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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For the mythological figure, see Euboea (mythology)

Euboea
Εύβοια
Geography
GR Evia.png
Coordinates: 38°30′N 24°00′E / 38.5°N 24°E / 38.5; 24
Island Chain: Aegean Islands
Area: 3,684.848 km² (1,423 sq.mi.)
Highest Mountain: Mt. Dirphys (1,745 m (5,725 ft))
Government
Greece Greece
Periphery: Central Greece
Prefecture: Euboea
Capital: Chalcis
Statistics
Population: 198,130 (as of 2001)
Density: 54 /km² (139 /sq.mi.)
Postal Code: 34x xx
Area Code: 22x0
License Code: XA
Website
www.naevias.gr

Euboea[1] (Greek: Εύβοια, Évia; Ancient Greek: Εὔβοια, Eúboia) is the second largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete. It is separated from the mainland of Greece by the narrow Euripus Strait. In general outline it is a long and narrow, seahorse-shaped island; it is about 150 km (90 miles) long, and varies in breadth from 50 km (30 miles) to 6 km (4 miles). Its general direction is from northwest to southeast, and it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the east, and is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros, Tinos and Mykonos.

Contents

Geography

Satellite picture showing central and south-eastern Euboea at the top (Attica and Boeotia in the lower portion). Orientation: north-east uppermost.
Beach at Chiliadou in Euboea.

Like most of the Greek islands, Euboea was originally known under other names in ancient times, such as Macris and Doliche from its shape, Ellopia and Abantis from the tribes inhabiting it.

Euboea was believed to have originally formed part of the mainland, and to have been separated from it by an earthquake. This is fairly probable, because it lies in the neighbourhood of a fault line, and both Thucydides and Strabo write that the northern part of the island had been shaken at different periods. In the neighbourhood of Chalcis, both to the north and the south, the bays are so confined as to make plausible the story of Agamemnon's fleet having been detained there by contrary winds. At Chalcis itself, where the strait is narrowest at only 40 m, it is called the Euripus Strait. The extraordinary changes of tide which take place in this passage have been a subject of note since classical times. At one moment the current runs like a river in one direction, and shortly afterwards with equal velocity in the other. A bridge was first constructed here in the twenty-first year of the Peloponnesian War (410 BC). The name Euripus developed during the Middle Ages into Evripo and Egripo, and in this latter form transferred to the whole island. Later the Venetians, when they occupied the district, altered it to Negroponte, referring to the bridge which connected it with the mainland.

The main mountains include Dirphys (1,745 m), Pyxaria (1,341 m) in the northeast and Ochi (1,394). The neighboring gulfs are the Pagasetic Gulf in the north, Maliakos Gulf, Northern Euboean Gulf in the west, the Euboic Sea and the Petalion Gulf. At the 2001 census the island had a population of 198,130, and a total land area of 3,684.848 km².

History

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Ancient

The history of the island is for the most part that of its two principal cities, Chalcis and Eretria. Both cities were Ionian settlements from Attica, and their importance in early times is shown by their numerous colonies in Magna Graecia and Sicily, such as Cumae and Rhegium, and on the coast of Macedonia. In this way they opened new trade routes to the Greeks, and extended the field of western civilization.

The strength of their commerce is shown by the fact that the Euboic scale of weights and measures was used in Athens until Solon, and among the Ionic cities generally. They were rival cities, and appear to have been equally powerful at first; one of the earliest of the sea battles mentioned in Greek history took place between them, and it is also said that many of the other Greek states took part.

In 490 BC, Eretria was utterly ruined and its inhabitants were transported to Persia. Though it was restored after the Battle of Marathon, on a site at a little distance from its original position, it never regained its former eminence, but it was still the second city on the island. From this time its neighbour Chalcis held an undisputed supremacy. Already, however, this city had suffered from the growing power of Athens. In the year 506 BC the Chalcidians were totally defeated by the Athenians, who established 4,000 Attic settlers on their lands, and seem to have reduced the whole island to a condition of dependence.

Again, in 446 BC, when Euboea endeavoured to throw off the yoke, it was once more reduced by Pericles, and a new body of settlers was planted at Histiaea in the north of the island, after the inhabitants of that town had been expelled. The Athenians fully recognized its importance to them, for supplying them with grain (ie, wheat) and cattle, securing their commerce, and guaranteeing them against piracy, because its proximity to the coast of Attica rendered it extremely dangerous to them when in other hands. But in 410 BC the island succeeded in regaining its independence. After this it took sides with one or other of the leading states, until, after the Battle of Chaeronea, it passed into the hands of Philip II of Macedon, and finally into those of the Romans.

Medieval

In 1157 all the coastal towns of Euboea were destroyed by a Sicilian force.[2]

Modern

In modern history, Euboea came into prominence following the Fourth Crusade. In the partition of the Eastern Roman Empire by the Latins, the island was divided into three fiefs which placed themselves under the protection of the Venetian Republic, henceforth the sovereign power. On 12 July 1470, after a heated defence, the well-fortified city of Chalkis (Negroponte) was wrested from Venice by Mehmed II, and the whole island fell into the hands of the Ottoman Empire. It was called Eğriboz by the Ottoman Turks during the period of 1470-1830. At the conclusion of the Greek War of Independence in 1830, the island constituted a part of the newly-established Greek state.

Euboea is linked to the mainland by two bridges, one that runs through Chalcis and is also accessible from Thebes, and another which bypasses Chalcis and is accessed from Athens. All of Euboea's modern bridges are suspended.

In the 1980s, the Dystos lake was filled with grass which was set on fire by farmers to make more farmland. This act caused devastation of much of the plants and the environment in that area. A part of the lake later regenerated. Also the municipalities of Anthidona and Avlida in the mid to late 20th century, which once were part of the eastern part of the Boeotia Prefecture, reverted to Chalcis. Since then, the postal codes corresponded with the rest of Euboea, including Skyros.

Recent

On January 24 through January 28, 2006, a snowstorm which also affected Eastern Europe brought heavy snowfalls with snow accumulating to heights ranging from 1 to 4 metres (3.3 to 13 ft), cutting off roads from the rest of Greece in the northern, eastern and southern parts of the island. Electricity was cut off to parts of the island for several days. Two days later when the snowstorm tapered off, villages in the south and north remained cut off from roads and water supply. Communications were later restored as bulldozers cleared away the snow as far as Aliveri a day later. The snowstorm became one of the worst in the island's history. Another system arrived on February 7, 2005 and brought heavy snows that isolated several residents in their homes with 3 to 5 metres (9.8 to 16 ft) of snow, enough to reach upper balconies and almost cover homes in snow over their roofs in several villages. In Kampia, snowfall of up to 2 metres (6.6 ft) covered people's cars, and some people had to dig away the snow to get into their vehicles. Roads were also blocked and some locations were cut off from the rest of the island. The storm did not cause blackouts. A day later, temperatures began to rise and roads were re-opened and communications restored.

Another natural disaster was the forest fire that occurred in the Aliveri part of the island, fires lasted in July 2007 and devastated much of the forests including the vicinity of the hotel and devastated the tourist industry of the island. Fires battled for a few days until the situation ended completely. Hundreds of buildings were damaged..

On October 14, 2008, a near tremendous earthquake rumbled the island and measured 6.6 on the Richter scale, over four months after the Achaia-Ilia earthquake that measured at the same range, mostly the same measurement. The earthquake was even felt in Athens and parts of the mainland.

Demographics

Chalkis, Euboea's main town, as depicted in the 19th century

Among the rest population, there are two sub-groups on the island, who live there since the early Middle Ages: the Arvanites and the Vlachs. Arvanites traditionally occupy portions of the southern tip of the island and are concentrated today in the area around Cape Kafireas also known as Cavo D'Oro, where the Arvanitika are still spoken by the villagers. The area southern of Aliveri is the northernmost limit of their presence in Euboea. Arvanites settled Euboea in the 14th century during the Venetian rule of the island. The Vlachs are largely assimilated and live in the hilly and mountainous area in central and northern Euboea. The Vlach language is not spoken as much as it once was. Euboea also formerly hosted a large Sarakatsani population who emigrated from the mainland of Central Greece and Epirus at the beginning of the 19th century and settled around Mandoudi and Agia Anna. The population of the island according to the census of 2001 was 198,130.

Economics

The mining areas include magnesite in Mantoudi and Limni, lignite in Aliveri and iron and nickel from Diprhys. Marble is mined 3 km north of Eretria which include Marmor Chalcidicum and asbestos in the northeastern part of Carystus in the Okhi mountains.

The trees include chestnuts.

Transport

Local administration

Euboea Prefecture

Euboea Prefecture
Νομός Εύβοιας
Location of Euboea Prefecture in Greece
Location of Euboea Prefecture municipalities
Country:  Greece
Capital: Chalcis
Periphery: Central Greece
Population: 218,032 (2005)Ranked 9th
Area: 4,167.449 km² 
(1,609 sq.mi.) Ranked 7th
Density: 52 /km² 
(136 /sq.mi.)
Number of municipalities: 25
Number of communities: 2
Postal codes: 34x xx
Area codes: 22x0
Licence plate code: ΧΑ
ISO 3166-2 code: GR-04
Website: www.naevias.gr

Euboea Prefecture is somewhat larger than the island, and includes two municipalities on the mainland, Anthidona and Avlida, as well as the island municipality of Skyros. At the 2001 census the prefecture had a population of 215,136 inhabitants, whereas the island itself had a population of 198,130. The prefecture's land area is 4,167.449 km², whereas the total land area of the municipalities actually on the island is 3,684.848 km², which includes that of numerous small offshore islets (the largest of which is Petalioi Island, near Euboea's southeastern tip).

Municipalities and communities

Municipality YPES code Seat (if different) Postal code
Aidipsos 1401 Loutrá Aidipsoú 343 00
Amarynthos 1402 340 06
Anthidona 1403 Drosia 341 00
Artemisio 1404 342 00
Avlida 1405 Vathy 341 00
Avlon 1406 Avlonari 340 09
Chalcis 1426 341 00
Dirfys 1407 Steni Dirfyos 340 14
Dystos 1408 Krieza 340 17
Elymnioi 1409 Limni 340 05
Eretria 1410 340 08
Istiaia 1411 342 00
Karystos 1412 340 01
Kireas 1414 Mantoudi 340 04
Konistres 1415 340 16
Kymi 1416 340 03
Lilantia 1417 Vasiliko 340 02
Marmari 1419 340 13
Messapia 1420 Psachna 344 00
Nea Artaki 1421 346 00
Nileas 1422 Agia Anna 340 10
Oreoi 1427 340 12
Skyros 1423 340 07
Styra 1424 340 15
Taminaioi 1425 Aliveri 345 00
Community YPES code Seat (if different) Postal code
Kafireas 1413 Amygdalea 340 01
Lichada 1418 343 00
  • Note: The municipalities of Anthidona and Avlida are on the mainland, attached to the northeastern part of Boeotia Prefecture. Skyros is not on the main island of Euboea, but is on an offshore island by itself. Map

Provinces

Note: Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece.

Prefecture population

Year Population Change Density
1991 209,132 5,236/123.23% 53.51/km²
2001 217,218 8,086/3.87% 55.59/km²

Wildfires

The 2007 Greek fires were some of the deadliest in world history, killing at least 64 people in the Peloponnese and Evia.

Persons

Sporting teams

See also

References

  1. ^ Euboea or Euboia (pronounced /juːˈbiːə/) are transliterations from the Ancient Greek Εύβοια, while Evvoia, Evvia, and Evia /ˈɛvjɑː/ reflect the Modern Greek pronunciation [ˈevja].
  2. ^ Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium: The Decline and Fall (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996) p. 116

External links

Coordinates: 38°30′N 24°00′E / 38.5°N 24°E / 38.5; 24


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Evvia article)

From Wikitravel

Evvia (Greek: Εύβοια), also Euboea, is in Central and Northern Greece. Though an island, it's so large and so close to the mainland that it has more of a mainland atmosphere than an island one. Tourism is not much developed. Its main attractions for the visitor are the landscape and traditional villages.

Cities

Chalkis or Halkida (Χαλκίδα) is the capital of the island, a lively city of more than 50.000 citizens. The city has mainly an urban look and is not really touristic. More tourist-oriented spots include Aedipsos (Αιδηψός), famous for it's natural spas and hot springs and Karystos (Κάρυστος) in the south.

Other destinations

In your free time, try to get the ferry to Skyros, one of the Sporades islands and the closest one to the island of Evvia.

Understand

Evvia is one of Greece's biggest islands, but ever since it was connected to the Greek mainland by bridge, it has lost its island feeling, especially around the area of Chalkis, the capital. Do not expect to see the most picturesque places of the island before reaching the northern and southern tips, where you will definately see much more from what it has to offer.

Talk

Like in the rest of Greece, modern Greek is the official language of the island and the one almost all of its inhabitants use in daily life.

Get in

Evvia is linked to mainland by one suspension bridge and one old lifting bridge. This connection is next to the main Evvia town of Halkida. You can get also by a number of ferry connections between maniland and the island. From Thessaliniki - Athens highway, past Volos, exit near Glifa. Every 30 min ferry to Agiokambos (last about 8 pm), 30 min ride. If you are getting there from Athens, ferries from Arkitsa to Loutra Edipsou. There are also ferries connecting Souhetrn Evia with Atika if you want to get there from Athens.

Stay safe

Evvia is a generally very safe island, with the only problem of dangerous driving. Be aware in case you have rented a car, because its streets are narrow with sudden twists that need driving experience and extra care.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Ancient Greek Εὔβοια (Euboia).

Proper noun

Singular
Euboea

Plural
-

Euboea

GR Evia.png
  1. a Greek island just off the eastern coast of Greece in the Aegean Sea.

Derived terms

Translations


Simple English

Euboea is an island of Greece, and is also one of the 51 prefectures of Greece. Euboea is second largest island of Greece. Its total area is 3.655 Km2. It is located in the east of Boeotia and Attica prefectures. The island is surrounded by Aegean Sea. The capital of Euboea and the biggest city of the island is Chalkida.


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