of writing by one mincehead to be viewed by others of like him; garbage.
  • Tony Parsons vile xenophobic attack on the Portuguese Authorities | Joana Morais 2 February 2010 9:25 UTC joana-morais.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who ever you are that wrote this comment sound more like racist than constructive words for others.
  • Spanish Interpreter Jobs Forum - How to become freelance Spanish interpreter | Indeed.com 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.indeed.com [Source type: General]

^ Like many other different culture they believe that the dead may need these possessions in the transition to their afterlife.

.According to this view, states must recognize ethnic identity and develop processes through which the particular needs of ethnic groups can be accommodated within the boundaries of the nation-state.^ According to this view, states must recognize ethnic identity and develop processes through which the particular needs of ethnic groups can be accommodated within the boundaries of the nation-state.
  • Ethnic group - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethnic and national groups .
  • Ethnic, Religious and Language Groups: Towards a Set of Rules for Data Collection and Statistical Analysis 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.eumap.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Recognizes that diversity exists among and within the same racial and ethnic groups.
  • DHS: Racial and Ethnic Groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.dhs.state.il.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The nineteenth century saw the development of the political ideology of ethnic nationalism, when the concept of race was tied to nationalism, first by German theorists including Johann Gottfried von Herder.^ Herder, Johann Gottfried von 26, 281 .
  • The Cambridge Companion to Lévi-Strauss - Cambridge University Press 31 January 2010 12:10 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Libertas is the logical political development of the twenty-first century.

^ Thus, while Afghans share a genuine national identity, their immediate concern in any political process is to advance or preserve the welfare of their ethnic or extended family group.
  • Strategic Forum No. 205 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.ndu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Instances of societies focusing on ethnic ties, arguably to the exclusion of history or historical context, have resulted in the justification of nationalist goals.^ Asking about ancestry focuses the questions back in time and conveys an historical and geographic context which some feel is clearer than the ambiguity of "race" or "ethnicity."
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_race-ethnicity/ 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The historical scholar, Seymour Lipset, put it this way: "The histories of bilingual and bicultural societies that do not assimilate are histories of turmoil, tension, and tragedy."
  • Letters to the Editor : English brings people together 10 January 2010 12:30 UTC readingeagle.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cohen, arguing that postmodernism has contributed to the collapse between academic and popular cultures, discusses the film Dead Poet's Society within the context of educational history.
  • HER Summer 1997 Issue Contents 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC gseweb.harvard.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Two periods frequently cited as examples of this are the nineteenth century consolidation and expansion of the German Empire and the twentieth century Third (Greater German) Reich.^ That century saw the United States fight two world wars against Germany and witnessed the genocide perpetrated by the Third Reich; it therefore left Americans with few incentives to identify with a German ancestry.
  • Sample Chapter for Kazal, R.A.: Becoming Old Stock: The Paradox of German-American Identity. 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.pupress.princeton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the altered climate of the 1920s, many Philadelphians who were descended from nineteenth-century German immigrants reached for new definitions of self that downplayed their German ethnic heritage.
  • Sample Chapter for Kazal, R.A.: Becoming Old Stock: The Paradox of German-American Identity. 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.pupress.princeton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [German : ur- , original ; see Ursprache + Text , text Editions--Print Music--URTEXT Editions for practical use of the periods from the 8th to 20th centuries.
  • MUSIC PUBLISHERS. - Free Online Library 19 November 2009 17:34 UTC www.thefreelibrary.com [Source type: General]

.Each promoted the pan-ethnic idea that these governments were only acquiring lands that had always been inhabited by ethnic Germans.^ Same experts add that the government did not have any funds to allocate for the TCDD and only with these auctions, the TCDD will be able to create its own resources for its high-speed train project.

^ These lands have been occupied/inhabited by 20 million strong Turks/Kurds.
  • Akcam to Mouradian: Your Frustration with Turkish Intellectuals Exploded in Cemal’s Face | Armenian Weekly 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.armenianweekly.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These people became the innocent victims of a crazed government -- established on murder -- whose ruthlessness is only matched by its incompetence.
  • Grenville Byford on Turkish-Armenian Reconcilation - Newsweek.com 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.newsweek.com [Source type: Original source]

.The history of late-comers to the nation-state model, such as those arising in the Near East and south-eastern Europe out of the dissolution of the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empires, as well as those arising out of the former USSR, is marked by inter-ethnic conflicts.^ For a conflict to be considered an ethnic conflict, it has to be motivated by ethnic nationalism.
  • Daily Kos: Pashtunistan 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For this reason, important figures from the past such as Avicenna and Rumi, who were of ethnic Persian (Tajik) identity, are often not identified as ethnic Afghans or even as Afghan people, at least according to academics, while they are generally included within the context of the collective history of the modern nation-state in the geographic sense.
  • FASIC - Forum for Area Studies and Information Center 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.fasicp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For Serbians and Croatians, the incursions into Europe of Ottoman Sultans are a living reality, along with the ethnically divisive policies of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and atrocities instigated by ethnic based regimes and in partisan conflicts during World War II 15 .
  • ETHNIC CONFLICT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www1.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such conflicts usually occur within multi-ethnic states, as opposed to between them, as in other regions of the world.^ Some of the many identities people have are nested within each other, usually compatibly, as is the case for geographic identities within a country.  For example, I can identity both with New York (my state) and the United States (my country).
  • http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/identity_issues/ 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.beyondintractability.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the United States, "ethnics" came to be used around the Second World War as a polite term referring to Jews, Italians, Irish and other people considered inferior to the dominant group of largely British descent.
  • Ethnicity & Nationalism 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC folk.uio.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mao Zedong, the first leader of the People's Republic of China, described it as a multi-ethnic state.
  • Chinese - Introduction, Location, Language, Han dialects (spoken by 1.04 billion han) 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, the conflicts are often misleadingly labelled and characterized as civil wars when they are inter-ethnic conflicts in a multi-ethnic state.^ The following time thus is often called the "Warring States" period.
  • Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The entire city was in a state of civil war.
  • Egypt: History - French Occupation Period 11 January 2010 7:52 UTC www.touregypt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, land disputes are often at the root of local conflicts leading to bloody feuds and the splitting up of a family line.

Ethnicity in specific countries

.In the United States of America, the term "ethnic" carries a much broader meaning than how it is commonly used in some other countries.^ When we use the term " Other Information ", we mean any information other than Personal Information collected by the Site (Personal Information and Other Information, together, the " Information ").
  • Block People! - Japanese Arcade Trailer | SPIKE 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Simultaneously, the term denies the identities of other ethnic groups in the country.
  • Outline: 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But I believe this is the land for me and I believe that the other members believe also that the United States of America is really their country .

.Ethnicity usually refers to collectives of related groups, having more to do with morphology, specifically skin color, rather than political boundaries.^ It can be more than one group.
  • Assessment of Pashtun insurgency - Small Wars Council 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC council.smallwarsjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Having criticized what he sees as the traditional Eurocentric and ethnocentric basis of historical analysis, he expresses the Politically Correct hope that from now on "we can attempt to rethink these issues, with less emphasis on specific ethnic groups and their supposed migrations, and rather more upon the underlying economic and social processes at work."
  • The Celts: Part 1 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.natvan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many areas of Mexico where traditional cultures are still strong, however they are more and more like islands rather than regions.
  • Mexican Indian / Indigenous Textiles and clothing - A vanishing tradition of indigenous dress, clothing and costume presented as an on line museum. Traditional costumes and dress includes embroidered blouses, wrap skirt, huipils, back strap woven belts, quechquemitls, rebozos know in Mexico as ropa tipica. Textile patterns from Mexico’s rich ethnic culture and village life is presented along with a museum store. 21 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.mexicantextiles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The word "nationality" is more commonly used for this purpose (e.g.^ The United Nations ran a study and it was determined that 22 cognitive steps must be undertaken for any single word used in simultaneous interpretation.
  • Spanish Interpreter Jobs Forum - How to become freelance Spanish interpreter | Indeed.com 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.indeed.com [Source type: General]

^ The flag of the republic was used more commonly after the 1974 separation of the island, but only by Greek Cypriots.
  • Culture of Cyprus - traditional, history, people, women, beliefs, food, family, social, marriage, men, life, wedding, population, religion, History and ethnic relations 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Physicians themselves have come to use the words "informed consent" and "patients rights" more frequently than before.
  • [Full Text] Bioethics and Japanese Culture: Brain Death, Patients' Rights, and Cultual Factors 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.lifestudies.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Italian, German, French, Russian, Japanese, etc.^ Also Italian language Italian, Romanian language Romanian and Portuguese language Portuguese ''Irlanda'', French language French ''Irlande'', German language German ''Irland'', and Dutch language Dutch ''Ierland'', as well as Russian language Russian ''????????''
  • The Ireland Town Guide - Local Community, Tourist Guide & Travel Channel 19 November 2009 17:34 UTC www.thetownguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Portuguese, German, Italian, Spanish, Polish) 55%, mixed white and black 38%, black 6%, other (includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 1% .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Field Listing - Ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Katakana are generally used for representing non-Japanese words, from other languages such as English, French, etc.

are nationalities). .Most prominently in the U.S., Latin American derived populations are grouped in a "Hispanic" or "Latino" ethnicity.^ Distinctions between race and ethnicity and between specific racial and ethnic identifiers (e.g., Caucasian American, Hispanic American) are not universally understood or accepted.
  • ETHNICITY AND ALCOHOL-RELATED FATALITIES 1990 TO 1994 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Hispanic groups range somewhat above (Mexican Americans: 54.6%) and below (Cuban Americans: 36.6%) this level in the proportion of alcohol-related fatalities.
  • ETHNICITY AND ALCOHOL-RELATED FATALITIES 1990 TO 1994 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ There will be two categories for data on ethnicity: "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino."
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_1997standards/ 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Dataon Race and Ethnicity 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.census.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The many previously designated Oriental ethnic groups are now classified as the Asian racial group for the census.^ Many ethnic groups divided their population into social echelons, especially those who lived in mountainous areas.
  • Vietnam Ethnic Groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC asiarecipe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Frank Diktter 1990 Group Definition and the Idea of `Race in Modern China (1793-1949) Ethnic and Racial Studies 13(3):420-431.
  • http://faculty.ncf.edu/baram/RaceandEthnicitycourse.htm 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC faculty.ncf.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Historically, how do we use the terms interchangeably, and then how do we respond to the whole issue of the existence of various racial and ethnic groups?
  • Ethnicity and Education Forum 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC gseweb.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The terms "Black" and "African American", while different, are both used as ethnic categories in the US. In the late 1980s, the term "African American", was posited as the most appropriate and politically correct race designation.^ The name of the Black category should be changed to "Black or African American."
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_1997standards/ 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Terms such as "Haitian" or "Negro" can be used in addition to "Black or African American."
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_1997standards/ 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Dataon Race and Ethnicity 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.census.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If separate race and ethnic categories are used, the minimum designations are: a.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_race-ethnicity/ 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48] .While it was intended as a shift away from the racial inequities of America's past often associated with the historical views of the "Black race", it largely became a simple replacement for the terms Black, Colored, Negro and the like, referring to any individual of dark skin color regardless of geographical descent.^ Racial profiling can describe a situation where cops use skin color as a reason to frisk, or cabs passing by black customers, or why whites feel for their wallets when in an elevator with minorities.
  • Ethics Updates - Race, Ethnicity, and Multiculturalism 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC ethics.sandiego.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Picti" may have been a general term of abuse used by the Romans in referring to any people from beyond the boundaries of their empire or it may have referred to their colorful habit of body painting and tattooing.

^ What Does America Need So Much as Americans?’ Race and Northern Reconciliation with Southern Appalachia, 1870-1900” [outsider-mythologized, racially-pure, Anglo-Saxon Appalachia].
  • WVU Libraries: Appalachian Bibliography: Ethnicity and Race, African Americans, Immigrants, Native Americans 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.libraries.wvu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Likewise, Light-skinned Americans from Africa are not considered "African American". Many African Americans are multiracial.^ Scholars specializing on Africa, U.S.-based, African American topics, and the Black experience in other parts of the globe are encouraged to apply.
  • JUA: Penn African Studies Bulletin, (04/14/08) 10 September 2009 17:20 UTC www.africa.upenn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The first pitfall of many African academics, especially African-American ones, is to pretend that by knowing about Slavery in the Americas automatically gives them an insight into Slavery in Arabia.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Many African and some Latin American nations have crude birth rates in the range of 2.5 to 3.5 per-cent per year or even higher.
  • ETHNIC CONFLICT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www1.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More than half of African Americans also have European ancestry equivalent to one great-grandparent, and 5 percent have Native American ancestry equivalent to one great-grandparent.^ On the behavior of the Europeans toward the Native Americans .
  • The Mestizo Concept: A Product of European Imperialism 22 January 2010 21:35 UTC descendantofgods.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So it doesn’t surprise me that she has native american ancestry.
  • Megan Fox Celebrity Ethnicity – What Nationality Background Race 31 January 2010 12:10 UTC ethnicelebs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can be more than one group.
  • Assessment of Pashtun insurgency - Small Wars Council 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC council.smallwarsjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49]
.The term "White" generally describes people whose ancestry can be traced to Europe (including other European-settled countries such as Argentina, Mexico, Australia, Brazil, Canada and Cuba) and who now live in the United States.^ United States and Mexico march on to 2010 .
  • Mexico: News & Videos about Mexico - CNN.com 21 January 2010 11:011 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ We did not have any intention to harm other countries including Europe nor do we have such an agenda today."
  • Why the US is losing in Afghanistan - updates on the Pashtun insurgency 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: News]

^ The modern European countries are derived from the states formed by these peoples.
  • Comparison between Roman and Han Empires - Wikiversity 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, due to the caucasoid origins of Middle Easterners, who in fact have darker skin than many mongoloid East Asians, they may sometimes also be included in the "white" category.^ At night, however, they may feast.
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Carib Amerindian, white, East Asian) .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Field Listing - Ethnic groups 31 January 2010 12:10 UTC www.cs.fit.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Field Listing - Ethnic groups 22 January 2010 21:35 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Carib Amerindian, white, East Asian .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Field Listing - Ethnic groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Field Listing - Ethnic groups 31 January 2010 12:10 UTC factbook.lincon.com [Source type: Reference]

.This includes people from Southwest Asia and North Africa, as well as the Arab nations, Iran, and Afghanistan.^ It would include Arab states, Israel, Turkey, Afghanistan, and Iran.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_race-ethnicity/ 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Portugal, despite its Celtic (a code word for "Moors & Arabs"), Nordic and Aryan heritage, has over 500 years of North Africans , Black people and Gypsies in their country.
  • Portugal - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:25 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In neighboring Afghanistan, Baluchs account for two percent of the population, or about 0.7 million people 5 and live mainly in the southwest of the country, along its borders with Iran and Pakistan.
  • Pakistan and Afghanistan | Institute for the Study of War 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.understandingwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All the aforementioned are categorized as part of the "White" racial group, as per US Census categorization.^ Article 4 of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination considers group defamation a categorical exception to the right of free expression.
  • RACIAL AND ETHNIC GROUP DEFAMATION: A SPEECH-FRIENDLY PROPOSAL 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.bc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is also the only dimension on which Whites surpass all other groups.

^ In the 1800's breeders started to select the more solid colored dogs in the Red and White Setter group to develop the all red, solid Irish Setter we know today.
  • Irish Setter Breed Information & Pictures (Red Setter) 17 January 2010 17:36 UTC www.terrificpets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This category has been split into two groups: Hispanics and non-Hispanics (e.g.^ Later Greek comedy is grouped into two divisions, Middle Comedy (400–336 bc ) and New Comedy (336–250 bc ).
  • GREEK LITERATURE, 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There will be two categories for data on ethnicity: "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino."
  • Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Dataon Race and Ethnicity 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.census.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After Solomon's reign the nation split into two kingdoms, the Israel (in the north) and the Judah (in the south).
  • Jewish - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Jewish? What is Jewish? Where is Jewish? Definition of Jewish. Meaning of Jewish. 13 January 2010 19:10 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]

.White non-Hispanic and White Hispanic.^ For example, only 35.1% of Hispanic Americans rate themselves as less intelligent than Whites, while 55.3% of non-Hispanics rate Hispanic Americans as lower in intelligence than Whites.

^ Trends in motor vehicle traffic fatalities among Hispanics, Non-Hispanic whites and American Indians in New Mexico, 1958-1990.
  • ETHNICITY AND ALCOHOL-RELATED FATALITIES 1990 TO 1994 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Consequently, African Americans are also more likely than non-Hispanic whites to experience negative health outcomes.
  • Race, Ethnicity, and Where You Live Matters: Recent Findings on Health and Mortality of U.S. Elderly - Population Reference Bureau 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.prb.org [Source type: Academic]

) .Although people from East Asia may typically have lighter skin than Middle Easterners and Arabs, they are not considered "white" due to their mongoloid origin, which reflects upon the socially-constructed nature of racial groups.^ So, not all people from the Middle East are Arabs?
  • 100 questions about arab americans leaving in the US 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC allied-media.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also 'Arab' is not a racial group, some Arabs are African and some are White and Jewish.
  • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Middle East is a region of Asia, not separate from Asia.
  • Are Turkish people Europeans? - Vancouver Forum 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.discovervancouver.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the United Kingdom, many different ethnic classifications, both formal and informal, are used.^ As with the rest of the United Kingdom, the currency used in Wales is the pound sterling , represented by the symbol £ .

^ Many companies feel that with their advertising money they would much rather use white models and therefore many ethnic models are out of work.
  • WTF???: Model Does Black Face for French Vogue | Bossip.com 11 January 2010 7:52 UTC bossip.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Inside the United States, however, it is often used in a plural form (e.g., You deserve many kudos for this accomplishment!

.Perhaps the most accepted is the National Statistics classification, identical to that used in the 2001 Census in England and Wales (see Ethnicity (United Kingdom)).^ For other uses, see Wales (disambiguation) .

^ Perhaps most importantly, the equality of inheritance was accepted as well as the equality of testimony before a court of law; previously, under Islamic law, the testimony of two women was equal to that of one man.
  • Turkish Odyssey/About Turkey/Anotolian Culture/People 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.turkishodyssey.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If your past ancestors, four hundred years or so, have all been born in England and are their ethnicity is English, then, if you are born in England, then you are English, but have British Nationality.
  • Project Britain.com: British or English 10 January 2010 12:30 UTC blogs.projectbritain.com [Source type: Original source]

.The classification White British is used to refer to the indigenous British people.^ "Picti" may have been a general term of abuse used by the Romans in referring to any people from beyond the boundaries of their empire or it may have referred to their colorful habit of body painting and tattooing.

^ But for what I know Turkic is mainly used as a linguistic term for the language family & sometimes people who belong to that language family, while Turkish mostly refers to the country, its people & national language.
  • Are Koreans and Japanese part of Turkish people? [Archive] - Japan Forum 12 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However on the forms that ask you your racial background (which is a stupid because it doesn't make any difference, people are people) I don't put white british, I put white other.
  • Project Britain.com: British or English 10 January 2010 12:30 UTC blogs.projectbritain.com [Source type: Original source]

.The term Oriental refers to people from China, Japan, Korea and the Pacific Rim while Asian is used to refer to people from the Indian subcontinent; India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.^ You can use the terms Arab or Arabian to refer to the people.
  • Arab Girls Gone Wild | SPIKE 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Banzai, or “The Super Banzai Television Show” was created in the UK, by British people for Channel 4 and then sold to the USA. In the UK, no local Oriental (in the UK, “Asian” means “Indian/Pakistani, etc”) groups voiced concern, but in the USA, they did.
  • Seriously? OMG! WTF? » ABC premieres I Survived a Japanese Game Show in June! 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC seriouslyomg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The word 'Black' is used here to denote people of African descent; 'Asian' to describe people of South Asian origin (from modern India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, the area that formed the British territory of India);..."
  • Africa and Slavery, African Slave Trade - African History on the Internet 10 September 2009 17:20 UTC library.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.China officially recognizes 56 ethnic groups, the largest of which is the Han Chinese.^ Han Chinese is the ethnic group deserving all it has suffered from!

^ China's 56 Ethnic Groups China officially registers 56 ethnic groups.
  • China Ethnic Groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Han Chinese is an ethnic group which is morally upside down.

.Many of the ethnic minorities maintain their own cultures, languages and identity although many are also becoming more westernised.^ Our cultures and languages will then be maintained.
  • Asia Sentinel - Han Chinese Uproot Uighur Culture 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.asiasentinel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pashtun have many traditional stories, both in their own language and in Persian.
  • Pashtun – FREE Pashtun information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Pashtun research 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Multilingualism is part of multiculturalism," he says, buzzwords ringing, "Knowing many languages makes people more sociable, more democratic, more empathic, and more humanistic ."

.Han-Chinese predominate demographically and politically in most areas of China, although less so in Tibet and Xinjiang, where the Han are still in the minority.^ The demonstration of Han Chinese politeness .

^ Most of them know Zhang and Han Chinese.
  • China Ethnic Groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of them use Han Chinese.
  • China Ethnic Groups 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Han Chinese was the only ethnic group bound by the one-child policy.^ The only Han Chinese consistency .

^ Han Chinese is the ethnic group deserving all it has suffered from!

^ Han Chinese ethnic group?

.(For more details, see List of ethnic groups in China and Ethnic minorities in China.^ See a physician for more details.
  • Irish - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 17 January 2010 17:36 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Irish - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 17 January 2010 17:36 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ See above for more details.

^ See also: List of algorithms for more details.
  • Arabic words in English: live usage examples 19 November 2009 17:34 UTC www.1001inventions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)
.In France, the government does not collect population census data with ethnic categories.^ Collect data for population subgroups of the "Hispanic origin" category.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_race-ethnicity/ 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica - IBGE This governmental organization collects and analyzes data about the population in Brazil.
  • Portuguese Organizations 2 February 2010 9:25 UTC www.fas.harvard.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some areas, the data is collected electronically (census-takers have laptops with new software) and in other areas it is collected manually on forms.
  • decani : Message: ICG Macedonia's Ethnic Albanians - Bridging the Gulf 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC groups.yahoo.com [Source type: Original source]

.In recognition of abuses when the French cooperated in the deportation of Jews under the Nazi Occupation, the legislature passed laws preventing the government from collecting, maintaining or using ethnic population statistics.^ Read this 2006 article in the Guardian which reports tribunal in Toulouse found French state and SNCF Railway Company guilty of collusion in deporting Jews.
  • 3-Strikes Law to Disconnect French Pirates | TorrentFreak 11 January 2010 7:52 UTC torrentfreak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One could argue that opposition to parliamentary government is not rare, but here, too, the Nazis distinguished themselves by perfecting a particular set of techniques for achieving and maintaining power.
  • Unspeak » Any ethnicity 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC unspeak.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Other terms are used throughout this volume to describe these four ethnic/racial populations.
  • Cultural Competence Standards in Managed Care Mental Health Services - Introduction, National Mental Health Information Center 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC mentalhealth.samhsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

[50] .Under the administration of Nicolas Sarkozy, the French government in 2008 began a legislative process to repeal this prohibition.^ This prohibition against the federal government, meant to protect religion from government encroachment into the religious life of the several states, was, by amendment and legislation, later applied to the states as well.

^ Under the guidance of Idaho State University professor Anthony Stocks, the process began with the indigenous communities mapping their territories (see Stocks 2003 for more details on the mapping process).
  • The Robustness of Indigenous Common-property Systems to Frontier Expansion: Institutional Interplay in the Mosquitia Forest Corridor Hayes TM - Conservat Soc 22 January 2010 21:35 UTC conservationandsociety.org [Source type: Academic]

^ He began his Repeal campaign after the fall of the White government in 1841.

.In India, ethnic categories are not recognized by the government.^ Unfortunately, while most large donor organizations have now recognized the importance of governance, they have failed to acknowledge ethnic and regional cleavages within recipient countries.
  • ETHNIC CONFLICT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www1.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their choices are limited by the ethnic categories that exist in the official discourse of Australian multiculturalism and that dominate government bureaucracies, social service agencies, and the educational system.
  • How can a woman give birth to one Greek and one Macedonian 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.gate.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Afghan government of the time decided not to recognize Pakistan as the legitimate inheritor of the territorial agreements reached with the British India.
  • Pakistan and Afghanistan | Institute for the Study of War 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC www.understandingwar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The population is categorized in terms of the 1,652 mother tongues spoken and/or the 645 scheduled tribes to which individuals belong.^ This theory claims that there is an L-variant (termed "Brazilian Vernacular"), which would be the mother tongue of all Brazilians, and an H-variant (standard Brazilian Portuguese) acquired through schooling.
  • What is Brazilian Portuguese? 2 February 2010 9:25 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Portuguese Creoles are the mother tongue of Cape Verde and part of Guinea-Bissau 's population.
  • Portuguese language - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 9:25 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Celts on the main continent were largely ruled by the chieftain of their individual tribe--some chieftains were elected by the free men of the tribe for a limited term of office.
  • Real Magick Article - Story of the Celts: The Ancient Celts by John Patrick Parle 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC realmagick.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Smith 1987
  2. ^ Marcus Banks, Ethnicity: Anthropological Constructions (1996), p. 151 "'ethnic groups' invariably stress common ancestry or endogamy".
  3. ^ "Anthropology. The study of ethnicity, minority groups, and identity," Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007.
  4. ^ Bulmer, M. (1996). "The ethnic group question in the 1991 Census of Population". in Coleman, D and Salt, J.. Ethnicity in the 1991 Census of Population. HMSO. pp. 35. 
  5. ^ Statistics Canada
  6. ^ Fredrik Barth ed. 1969 Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: The Social Organization of Cultural Difference; Eric Wolf 1982 Europe and the People Without History p. 381
  7. ^ Hobsbawm and Ranger (1983), The Invention of Tradition, Sider 1993 Lumbee Indian Histories.
  8. ^ Seidner,(1982), Ethnicity, Language, and Power from a Psycholinguistic Perspective, pp. 2-3
  9. ^ Geertz, Clifford, ed. (1967) Old Societies and New States: The Quest for Modernity in Africa and Asia. New York: The Free Press.
  10. ^ Cohen, Abner (1969) Custom and Politics in Urban Africa: A Study of Hausa Migrants in a Yoruba Town. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  11. ^ Abner Cohen (1974) Two-Dimensional Man: An essay on power and symbolism in complex society. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  12. ^ J. Hutchinson & A.D. Smith (eds.), Oxford readers: Ethnicity (Oxford 1996), "Introduction", 8-9
  13. ^ Gellner, Ernest (1983) Nations and Nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell.
  14. ^ Ernest Gellner (1997) Nationalism. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
  15. ^ Smith, Anthony D. (1986) The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford: Blackwell.
  16. ^ Anthony Smith (1991) National Identity. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
  17. ^ T.H. Eriksen "Ethnic identity, national identity and intergroup conflict: The significance of personal experiences" in Ashmore, Jussim, Wilder (eds.): Social identity, intergroup conflict, and conflict reduction, pp. 42–70. Oxford: Oxford University Press'. 2001
  18. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Second edition, online version as of 2008-01-12, "ethnic, a. and n.". Cites Sir Daniel Wilson, The archæology and prehistoric annals of Scotland 1851' (1863)
  19. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Second edition, online version as of 2008-01-12, "ethnic, a. and n.". Citing Huxley & Hadden (1935), We Europeans, pp. 136,181
  20. ^ Cohen, Ronald. (1978) "Ethnicity: Problem and Focus in Anthropology", Ann. Rev. Anthropol. 1978. 7:379-403
  21. ^ Glazer, Nathan and Daniel P. Moynihan (1975) Ethnicity - Theory and Experience, Cambridge, Mass. Harvard University Press
  22. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Second edition, online version as of 2008-01-12, "ethnic, a. and n."
  23. ^ Wallman, S. "Ethnicity research in Britain", Current Anthropology, v. 18, n. 3, 1977, pp. 531–532.
  24. ^ Eriksen 1993 p. 2
  25. ^ Max Weber [1922]1978 Economy and Society eds. Guenther Roth and Claus Wittich, trans. Ephraim Fischof, vol. 2 Berkeley: University of California Press, 389
  26. ^ Banton, Michael. (2007) "Weber on Ethnic Communities: A critique", Nations and Nationalism 13 (1), 2007, 19–35.
  27. ^ a b c d e Ronald Cohen 1978 "Ethnicity: Problem and Focus in Anthropology", Annual Review of Anthropology 7: 383 Palo Alto: Stanford University Press
  28. ^ Joan Vincent 1974, "The Structure of Ethnicity" in Human Organization 33(4): 375-379
  29. ^ (Smith 1999, p. 12)
  30. ^ a b Delanty, Gerard & Krishan Kumar (2006) The SAGE Handbook of Nations and Nationalism. SAGE. ISBN 1-41290101-4 p. 171
  31. ^ a b c d (Smith 1999, p. 13)
  32. ^ Template:Introduction to Sociology, 7th edition. Anthony Giddens, Mitchell Duneier, Richard Appelbaum, Deborah Carr
  33. ^ a b Noel, Donald L. (1968). "A Theory of the Origin of Ethnic Stratification". Social Problems 16 (2): 157–172. doi:10.1525/sp.1968.16.2.03a00030. 
  34. ^ a b c Bobo, Lawrence; Hutchings, Vincent L. (1996). "Perceptions of Racial Group Competition: Extending Blumer's Theory of Group Position to a Multiracial Social Context". American Sociological Review 61 (6): 951–972. doi:10.2307/2096302. 
  35. ^ (Smith 1999, pp. 4–7)
  36. ^ Banton, Michael. (2007) "Weber on Ethnic Communities: A critique", Nations and Nationalism 13 (1), 2007, 19–35.
  37. ^ A. Metraux (1950) "United nations Economic and Security Council Statement by Experts on Problems of Race", American Anthropologist 53(1): 142-145)
  38. ^
    In this regard, distinctions of race have implications rather different from ethnic variations. Racial distinctions, such as "Indian" or "African American", are the outcome of the subjugation of populations in the course of European mercantile expansion. The term "Indian", and later "Native American", stand for the conquered populations of the New World, in disregard of any cultural or physical differences among them. "Negro", and later "African American", similarly serve as a cover term for the culturally and physically variable African, populations that furnished slaves, as well as for the slaves themselves. Indians are conquered people who could be forced to labor or pay tribute; Negroes are "hewers of wood and drawers of water", obtained in violence and put to work under coercion. These two terms thus singled out for primary attention, the historic fact that these populations were made to labor in servitude to support a new class of overlords. Simultaneously, the terms, like "white people", disregard cultural and physical differences within each large category, denying any constituent group political, economic, or ideological identity of its own.
    Racial terms mirror the political process by which populations of whole continents were turned into providers of coerced surplus labor. Under capitalism, these terms did not lose their association with civil disability. They continue to invoke supposed descent from such subjugated populations so as to deny their putative descendants access to upper segments of the labor market. "Indians" and "Negroes" are thus confined to the lower ranks of the industrial army or depressed into the industrial reserve. The function of racial categories within capitalism is exclusionary. They stigmatize groups in order to exclude them from more highly paid jobs and from access to the information needed for their execution. They insulate the more advantaged workers against competition from below, making it difficult for employers to use stigmatized populations as cheaper substitutes or as strikebreakers. Finally, they weaken the ability of such groups to mobilize politically on their own behalf by forcing them back into casual employment and thereby intensifying competition among them for scarce and shifting resources.
    While the categories of race serve primarily to exclude people from all but the lower echelons of the industrial army, ethnic categories express the ways that particular populations came to relate themselves to given segments of the labor market. Such categories emerge from two sources, one external to the group in question, the other internal. As each cohort entered the industrial process, outsiders were able to categorize it in terms of putative provenance and supposed affinity to particular segments of the labor market. At the same time, members of the cohort itself came to value membership in the group thus defined, as a qualification for establishing economic and political claims. Such ethnicities rarely coincided with the initial self-identification of the industrial recruits, who thought of themselves as Hanoverians or Bavarians rather than as Germans, as members of their village or their parish (okiloca) rather than as Poles, as Tonga or Yao rather than "Nyasalanders." The more comprehensive categories emerged only as particular cohorts of workers gained access to different segments of the labor market and began to treat their access as a resource to be defended both socially and politically. Such ethnicities are therefore not "primordial" social relationships. They are historical products of labor market segmentation under the capitalist mode.
    Eric Wolf, 1982, Europe and the People Without History, Berkeley: University of California Press. 380-381
  39. ^ Abizadeh 2001
  40. ^ Seidner,(1982), Ethnicity, Language, and Power from a Psycholinguistic Perspective, p. 11.
  41. ^ Maria Rostworowski, "The Incas", Peru Culture
  42. ^ http://216.239.59.104/search?q=cache:_V2dvVcvWIAJ:whp.uoregon.edu/Lockhart/Intro.pdf+microethnicity&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=20&gl=uk James Lockhart, Microethnicity in Philological ethnohistory
  43. ^ Christopher Larkosh, "Je me souviens…aussi: Microethnicity and the Fragility of Memory in French-Canadian New England", TOPIA: Journal for Canadian Cultural Studies, Issue 16 (Toronto, 2006), pp. 91-108
  44. ^ Gellner 2006 Nations and Nationalism Blackwell Publishing
  45. ^ Anderson 2006 Imagined Communities Verson
  46. ^ Walter Pohl, "Conceptions of Ethnicity in Early Medieval Studies", Debating the Middle Ages: Issues and Readings, ed. Lester K. Little and Barbara H. Rosenwein, (Blackwell), 1998, pp 13-24, notes that historians have projected the nineteenth-century conceptions of the nation-state backwards in time, employing biological metaphors of birth and growth: "that the peoples in the Migration Period had little to do with those heroic (or sometimes brutish) clichés is now generally accepted among historians," he remarked. Early medieval peoples were far less homogeneous than often thought, and Pohl follows Reinhard Wenskus, Stammesbildung und Verfassung. (Cologne and Graz) 1961, whose researches into the "ethnogenesis" of the German peoples convinced him that the idea of common origin, as expressed by Isidore of Seville Gens est multitudo ab uno principio orta ("a people is a multitude stemming from one origin") which continues in the original Etymologiae IX.2.i) "sive ab alia natione secundum propriam collectionem distincta ("or distinguished from another people by its proper ties") was a myth.
  47. ^ Aihway Ong 1996 "Cultural Citizenship in the Making" in Current Anthropology 37(5)
  48. ^ Encyclopedia of Public Health, by The Gale Group, Inc
  49. ^ Henry Louis Gates, Jr., In Search of Our Roots: How 19 Extraordinary African Americans Reclaimed Their Past, New York: Crown Publishers, 2009, pp. 20-21
  50. ^ (French) article 8 de la loi Informatique et libertés, 1978: "Il est interdit de collecter ou de traiter des données à caractère personnel qui font apparaître, directement ou indirectement, les origines raciales ou ethniques, les opinions politiques, philosophiques ou religieuses ou l'appartenance syndicale des personnes, ou qui sont relatives à la santé ou à la vie sexuelle de celles-ci."

References

.
  • Abizadeh, Arash, "Ethnicity, Race, and a Possible Humanity" World Order, 33.1 (2001): 23-34. (Article that explores the social construction of ethnicity and race.^ Is race merely a social construction?
    • Race and Ethnicity 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.fiu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Order a reprint of this article now ASIA NEWS AUGUST 23, 2009 Afghan Contenders Claim Leads .
    • Afghan Contenders Claim Leads - WSJ.com 20 January 2010 22:24 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

    ^ How does race and ethnicity look from the top of social hierarchies?
    • http://faculty.ncf.edu/baram/RaceandEthnicitycourse.htm 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC faculty.ncf.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    )
  • Barth, Fredrik. .Ethnic groups and boundaries.^ What I'm saying is that the boundaries that create ethnic groups have to exist in order to clarify memberships.
    • Ethnicity and Education Forum 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC gseweb.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Gradually the ethnic group whose territory is divided by a national boundary splits as its members develop two different and mutually exclusive national identities.
    • How can a woman give birth to one Greek and one Macedonian 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.gate.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A nationalist holds that political boundaries should be coterminous with cultural boundaries, whereas many ethnic groups do not demand command over a state.
    • Ethnicity & Nationalism 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC folk.uio.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The social organization of culture difference
    , Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1969
  • Billinger, Michael S. (2007), "Another Look at Ethnicity as a Biological Concept: Moving Anthropology Beyond the Race Concept", Critique of Anthropology 27,1:5–35.
  • Cole, C.L. "Nike’s America/ America’s Michael Jordan", Michael Jordan, Inc.: Corporate Sport, Media Culture, and Late Modern America.^ Contents Feature : Paris on the move Culture Literature Business life Society & environment Sport (Multi)media World solidarity Look(s) "Label France" No.
    • France-Diplomatie - The French People of Silicon Valley 11 January 2010 7:52 UTC www.diplomatie.gouv.fr [Source type: News]

    ^ The majority of that discussion will expose the legacy of Anthropology for understanding human biological and social diversity.
    • http://faculty.ncf.edu/baram/RaceandEthnicitycourse.htm 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC faculty.ncf.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A Reexamination of the Effects of Race and Social Class on the Incidence of Marital Violence: A Search for Reliable Differences.
    • II. SPECIFIC RACIAL / ETHNIC GROUPS AND DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN THE U.S. 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www.lib.jjay.cuny.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .(New York: Suny Press, 2001).
  • Dünnhaupt, Gerhard, "The Bewildering German Boundaries", in: Festschrift for P. M. Mitchell (Heidelberg: Winter 1989).
  • Eysenck, H.J., Race, Education and Intelligence (London: Temple Smith, 1971) (ISBN 0-8511-7009-9)
  • Hartmann, Douglas.^ Ithica, New York: Cornell University Press.
    • ETHNIC CONFLICT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www1.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York : Arno Press, [1976] .
    • Mexican Americans and Texas 21 January 2010 11:011 UTC swco.ttu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989.
    • Japanese Confucian Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ."Notes on Midnight Basketball and the Cultural Politics of Recreation, Race and At-Risk Urban Youth", Journal of Sport and Social Issues.^ Conference on Social and Educational Problems of Urban and Rural Mexican American youth, Occidental College, April 6, 1963, pp.
    • The Mestizo Concept: A Product of European Imperialism 22 January 2010 21:35 UTC descendantofgods.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Degree to which data were collected in a historical, social, economic, political, cultural, and religious/spiritual context.
    • Occasional Paper No. 46 22 January 2010 21:35 UTC www.jsri.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The social change witnessed in the USA where active desegregation and issues of race are very public is absent from Arab society.
    • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

    25 (2001): 339-366.
  • Hobsbawm, Eric, and Terence Ranger, editors, The Invention of Tradition. .(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983).
  • Thomas Hylland Eriksen (1993) Ethnicity and Nationalism: Anthropological Perspectives, London: Pluto Press
  • Levinson, David, Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook, Greenwood Publishing Group (1998), ISBN 9781573560191.
  • Morales-Díaz, Enrique; Gabriel Aquino; & Michael Sletcher, "Ethnicity", in Michael Sletcher, ed., New England, (Westport, CT, 2004).
  • Omni, Michael and Howard Winant.^ Ithica, New York: Cornell University Press.
    • ETHNIC CONFLICT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 17 January 2010 9:56 UTC www1.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (psychologie sociale, Muse de l'Homme).
    • Bibliography of Ethnicity in Southeast Asia, by Michel Picard and Yves Goudineau 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC www.conflictrecovery.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989.
    • Japanese Confucian Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 31 January 2010 13:013 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Racial Formation in the United States from the 1960s to the 1980s.^ Starting in the 1980s there was a dearth of Turkish dance in the United States except for in large cities where it was requested by prominent Turkish or Greek populations.

    ^ But they know absolutely nothing about the racial history of the United States.
    • Ethnicity and Education Forum 6 February 2010 11:13 UTC gseweb.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They performed in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s in the famous Eighth Avenue club district of New York City.

    .(New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul, Inc., 1986).
  • Seidner, Stanley S. Ethnicity, Language, and Power from a Psycholinguistic Perspective.^ New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., 1996.
    • The Celts Themselves 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Willett, Cecil & Phyllis Cunnington, The History of Underclothes , New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1992.

    ^ Norris, Herbert and Oswald Curtis, Nineteenth-Century Costume and Fashion , Mineola, New York, Dover Publications, Inc., 1998.

    (Bruxelles: Centre de recherche sur le pluralinguisme1982).
  • Sider, Gerald, Lumbee Indian Histories (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).
  • Smith, Anthony D. (1987), The Ethnic Origins of Nations, Blackwell 
  • Smith, Anthony D. (1999), Myths and memories of the Nation, Oxford University Press 
  • ^ U.S. Census Bureau State & County QuickFacts: Race.

External links

.
  • Ethnicity at the Open Directory Project
  • Downloadable article: "Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age" Li et al.^ Recent linguistic, cultural and archaeological finds in Brazil and Peru offer documentary evidence" that West African Mandinka Muslims explored the early Americas.
    • ARAB SLAVE TRADE - The history of Arab Slavery in Africa 10 February 2010 11:32 UTC www.africanholocaust.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Studies of molecular diversity in south Amerindian populations are still scanty ( Ward et al.
    • Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in South America and the Genetic History of Andean Highlanders -- Fuselli et al. 20 (10): 1682 -- Molecular Biology and Evolution 31 January 2010 12:10 UTC mbe.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ See more articles cited in this paragraph Genetic evidence of an early exit of Homo sapiens sapiens from Africa through eastern Africa.
    • Phylogeographic Differentiation of Mitochondrial DNA in Han Chinese 17 January 2010 9:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    BMC Biology 2010, 8:15. [1]

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Genealogy

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