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Europe
Europe (orthographic projection).svg
Area 10,180,000 km2 (3,930,000 sq mi)o[›]
Population 731,000,000o[›]
Pop. density 70/km2 (181/sq mi)
Demonym European
Countries 50 (List of countries)
Languages List of languages
Time Zones UTC to UTC+5
Internet TLD .eu (European Union)
Largest cities List of cities
.Europe (/ˈjʊrəp/, YOOR-əp) is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents.^ I would suggest that the above question is the one that the present convention on the future Europe should be considering.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally divided from Asia to its east by the water divide of the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian Sea, the Caucasus Mountains (or the Kuma-Manych Depression),[1] and the Black Sea to the southeast.^ Further east are the Bug and the Dneper (Dnieper), entering the Black Sea near Kherson, not far east of Odessa.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The next large river is the Dneister, which enters the Black Sea at Odessa.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Remarkably, they appear to have populated the region north of the Caucasus and between the Black and Caspian Seas until overcome much later by the Khazars and Mongols.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[2] .Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean and other bodies of water to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Black Sea and connected waterways to the southeast.^ Numerous available ports on the Black and Azov seas, river transportation routes, porous borders, and inadequately financed and under-equipped border and customs control forces make Ukraine susceptible to drug trafficking, especially on the north-east border with other former Soviet Republics, Belarus and Russia.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lately, experts noted an increase in heroin traffic from Turkey into Ukraine by sea and then across Ukraine’s western border into Western Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Remarkably, they appear to have populated the region north of the Caucasus and between the Black and Caspian Seas until overcome much later by the Khazars and Mongols.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Yet the borders for Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are somewhat arbitrary, as the term continent can refer to a cultural and political distinction or a physiographic one.^ At which point those of us who want to can get back to liking Europe without having to make those subtle distinctions can do so.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead, I predict that, within five years, there will be a serious political movement in Eastern Europe dedicated to bringing back the Iron Curtain.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Political assassination is common enough in Europe not to have to ascribe a conspiracy to this one.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.Europe is the world's second-smallest continent by surface area, covering about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi) or 2% of the Earth's surface and about 6.8% of its land area.^ We have written records from the Semitic lands, so we know much more about their history than about that of Europe and the steppes.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The population is about 3,500,000, 95% Albanian, and the total area a little less than that of Maryland.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a recent sea, formed after the last Ice Age about 10,000 BCE by the rise of sea level, drowning a river valley.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Of Europe's approximately 50 states, Russia is the largest by both area and population, while Vatican City is the smallest.^ Keeping Britain both in the [United States of Europe] and outside of it militarily, diplomatically, and monetarily should become a prime U.S. objective in foreign policy.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Video/C 8071 Young, Muslim, and French Europe's Muslim population has doubled in the last decade, with the largest numbers settling in France.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 26 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fertility rates across Europe are now so low that the continent's population is likely to drop markedly over the next 50 years.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.Europe is the third-most populous continent after Asia and Africa, with a population of 731 million or about 11% of the world's population.^ "Europe" still lectures places like China as if places like China are the Third World, and Europe, obviously, is the first.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The most frequent statistic cited is the number of live births per woman in a population: in order for the population to replace itself and remain stable, that number must be about 2.1.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This episode of the Great War, the third of eight, examines the evolution of World War I from a conflict fought across the landscape of Europe to a global war.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 26 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, according to the United Nations (medium estimate), Europe's share may fall to about 7% by 2050.[3] In 1900, Europe's share of the world's population was 25%.^ The passion that the romantic vision of a united Europe once provoked was the result of a world-view which we cannot understand.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The UN, whose past population predictions have been fairly accurate, predicts that the world's population will increase from just over 6 billion in 2000 to 8.9 billion by 2050.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Experts estimate the number of conventional, illicit drug abusers at around 20,000 (0.25 percent of total population).
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]
.Europe, in particular Ancient Greece, is the birthplace of Western culture.^ In Western Europe in particular, the state does neither, as most laws are passed by unelected EU bureaucrats...
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This article is an attempt at explaining, using as few words as possible, why Europe in particular, and the entire Western world in general, is in a deep crisis.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .It played a predominant role in global affairs from the 16th century onwards, especially after the beginning of colonialism.^ These segments look at the establishment of the island of Macau as a Portuguese colony in the 16th century.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 26 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European nations controlled at various times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania, and large portions of Asia.^ The program also will intensify law enforcement cooperation with Portugal’s countries of interest, largely in Africa and South America.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Turkish National Police (TNP), under Interior Ministry control, is responsible for security in large urban areas.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Malta has a mixed and varied history, as rich as that of any much bigger European nation.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.Both World Wars were largely focused upon Europe, greatly contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the United States and Soviet Union took prominence.^ Examines European state of affairs at the turn of the 20th century.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 26 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The GoA continues to welcome assistance from the United States and Western Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ecstasy transits Poland en route to both Western Europe and the United States.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east.^ The EU is by far the largest donor to Poland’s counternarcotics activities, which serves as a motivating force for even closer collaboration between Poland and its neighbors to the East and the West.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Romania also lies along a developing route for the transit of synthetic drugs from Western and Northern Europe to the East.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Europe must avoid an ideological war between free-market capitalism and the welfare state after the rejection of the EU's constitution, [he] said on Saturday Wrong.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

European integration led to the formation of the Council of Europe and the European Union in Western Europe, both of which have been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Contents

Definition

A medieval T and O map from 1472 showing the division of the world into 3 continents, allocated to the three sons of Noah
.The use of the term "Europe" has developed gradually throughout history.^ To imagine that Britain will be immune from this is absurd; what happens in mainland Europe will directly impact upon us as it has throughout our history.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[7][8] .In antiquity, the Greek historian Herodotus mentioned that the world had been divided by unknown persons into the three continents of Europe, Asia, and Libya (Africa), with the Nile and the river Phasis forming their boundaries—though he also states that some considered the River Don, rather than the Phasis, as the boundary between Europe and Asia.^ Georgia’s geography and transit status between Europe and Asia make it a potential narcotics trafficking route.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Or, rather, when they don't because if this thing ever actually makes it into space then my name is Buzz Lightyear.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Hunnic hegemony in Europe ended in 454, and the remnants of the Huns withdrew into Asia.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[9] .Flavius Josephus and the Book of Jubilees described the continents as the lands given by Noah to his three sons; Europe was defined as between the Pillars of Hercules at Cadiz, separating it from Africa, and the Don, separating it from Asia.^ Georgia’s geography and transit status between Europe and Asia make it a potential narcotics trafficking route.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The chances are that this particular item of fruitbattery is the result of the idiot collision between the separately sane - but when combined in Britain fruitbatarian legal traditions of Britain and of Continental Europe.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Malta serves as a transfer point for travelers between North Africa and Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]
.This division—as much cultural as geographical—was used until the Late Middle Ages, when it was challenged by the Age of Discovery.^ Until the end of the middle ages and the arrival of a flood of silver from the New World, gold was worth about nine times an equal weight of silver.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the middle ages and earlier, Latin and Greek (Koine) were standardized written languages of Europe that could be used for official purposes and literature.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[11][12] .The problem of redefining Europe was finally resolved in 1730 when, instead of waterways, the Swedish geographer and cartographer von Strahlenberg proposed the Ural Mountains as the most significant eastern boundary, a suggestion that found favour in Russia and throughout Europe.^ Migration To Eastern Europe Sam Vaknin, Ph.D. - 8/10/2005 The 2003 census in Russia, the first since 1989, found more than 2 million immigrants in residence.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stress and pollution conspire to reap a grim harvest throughout the wastelands of eastern Europe.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While there is no significant drug production in Uzbekistan, several transshipment routes for opium, heroin, and hashish originate in Afghanistan and cross Uzbekistan for destinations in Russia and Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]
.Europe is now generally defined by geographers as the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, with its boundaries marked by large bodies of water to the north, west and south; Europe's limits to the far east are usually taken to be the Urals, the Ural River, and the Caspian Sea; to the southeast, the Caucasus Mountains, the Black Sea and the waterways connecting the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.^ The southern boundary is the Black Sea.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The next large river is the Dneister, which enters the Black Sea at Odessa.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This is bounded on the north by the Danube, on the west by the Adriatic and Ionian Seas, on the south by the Aegean, and on the east by the Black Sea.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[14]
.Sometimes, the word 'Europe' is used in a geopolitically limiting way[15] to refer only to the European Union or, even more exclusively, a culturally defined core.^ The British Council belongs to EUNIC , the European Union National Institutes for Culture, and this new organisation was launched on the 21st February 2007 (pdf file).
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ January 21, 2002 Monday All animals are equal David Carr (London) European Union But some animals are more equal than others .
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ June 10, 2002 Monday Americans against the EU Brian Micklethwait (London) European Union Pellerito wants more links from this to other blogs.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

On the other hand, the Council of Europe has 47 member countries, and only 27 member states are in the EU.[16] In addition, people living in insular areas such as Ireland, the United Kingdom, the North Atlantic and Mediterranean islands and also in Scandinavia may routinely refer to "continental" or "mainland" Europe simply as Europe or "the Continent".[17]
Clickable map of Europe, showing one of the most commonly used geographical boundaries[18] (legend: blue = states in both Europe and Asia; green = sometimes included within Europe but geographically outside Europe's boundaries)
.
Far.^ As England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland all use the same coins, one of the four coins has to feature a bridge from each of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ My definition of Central Europe embraces the Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Croatia, and Slovenia.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "The World", reduced to 44 countries and 38,000 interviewees, included 3500 respondent from central and east Europe: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Poland, Russia, Slovakia and Ukraine.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(Dk)

Etymology

In ancient Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess whom Zeus abducted after assuming the form of a dazzling white bull. He took her to the island of Crete where she gave birth to Minos, Rhadamanthus and Sarpedon. .For Homer, Europe (Greek: Εὐρώπη, Eurṓpē; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was a mythological queen of Crete, not a geographical designation.^ Yes, it is the type of EU law Gabriel Syme was talking about recently, in which the EU has been drawing up lists of geographical (and other) names used for food products, and has been insisting that the names be used only on food produced in that exact place.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Greece strongly denies any Slavic heritage, even changing Slavic place names to Greek names wherever they can be found.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Later, Europa stood for central-north Greece, and by 500 BC its meaning had been extended to the lands to the north.^ Macedonia was a mountainous country north of classical Greece, that extended from Illyria on the west to the Aegean Sea on the east.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

The name of Europa is of uncertain etymology.[19] One theory suggests that it is derived from the Greek roots meaning broad (eur-) and eye (op-, opt-), hence Eurṓpē, "wide-gazing", "broad of aspect" (compare with glaukōpis (grey-eyed) Athena or boōpis (ox-eyed) Hera). .Broad has been an epithet of Earth itself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion.^ These people were once called Caucasian, now Proto Indo-European.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[20] .Another theory suggests that it is actually based on a Semitic word such as the Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" (cf.^ While Islamists are rather open promoters of anti-Semitic theme, leftists and atheists promote such theory in a very tricky way.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Occident),[21] cognate to Phoenician 'ereb "evening; west" and Arabic Maghreb, Hebrew ma'ariv (see also Erebus, PIE *h1regʷos, "darkness"). However, M. L. West states that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor".[22]
.Most major world languages use words derived from "Europa" to refer to the continent.^ Crime syndicates from around the world try to exploit the underground narcotics market and use the UK as a major transshipping route.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This article is an attempt at explaining, using as few words as possible, why Europe in particular, and the entire Western world in general, is in a deep crisis.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cannabis is the most commonly used drug, followed by heroin, cocaine, and MDMA (ecstasy), which are available in major towns.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu (歐洲), which is an abbreviation of the translitreated name Ōuluóbā zhōu (歐羅巴洲); however, in some Turkic languages the name Frengistan (land of the Franks) is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa.^ Now, this is problematic, because as I use the word, "parmesan" is a name for a particular type of strong flavoured hard cheese.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We have written records from the Semitic lands, so we know much more about their history than about that of Europe and the steppes.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Scandinavians prefer to use the term to refer only to Danes, Norwegians and Swedes, who speak related languages.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[23]

History

Prehistory

.Homo georgicus, which lived roughly 1.8 million years ago in Georgia, is the earliest hominid to have been discovered in Europe.^ Denis Schulz - 6/20/2007 Sure, one million pounds could to itthats a lot of lootmaybe if it had been offered twenty or thirty years ago.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is years ago now, but for some reason, I remembered it recently when watching the political situation in Europe.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .Other hominid remains, dating back roughly 1 million years, have been discovered in Atapuerca, Spain.^ Spain pledged $100 million to support Plan Colombia in 2003 and has pledged to continue to support the program in the coming years.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Illicit refining and manufacturing of drugs in Spain is minimal, although small-scale laboratories of synthetic drugs such as LSD are discovered and confiscated each year.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25] .Neanderthal man (named for the Neander Valley in Germany) first migrated to Europe 150,000 years ago and disappeared from the fossil record about 30,000 years ago.^ "I was first in Sweden 35 years ago.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Having visited Estonia for several days about twelve years ago, I know all about that place.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We have written records from the Semitic lands, so we know much more about their history than about that of Europe and the steppes.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Neanderthals were supplanted by modern humans (Cro-Magnons), who appeared in Europe around 40,000 years ago.^ Violators who put human lives at risk face fines up to $161,000 (SFr 200,000) or imprisonment.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are an estimated total of 250,000 people who regularly smoke cannabis—nearly twice as many as a decade ago.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A man who was caught by police with Euro 108,000 worth of heroin and cocaine in 2004 was jailed for six years by the Dublin Circuit Criminal Court.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26]
.During the European Neolithic, a period of megalith construction took place, with many megalithic monuments, such as Stonehenge[27] and the Megalithic Temples of Malta, being constructed throughout Western and Southern Europe.^ American military) and it is NATO, not the EEC/EU, that was responsible for the peace of post war Western Europe, which may well be why so many Europeans hate the United States - people often hate those they have long depended on.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Macedonia is on the southern variant of the Balkan Route used to ship southwest Asian heroin to the western European consumer market.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Human Geography, People Places and Change ; 9) Many of the issues that Germany and eastern Europe now confront are seen in microcosm in Berlin.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 26 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] The Corded ware cultural horizon flourished at the transition from the Neolithic to the Chalcolithic. .The European Bronze Age began in the late 3rd millennium BC with the Beaker culture.^ The Germans began to press southwards in the late first millennium BCE. The migration of the Goths and Vandals was a major stage in these events.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Consideration of the events on the north shore of the Black Sea from the Bronze Age and after shows that migrations from the east were a regular event, not something that began to occur in the Dark Ages.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

The European Iron Age began around 800 BC, with the Hallstatt culture. .Iron Age colonisation by the Phoenicians gave rise to early Mediterranean cities.^ Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean, 400-800 .
  • Book Listing by Subject: European Union Economics (Economics Network) 1 February 2010 7:48 UTC www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Early Iron Age Italy and Greece from around the 8th century BC gradually gave rise to historical Classical Antiquity.^ Here interviewees from Europe, Asia and the United States (boasting an average age of 102), recount the part they played in the century's early history.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 26 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Classical antiquity

The Greek Temple of Apollo, Paestum, Italy
Ancient Greece had a profound impact on Western civilisation. Western democratic and individualistic culture are often attributed to Ancient Greece.[29] .The Greeks invented the polis, or city-state, which played a fundamental role in their concept of identity.^ Philip V (reigned 221-179 BCE) strove to subjugate Greek city-states, who appealed to Rome for aid.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[30] .These Greek political ideals were rediscovered in the late 18th century by European philosophers and idealists.^ Led by the radical intellectuals of the "Romantic generation," Britain experienced a flowering of political discourse in the 18th century, based on an appreciation of nature and the common man.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 26 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wrong Empire (Pt.11): By the 18th century with political stability and commercial prosperity at home, Britain turned its sights outward.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 26 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Greece also generated many cultural contributions: in philosophy, humanism and rationalism under Aristotle, Socrates, and Plato; in history with Herodotus and Thucydides; in dramatic and narrative verse, starting with the epic poems of Homer;[29] and in science with Pythagoras, Euclid, and Archimedes.^ Officers and representatives of Greece’s law enforcement agencies are generally under-trained, underpaid, under-appreciated, and overworked.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General History Spanish Civil War Portugal Spanish History & Culture Spanish cinema General History .
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 26 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31][32][33]
The Roman Empire at its greatest extent
.Another major influence on Europe came from the Roman Empire which left its mark on law, language, engineering, architecture, and government.^ Greek had always been the common and cultured language of the Roman Empire, except in the west and the Balkans, and it eventually replaced Latin.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Note: William has started another Ideal Government project, this time about Europe, Ideal Government Europe .
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It would be a major mistake for the new Europe to follow a Platonic pattern of government, but a mistake that daily appears more likely.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[34] .During the pax romana, the Roman Empire expanded to encompass the entire Mediterranean Basin and much of Europe.^ World War I brought the collapse of four empires, the death of nine million soldiers and the ruin of much of Europe.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 26 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1355, the Eastern Roman Empire had been reduced to Thrace, with the Kingdom of Bulgaria north of it (very much like modern Bulgaria in size).
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[35]
.Stoicism influenced Roman emperors such as Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius, who all spent time on the Empire's northern border fighting Germanic, Pictish and Scottish tribes.^ Not all German tribes wandered, however.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman Empire changed over time.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As in past years, all production sites were located along the northern border with the Netherlands.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36][37] Christianity was eventually legitimised by Constantine I after three centuries of imperial persecution.

Early Middle Ages

.During the decline of the Roman Empire, Europe entered a long period of change arising from what historians call the "Age of Migrations". There were numerous invasions and migrations amongst the Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Goths, Vandals, Huns, Franks, Angles, Saxons, Slavs, Avars, Bulgars and, later still, the Vikings and Magyars.^ The Roman Empire changed over time.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Visigoth means "noble Goth"; the Gothic name was Tervingi, and we often call them West Goths.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Visigoths still formed part of the Roman army, commanded by Flavius Aëtius, and fought at the battle of Châlons in 451, where Attila was decisively defeated, and thousands of his Ostrogothic allies fell.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[35] .Renaissance thinkers such as Petrarch would later refer to this as the "Dark Ages".[38] Isolated monastic communities were the only places to safeguard and compile written knowledge accumulated previously; apart from this very few written records survive and much literature, philosophy, mathematics, and other thinking from the classical period disappeared from Europe.^ But TQM is one of many such philosophies (and lately very much out of favour).
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We have written records from the Semitic lands, so we know much more about their history than about that of Europe and the steppes.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It has called itself a community of values and has been tirelessly repeating to would-be members that full embrace of democracy and human and minority rights is the only way into the club.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]
.During the Dark Ages, the Western Roman Empire fell under the control of various barbarian tribes.^ When the Senate failed, the Western Empire fell apart.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On the separation of the Eastern and Western Empires, the Balkans fell to Constantinople, and remained one of the core regions of the Eastern Empire as long as it lasted.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The feudal-manorial system was very unlike the organization of the nomadic barbarian kingdoms, but the concept of fealty was easily understood, and so the system took hold in what had been the Roman empire.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Germanic and Slav tribes established their domains over Western and Eastern Europe respectively.^ For administrative efficiency, the Empire was divided into Eastern and Western parts in 395, governed from Constantinople and Rome, respectively.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Sam Vaknin, Ph.D. - 8/14/2005 Could Western management techniques be successfully implemented in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)?
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heroin from Afghanistan transits from Eastern Europe to Western Europe, especially to the Netherlands.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] .Eventually the Frankish tribes were united under Clovis I.^ Poland became a Christian kingdom under the traditional King Piast in 962, who united a number of tribes along the Vistula.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[41] .Charlemagne, a Frankish king of the Carolingian dynasty who had conquered most of Western Europe, was anointed "Holy Roman Emperor" by the Pope in 800. This led to the founding of the Holy Roman Empire, which eventually became centred in the German principalities of central Europe.^ For a start, there are no good ideas in Western Europe but there is a mountain of 'Very Bad Ideas' and no shortage of people who know how to disseminate them very effectively.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Bohemia became one of the very few kingdoms in the Holy Roman Empire (most large states were duchies).
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He was awarded the Order of the Dragon by the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary, Sigismund, from which his epithet Dracul ("The Dragon") comes, for his services against the Turks.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[42]
.The predominantly Greek speaking Eastern Roman Empire became known in the west as the Byzantine Empire.^ Bohemia became one of the very few kingdoms in the Holy Roman Empire (most large states were duchies).
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Greek had always been the common and cultured language of the Roman Empire, except in the west and the Balkans, and it eventually replaced Latin.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Illyria and Moesia were thoroughly Romanized, speaking Latin instead of the Greek that was common elsewhere.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

Its capital was Constantinople. .Emperor Justinian I presided over Constantinople's first golden age: he established a legal code, funded the construction of the Hagia Sophia and brought the Christian church under state control.^ When Theodoric died in 526, the resulting chaos stimulated Emperor Justinian to send an army under the great admiral Belisarius in 535.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Bolshevik theory demanded that land be brought under state ownership, and this doctrine was implemented, with disastrous results.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The first two of these to be built were in the United States: the George Washington Bridge in New York and the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[43] .Fatally weakened by the sack of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade, the Byzantines fell in 1453 when they were conquered by the Ottoman Empire.^ Muhammad II (Sultan 1451-81) captured Constantinople on 29 May 1453, and the Ottoman capital was moved from Adrianople.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The name Romania was first applied to the Latin Empire at Constantinople that was the result of the Fourth Crusade.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Fourth and final crusade, launched as a commercial operation, sacked and looted Constantinople, the Christian city that originally inspired the holy movement.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 26 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44]

Middle Ages

.The Middle Ages were dominated by the two upper echelons of the social structure: the nobility and the clergy.^ The elective principle struggles with the hereditary principle, and the nobles struggle with the central, royal power, throughout the middle ages.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Feudalism developed in France in the Early Middle Ages and soon spread throughout Europe.^ Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean, 400-800 .
  • Book Listing by Subject: European Union Economics (Economics Network) 1 February 2010 7:48 UTC www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The elective principle struggles with the hereditary principle, and the nobles struggle with the central, royal power, throughout the middle ages.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is pretty clear to anybody following the developments in Europe that the situation in France is starting to become rather serious.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45] A struggle for influence between the nobility and the monarchy in England led to the writing of the Magna Carta and the establishment of a parliament.[46] The primary source of culture in this period came from the Roman Catholic Church. .Through monasteries and cathedral schools, the Church was responsible for education in much of Europe.^ The National Institute of Public Health, and municipal governments, are responsible for providing compulsory drug education in schools.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is thought that much of the heroin distributed in Europe is transported through Bulgaria.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45]
.The Papacy reached the height of its power during the High Middle Ages.^ The elective principle struggles with the hereditary principle, and the nobles struggle with the central, royal power, throughout the middle ages.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Video/C 5548 The Middle Ages This program traces the evolution of Europe during the Middle Ages from a group of loosely tied kingdoms to a prosperous community of nations.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 26 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A East-West Schism in 1054 split the former Roman Empire religiously, with the Eastern Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire and the Roman Catholic Church in the former Western Roman Empire.^ Exceptions had been made regarding other Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Russian Orthodox religions (after all, the Grand Duke himself, as Emperor of Russia, was Orthodox).
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This atrocity horrified everyone, West and East, and lowered regard for the Pope and Church.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On the separation of the Eastern and Western Empires, the Balkans fell to Constantinople, and remained one of the core regions of the Eastern Empire as long as it lasted.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In 1095 Pope Urban II called for a crusade against Muslims occupying Jerusalem and the Holy Land.^ In this segment historians and theologians discuss the roots of the First Crusade as a political exercise, initiated by Pope Urban II to solidify his political power in the East.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 26 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Teutonic Knights did indeed come this way in 1211, invited by András II to come from Venice after the Crusades to guard Hungary against the Cumans.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Jerusalem's Arab leader, Nur ed-Din declares a Jihad, or holy war, against the invaders.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 26 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47] In Europe itself, the Church organised the Inquisition against heretics. .In Spain, the Reconquista concluded with the fall of Granada in 1492, ending over seven centuries of Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula.^ In the country of Spain, which has a proud history of civilizing the acolytes of Satan in Mexico, combating the hordes of Muslims in the Levant, and expelling the Islamic savages from the Iberian Peninsula, the men chose to fight.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are a few exceptions, for instance with the Reconquista in the Iberian Peninsula, but this took centuries.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hashish comes predominantly from Morocco through Spain, entering the Iberian Peninsula (and the rest of Europe) via sea access points using fast boats.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48]
The Battle of Crécy in 1346, from a manuscript of Jean Froissart's Chronicles; the battle established England as a military power.
.In the 11th and 12th centuries, constant incursions by nomadic Turkic tribes, such as the Pechenegs and the Kipchaks, caused a massive migration of Slavic populations to the safer, heavily forested regions of the north.^ In the 11th century, they were defeated by the Empire, Cumans and the Kievan Rus', and the Cumans or Polovtsy, another Turkic tribe, took their place.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Remarkably, they appear to have populated the region north of the Caucasus and between the Black and Caspian Seas until overcome much later by the Khazars and Mongols.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It remained a constant standard until the 11th century, known in the west as a bezant (from Byzantium).
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[49] .Like many other parts of Eurasia, these territories were overrun by the Mongols.^ These documents were the basis of Stalin's Red Army purge of 1938, in which Marshal Tukachevsky and many others were executed.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Asparouch, like many other warriors, claimed descent from Attila.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And like many other blacks from Africa considered "undesirable" by European governments such as Sweden and Germany, he was forcibly deported, but not to his home country.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 26 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50] .The invaders, later known as Tatars, formed the state of the Golden Horde, which ruled the southern and central expanses of Russia for over three centuries.^ The majority of the Bulgars remained here, and later became the Russian Tatars of the Volga, after conquest by the Mongols in the 13th century.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Opiates (and hashish to a lesser degree) from Afghanistan are carried across the Central Asian states and into Russia.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After overcoming the Tatars in their own country during the 18th century, Russia turned to the driving of the Turks from Europe, freeing the subjugated Slavic populations.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[51]
.The Great Famine of 1315–1317 was the first crisis that would strike Europe in the late Middle Ages.^ In the middle ages and earlier, Latin and Greek (Koine) were standardized written languages of Europe that could be used for official purposes and literature.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact in 1957 Western Europe was in the middle of great period of advance.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean, 400-800 .
  • Book Listing by Subject: European Union Economics (Economics Network) 1 February 2010 7:48 UTC www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

[52] The period between 1348 and 1420 witnessed the heaviest loss. The population of France was reduced by half.[53][54] .Medieval Britain was afflicted by 95 famines,[55] and France suffered the effects of 75 or more in the same period.^ In the first six months of 2005 police seized nearly three times more drugs than in the same period of the previous year.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But if more people just keep talking publicly about withdrawal then that emboldens others to do the same and eventually the drip, drip effect begins to eat away at the consensus.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[56] .Europe was devastated in the mid-14th century by the Black Death, one of the most deadly pandemics in human history which killed an estimated 25 million people in Europe alone—a third of the European population at the time.^ Not all the people of Europe are Indo-European.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Macedonian Ministry of the Interior, based on initial census figures, estimates that there are well over 20,000 foreigners in this country of 2 million people.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One day soon, America may wake to find itself facing a wealthy superpower of 470 million people.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[57]
.The plague had a devastating effect on Europe's social structure; it induced people to live for the moment as illustrated by Giovanni Boccaccio in The Decameron (1353).^ No, what Western Europe has to export Eastwards is a plague of social-worker types (of which the West has vast reserves).
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But Romani people have lived in Europe for over a thousand years, and they originally came from India, not Egypt.
  • Western and Northern Europe History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 26 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It was a serious blow to the Roman Catholic Church and led to increased persecution of Jews, foreigners, beggars and lepers.[58] The plague is thought to have returned every generation with varying virulence and mortalities until the 1700s.[59] .During this period, more than 100 plague epidemics swept across Europe.^ We have written records from the Semitic lands, so we know much more about their history than about that of Europe and the steppes.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We do not have to be ruled by EUrope in order to have European style cafés in London, any more than we have to be ruled by China to have Chinese Restaurants.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Europe's political landscape is more fragmented than ever and populist movements, which had been subdued during recent years, are increasingly beginning to surface.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[60]

Early modern period

The School of Athens by Raphael: Contemporaries such as Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci (centre) are portrayed as classical scholars
.The Renaissance was a period of cultural change originating in Italy in the fourteenth century.^ Albania - culturally, a veritable part of Italy in the past - was cut off from it and from the Renaissance it spawned.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The rise of a new humanism was accompanied by the recovery of forgotten classical and Arabic knowledge from monastic libraries and the Islamic world.[61][62][63] .The Renaissance spread across Europe between the 14th and 16th centuries: it saw the flowering of art, philosophy, music, and the sciences, under the joint patronage of royalty, the nobility, the Roman Catholic Church, and an emerging merchant class.^ However, this is not really about the practices of the Roman Catholic Church or even about the status of the late Mr. Schuman but more about Europe's elite seeking divine provenance for their transnational machine.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The struggle between the aristocracy and the plebeians died with the Roman empire, and was not resurrected until the 18th century.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[64][65][66] .Patrons in Italy, including the Medici family of Florentine bankers and the Popes in Rome, funded prolific quattrocento and cinquecento artists such as Raphael, Michelangelo, and Leonardo da Vinci.^ Life of Leonardo da Vinci Sam Vaknin, Ph.D. - 10/4/2005 Leonardo da Vinci was a painter, sculptor, architect, cartographer, engineer, scientist and inventor in the 15th century.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 452, Attila again devastated northern Italy but Rome was saved by the mediation of Pope Leo I, and Attila withdrew.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[67][68]
Political intrigue within the Church in the mid-14th century caused the Great Schism. .During this forty-year period, two popes—one in Avignon and one in Rome—claimed rulership over the Church.^ Two farms, one with 1500 plants, were destroyed during the reporting period.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Britain has been growing continuously for 12 years, during which time other EU countries have suffered at least one recession and in some cases two.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

Although the schism was eventually healed in 1417, the papacy's spiritual authority had suffered greatly.[69]
.The Church's power was further weakened by the Protestant Reformation (1517–1648), initially sparked by the works of German theologian Martin Luther, a result of the lack of reform within the Church.^ Also in 2005, Austria, together with Italy, continued work on a project within the UNODC for reform of the justice system in Afghanistan.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Reformation also damaged the Holy Roman Empire's power, as German princes became divided between Protestant and Roman Catholic faiths.^ Bohemia became one of the very few kingdoms in the Holy Roman Empire (most large states were duchies).
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Initially, the Magyars were a terror, raiding as far as Rome and Constantinople, westward into the Holy Roman Empire, and eastward into Bulgaria.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Exceptions had been made regarding other Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Russian Orthodox religions (after all, the Grand Duke himself, as Emperor of Russia, was Orthodox).
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[70] .This eventually led to the Thirty Years War (1618–1648), which crippled the Holy Roman Empire and devastated much of Germany, killing between 25 and 40% of its population.^ He began wars with the Roman Empire, which were continued by his successors.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Cocaine imports are estimated at 25-40 tons a year and emanate chiefly from Colombia.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was not an easy war; in fact, it lasted 50 years, but the Teutonic Knights eventually prevailed, founding Königsberg in 1255 on the way.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[71] .In the aftermath of the Peace of Westphalia, France rose to predominance within Europe.^ France is a transshipment point for drugs moving into, from and within Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It established France as the predominant power in Europe, and retarded the unification of Germany.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[72] .The 17th century in southern and eastern Europe was a period of general decline.^ Seized ecstasy comes mainly from the Netherlands; cannabis from Morocco and southern Europe; and khat from Eastern Africa via Amsterdam and London.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ecstasy transits from the Netherlands through Germany to Eastern and Southern Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73]
Battle of Vienna in 1683 broke the advance of the Ottoman Empire into Europe
.The Renaissance and the New Monarchs marked the start of an Age of Discovery, a period of exploration, invention, and scientific development.^ If it fails, then this moment will be seen as a turning point that marked the start of the EU's decline and not its new beginning."
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.In the 15th century, Portugal and Spain, two of the greatest naval powers of the time, took the lead in exploring the world.^ The two dominant world religions in a constant clash with each other since the 7th century have been Islam and Christianity.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is in the world's interest, as it is in the interests of the world's greatest power, that leadership should be exercised in partnership.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[74][75] .Christopher Columbus reached the New World in 1492, and soon after the Spanish and Portuguese began establishing colonial empires in the Americas.^ A new revolt in 1204 drove Isaac from power, and Baldwin seized the opportunity to establish the Latin Empire with himself as emperor, and to cruelly sack and ravage the city.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[76] .France, the Netherlands and England soon followed in building large colonial empires with vast holdings in Africa, the Americas, and Asia.^ The program also will intensify law enforcement cooperation with Portugal’s countries of interest, largely in Africa and South America.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Countries like Britain, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, have large 'welfare' states but they do so by parasitically drawing wealth out of their large wealth creating capitalist economies...
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ All of the Near East and Africa was lost to the Empire, which then consisted of Asia Minor, the Balkan peninsula, Sardinia and Sicily.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

18th and 19th centuries

The Age of Enlightenment was a powerful intellectual movement during the eighteenth century promoting scientific and reason-based thoughts.[77][78][79] .Discontent with the aristocracy and clergy's monopoly on political power in France resulted in the French Revolution and the establishment of the First Republic as a result of which the monarchy and many of the nobility perished during the initial reign of terror.^ During his reign, many Slavs and Vlachs fled the Balkans, fleeing the Turks, into southern Hungary and the plains of Wallachia.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Their wealth attracted the avarice of the French King Philip IV, who arrested all Templars in France on 13 October 1307, the first "Friday the 13th".
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ France and Germany should be left to take care of the neccessary fence-mending; since when has it been in Britains interests to increase French political influence?
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[80] .Napoleon Bonaparte rose to power in the aftermath of the French Revolution and established the First French Empire that, during the Napoleonic Wars, grew to encompass large parts of Europe before collapsing in 1815 with the Battle of Waterloo.^ Both Tilly and Gustaf Adolf were killed in battle during the war.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ By the year 558, the date of foundation of the Avar Empire, they were a predominant power in Europe, and exacted a large tribute from Constantinople.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1918, after the First World War, two new countries were created as a result of cynical French policy, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia, on the ruins of Austria-Hungary.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[81][82]
.Napoleonic rule resulted in the further dissemination of the ideals of the French Revolution, including that of the nation-state, as well as the widespread adoption of the French models of administration, law, and education.^ Reykjavik Customs continued with a national drug education program developed in 1999 and formalized in an agreement with the state (Lutheran) church in 2003.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In law enforcement cooperation, the program aims at strengthening cooperation among all security forces within Portugal as well as within the 25 EU member states.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The French are loudest in expressing their objections and looking at the history of the evolution of the nation state, perhaps they have a point.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[83][84][85] .The Congress of Vienna, convened after Napoleon's downfall, established a new balance of power in Europe centred on the five "Great Powers": the United Kingdom, France, Prussia, Habsburg Austria, and Russia.^ I like the Centre for the New Europe , for example.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It established France as the predominant power in Europe, and retarded the unification of Germany.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Communist theory was centred around a worker proletariat, which did not exist to any great extent in predominantly agricultural Russia.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[86]
.This balance would remain in place until the Revolutions of 1848, during which liberal uprisings affected all of Europe except for Russia and Great Britain.^ After overcoming the Tatars in their own country during the 18th century, Russia turned to the driving of the Turks from Europe, freeing the subjugated Slavic populations.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A similar process is now under way with Britain's similarly vaunted NHS, the best healthcare system in the world except for all the others.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Great Purges of 1936-1938, practically all the original Bolsheviks of the October revolution were eliminated, except for Stalin, the sole survivor of the original Politburo.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

These revolutions were eventually put down by conservative elements and few reforms resulted.[87] .In 1867, the Austro-Hungarian empire was formed; and 1871 saw the unifications of both Italy and Germany as nation-states from smaller principalities.^ The Mongol empire was transitory, soon falling apart into smaller and smaller states, and leaving no cultural heritage.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Magyars established their nation on the Danube and Tisza, and soon possessed the Hungarian Plain, both the Pannonian and the Dacian regions.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[88]
.The Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain in the last part of the 18th century and spread throughout Europe.^ After overcoming the Tatars in their own country during the 18th century, Russia turned to the driving of the Turks from Europe, freeing the subjugated Slavic populations.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Since, unlike Europe, China did not take off onto a path leading from the scientific to the Industrial Revolution, some ...
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Turkey's death throes lasted centuries and its decomposition was taken to be so certain that its division and partition (the "Eastern Question") animated European geopolitics for the better part of two centuries.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The invention and implementation of new technologies resulted in rapid urban growth, mass employment, and the rise of a new working class.^ Full Employment and High Growth in Europe : A New Cycle of Reforms to Play a Leading Role in the New World Economy .
  • Book Listing by Subject: European Union Economics (Economics Network) 1 February 2010 7:48 UTC www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

[89] .Reforms in social and economic spheres followed, including the first laws on child labour, the legalisation of trade unions,[90] and the abolition of slavery.^ On January 31, 2005, the Ministry of Social Affairs opened the first injection control room (in Oslo) for drug addicts; more are slated to follow.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Center for Combating Economic Crimes and Corruption (CCECC) is the law enforcement agency responsible for investigating corruption allegations, including those related to narcotics-related public corruption.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Union shall work for a Europe of sustainable development based on balanced economic growth, with a social market economy aiming at full employment and social progress.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[91] .In Britain, the Public Health Act 1875 was passed, which significantly improved living conditions in many British cities.^ According to Dalrymple, Many in Britain believe that he has been the worst prime minister in recent British history, morally and possibly financially corrupt, shallow and egotistical.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "Proceeds of Crime Act," which took effect in January 2003, has significantly improved the government’s ability to track down and recover criminal assets.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Britain, unemployment more than doubled from 1980 to 1984, but conditions then quickly improved.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[92] .Europe’s population doubled during the 18th century, from roughly 100 million to almost 200 million, and doubled again during the 19th century.^ An Historian by training, his interests include British 18th and 19th Century History.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After overcoming the Tatars in their own country during the 18th century, Russia turned to the driving of the Turks from Europe, freeing the subjugated Slavic populations.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[93] .In the 19th century, 70 million people left Europe in migrations to various European colonies abroad and to the United States.^ Not all the people of Europe are Indo-European.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Romania is a recent state, founded in the latter half of the 19th century.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ American military) and it is NATO, not the EEC/EU, that was responsible for the peace of post war Western Europe, which may well be why so many Europeans hate the United States - people often hate those they have long depended on.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[94]

20th century to present

European military alliances during WWI: Central Powers purplish-red, Entente powers grey and neutral countries yellow
.Two World Wars and an economic depression dominated the first half of the 20th century.^ His father died in the first world war.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 20th century, bridge design came to be more and more dominated by the Americans, but British engineers still did some impressive things.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Labour has suffered the lowest share of the vote since the First World War, albeit on a very low turnout of voters.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.World War I was fought between 1914 and 1918. It started when Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated by the Bosnian Serb Gavrilo Princip.^ A Croatian member of the Serbian secret Black Hand society assassinated Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo in 1914, setting off the First World War.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1918, after the First World War, two new countries were created as a result of cynical French policy, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia, on the ruins of Austria-Hungary.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There are many interesting stories of communist agitation between the World Wars, many of which can be found on the Internet.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[95] .Most European nations were drawn into the war, which was fought between the Entente Powers (France, Belgium, Serbia, Portugal, Russia, the United Kingdom, and later Italy, Greece, Romania, and the United States) and the Central Powers (Austria-Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire).^ When it appeared that the Central Powers were losing the war, Romania changed sides and attacked Austria-Hungary.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ France, Italy and Portugal look set to copy Germany in this trend.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It occupied the western Balkans between Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Greece.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

The War left around 40 million civilians and military dead.[96] Over 60 million European soldiers were mobilised from 1914–1918.[97]
.Partly as a result of its defeat Russia was plunged into the Russian Revolution, which threw down the Tsarist monarchy and replaced it with the communist Soviet Union.^ If she is correct (and I must say that the facts on the ground do somewhat bear her out) then it appears as if the European Union has stepped into the role once played by the old Soviet Union.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This acquisition threw into sharp relief the post-Communist Mittel-European strategy of Austrian banks, big and small.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attempts to create communist governments in Europe were made after the Russian Revolution of 1917, but without success.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[98] .Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire collapsed and broke up into separate nations, and many other nations had their borders redrawn.^ The Ottoman Empire was fraying at the edges in the 18th century, with many peripheral beys and pashas acting independently.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The need for any currency, of any kind, will then disappear, of course, as we all collapse into each others' arms in a brotherhood of love and not-for-profit compassion.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ During his reign, many Slavs and Vlachs fled the Balkans, fleeing the Turks, into southern Hungary and the plains of Wallachia.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Treaty of Versailles, which officially ended World War I in 1919, was harsh towards Germany, upon whom it placed full responsibility for the war and imposed heavy sanctions.^ Why We Need Germany Fjordman - 8/10/2009 Im tired of people who are busy losing this world war because they are still obsessed with the previous one, which ended generations ago.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Northern (Turkish) sector of Cyprus has been the subject of official sanctions imposed by just about every European country since it was established in 1974.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This is not an eccentric position; it has been the standard assumption of the American foreign policy establishment from the end of the Second World War.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[99]
.Economic instability, caused in part by debts incurred in the First World War and 'loans' to Germany played havoc in Europe in the late 1920s and 1930s.^ His father died in the first world war.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Labour has suffered the lowest share of the vote since the First World War, albeit on a very low turnout of voters.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, economically speaking, a preference for any other part of the late Federation over Slovenia would indicate mental deformity.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This and the Wall Street Crash of 1929 brought about the worldwide Great Depression. .Helped by the economic crisis, social instability and the threat of communism, fascist movements developed throughout Europe placing Adolf Hitler of Nazi Germany, Francisco Franco of Spain and Benito Mussolini of Italy in power.^ Europe's economic and social development: 64 comments.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Communism proved that it was about power, not about helping the economic underclass.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The BBC reported (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4670370.stm) that seven publications in France, Germany, the Netherlands, Italy and Spain all carried some of the drawings.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[100][101]
The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference in 1945; seated (from the left): Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin
.In 1933, Hitler became the leader of Germany and began to work towards his goal of building Greater Germany.^ Uzbekistan continues to work toward the goals of the 1988 UN Drug Convention on combating illicit cultivation and production within its borders.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With a German Pope and a conservative Christian government in Germany (the CDU is a largely Catholic party), there could be a greater move towards combining religion and politics.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Germany re-expanded and took back the Saarland and Rhineland in 1935 and 1936. In 1938, Austria became a part of Germany too, following the Anschluss.^ Thrace became part of the Roman Empire in 45 CE, followed by Illyria and Moesia.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Later that year, Germany annexed the German Sudetenland, which had become a part of Czechoslovakia after the war.^ After the war, Germans were expelled from Czechoslovakia.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ About 15-10 BCE they were replaced by the Germanic Marcomanni, and the Quadi moved into what would later become Moravia and Slovakia.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Slovakia, which was part of the same country as the Czech part of the former Czech Republic for more than sixty years until 1993, has the worst indicators eleven years after Czechoslovakia split.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.This move was highly contested by the other powers, but ultimately permitted in the hopes of avoiding war and appeasing Hitler.^ Communism created powerful enemies between the Wars, such as Mussolini, Franco, Antonescu, J. Edgar Hoover, and Hitler.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Shortly afterwards, Poland and Hungary started to press for the annexation of parts of Czechoslovakia with Polish and Hungarian majorities.^ Rather than assign them to Soviet Russia, or give them back to Hungary (since there was a sizable Hungarian minority there), the cynical meddlers of the Entente tacked them on to Czechoslovakia.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The western part of Prussia became Royal Prussia, a territory of the Polish King, while the eastern part became Ducal (later Electoral) Prussia, held feudally from Poland.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Hitler encouraged the Slovaks to do the same and in early 1939, the remainder of Czechoslovakia was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, controlled by Germany, and the Slovak Republic, while other smaller regions went to Poland and Hungary.^ The case of Czech is similar, since the Slavic languages of Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia each consisted of a collection of similar local dialects, out of which standard Czech and Slovak arose.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The 15 old members welcomed in Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia at midnight.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Reinhard Heydrich (1904-1942) arrived in September 1941 as Protector of Bohemia and Moravia, and organized the suppression of the Jews.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.With tensions mounting between Germany and Poland over the future of Danzig, the Germans turned to the Soviets, and signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact.^ Poland was re-established after World War I including a good deal of German (Danzig corridor) and Russian territory.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On 25 March 1941, Prince Paul, regent for the minor King Peter II, signed the Tripartite Pact, becoming an ally of Germany and Italy.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Kingdom was again partitioned between Russia and Germany by 1871, and an independent Poland again disappeared.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, prompting France and the United Kingdom to declare war on Germany on 3 September, opening the European theatre of World War II.^ Poland was re-established after World War I including a good deal of German (Danzig corridor) and Russian territory.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The rebranding will engulf the company's central and east European units, including Biochemie in Austria and Azupharma in Germany - but not Lek in Slovenia.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The leaders of the U.S., France and the European Commission will ask other world leaders to join in a series of summits on the global financial crisis beginning in the U.S. soon after the Nov.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[102][103] The Soviet invasion of Poland started on 17 September and Poland fell soon thereafter.
.On 24 September, the Soviet Union attacked the Baltic countries and later, Finland.^ The U.S. has worked with Finland and the other Nordic countries through multilateral organizations in an effort to combat narcotics trafficking in the Nordic-Baltic region.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ McShane recognises the hostility with which the smaller countries attacked the removal of their representation on the Commission and yet, defends the existing Constitution as a "coherent response" to the problems of the European Union.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

The British hoped to land at Narvik and send troops to aid Finland, but their primary objective in the landing was to encircle Germany and cut the Germans off from Scandinavian resources. Nevertheless, the Germans knew of Britain's plans and got to Narvik first, repulsing the attack. .Around the same time, Germany moved troops into Denmark, which left no room for a front except for where the last war had been fought or by landing at sea.^ This was because there was no dramatic difference, as there had been when it was taken from room temperature and dropped into hot water.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We have been hearing about the housing market crises around the globe for the longest time and the global panic has thrown investors into a frenzy of: "What will happen now?"
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is connected to the North Sea by the channels of the Skagerrak and the Kattegat around Denmark, dividing into the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland in the east.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

The Phoney War continued.
.In May 1940, Germany attacked France through the Low Countries.^ Countries like Britain, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, have large 'welfare' states but they do so by parasitically drawing wealth out of their large wealth creating capitalist economies...
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The disease, which enters the gut of birds and attacks their liver, has broken out in France, Germany and the Netherlands and farmers fear that it will be carried into Britain by migrating birds.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Some European countries, such as Italy, Germany and Sweden, have a significant number of non-state airports, but not France.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.France capitulated in June 1940. However, the British refused to negotiate peace terms with the Germans and the war continued.^ The USSR seized Bessarabia on 28 June 1940, but Romania reconquered it with German help in 1941.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Like it or not, there is a widespread not universal but widespread opposition in Britain to the Iraq war, and now to the presence of victorious British troops staying out there to try to win the peace.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.By August, Germany began a bombing offensive on Britain, but failed to convince the Britons to give up.^ If the emerging European constitution is ever implemented, Britain seems destined to give up its remaining veto in home affairs.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It is entertaining to see how brave and resolute Dave is already setting up his wiggle room for refusing to give Britain the referendum it overwhelmingly demands.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He keeps on saying that Britain will never give up sovereignty, although she already has.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[104] In 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union in the ultimately unsuccessful Operation Barbarossa.[105] .On 7 December 1941 Japan's attack on Pearl Harbour drew the United States into the conflict as allies of the British Empire and other allied forces.^ On 3 August 1918, British, United States, French and Japanese forces arrived to meet them.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ An extradition treaty between Ireland and the United States is also in force.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both an extradition and a mutual legal assistance treaty are in force between Romania and the United States.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[106][107]
.After the staggering Battle of Stalingrad in 1943, the German offensive in the Soviet Union turned into a continual fallback.^ After World War II, the Soviet Union reclaimed its territory in eastern Poland and eastern Galicia, and compensated Poland with a great swath of German territory.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If she is correct (and I must say that the facts on the ground do somewhat bear her out) then it appears as if the European Union has stepped into the role once played by the old Soviet Union.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.In 1944, British and American forces invaded France in the D-Day landings, opening a new front against Germany.^ With all eyes fixed on the American presidential elections, the scale of the looming crisis in France and Germany has gone largely unremarked.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ British state to use force against both you and your employer if you will insist on contributing to economic growth for longer than 48 hours in a week.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ France and Germany which have problems with anti-Americanism at the highest levels.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.Berlin finally fell in 1945, ending World War II in Europe.^ I cant remember the Berlin Wall falling down; the second world war seems ancient history.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ During the world wars, however, Berlin elevated its Middle East policy to primary status by instigating jihad in the enemy's hinterland.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After World War II, the Soviet Union reclaimed its territory in eastern Poland and eastern Galicia, and compensated Poland with a great swath of German territory.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The war was the largest and most destructive in human history, with 60 million dead across the world.^ He describes the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) as "the most stupid, immoral state-subsidised policy in human history, give or take Communism".
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The most stupid, immoral state-subsidised policy in human history, give or take Communism.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Constantinople may have been the largest and most prosperous city in the world for a thousand years, whether the Empire was weak or strong.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[108] .More than 40 million people in Europe had lost their lives by the time World War II ended,[109] including between 11 and 17 million people who perished during the Holocaust.^ Perhaps we feel more like citizens of the world than citizens of Europe?
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For a start, there are no good ideas in Western Europe but there is a mountain of 'Very Bad Ideas' and no shortage of people who know how to disseminate them very effectively.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Will the people of this country not accept more readily the institutions of the EU if they are confident that decisions are taken by democratically elected Ministers, rather than by unelected bureaucrats?
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[110] .The Soviet Union lost around 27 million people during the war, about half of all World War II casualties.^ All Romania lost in the war was Bessarabia, which Stalin insisted on recovering.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In this terrible war, about half of the population of Germany was killed, and the country ruined.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Writers, artists, policy-makers and business leaders from all over the world are set to be present at the public event, where up to 1000 people will be able to attend.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[111] .By the end of World War II, Europe had more than 40 million refugees.^ We have written records from the Semitic lands, so we know much more about their history than about that of Europe and the steppes.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the same NR report, 2004 drug seizures around the world that could be related to the Netherlands involved more than 10 million MDMA tablets (2003: 12.9 million) and more than 1,000 kilograms (2003: 870 kilograms) of MDMA powder.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Romania established a communist state in 1947, with more enthusiasm than was usual in central Europe.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[112] .Several post-war expulsions in Central and Eastern Europe displaced a total of about 20 million people.^ But then people began to talk about a single currency, a master race that would sweep throughout Europe.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ American military) and it is NATO, not the EEC/EU, that was responsible for the peace of post war Western Europe, which may well be why so many Europeans hate the United States - people often hate those they have long depended on.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ However if you want to see a glimpse of the true future of 'democratic' Europe, don't look at Italy or Austria, look at post-war 'democratic' Bosnia-Herzegovina.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[113]
Refugees arrive in Travnik, central Bosnia, during the Yugoslav wars, 1993.
.World War I and especially World War II diminished the eminence of Western Europe in world affairs.^ Heroin from Afghanistan transits from Eastern Europe to Western Europe, especially to the Netherlands.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heroin transits Germany from Eastern Europe via the Balkan route to Western Europe, especially the Netherlands.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This article is an attempt at explaining, using as few words as possible, why Europe in particular, and the entire Western world in general, is in a deep crisis.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After World War II the map of Europe was redrawn at the Yalta Conference and divided into two blocs, the Western countries and the communist Eastern bloc, separated by what was later called by Winston Churchill an "iron curtain". The United States and Western Europe established the NATO alliance and later the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe established the Warsaw Pact.^ The GoA continues to welcome assistance from the United States and Western Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two countries called for international action in a resolution presented at the annual session of the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs in Vienna.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The political classes of Europe may disagree on many things but of on one issue there is no dissent: the European Union and the overriding importance of creating a country called 'Europe'.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[114]
.The two new superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, became locked in a fifty-year long Cold War, centred on nuclear proliferation.^ American military) and it is NATO, not the EEC/EU, that was responsible for the peace of post war Western Europe, which may well be why so many Europeans hate the United States - people often hate those they have long depended on.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The first two of these to be built were in the United States: the George Washington Bridge in New York and the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Very few people sympathized with the Slovenes, when the war began, just as the Slovenes themselves unanimously closed the doors of their new state immediately after the war.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the same time decolonisation, which had already started after World War I, gradually resulted in the independence of most of the European colonies in Asia and Africa.^ On May 1, 2004, Estonia joined the European Union, having already been a member of the World Trade Organization.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The people who are trying to complete the creation of a European Unionist state see the USA as a competitor, a rival, a model and a partner, often all at the same time.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When even the most ardent and passionate supporters are starting to sniff the foul wind of failure, then you just know that the European Union is heading for the rocks.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[6] .In the 1980s the reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev and the Solidarity movement in Poland accelerated the collapse of the Eastern bloc and the end of the Cold War.^ The end of European communism began in Poland in 1989 with the Solidarnosc movement, which rapidly spread to other countries in various forms.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ After the First World War, western Galica went to the resurrected Poland, while eastern Galicia, Ruthenia, went to Russia.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ After World War II, the Soviet Union reclaimed its territory in eastern Poland and eastern Galicia, and compensated Poland with a great swath of German territory.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Germany was reunited, after the symbolic fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, and the maps of Eastern Europe were redrawn once more.^ Migration To Eastern Europe Sam Vaknin, Ph.D. - 8/10/2005 The 2003 census in Russia, the first since 1989, found more than 2 million immigrants in residence.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heroin transits Germany from Eastern Europe via the Balkan route to Western Europe, especially the Netherlands.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I cant remember the Berlin Wall falling down; the second world war seems ancient history.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[115] .European integration also grew in the post-World War II years.^ The Iraq war has wrecked plans for closer European integration.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After World War II, the Soviet Union reclaimed its territory in eastern Poland and eastern Galicia, and compensated Poland with a great swath of German territory.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The post-war settlement guaranteed the Second World War and the hideous Shoah.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Treaty of Rome in 1957 established the European Economic Community between six Western European states with the goal of a unified economic policy and common market.^ The European Community: Economic and political aspects .
  • Book Listing by Subject: European Union Economics (Economics Network) 1 February 2010 7:48 UTC www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Macedonia is on the southern variant of the Balkan Route used to ship southwest Asian heroin to the western European consumer market.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is, to influence the thinking of policy-makers at the European Commission and in the Brussels community generally.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[116] .In 1967 the EEC, European Coal and Steel Community and Euratom formed the European Community, which in 1993 became the European Union.^ The European Union is not remotely as bad as Communism.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no doubt that 2004 ought to have been a great year, the year East Europeans became full members of a revived, streamlined and more democratised European Union.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The end of European communism began in Poland in 1989 with the Solidarnosc movement, which rapidly spread to other countries in various forms.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The EU established a parliament, court and central bank and introduced the euro as a unified currency.^ Head of the European Central Bank, Dutchman Wim Duisenberg has said that the new Euro currency will lead to tax harmonisation in the long run.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Establishing a Central Bank: Issues in Europe and Lessons from the U.S. (Centre for Economic Policy Research International Monetary Fund) .
  • Book Listing by Subject: European Union Economics (Economics Network) 1 February 2010 7:48 UTC www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Establishing a Central Bank: Issues in Europe and Lessons from the U.S. (Centre for Economic Policy Research International Monetary Fund) Onorato Castellino , Elsa Fornero (Eds.
  • Book Listing by Subject: European Union Economics (Economics Network) 1 February 2010 7:48 UTC www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

[117] .In 2004 and 2007, Eastern European countries began joining, expanding the EU to its current size of 27 European countries, and once more making Europe a major economical and political centre of power.^ The European Community: Economic and political aspects .
  • Book Listing by Subject: European Union Economics (Economics Network) 1 February 2010 7:48 UTC www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Perry de Havilland (London) European Union • Immigration (12) Although the EU is expanding eastwards, clutching more of the nations of Eastern Europe to its regulating breast on May 1st, only Britain and Ireland will actually be welcoming the people of those countries as residents.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Taxonomy of Political Conflict In Central and Eastern Europe Sam Vaknin, Ph.D. - 7/21/2005 When the current government of Macedonia came to power and I signed on as its economic advisor, I was asked by local journalists, with genuine amazement: "what are you doing with these villagers?"
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[118]

Geography and extent

.
Satellite image of Caucasus Mountains, Black Sea (l.
^ Remarkably, they appear to have populated the region north of the Caucasus and between the Black and Caspian Seas until overcome much later by the Khazars and Mongols.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Cimmeria, the lands north of the Black Sea and the Caucasus, could have been the original home of the Indo-Europeans, before the first millennium BCE. .
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The earliest people known in history who occupied the steppes north of the Black Sea and the Caucasus were the Cimmerians (Kimmerioi), equestrian nomads speaking an Iranian language.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

) and Caspian Sea (r.)
.Physiographically, Europe is the northwestern constituent of the larger landmass known as Eurasia, or Afro-Eurasia: Asia occupies the eastern bulk of this continuous landmass and all share a common continental shelf.^ [Editor replies: Daniel asks some interesting questions which I think demonstrate the profound difference between the Anglosphere and much (though not all) of continental Europe.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.Europe's eastern frontier is now commonly delineated by the Ural Mountains in Russia.^ Ireland, they all argued, has done well out of Brussels; now let's give eastern Europe the same opportunity.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Slavs were people of the plains of Eastern Europe, between the Oder and the Urals.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ While the US borders have changed little since 1848, the EU is about to swallow eastern Europe up to the edge of Russia and Ukraine.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[14] .The first century AD geographer Strabo, took the River Don "Tanais" to be the boundary to the Black Sea[119], as did early Judaic sources.^ The southern boundary is the Black Sea.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The next large river is the Dneister, which enters the Black Sea at Odessa.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Don enters the Black Sea via the Sea of Azov at Rostov, and is the last large river flowing into the Black Sea.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

The southeast boundary with Asia is not universally defined, with the Ural River, or alternatively, the Emba River most commonly serving as possible boundaries. .The boundary continues to the Caspian Sea, the crest of the Caucasus Mountains or, alternatively, the Kura River in the Caucasus, and on to the Black Sea; the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmara, the Dardanelles, and the Aegean Sea conclude the Asian boundary.^ The southern boundary is the Black Sea.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Caspian Sea ferry traffic from Turkmenistan to Azerbaijan and Russia continues to be a viable smuggling route.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The next large river is the Dneister, which enters the Black Sea at Odessa.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Mediterranean Sea to the south separates Europe from Africa.^ The sea-going Phoenicians attacked their fellow Semites and founded colonies around the Mediterranean, notably in Iberia and at Carthage in North Africa.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The western boundary is the Atlantic Ocean; Iceland, though nearer to Greenland (North America) than mainland Europe, is generally included in Europe.^ Cocaine imports from South America transit Western Europe into Lithuania and then on to neighboring countries.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But even that does not mean that Western Europe is without something to offer the East, though certainly not workers (unless they are prepared to export their own immigrants).
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In economic terms, it is somewhere in the mid-Atlantic - half way between Europe and America."
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.Because of sociopolitical and cultural differences, there are various descriptions of Europe's boundary; in some sources, some territories are not included in Europe, while other sources include them.^ The other four included a mixture of countries from various parts of Europe.
  • Homosexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention: the challenge of transferring lessons learned from Western Europe to Central and Eastern European Countries -- WRIGHT 20 (1): 91 -- Health Promotion International 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC heapro.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ On the other hand, some other territories do not belong to the E.U., although they are geographically and historically part of Europe : Jersey and the other Channel Islands (75 sq.mi., pop.
  • France in Europe ; European issues ; economic and cultural ; questions about Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.understandfrance.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Since they did not determine a new boundary, there is officially no East Europe, allowing eurodominion to spread unbounded.
  • Europe - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

.For instance, geographers from Russia and other post-Soviet states generally include the Urals in Europe while including Caucasia in Asia.^ Other institutions involved in reducing drug demand include the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Education, Committee on State Security (BKGB), and the State Customs Committee.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lithuania remains a transit route for heroin and other illicit drugs from Asia and Russia to Western Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Evidence suggests that drugs from the Balkans, Russia, the Baltic countries and central Europe pass through Denmark en route to other EU states and the U.S., although the amount flowing to the U.S. is relatively small.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Similarly, Cyprus is approximate to Anatolia (or Asia Minor), but is often considered part of Europe and currently is a member state of the EU.^ EU member states are currently chewing over the list.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In law enforcement cooperation, the program aims at strengthening cooperation among all security forces within Portugal as well as within the 25 EU member states.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The EU, with its member states, is a massive provider of development assistance.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

In addition, Malta was considered an island of Africa for centuries.[120]

Physical geography

Relief map of Europe and surrounding regions
.Land relief in Europe shows great variation within relatively small areas.^ The establishment of biosphere reserves, which allow for the sustainable use of land and resources within reserve borders, has proved successful in areas where state authorities recognize their value.
  • Biological diversity in the Mediterranean Basin - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 January 2010 7:21 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although the number of people living with HIV and AIDS in Europe is relatively small when compared to the number of people living with HIV in areas such as Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS in Western and Central Europe is still considered a major public health issue.
  • HIV and AIDS in Western and Central Europe 26 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.avert.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spain is the largest country in land area of Southern Europe.
  • SOUTHERN EUROPE 9 February 2010 16:27 UTC maps.unomaha.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The southern regions, however, are more mountainous, while moving north the terrain descends from the high Alps, Pyrenees and Carpathians, through hilly uplands, into broad, low northern plains, which are vast in the east.^ Mountainous terrain, poor road conditions, and an inhospitable climate for much of the year make detection and apprehension of drug traffickers more difficult.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fictional Castle Dracula is more like the actual castle of Tepes in the Southern Carpathians, but is located in far northern Transylvania, north of Bistritz, in the Borgo pass on the road to Bukovina.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Tisza meanders to the north from near Beograd, reaching the foothills of the Carpathians and then making a hairpin bend and draining northern Transylvania through its tributary the Szamos.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This extended lowland is known as the Great European Plain, and at its heart lies the North German Plain.^ The area known as Lusatia, Lausitz or Sorbia lies in south eastern Germany on both sides of the River Spree, east of Dresden, and extends into Poland.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.An arc of uplands also exists along the north-western seaboard, which begins in the western parts of the islands of Britain and Ireland, and then continues along the mountainous, fjord-cut, spine of Norway.^ Hemp grows mostly in the Ararat Valley in the south-western part of Armenia; poppy grows in the northern part of Armenia, particularly in the Lake Sevan basin and some mountainous areas.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U.S. support for Ireland’s counternarcotics program, along with U.S. and Irish cooperative efforts, continues to work to prevent Ireland from becoming a transit point for narcotics trafficking to the United States.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This description is simplified. .Sub-regions such as the Iberian Peninsula and the Italian Peninsula contain their own complex features, as does mainland Central Europe itself, where the relief contains many plateaus, river valleys and basins that complicate the general trend.^ South of them were the Celts, occupying all of western and central Europe, and pressing into the Iberian peninsula, displacing the original inhabitants.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Magyar does, however, contain many loan words from Indo-European Slavic and German, as well as from Turkish.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But even that does not mean that Western Europe is without something to offer the East, though certainly not workers (unless they are prepared to export their own immigrants).
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.Sub-regions like Iceland, Britain and Ireland are special cases.^ Britain has always been very relaxed about alternative health remedies and self-help as have countries like Ireland and Holland.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.The former is a land unto itself in the northern ocean which is counted as part of Europe, while the latter are upland areas that were once joined to the mainland until rising sea levels cut them off.^ Not since the last Ice Age, over 8,000 years ago, had the United Kingdom been joined with mainland Europe.
  • Europe: News & Videos about Europe - CNN.com 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ No Comments Blizzards across central Europe blocked roads and cut off hundreds of villages in Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic last week.

^ Several villages, including the resort town of Grindelwald, were cut off and floods threatened parts of Interlaken and Bern, the [ read more ] .

Climate

Biomes of Europe and surrounding regions:
     tundra      alpine tundra      taiga      montane forest
     temperate broadleaf forest      mediterranean forest      temperate steppe      dry steppe
Europe lies mainly in the temperate climate zones, being subjected to prevailing westerlies.
The climate is milder in comparison to other areas of the same latitude around the globe due to the influence of the Gulf Stream.[121] .The Gulf Stream is nicknamed "Europe's central heating", because it makes Europe's climate warmer and wetter than it would otherwise be.^ Germany’s central location in Europe and its well-developed infrastructure make it a major transit hub.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Romania established a communist state in 1947, with more enthusiasm than was usual in central Europe.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For most young musicians trying to make it jail would be warmer, cleaner and have better food that they can afford.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Gulf Stream not only carries warm water to Europe's coast but also warms up the prevailing westerly winds that blow across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean.^ Europe: The Manic-Depressive Continent Wolfgang Bruno - 5/15/2007 Everybody experiences their ups and downs.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EU across the Atlantic is to preserve the UK's ability to support the US in foreign policy matters and to work for US interests from within the bastions of Fortress Europe.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Fertility rates across Europe are now so low that the continent's population is likely to drop markedly over the next 50 years.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.Therefore the average temperature throughout the year of Naples is 16 °C (60.8 °F), while it is only 12 °C (53.6 °F) in New York City which is almost on the same latitude.^ The amount of amphetamines authorities expect to have seized at year’s end will be almost the same as in 2004 or about 16 kilograms.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On average, narcotics dealers only receive a sentence of three years imprisonment.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The MIA requested $16.5 million for its new three-year counternarcotics program including over $5 million for first-year operations in 2006.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Berlin, Germany; Calgary, Canada; and Irkutsk, in the Asian part of Russia, lie on around the same latitude; January temperatures in Berlin average around 8 °C (15 °F) higher than those in Calgary, and they are almost 22 °C (40 °F) higher than average temperatures in Irkutsk.^ Software patents are a very bad idea as many have discovered in the US. They put a fence around parts of mathematics.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The unhealthy mood swings of people suffering from manic depression are far more extreme than those experienced by average people.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These figures are significantly higher than FSKN statistics cited in 2004 and suggest a new willingness by the GOR to acknowledge and combat drug use in Russia.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[121]

Geology

.The Geology of Europe is hugely varied and complex, and gives rise to the wide variety of landscapes found across the continent, from the Scottish Highlands to the rolling plains of Hungary.^ But what these sort of cases do is not to suggest that we need to give a centralised, international body coercive powers over people living across a whole continent.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Fertility rates across Europe are now so low that the continent's population is likely to drop markedly over the next 50 years.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[122]
.Europe's most significant feature is the dichotomy between highland and mountainous Southern Europe and a vast, partially underwater, northern plain ranging from the British Isles in the west to the Ural Mountains in the east.^ The EU is by far the largest donor to Poland’s counternarcotics activities, which serves as a motivating force for even closer collaboration between Poland and its neighbors to the East and the West.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many ways the most significant feature of this is that it has made the intellectual and social disconnect between whole peoples in the EU's constituent nations impossible to paper over.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Unlike most of continental Europe, there is a significant anti-statist element in the mainstream of British society...
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.These two halves are separated by the mountain chains of the Pyrenees and Alps/Carpathians.^ The Dinaric Alps separate these drainages from the Adriatic.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The northern plains are delimited in the west by the Scandinavian Mountains and the mountainous parts of the British Isles.^ The Harz mountains to the west are part of this assembly.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hemp grows mostly in the Ararat Valley in the south-western part of Armenia; poppy grows in the northern part of Armenia, particularly in the Lake Sevan basin and some mountainous areas.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Major shallow water bodies submerging parts of the northern plains are the Celtic Sea, the North Sea, the Baltic Sea complex and Barents Sea.^ It was presumed that the herring migrated from the Baltic to the North Sea, but the real reason was overfishing that led to the collapse of the ecosystem.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The southernmost part was classic Greece, to the north of which was Macedonia, and then Thrace, which is mostly a plain.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The northern plain contains the old geological continent of Baltica, and so may be regarded geologically as the "main continent", while peripheral highlands and mountainous regions in the south and west constitute fragments from various other geological continents.^ I met with him for well over an hour to enlighten him as to what the origins of the West are, what constitutes Western culture, and why the West issimply putsuperior than the other alleged civilizations.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ms Dark, from Richmond in south-west London, was arrested in France in 1989 in a car containing several kilos of cannabis.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Then come the West Beskids and the East Beskids, separated by the High Tatra, which is a little south of the main summit line.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Most of the older geology of Western Europe existed as part of the ancient microcontinent Avalonia.^ War damage had (in most of Western Europe) been to a great extent repaired by 1957, partly by the efforts of Europeans and partly by American aid.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

Geological history

.The geological history of Europe traces back to the formation of the Baltic Shield (Fennoscandia) and the Sarmatian craton, both around 2.25 billion years ago, followed by the Volgo-Uralia shield, the three together leading to the East European craton (≈ Baltica) which became a part of the supercontinent Columbia.^ Pegged at $3.5 billion, this is the biggest defense order ever issued by an east or central European country.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Albanian language is a rather newer development (less than 1500 years old) - but it is also traced back either to Thracian or to Illyrian.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scotland: Independence in Europe or Loss of Identity Lorna Thomas - 5/2/2007 On March 25, 2007 the European Union celebrated 50 years since the signing of the Treaties of Rome brought it into existence.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Around 1.1 billion years ago, Baltica and Arctica (as part of the Laurentia block) became joined to Rodinia, later resplitting around 550 million years ago to reform as Baltica.^ Around 9.7 percent of 16-59 year-olds (3.04 million) reported using cannabis at least once in the past year.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The western part of Prussia became Royal Prussia, a territory of the Polish King, while the eastern part became Ducal (later Electoral) Prussia, held feudally from Poland.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The worlds population, estimated at 6.4 billion in 2006, grows by more than 70 million people per year.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Around 440 million years ago Euramerica was formed from Baltica and Laurentia; a further joining with Gondwana then leading to the formation of Pangea.^ Around 9.7 percent of 16-59 year-olds (3.04 million) reported using cannabis at least once in the past year.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Denis Schulz - 6/20/2007 Sure, one million pounds could to itthats a lot of lootmaybe if it had been offered twenty or thirty years ago.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Around 190 million years ago, Gondwana and Laurasia split apart due to the widening of the Atlantic Ocean.^ Azerbaijan emerged as a narcotics transit route several years ago because of the disruption of the "Balkan Route" due to the wars in and among the countries of the former Yugoslavia.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Around 9.7 percent of 16-59 year-olds (3.04 million) reported using cannabis at least once in the past year.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If I'm due for hearing loss, the damage was done and finished with over 20 years ago standing in front of a speaker stack with my Hagstrom III cranked up to eleven.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.Finally, and very soon afterwards, Laurasia itself split up again, into Laurentia (North America) and the Eurasian continent.^ Portugal is a significant gateway into Europe for drug shipments from South America and North Africa.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The land connection between the two persisted for a considerable time, via Greenland, leading to interchange of animal species. .From around 50 million years ago, rising and falling sea levels have determined the actual shape of Europe, and its connections with continents such as Asia.^ Instead, Europe is in its worst shape for years.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a recent sea, formed after the last Ice Age about 10,000 BCE by the rise of sea level, drowning a river valley.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Around 9.7 percent of 16-59 year-olds (3.04 million) reported using cannabis at least once in the past year.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Europe's present shape dates to the late Tertiary period about five million years ago.^ Instead, Europe is in its worst shape for years.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Having visited Estonia for several days about twelve years ago, I know all about that place.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I am moved to write about a communist I met thirty years ago because the second referendum in Ireland on the Lisbon Treaty will be held tomorrow.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[123]

Biodiversity

Biogeographic regions of Europe and bordering regions
Floristic regions of Europe and neighbouring areas, according to Wolfgang Frey and Rainer Lösch
.Having lived side-by-side with agricultural peoples for millennia, Europe's animals and plants have been profoundly affected by the presence and activities of man.^ Externalities are costs or benefits arising from an economic activity that affect somebody other than the people engaged in the economic activity and are not reflected fully in PRICES .
  • Economics A-Z | Economist.com 1 February 2010 7:48 UTC www.economist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tips For Enjoying Cheap Holidays In Europe -- Martin Shane Jones When it comes to holidays, few people can resist having one should the opportunity arise.

^ Ask how young people want their lives, what education they want, how to live together in a multicultural Europe of rapid change .

.With the exception of Fennoscandia and northern Russia, few areas of untouched wilderness are currently found in Europe, except for various national parks.^ It holds the first place in Central Europe (excepting Russia) as a leading provider of financing.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Afghan opiates transported along the Northern Route supply Russia’s internal user demand, as well as transit through Russia to the rest of Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Protestants maintained their existence in northern countries, while the Catholics re-established themselves in Poland, Bavaria, Carinthia and Carniola, Hungary, and a few areas in western Germany.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

The main natural vegetation cover in Europe is mixed forest. .The conditions for growth are very favourable.^ The climatic conditions of Europe are very favourable.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

In the north, the Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Drift warm the continent. .Southern Europe could be described as having a warm, but mild climate.^ An oceanic climate prevails in this region which means it plays hosts to relatively mild winters, warm summers, and abundant rainfall that occurs throughout the whole year.
  • Holiday Weather - Search for weather locations in Southern Europe, Europe 9 February 2010 16:27 UTC www.holiday-weather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An oceanic climate is typified by a narrow annual temperature range, precipitation throughout the year, mild winters and warm summers.
  • Holiday Weather - Search for weather locations in Western Europe, Europe 26 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.holiday-weather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tree grows best in a Mediterranean-type climate with cool, not cold, winters, mild to warm springs, and warm to hot summers with little rain.

There are frequent summer droughts in this region. Mountain ridges also affect the conditions. .Some of these (Alps, Pyrenees) are oriented east-west and allow the wind to carry large masses of water from the ocean in the interior.^ On November 1, Interior Ministry officials carried out a large raid involving over 160 officials.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ West Slavs occupied the interior regions, from the Oder and Vistula to the east.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Others are oriented south-north (Scandinavian Mountains, Dinarides, Carpathians, Apennines) and because the rain falls primarily on the side of mountains that is oriented towards sea, forests grow well on this side, while on the other side, the conditions are much less favourable.^ The Baltic is the Mediterranean of the North, but is much less well-known.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Mountainous terrain, poor road conditions, and an inhospitable climate for much of the year make detection and apprehension of drug traffickers more difficult.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nonetheless, the growing popularity of these drugs poses much less a threat to Kazakhstan than does the country’s ever-expanding heroin problem.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Few corners of mainland Europe have not been grazed by livestock at some point in time, and the cutting down of the pre-agricultural forest habitat caused disruption to the original plant and animal ecosystems.^ A synthetic drug supply originates out of Western and Central Europe: amphetamines, ecstasy, and LSD have been traced to sources in the Netherlands and Poland; some originates in the UK. .
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the last 50 years, it has adapted to a change in its original natural habitat from large forested ministerial departments to smaller, murkier quango marshlands.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ With its extensive transportation infrastructure and some of the most active maritime ports in Europe, the Netherlands is one of the leading distribution points for illegal drugs to and from Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Probably eighty to ninety per cent of Europe was once covered by forest.^ If you vote no to the Euro next month, that probability will rise to 100 per cent.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In continental Europe, by contrast, unemployment has been stuck between 8 and 11 per cent since 1991 and growth has reached 3 per cent only once in those 14 years.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ "At the moment, let me assure you, there is an 80 per cent probability that Britain will not join the Euro.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[124] It stretched from the Mediterranean Sea to the Arctic Ocean. .Though over half of Europe's original forests disappeared through the centuries of deforestation, Europe still has over one quarter of its land area as forest, such as the taiga of Scandinavia and Russia, mixed rainforests of the Caucasus and the Cork oak forests in the western Mediterranean.^ Drugs are also smuggled through Azerbaijan to Russia, then on to Central and Western Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ukraine is a significant transit corridor for narcotics originating in East, Central and Southwest Asia (Afghanistan) and transiting through Russia, the Caucasus and Turkey, and then through Ukraine further into Western Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cocaine, on the other hand remains relatively rare in the Czech Republic, and frequently is imported through Western Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During recent times, deforestation has been slowed and many trees have been planted.^ How many times during the day?
  • Get a Free Sample Menu of the New Mediterranean Diet Meal Plan 10 January 2010 7:21 UTC www.mediterraneanbook.com [Source type: General]

^ Tree management of this crop has undergone many changes in recent decades including increased planting densities (100 to 300 trees/ha), new methods of propagation, improved cultural practices and mechanical harvesting, are some examples.

.However, in many cases monoculture plantations of conifers have replaced the original mixed natural forest, because these grow quicker.^ Resource constraints, however, have limited the GOU’s ability to investigate these cases.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many cases, these were women accompanied by small children.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What's really sad, is that many consumers in this dirigiste continent will agree with the plan; what many of these supporters won't realise however, until it's too late, is that they will also pay for it.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.The plantations now cover vast areas of land, but offer poorer habitats for many European forest dwelling species which require a mixture of tree species and diverse forest structure.^ This compact capital offers bustling street and night life and encompasses more museums than many other European cities.
  • Moving To Central Europe & The Balkans ~ Living In Central Europe & The Balkans ~ Real Estate In Central Europe & The Balkans 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.escapeartist.com [Source type: News]

^ However, that should not be done through a proportional representation system whereby Members of the European Parliament represent a vast area.
  • European Union: 21 Jul 2009: Westminster Hall debates (TheyWorkForYou.com) 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.theyworkforyou.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, the European Arrest Warrant covers Racism and Xenophobia which is such a grey area and is being monitored by a thought police that would do Orwells 1984 proud!

.The amount of natural forest in Western Europe is just 2–3% or less, in European Russia 5–10%.^ The President confirmed Russias wish to strengthen its engagement within the Council of Europe and its commitment to enhance respect for human rights across the European continent.
  • Council of Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.coe.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Western Europeans sometimes talk about “Europe and Eastern Europe.” It is pretty arrogant, and it may soon be less true than ever.
  • Europe and Western Europe | The Brussels Journal 26 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.brusselsjournal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Enlarge Image The Last Ancient Forests of Europe combine Europe's few remaining tracts of ancient forest in Scandinavia with the adjoining forest of European Russia (from the western flanks of the Ural mountains).
  • Europe | Greenpeace International 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: News]

.The country with the smallest percentage of forested area (excluding the micronations) is Iceland (1%), while the most forested country is Finland (77%).^ Most drugs that are consumed in Finland are produced elsewhere, and Finland is not a source country for the export of narcotics abroad.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Cyrillic alphabet, used in most Slavic countries, was invented in this area.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[125]
In temperate Europe, mixed forest with both broadleaf and coniferous trees dominate. .The most important species in central and western Europe are beech and oak.^ South of them were the Celts, occupying all of western and central Europe, and pressing into the Iberian peninsula, displacing the original inhabitants.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Central banks today are the most important feature of the financial systems of most countries of the world.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Albania is a transit point for heroin from Central Asia, which is smuggled via the "Balkan Route" of Turkey-Bulgaria-Macedonia-Albania to Italy, Greece, and the rest of Western Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the north, the taiga is a mixed sprucepinebirch forest; further north within Russia and extreme northern Scandinavia, the taiga gives way to tundra as the Arctic is approached. In the Mediterranean, many olive trees have been planted, which are very well adapted to its arid climate; Mediterranean Cypress is also widely planted in southern Europe. .The semi-arid Mediterranean region hosts much scrub forest.^ The mammal and bird faunas are largely derived from extra-Mediterranean biogeographical zones, with Eurasian and African elements dominating the mammal fauna, whereas Eurasian and semi-arid southern elements dominate the avifauna.
  • Biological diversity in the Mediterranean Basin - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 January 2010 7:21 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]

.A narrow east-west tongue of Eurasian grassland (the steppe) extends eastwards from Ukraine and southern Russia and ends in Hungary and traverses into taiga to the north.^ The Dacian tribes were the Apuli in Transylvania, Carpi on the eastern slopes of the Carpathians, the Costoboci in what is now southern Ukraine, and the Suci in Oltenia (East Wallachia).
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The steppes of southern Russia were successively dominated by Indo-Europeans, Persians, Huns, Turks and Mongols.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The eastern, or wooded, Carpathians curve around Transylvania and then join the est-west Southern Carpathians that extend to the Iron Gate near Orsova.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

Cave lion became extinct in southeastern Europe about 2,000 years ago
Glaciation during the most recent ice age and the presence of man affected the distribution of European fauna. .As for the animals, in many parts of Europe most large animals and top predator species have been hunted to extinction.^ As in many illicit trades, this concept of the cocaine trade is a thesis: other well-informed observers believe that most cocaine enters Europe through Spanish ports.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The woolly mammoth was extinct before the end of the Neolithic period. Today wolves (carnivores) and bears (omnivores) are endangered. .Once they were found in most parts of Europe.^ Turkey (the most populous, the most Islamic, the least developed, the least democratic, overly patriotic and hardly in Europe, Istanbul sits on the small part across the Bosphorus).
  • European Union - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Image Tours was founded in 1939 on the belief that everyone, at least once in their lifetime, should experience the rich beauty, culture, and history of Europe.
  • Heart of Europe Tour from Image Tours: Superior value escorted European tours with a personal touch 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.heartofeurope.com [Source type: News]

^ Once regarded as Europe's grandest, most beautiful city, Palermo is still quite impressive.
  • Mediterranean Cruises - Cheap Mediterranean Cruises, Discount Mediterranean Cruises, Deals on Cruises to the Mediterranean 10 January 2010 7:21 UTC www.cruisebrothers.com [Source type: General]

However, deforestation and hunting caused these animals to withdraw further and further. .By the Middle Ages the bears' habitats were limited to more or less inaccessible mountains with sufficient forest cover.^ These mountains are the outer limits of the Alpine orogeny of early Tertiary age.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Today, the brown bear lives primarily in the Balkan peninsula, Scandinavia, and Russia; a small number also persist in other countries across Europe (Austria, Pyrenees etc.^ Lithuania remains a transit route for heroin and other illicit drugs from Asia and Russia to Western Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Evidence suggests that drugs from the Balkans, Russia, the Baltic countries and central Europe pass through Denmark en route to other EU states and the U.S., although the amount flowing to the U.S. is relatively small.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Traffickers in Turkey illegally acquire the heroin precursor chemical, acetic anhydride, from sources in Western Europe, the Balkans and Russia.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

), but in these areas brown bear populations are fragmented and marginalised because of the destruction of their habitat. In addition, polar bears may be found on Svalbard, a Norwegian archipelago far north of Scandinavia. .The wolf, the second largest predator in Europe after the brown bear, can be found primarily in Eastern Europe and in the Balkans, with a handful of packs in pockets of Western Europe (Scandinavia, Spain, etc.^ Cocaine, on the other hand remains relatively rare in the Czech Republic, and frequently is imported through Western Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, narcotics smuggling, particularly heroin, through the Balkans route to Western Europe remains a serious concern.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the separation of the Eastern and Western Empires, the Balkans fell to Constantinople, and remained one of the core regions of the Eastern Empire as long as it lasted.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

).
Once roaming the great temperate forests of Eurasia, European bison now live in nature preserves in Poland, Russia, and other parts of Eastern Europe
.Other important European carnivores are Eurasian lynx, European wild cat, foxes (especially the red fox), jackal and different species of martens, hedgehogs, different species of reptiles (like snakes such as vipers and grass snakes) and amphibians, different birds (owls, hawks and other birds of prey).^ But a central government any central government is just as likely to stir up hostilities between different provinces (each blaming the others for the combined mess) as it is to make everyone like one another.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Synthetic drugs such as ecstasy (MDMA) are transported into Hungary, frequently via car, from the Netherlands and other Western European countries.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I come from a country which could never dream of such a liberal legal order like the European Community law, and which would never get such a liberal constitution as the European one will be.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.Important European herbivores are snails, larvae, fish, different birds, and mammals, like rodents, deer and roe deer, boars, and living in the mountains, marmots, steinbocks, chamois among others.^ But a central government any central government is just as likely to stir up hostilities between different provinces (each blaming the others for the combined mess) as it is to make everyone like one another.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Eurosceptic critique of the project needs to respond to the flanking movement of pro-Europeans like McShane, who borrow their ideas in order to promote different conclusions.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

The extinction of the dwarf hippos and dwarf elephants has been linked to the earliest arrival of humans on the islands of the Mediterranean.
.Sea creatures are also an important part of European flora and fauna.^ Europeans, even members of the farming industry, are willing to pay a considerable price in order to continue their traditional culture, and protecting small farms with the CAP is an important part of that.
  • Going All In: The Gamble of Globalization and European Economic Integration | Pepperdine Policy Review | School of Public Policy | Pepperdine University 1 February 2010 7:48 UTC publicpolicy.pepperdine.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Ukraine, for its part, is an especially important part of the European geopolitical environment, and Russia without the Ukraine is a one-armed giant, and the Ukraine will be careful to balance its independence and its relations with its eastern neighbor.
  • NATO EXPANSION IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

The sea flora is mainly phytoplankton. Important animals that live in European seas are zooplankton, molluscs, echinoderms, different crustaceans, squids and octopuses, fish, dolphins, and whales.
.Biodiversity is protected in Europe through the Council of Europe's Bern Convention, which has also been signed by the European Community as well as non-European states.^ Well, we have been smacked; smacked with the bill for paying for all this recycling which Europe's state-backed monopoly giants will simply pass onto us consumers.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ American military) and it is NATO, not the EEC/EU, that was responsible for the peace of post war Western Europe, which may well be why so many Europeans hate the United States - people often hate those they have long depended on.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But the political and economic renaissance of Europe that was predicted at the European convention is likely to be stillborn.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

Demographics

Population growth and decline in and around Europe[126]
.Since the Renaissance, Europe has had a major influence in culture, economics and social movements in the world.^ But the political and economic renaissance of Europe that was predicted at the European convention is likely to be stillborn.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Europe's economic and social development: 64 comments.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The relative economic decline of "old" Europe since the early 1990s - especially of Germany and Italy, but also of the Netherlands and France - has been a disaster almost unparalleled in modern history.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.The most significant inventions had their origins in the Western world, primarily Europe and the United States.^ The GoA continues to welcome assistance from the United States and Western Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite these successes, Hungary continues to be a significant transshipment point for narcotics destined for, and sent from, Western Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Western Europe in particular, the state does neither, as most laws are passed by unelected EU bureaucrats...
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[127] .Some current and past issues in European demographics have included religious emigration, race relations, economic immigration, a declining birth rate and an aging population.^ Yes, perhaps the French, rather than attempting to prevent some horrific "race to the bottom" on tax rates, should instead admit that tax competition, including that which comes from those dreadful offshore centres, is a good thing.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Demographers predict a precipitous decline of one third in Russia's impoverished, inebriated, disillusioned, and ageing citizenry.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EU paralysis over immigration policies deepens hostility along the policy divide Patrick Sabatier - 7/12/2006 Europes working-age population is aging and falling in numbers, and the continent needs workers to do jobs that Europeans either will not or cannot do.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some countries, such as Ireland and Poland, access to abortion is currently limited; in the past, such restrictions and also restrictions on artificial birth control were commonplace throughout Europe.^ It is obvious that the deficit in RM has seriously restricted its economic development (as distinct from some other countries), which complicates the problem.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The BBC notes that "many European countries have legislation in place restricting the preservation of dead bodies in such a way."
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ While synthetic drugs are manufactured in Poland (the precursors are usually imported from other countries), heroin, hashish, and cocaine frequently transit Poland en route to Western Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Abortion remains illegal on the island of Malta where Catholicism is the state religion. .Furthermore, three European countries (the Netherlands, Belgium, and Switzerland) and the Autonomous Community of Andalusia (Spain)[128][129] have allowed a limited form of voluntary euthanasia for some terminally ill people.^ Cocaine shipments off-loaded in Spain and the Netherlands are eventually transported to Italy and other European countries by means of vehicles.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spain’s autonomous communities provide treatment programs for drug addicts, including methadone programs and needle exchanges.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Synthetic drugs such as ecstasy (MDMA) are transported into Hungary, frequently via car, from the Netherlands and other Western European countries.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2005, the population of Europe was estimated to be 731 million according to the United Nations,[3] which is slightly more than one-ninth of the world's population.^ In 2005, the National Program budget was decreased slightly from $3.6 million in 2004 to $3.2 million.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perhaps we feel more like citizens of the world than citizens of Europe?
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ According to a July 2005 report by the National Crime Squad (NR), 197 ecstasy suspects were arrested in 2004, down from 214 in 2003.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A century ago, Europe had nearly a quarter of the world's population.^ After overcoming the Tatars in their own country during the 18th century, Russia turned to the driving of the Turks from Europe, freeing the subjugated Slavic populations.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The population of Europe has grown in the past century, but in other areas of the world (in particular Africa and Asia) the population has grown far more quickly.^ After overcoming the Tatars in their own country during the 18th century, Russia turned to the driving of the Turks from Europe, freeing the subjugated Slavic populations.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The UN, whose past population predictions have been fairly accurate, predicts that the world's population will increase from just over 6 billion in 2000 to 8.9 billion by 2050.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Marijuana, both imported, and to a much lesser extent grown locally, is used more than any other drug.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .Among the continents, Europe has a relatively high population density, second only to Asia.^ Europe is probably the only case where an entire continent suffers from this condition.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fertility rates across Europe are now so low that the continent's population is likely to drop markedly over the next 50 years.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.The most densely populated country in Europe is the Netherlands, ranking third in the world after Bangladesh and South Korea.^ Dual-use precursor chemicals manufactured in Europe do transit Cyprus to third countries.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cocaine imports from South America transit Western Europe into Lithuania and then on to neighboring countries.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Europe" still lectures places like China as if places like China are the Third World, and Europe, obviously, is the first.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.Pan and Pfeil (2004) count 87 distinct "peoples of Europe", of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities.^ The European Community is not a state, and is dominated by bureaucrats and swamped by petty regulations, but may still enable people to get along with one another.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Europe must avoid an ideological war between free-market capitalism and the welfare state after the rejection of the EU's constitution, [he] said on Saturday Wrong.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Britain, From Parliament to Police State Fjordman - 8/24/2009 I am aware of the fact that some British people speak of Europe as somewhere else, to which they do not belong.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[130]
.According to UN population projection, Europe's population may fall to about 7% of world population by 2050, or 653 million people (medium variant, 556 to 777 million in low and high variants, respectively).^ World Jewry stands at just 13 million people, so it has never been a titan in global affairs.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One day soon, America may wake to find itself facing a wealthy superpower of 470 million people.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Millions were made and shared as artificially high prices were maintained by various means while cronies...
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .Within this context, significant disparities exist between regions in relation to fertility rates.^ Continued cooperation with countries in the Baltic region, where significant trafficking routes exist, constitutes an ongoing and important element in Sweden’s counternarcotics efforts.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The average number of children per female of child bearing age is 1.52.[131] According to some sources,[132] this rate is higher among Muslims in Europe.^ With no help from the Germans, they exterminated 250,000 Jews in Romania and 150,000 in North Transylvania, according to some sources.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ According to him, the riots in the suburbs of Paris in 2005 were only the beginning of the armed struggle of the Muslims against discrimination in Europe.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A synthetic drug supply originates out of Western and Central Europe: amphetamines, ecstasy, and LSD have been traced to sources in the Netherlands and Poland; some originates in the UK. .
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The UN predicts the steady population decline of vast areas of Eastern Europe.^ Should Europe's landscape change from a combined vast geographical area to individually portioned up countries again, this likely will overthow established international relations globally too.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The plan also provided funding (up to 1.2 million euros) for France’s contributions to EU and UN counternarcotics programs in four priority areas: Central and Eastern Europe, Africa, Central Asia, and Latin America/Caribbean.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A territory as vast as Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) cannot and is not inhabited by one "race".
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[133] .The Russia's population is declining by at least 700,000 people each year.^ Roughly 30,000 people are addicted to heroin and/or cocaine, and more than 7.2 percent of the population uses a narcotic substance regularly.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The worlds population, estimated at 6.4 billion in 2006, grows by more than 70 million people per year.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[134] The country now has 13,000 uninhabited villages.[135]
.Europe is home to the highest number of migrants of all global regions at 70.6 million people, the IOM's report said.^ World Jewry stands at just 13 million people, so it has never been a titan in global affairs.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In an article in NYT, August 24 1933, he claimed any report of a famine is today an exaggeration or malignant propaganda, while millions of people were dying...
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The worlds population, estimated at 6.4 billion in 2006, grows by more than 70 million people per year.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[136] .In 2005 the EU had an overall net gain from immigration of 1.8 million people, despite having one of the highest population densities in the world.^ World Jewry stands at just 13 million people, so it has never been a titan in global affairs.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One day soon, America may wake to find itself facing a wealthy superpower of 470 million people.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Millions of e-mails and letters have been sent to the EU Parliament from angry and frustrated people.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

This accounted for almost 85% of Europe's total population growth.[137] .The European Union plans to open the job centres for legal migrant workers from Africa.^ Left-wing Labour MPs are girding themselves for a rebellion over a European Union plan which they say could spell the end of the National Health Service .
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ France has dropped plans to push forward with tax harmonisation under its European Union presidency, following Ireland’s rejection of the Lisbon treaty.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ European Union - rather than just doing his job as just Britain's prime minister.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[138][139]
Emigration from Europe began with Spanish settlers in the 16th century, and French and English settlers in the 17th century.[140] .But numbers remained relatively small until waves of mass emigration in the 19th century, when millions of poor families left Europe.^ It remained a constant standard until the 11th century, known in the west as a bezant (from Byzantium).
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Moldavia and Wallachia were Turkish provinces from then until the 19th century.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Of 3.3 million Jews in Poland in 1939, only 8,000 now remain after the emigration of those who managed to survive the war.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

[141]
.Today, large populations of European descent are found on every continent.^ Islamic radicals are today present in every West European country with a substantial Muslim minority.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.European ancestry predominates in North America, and to a lesser degree in South America (particularly in Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and southern Brazil).^ South America was the primary source in 2004-2005 for cocaine arriving in Portugal, largely from Brazil and Venezuela, both of which have large resident Portuguese populations.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As in the past, some drugs have been seized in commercial vessels arriving from elsewhere on the European continent and from Central/South America.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Portugal is a significant gateway into Europe for drug shipments from South America and North Africa.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also, Australia and New Zealand have large European derived populations.^ 'First World' will come to mean the USA, Switzerland, Japan (maybe), Canada (maybe), Australia and new Zealand and, if it finally breaks clear of the European suicide pact, Britain and possibly even Ireland.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.Africa has no countries with European-derived majorities, but there are significant minorities, such as the White South Africans.^ The political classes of Europe may disagree on many things but of on one issue there is no dissent: the European Union and the overriding importance of creating a country called 'Europe'.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In April 2003, at a joint press conference with Bulgaria's President Parvanov, he cast both countries as "central-south European" rather than the derogatory "Balkan".
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The BBC notes that "many European countries have legislation in place restricting the preservation of dead bodies in such a way."
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

In Asia, European-derived populations (specifically Russians) predominate in Northern Asia.

Political geography

Europe according to a widely accepted definition is shown in green (countries sometimes associated with European culture in dark blue, Asian parts of European states in light blue).
Modern political map of Europe and the surrounding region
Regional grouping according to the UN
Regional grouping according to The World Factbook
European Union and its candidate countries
Map showing European membership of the EU and NATO
According to different definitions, the territories may be subject to various categorisations. .The 27 European Union member states are highly integrated economically and politically; the European Union itself forms part of the political geography of Europe.^ The European Community: Economic and political aspects .
  • Book Listing by Subject: European Union Economics (Economics Network) 1 February 2010 7:48 UTC www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ On May 1, 2004, Estonia joined the European Union, having already been a member of the World Trade Organization.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Towards an Islamist Totalitarian Europe Fjordman - 5/17/2007 Former Soviet dissident Vladimir Bukovksy has warned that the European Union is on its way to becoming another Soviet Union.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The table below shows the scheme for geographic subregions used by the United Nations,[142] alongside the regional grouping published in the CIA factbook.^ This is the basic message from a recently published reportby the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.
  • Global Politician - Europe 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The colourful terms used in describing many peoples and regions are the Chinese expressions for geographic directions.
  • Central Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

The socio-geographical data included are per sources in cross-referenced articles.
Name of country, with flag Area
(km²)
Population
(1 July 2002 est.)
Population density
(per km²)
Capital
 Albania 28,748 3,600,523 125.2 Tirana
 Andorra 468 68,403 146.2 Andorra la Vella
 Armenia k[›] 29,800 3,229,900 101 Yerevan
 Austria 83,858 8,169,929 97.4 Vienna
 Azerbaijan l[›] 86,600 9,000,000 97 Baku
 Belarus 207,600 10,335,382 49.8 Minsk
 Belgium 30,510 10,274,595 336.8 Brussels
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 51,129 4,448,500 77.5 Sarajevo
 Bulgaria 110,910 7,621,337 68.7 Sofia
 Croatia 56,542 4,437,460 77.7 Zagreb
 Cyprus e[›] 9,251 788,457 85 Nicosia
 Czech Republic 78,866 10,256,760 130.1 Prague
 Denmark 43,094 5,368,854 124.6 Copenhagen
 Estonia 45,226 1,415,681 31.3 Tallinn
 Finland 336,593 5,157,537 15.3 Helsinki
 France h[›] 547,030 59,765,983 109.3 Paris
 Georgia m[›] 69,700 4,661,473 64 Tbilisi
 Germany 357,021 83,251,851 233.2 Berlin
 Greece 131,940 10,645,343 80.7 Athens
 Hungary 93,030 10,075,034 108.3 Budapest
 Iceland 103,000 307,261 2.7 Reykjavík
 Ireland 70,280 4,234,925 60.3 Dublin
 Italy 301,230 58,751,711 191.6 Rome
 Kazakhstan j[›] 2,724,900 15,217,711 5.6 Astana
 Latvia 64,589 2,366,515 36.6 Riga
 Liechtenstein 160 32,842 205.3 Vaduz
 Lithuania 65,200 3,601,138 55.2 Vilnius
 Luxembourg 2,586 448,569 173.5 Luxembourg
 Republic of Macedonia 25,713 2,054,800 81.1 Skopje
 Malta 316 397,499 1,257.9 Valletta
 Moldova b[›] 33,843 4,434,547 131.0 Chişinău
 Monaco 1.95 31,987 16,403.6 Monaco
 Montenegro 13,812 616,258 44.6 Podgorica
 Netherlands i[›] 41,526 16,318,199 393.0 Amsterdam
 Norway 324,220 4,525,116 14.0 Oslo
 Poland 312,685 38,625,478 123.5 Warsaw
 Portugal f[›] 91,568 10,409,995 110.1 Lisbon
 Romania 238,391 21,698,181 91.0 Bucharest
 Russia c[›] 17,075,400 142,200,000 26.8 Moscow
 San Marino 61 27,730 454.6 San Marino
 Serbia[143] 88,361 7,495,742 89.4 Belgrade
 Slovakia 48,845 5,422,366 111.0 Bratislava
 Slovenia 20,273 1,932,917 95.3 Ljubljana
 Spain 504,851 45,061,274 89.3 Madrid
 Sweden 449,964 9,090,113 19.7 Stockholm
 Switzerland 41,290 7,507,000 176.8 Bern
 Turkey n[›] 783,562 71,517,100 93 Ankara
 Ukraine 603,700 48,396,470 80.2 Kiev
 United Kingdom 244,820 61,100,835 244.2 London
 Vatican City 0.44 900 2,045.5 Vatican City
Total 10,180,000o[›] 731,000,000o[›] 70
.Within the above-mentioned states are several regions, enjoying broad autonomy, as well as several de facto independent countries with limited international recognition or unrecognised.^ In law enforcement cooperation, the program aims at strengthening cooperation among all security forces within Portugal as well as within the 25 EU member states.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The State Border Service, with 1,968 officers, is now operational and is responsible for controlling the country’s four international airports as well as Bosnia’s 55 international border crossings covering 1,551 kilometers.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People need to understand that the interests of a 'country' usually means the interests of the political class of a state, not the people within that country.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

None of them are UN members:
Name of territory, with flag Area
(km²)
Population
(1 July 2002 est.)
Population density
(per km²)
Capital
 Abkhazia r[›] 8,432 216,000 29 Sukhumi
 Åland (Finland) 1,552 26,008 16.8 Mariehamn
 Faroe Islands (Denmark) 1,399 46,011 32.9 Tórshavn
 Gibraltar (UK) 5.9 27,714 4,697.3 Gibraltar
 Guernsey d[›] (UK) 78 64,587 828.0 St. Peter Port
 Isle of Man d[›] (UK) 572 73,873 129.1 Douglas
 Jersey d[›] (UK) 116 89,775 773.9 Saint Helier
 Kosovo p[›] 10,887 2,126,708 220 Pristina
 Nagorno-Karabakh 11,458 138,800 12 Stepanakert
 Northern Cyprus 3,355 265,100 78 Nicosia
 South Ossetia r[›] 3,900 70,000 18 Tskhinvali
Svalbard and Jan
Mayen Islands
(Norway)
62,049 2,868 0.046 Longyearbyen
 Transnistria b[›] 4,163 537,000 133 Tiraspol

Economy

European and bordering nations by GDP (nominal) per capita in 2006
GDP real growth rate in 2007
.As a continent, the economy of Europe is currently the largest on Earth and it is the richest region as measured by assets under management with over $32.7 trillion compared to North America's $27.1 trillion[144].^ Belgium is among the largest suppliers of ecstasy to the U.S. (much of which is shipped via Canada), and plays a significant role in the transshipment of cocaine from South America to Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Portugal is a significant gateway into Europe for drug shipments from South America and North Africa.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As with other continents, Europe has a large variation of wealth among its countries.^ While synthetic drugs are manufactured in Poland (the precursors are usually imported from other countries), heroin, hashish, and cocaine frequently transit Poland en route to Western Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Countries like Britain, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, have large 'welfare' states but they do so by parasitically drawing wealth out of their large wealth creating capitalist economies...
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.The richer states tend to be in the West; some of the Eastern economies are still emerging from the collapse of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia.^ It is as if the Soviet Union is still the blueprint for them (while being an object lesson for everybody else) .
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.The European Union, an intergovernmental body composed of 27 European states, comprises the largest single economic area in the world.^ He denounced the European Union's economic tariffs most effectively by holding up a bag of sugar and pointed out that the price of the bag is inflated fourfold by tariffs.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ David Carr (London) European Union • North American affairs The world is a complex and confusing place oftentimes.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This new legal body would be based in Brussels, dealing with serious crimes affecting more than one European Union member state, reports the Ananova.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.Currently, 16 EU countries share the euro as a common currency.^ (Euro coins have one common side and one side that the country that would issues the particular coin into circulation can do what it likes with.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If England are knocked out playing badly, by a EU country, I predict a swing to the euro.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They promise to slash the monstrous bill of 43bn euro ($50) that EU countries' taxpayers have to foot in order to subsidise ehem...French...
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.Five European countries rank in the top ten of the worlds largest national economies in GDP (PPP).^ Spain also ranks in the top four of all EU nations in its consumption of designer drugs and hashish.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This includes (ranks according to the CIA): Germany (5), the UK (6), Russia (7), France (8), and Italy (10).^ Countries like Britain, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, have large 'welfare' states but they do so by parasitically drawing wealth out of their large wealth creating capitalist economies...
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ France, Italy and Portugal look set to copy Germany in this trend.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The relative economic decline of "old" Europe since the early 1990s - especially of Germany and Italy, but also of the Netherlands and France - has been a disaster almost unparalleled in modern history.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[145]

Pre–1945: Industrial growth

Capitalism has been dominant in the Western world since the end of feudalism.[146] .From Britain, it gradually spread throughout Europe.^ To imagine that Britain will be immune from this is absurd; what happens in mainland Europe will directly impact upon us as it has throughout our history.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[147] .The Industrial Revolution started in Europe, specifically the United Kingdom in the late 18th century,[148] and the 19th century saw Western Europe industrialise.^ For a start, there are no good ideas in Western Europe but there is a mountain of 'Very Bad Ideas' and no shortage of people who know how to disseminate them very effectively.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Lately, experts noted an increase in heroin traffic from Turkey into Ukraine by sea and then across Ukraine’s western border into Western Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Traffickers use Belgium’s busy seaports and two international airports to move drugs to their primary markets in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and elsewhere in Western Europe, as well as to the United States.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Economies were disrupted by World War I but by the beginning of World War II they had recovered and were having to compete with the growing economic strength of the United States.^ American military) and it is NATO, not the EEC/EU, that was responsible for the peace of post war Western Europe, which may well be why so many Europeans hate the United States - people often hate those they have long depended on.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Having been ordered to compete with the USA one wonders what fate awaits European bio-engineers should they fail?
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Well, now the smug grins of satisfaction are on the other faces and the Wankers of the world are united in their creeping realisation that they bought a pup.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.World War II, again, damaged much of Europe's industries.^ War damage had (in most of Western Europe) been to a great extent repaired by 1957, partly by the efforts of Europeans and partly by American aid.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

1945–1990: The Cold War

.After World War II the economy of the UK was in a state of ruin,[149] and continued to suffer relative economic decline in the following decades.^ Labour has suffered the lowest share of the vote since the First World War, albeit on a very low turnout of voters.
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^ The United States looks forward to continued close cooperation with the UK on all counternarcotics fronts.
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^ The relative economic decline of "old" Europe since the early 1990s - especially of Germany and Italy, but also of the Netherlands and France - has been a disaster almost unparalleled in modern history.
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[150] Italy was also in a poor economic condition but regained a high level of growth by the 1950s. West Germany recovered quickly and had doubled production from pre-war levels by the 1950s.[151] .France also staged a remarkable comeback enjoying rapid growth and modernisation; later on Spain, under the leadership of Franco, also recovered, and the nation recorded huge unprecedented economic growth beginning in the 1960s in what is called the Spanish miracle.^ There is effective control of precursor shipments within Spain from the point of origin to destination, administered under the National Drug Plan (PND).
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^ These hugely subsidised exports are dumped on developing countries, snuffing out potential economic growth that could enable them to work their way out of poverty.
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^ Judging by the woes of Germany and France, economic growth would be lower and unemployment higher.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[152] .The majority of Eastern European states came under the control of the USSR and thus were members of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON).^ An extradition treaty and mutual legal assistance treaty are in force between Austria and the U.S. In 2004, Austria enacted legislation to implement the EU council framework decision on the European arrest warrant and the surrender procedure between member states.
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^ Russia came under pressure from the European Union at the weekend to ratify the Kyoto protocol on greenhouse gases, amid fears that Moscow's commitment may be wavering.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If the EU really wants freer trade, it should start by challenging the price control systems of its own member states.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[153]
.The states which retained a free-market system were given a large amount of aid by the United States under the Marshall Plan.^ The aircraft will cost Thailand some £1.3 billion nearly the amount that all 25 EU members states have pledged in tsunami aid to the whole affected region.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Mr Bush has lost the thread entirely if he really thinks a transnational "reform" of the financial system can do other than damage "free markets, free enterprise and free trade".
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Europe must avoid an ideological war between free-market capitalism and the welfare state after the rejection of the EU's constitution, [he] said on Saturday Wrong.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

[154] .The western states moved to link their economies together, providing the basis for the EU and increasing cross border trade.^ The EU, with its member states, is a massive provider of development assistance.
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^ The Czech Republic is, at present, the last country to stand in the way of what will be a dangerous acceleration in the move of the EU towards the status of being a complete state in its own right.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Lately, experts noted an increase in heroin traffic from Turkey into Ukraine by sea and then across Ukraine’s western border into Western Europe.
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.This helped them to enjoy rapidly improving economies, while those states in COMECON were struggling in a large part due to the cost of the Cold War.^ Countries like Britain, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, have large 'welfare' states but they do so by parasitically drawing wealth out of their large wealth creating capitalist economies...
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The quantity of synthetic narcotics trafficked in Macedonia in 2005 appeared to increase, largely due to the low cost of such drugs.
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.Until 1990, the European Community was expanded from 6 founding members to 12. The emphasis placed on resurrecting the West German economy led to it overtaking the UK as Europe's largest economy.^ The posts covered a range of topics from strikes in the UK to German economy, Gordon Brown, the EU, etc.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The leaders of Europe could not inspire their voters and the European economy was ruined by: .
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^ Europe Day is May 9, commemorating a historic speech by French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman, one of the EU's founding fathers , proposing the creation of a European Coal and Steel Community.
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.
Russia is Europe's key oil and gas supplier.
^ Afghan opiates transported along the Northern Route supply Russia’s internal user demand, as well as transit through Russia to the rest of Europe.
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[155]

1991–2007: The rise of the EU

.With the fall of communism in Eastern Europe in 1991 the Eastern states had to adapt to a free market system.^ Ukraine’s domestic market is increasingly influenced by synthetic drugs trafficked from both Asia and Central and Eastern Europe (Poland, Romania, Baltic Republics).
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^ However, Norway remained a popular market and transit country for drugs produced in Central/Eastern Europe and elsewhere.
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.There were varying degrees of success with Central European countries such as Poland, Hungary, and Slovenia adapting reasonably quickly, while eastern states like Ukraine and Russia taking far longer.^ Countries like Britain, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, have large 'welfare' states but they do so by parasitically drawing wealth out of their large wealth creating capitalist economies...
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^ Opiates (and hashish to a lesser degree) from Afghanistan are carried across the Central Asian states and into Russia.
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^ Evidence suggests that drugs from the Balkans, Russia, the Baltic countries and central Europe pass through Denmark en route to other EU states and the U.S., although the amount flowing to the U.S. is relatively small.
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.Western Europe helped Eastern Europe by forming economic ties with it.^ However, improving economic conditions and increased ease of travel to Western Europe have increased its significance as a consumer market and a producer of amphetamines.
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^ Heroin from Afghanistan transits from Eastern Europe to Western Europe, especially to the Netherlands.
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^ Ecstasy and other pill-form narcotics are smuggled into Croatia from Western Europe in small quantities for domestic use.
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.After East and West Germany were reunited in 1990, the economy of West Germany struggled as it had to support and largely rebuild the infrastructure of East Germany.^ Countries like Britain, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, have large 'welfare' states but they do so by parasitically drawing wealth out of their large wealth creating capitalist economies...
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.Yugoslavia lagged farthest behind as it was ravaged by war and in 2003 there were still many EU and NATO peacekeeping troops in Kosovo, the Republic of Macedonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina, with only Slovenia making any real progress.^ None of the above is new and has been bemoaned on Samizdata.net many times, but it gets more frightening as the process of EU imposition on the UK progresses .
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ American military) and it is NATO, not the EEC/EU, that was responsible for the peace of post war Western Europe, which may well be why so many Europeans hate the United States - people often hate those they have long depended on.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ However if you want to see a glimpse of the true future of 'democratic' Europe, don't look at Italy or Austria, look at post-war 'democratic' Bosnia-Herzegovina.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.By the millennium change, the EU dominated the economy of Europe comprising the five largest European economies of the time namely Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Spain.^ American military) and it is NATO, not the EEC/EU, that was responsible for the peace of post war Western Europe, which may well be why so many Europeans hate the United States - people often hate those they have long depended on.
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^ Cocaine shipments off-loaded in Spain and the Netherlands are eventually transported to Italy and other European countries by means of vehicles.
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^ Countries like Britain, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, have large 'welfare' states but they do so by parasitically drawing wealth out of their large wealth creating capitalist economies...
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.In 1999 12 of the 15 members of the EU joined the Eurozone replacing their former national currencies by the common euro.^ It is an entirely accurate and reasonable article about the process of stripping British (and other European national) institutions of power and replacing them with Euro-level institutions.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Like Britain, Sweden is actually a member of the European Union (remember, it's a process not a club) but has yet to ditch its currency (the Crown) in favour of adopting the Euro currency.
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^ The 12-nation eurozone is in even worse economic trouble than previously thought.
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.The three who chose to remain outside the Eurozone were: the United Kingdom, Denmark, and Sweden.^ However, there are three major bridges of this kind in the United Kingdom.
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^ The 1902 extradition treaty between the United States and the Kingdom of Serbia remains in force between the United States and Slovenia as a successor state.
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2008–2009: Recession

.The eurozone entered its first official recession in the third quarter of 2008, official figures confirmed in January 2009.[156] While beginning in the United States the late-2000s recession spread to Europe rapidly and has affected much of the region.^ The first two of these to be built were in the United States: the George Washington Bridge in New York and the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco.
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^ "Europe" still lectures places like China as if places like China are the Third World, and Europe, obviously, is the first.
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^ The aircraft will cost Thailand some £1.3 billion nearly the amount that all 25 EU members states have pledged in tsunami aid to the whole affected region.
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[157] .The official unemployment rate in the 16 countries that use the euro rose to 9.5% in May 2009.[158] Europe's young workers have been especially hard hit.^ Dual-use precursor chemicals manufactured in Europe do transit Cyprus to third countries.
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^ Albania is used by organized crime groups as a transit country for heroin from Central Asia destined for Western Europe.
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^ A Council of Europe report on organized crime, published in January, said Ireland had the highest rate of ecstasy and amphetamine use in Europe and the second highest rate of cocaine abuse.
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[159] .In the first quarter of 2009, the unemployment rate in the EU27 for those aged 15–24 was 18.3%.^ January 18, 2009 Sunday Europe's 'spring of discontent' Philip Chaston (London) European Union • Globalization/economics (9) First financial, then economic, finally political.
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[160]

Language

Simplified linguistic map within the Council of Europe nations
European languages mostly fall within three Indo-European language groups: the Romance languages, derived from the Latin language of the Roman Empire; the Germanic languages, whose ancestor language came from southern Scandinavia; and the Slavic languages.[123] While having the majority of its vocabulary descended from Romance languages, the English language is classified as a Germanic language.
.Romance languages are spoken primarily in south-western Europe as well as in Romania and Moldova.^ Romania also lies along a developing route for the transit of synthetic drugs from Western and Northern Europe to the East.
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^ Cocaine imports from South America transit Western Europe into Lithuania and then on to neighboring countries.
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^ Romania lies along the Northern Balkan Route, which is used to move heroin and other opiates from Southwest Asia to Central and Western Europe.
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.Germanic languages are spoken in north-western Europe and some parts of Central Europe.^ Albania is a transit point for heroin from Central Asia, which is smuggled via the "Balkan Route" of Turkey-Bulgaria-Macedonia-Albania to Italy, Greece, and the rest of Western Europe.
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^ Italy is a consumer country and a major transit point for heroin coming from southwest Asia through the Balkans en route to western and central Europe.
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^ Romania lies along the Northern Balkan Route, which is used to move heroin and other opiates from Southwest Asia to Central and Western Europe.
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.Slavic languages are spoken in Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.^ Ukraine’s domestic market is increasingly influenced by synthetic drugs trafficked from both Asia and Central and Eastern Europe (Poland, Romania, Baltic Republics).
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^ However, Norway remained a popular market and transit country for drugs produced in Central/Eastern Europe and elsewhere.
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[123]
.Many other languages outside the three main groups exist in Europe.^ As in many illicit trades, this concept of the cocaine trade is a thesis: other well-informed observers believe that most cocaine enters Europe through Spanish ports.
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.Other Indo-European languages include the Baltic group (i.e., Latvian and Lithuanian), the Celtic group (i.e., Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx, Welsh, Cornish, and Breton[123]), Greek, Albanian, and Armenian.^ The group includes German Chancellor Angela Merkel, French President Jacques Chirac, and other conservative EU leaders, the magazine reported.
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.A distinct group of Uralic languages are Estonian, Finnish, and Hungarian, spoken in the respective countries as well as in parts of Romania, Russia, Serbia, and Slovakia.^ Slovakia, which was part of the same country as the Czech part of the former Czech Republic for more than sixty years until 1993, has the worst indicators eleven years after Czechoslovakia split.
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^ Couriers traveling on commercial flights bring cocaine into Russia, often traveling through third countries in Europe as well as through the U.S. .
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^ Belgium is party to the 1988 UN Convention, and is part of the Dublin Group of countries concerned with combating narcotics trafficking.
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.Other Non-Indo-European languages are Maltese (the only Semitic language official to the EU), Basque, Georgian, Azerbaijani, Turkish in Eastern Thrace, and the languages of minority nations in Russia.^ June 10, 2002 Monday Americans against the EU Brian Micklethwait (London) European Union Pellerito wants more links from this to other blogs.
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^ Others are questioning the ability of the EU to enforce the tax on the grounds that European courts would not have jurisdiction over them.
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^ It is an entirely accurate and reasonable article about the process of stripping British (and other European national) institutions of power and replacing them with Euro-level institutions.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.Multilingualism and the protection of regional and minority languages are recognised political goals in Europe today.^ Europe is arguably the world's most dynamic political bloc today.
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.The Council of Europe Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities and the Council of Europe's European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages set up a legal framework for language rights in Europe.^ While partly overshadowed by the recent war on terror and the Iraq campaign, a group of senior European politicians and bureaucrats have been working to set up the framework for a new European Constitution, which would effectively destroy the present EU member states as sovereign self governing nations.
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^ I mean, there is no way in hell that he would sign up the Tory Party to be a member of a group within the European 'parliament' who had a charter objective that included "the realisation of a United States of Europe", right?
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^ Estonia is also party to the 1990 Council of Europe (COE) Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime.
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Predominant religions in Europe and neighbouring regions:      Roman Catholic Christianity      Eastern Orthodox Christianity      Protestant Christianity      Sunni Islam      Shia Islam      Buddhism      Judaism

Religion

.Historically, religion in Europe has been a major influence on European art, culture, philosophy and law.^ Given the political will and a majority in Parliament, the United Kingdom could democratically withdraw from the European Union and assert the primacy of British law.
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.The majority religion in Europe is Christianity as practiced by Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Protestant Churches.^ However, this is not really about the practices of the Roman Catholic Church or even about the status of the late Mr. Schuman but more about Europe's elite seeking divine provenance for their transnational machine.
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.Following these is Islam concentrated mainly in the south east (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, Kosovo, Kazakhstan, North Cyprus, Turkey and Azerbaijan), and Tibetan Buddhism, found in Kalmykia.^ He has often said that Bosnia-Herzegovina must follow the same route as other countries in the region towards European Union membership.
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^ From North to South to East to West, the Empire continues its joyless advance with the all prosaic, depressing predictability of a tumour.
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^ Foreign criminal groups from former East Bloc countries, Turkey, West Africa, and Central and South America dominate the organized drug trafficking scene.
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Other religions including Judaism and Hinduism are minority religions. .Europe is a relatively secular continent and has the largest number and proportion of irreligious, agnostic and atheistic people in the Western world, with a particularly high number of self-described non-religious people in the Czech Republic, Estonia, Sweden, Germany (East), and France.^ Cocaine, on the other hand remains relatively rare in the Czech Republic, and frequently is imported through Western Europe.
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^ For a start, there are no good ideas in Western Europe but there is a mountain of 'Very Bad Ideas' and no shortage of people who know how to disseminate them very effectively.
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^ However, narcotics smuggling, particularly heroin, through the Balkans route to Western Europe remains a serious concern.
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[161]

Culture

.The culture of Europe can be described as a series of overlapping cultures; cultural mixes exist across the continent.^ Fertility rates across Europe are now so low that the continent's population is likely to drop markedly over the next 50 years.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.There are cultural innovations and movements, sometimes at odds with each other.^ However, there were similar movements in other Western European nations.
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Thus the question of "common culture" or "common values" is complex.

See also

Notes

^ a: Continental regions as per UN categorisations/map. .Depending on definitions, various territories cited below may be in one or both of Europe and Asia, or Africa.^ Ukraine’s domestic market is increasingly influenced by synthetic drugs trafficked from both Asia and Central and Eastern Europe (Poland, Romania, Baltic Republics).
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^ It is too early to tell if this forms an altered vision of Europe, one that may appeal to moderates and one nation Tories.
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^ Afghanistan-Iran-Azerbaijan-Georgia-western Europe; Afghanistan-Iran-Nagorno Karabakh and occupied territories of Azerbaijan-Armenia-Georgia-Western Europe; Afghanistan-Iran-Azerbaijan-Russia; or Afghanistan-Central Asia-the Caspian Sea-Azerbaijan-Georgia-western Europe.
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.^ b: Transnistria, internationally recognised as being a legal part of the Republic of Moldova, although de facto control is exercised by its internationally unrecognised government which declared independence from Moldova in 1990.
^ c: Russia is considered a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia.
^ The Czech Republic is, at present, the last country to stand in the way of what will be a dangerous acceleration in the move of the EU towards the status of being a complete state in its own right.
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^ Lithuania remains a transit route for heroin and other illicit drugs from Asia and Russia to Western Europe.
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^ Under the UK’s devolved government system, Scotland and Northern Ireland have separately articulated policies and independent judicial systems.
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However the population and area figures include the entire state.
^ d: Guernsey, the Isle of Man and Jersey are Crown dependencies of the United Kingdom. Other Channel Islands legislated by the Bailiwick of Guernsey include Alderney and Sark.
^ e: Cyprus is sometimes considered transcontinental country. .Physiographically entirely in Western Asia it has strong historical and sociopolitical connections with Europe.^ Lithuania remains a transit route for heroin and other illicit drugs from Asia and Russia to Western Europe.
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^ Albania is a transit point for heroin from Central Asia, which is smuggled via the "Balkan Route" of Turkey-Bulgaria-Macedonia-Albania to Italy, Greece, and the rest of Western Europe.
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^ Italy is a consumer country and a major transit point for heroin coming from southwest Asia through the Balkans en route to western and central Europe.
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.The population and area figures refer to the entire state, including the de facto independent part Northern Cyprus.^ Hemp grows mostly in the Ararat Valley in the south-western part of Armenia; poppy grows in the northern part of Armenia, particularly in the Lake Sevan basin and some mountainous areas.
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^ Ireland is not a transit point for drugs to the United States, but it is occasionally used as a transit point for narcotics trafficking to other parts of Europe, including across its land border to Northern Ireland.
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^ f: Figures for Portugal include the Azores and Madeira archipelagos, both in Northern Atlantic.
^ g: Figures for Serbia include Kosovo, a province that unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008, and whose sovereign status is unclear.
.^ h: Figures for France include only metropolitan France: some politically integral parts of France are geographically located outside Europe.^ Epidemics can only be prevented by negotiating with the various diseases as part of the political process."
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^ Denmark’s strategic geographic location and status as one of Northern Europe’s primary transportation points make it an attractive drug transit country.
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^ Hungary continues to be a primary narcotics transit country between Southwest Asia and Western Europe, due to its unique combination of geographic location, a modern transportation system, and the unsettled political and social climate in the former Yugoslavia.
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.^ i: Netherlands population for July 2004. Population and area details include European portion only: Netherlands and two entities outside Europe (Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles, in the Caribbean) constitute the Kingdom of the Netherlands.^ (Note that, as of 2003, Home Office statistics only include seizure data for England and Wales; 2003 represents the most recent detailed statistics.
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^ I was in Darfur last week, on my way to co-chair the first ever meeting of the European Commission outside Europe, in Addis Ababa – the home of the Commission of the Africa Union.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Traffickers use Belgium’s busy seaports and two international airports to move drugs to their primary markets in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and elsewhere in Western Europe, as well as to the United States.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Amsterdam is the official capital, while The Hague is the administrative seat.
.^ j: Kazakhstan is physiographically considered a transcontinental country in Central Asia (UN region) and Eastern Europe, with European territory west of the Ural Mountains and both the Ural and Emba rivers.^ Most illicit drugs enter Norway by road from other European countries including the Baltic states, the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Spain, Central, the Balkans and other countries in Eastern Europe and Asia.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A large amount of precursor chemicals transit Romania from West European countries en route to Turkey.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These countries will have to decide whether they want to continue cooperating with the core of Europe or whether they want to again retreat from the European integration process, Posselt says.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.However, area and population figures refer to the entire country.^ During the same period, however, the population of the 27 countries that should be members of the EU by 2007 is predicted to fall by 6%, from 482m to 454m.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ As the power of monarchs declined and the entire population of a country became the sovereign, then betrayal of that entity amounted to treason.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]


.^ k: Armenia is physiographically entirely in Western Asia, but it has strong historical and sociopolitical connections with Europe.^ Lithuania remains a transit route for heroin and other illicit drugs from Asia and Russia to Western Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Albania is a transit point for heroin from Central Asia, which is smuggled via the "Balkan Route" of Turkey-Bulgaria-Macedonia-Albania to Italy, Greece, and the rest of Western Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italy is a consumer country and a major transit point for heroin coming from southwest Asia through the Balkans en route to western and central Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The population and area figures include the entire state respectively.
.^ l: Azerbaijan is often considered a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and Western Asia.^ Lithuania remains a transit route for heroin and other illicit drugs from Asia and Russia to Western Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cocaine imports from South America transit Western Europe into Lithuania and then on to neighboring countries.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Albania is a transit point for heroin from Central Asia, which is smuggled via the "Balkan Route" of Turkey-Bulgaria-Macedonia-Albania to Italy, Greece, and the rest of Western Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However the population and area figures are for the entire state. This includes the exclave of Nakhchivan and the region Nagorno-Karabakh that has declared, and de facto achieved, independence. Nevertheless, it is not recognised de jure by sovereign states.
.^ m: Georgia is often considered a transcontinental country in Western Asia and Eastern Europe.^ Lithuania remains a transit route for heroin and other illicit drugs from Asia and Russia to Western Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Georgia’s geography and transit status between Europe and Asia make it a potential narcotics trafficking route.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cocaine imports from South America transit Western Europe into Lithuania and then on to neighboring countries.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, the population and area figures include the entire state. .This also includes Georgian estimates for Abkhazia and South Ossetia, two regions that have declared and de facto achieved independence.^ Breakaway territories not controlled by Government of Georgia (GOG) South Ossetia and Abkhazia also provide additional routes for drugs flow and other contraband.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The International recognition, however, is limited.
.^ n: Turkey is physiographically considered a transcontinental country in Western Asia and Eastern Europe.^ Lately, experts noted an increase in heroin traffic from Turkey into Ukraine by sea and then across Ukraine’s western border into Western Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lithuania remains a transit route for heroin and other illicit drugs from Asia and Russia to Western Europe.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cocaine imports from South America transit Western Europe into Lithuania and then on to neighboring countries.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However the population and area figures include the entire state, both the European and Asian portions.^ Less than half the population in the European Union's member states now support the EU project, according to polling results yesterday.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A future European Union constitution will include a flag, an anthem, a motto and a Europe Day, despite British reticence about such state symbols.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Britain and Ireland may soon be the only two states willing to open their doors entirely to the 73 million people joining the European Union in May.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]


.^ o: The total figures for area and population include only European portions of transcontinental countries.^ Any insult which includes reference to national stereotypes can only be directed against a person or persons who is/are permanently domiciled in or citizens of the country to which the said stereotype is applicable.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ All I know is that he is just about the only European political figure with personality : .
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a depressingly short list but includes only two European countries (Sweden and Switzerland).
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.The precision of these figures is compromised by the ambiguous geographical extent of Europe and the lack of references for European portions of transcontinental countries.^ These countries will have to decide whether they want to continue cooperating with the core of Europe or whether they want to again retreat from the European integration process, Posselt says.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of these drugs come to Russia and Western European countries along the "northern route."
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Denmark’s strategic geographic location and status as one of Northern Europe’s primary transportation points make it an attractive drug transit country.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


^ p: Kosovo unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008. Its sovereign status is unclear. Its population is a 2007 estimate.
.^ r: Abkhazia and South Ossetia unilaterally declared their independence from Georgia on 25 August 1990 and 28 November 1991 respectively.^ Breakaway territories not controlled by Government of Georgia (GOG) South Ossetia and Abkhazia also provide additional routes for drugs flow and other contraband.
  • Europe and Central Asia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Their sovereign status is unclear. Population figures stated as of 2003 census and 2000 estimates respectively.

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Further reading

  • Williams, Glyndwr (1968) "The Expansion of Europe in the Eighteenth Century". London, Blandford Press, SRN 7-137-32723-5.

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.Europe is one of the traditional seven political continents, and a peninsular sub-continent of the geographic continent Eurasia.^ Political assassination is common enough in Europe not to have to ascribe a conspiracy to this one.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Sourced

Divisions of Europe

.
  • I have ever deemed it fundamental for the United States never to take active part in the quarrels of Europe.^ Keeping Britain both in the [United States of Europe] and outside of it militarily, diplomatically, and monetarily should become a prime U.S. objective in foreign policy.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The candidate should have strong political experience and international influence; the ability to communicate well; and the desire to draw the United States of America and Europe closer together.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Leaders from the EU's 25 member states are taking part in celebrations, after a night of festivities heralded its historic expansion.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    Their political interests are entirely distinct from ours... They are nations of eternal war.
  • Whoever lights the torch of war in Europe can wish for nothing but chaos. .
  • You know what the funniest thing about Europe is?^ Do you think we have said nasty things about you and want to reply regardless of our unwillingness to let you use our comment section?
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    It’s the little differences.
  • That grand drama in a hundred acts, which is reserved for the next two centuries of Europe—the most terrible, most questionable and perhaps also the most hopeful of all dramas. .
  • I doubt that the evil spirits of the past, under which we in Europe have already suffered more than enough this century, have been banished for ever.^ I have no doubt whatsoever as to which side will emerge triumphant but what worries me deeply is that Britain is already more than half-way signed up to the wrong side.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ More than Pakistan, more than Hungary – countries where the IMF has already been called in.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We do not have to be ruled by EUrope in order to have European style cafés in London, any more than we have to be ruled by China to have Chinese Restaurants.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

Europe as a declining continent

.
  • There is no freedom in Europe - that's certain - it is besides a worn out portion of the globe.^ For a start, there are no good ideas in Western Europe but there is a mountain of 'Very Bad Ideas' and no shortage of people who know how to disseminate them very effectively.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ However, in this case they are not needed - as there were no spoilt ballot papers and no opposing votes (work it out).
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

  • Soon nostalgia will be another name for Europe.
    • Angela Carter (1940–1992), British postmodern novelist. repr. Vintage (1992). .Expletives Deleted, review of John Berger, Once in Europa, The Washington Post (1989).
  • I am worn down, and worn out, with crusading and defending Europe, and protecting mankind; I must think a little of myself.^ Discuss our relations with Europe by all means and criticise the EU if you must but suggest we pull out?!!
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Positively I sit here, and look at Europe sink, first one deck disappearing, then another, and the whole ship slowly plunging bow-down into the abyss; until the nightmare gets to be howling.^ Brown will appoint one of his favourites to it, and have far reaching influence on Europe, and therefore Britain, even after he steps down.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Not content with absorbing the 'Vilnius 10', they have set their sights on outer space : "Europe's first mission to the Moon looks set for a July blast-off.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But when the Council of Europe start urging the EU to regulate blogs like this one, it should be clear that none of the arguments which can be applied to broadcast media and or the press apply here.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    The Roman Empire was a trifle to it.
  • The more I live here in western Europe, the more I am impressed by the sense of decay;not the graceful and dignified decay of an oriental, but the vulgar and sordid decay of a bankrupt cotton-mill.
  • The race of prophets is extinct. Europe is becoming set in its ways, slowly embalming itself beneath the wrappings of its borders, its factories, its law-courts and its universities. .
  • I have no more patience for this Europe where Autumn wears the face of Spring and Spring reeks of misery.^ Europe can no more prevent itself being swamped by, flooded with, etc.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Let us rejoice, indeed, at having witnessed the death of a lying and comfort-loving Europe and at being faced with cruel truths.^ At which point those of us who want to can get back to liking Europe without having to make those subtle distinctions can do so.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And if we are not capable of running them, us being a province of EUrope will not change that.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Over there, in Europe, all was shame and anger.^ There is widespread and angry opposition to this and not just from Britain but from all over Europe.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Above all there is her sheer refusal to concede that there might be any rational basis for British loathing, not of Europe itself, but of being ruled by EUrope.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    Here it was exile or solitude, among these languid and agitated madmen who danced in order to die.

Unification of Europe

.
  • One day, on the model of the United States of America, a United States of Europe will come into being.^ One day soon, America may wake to find itself facing a wealthy superpower of 470 million people.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Keeping Britain both in the [United States of Europe] and outside of it militarily, diplomatically, and monetarily should become a prime U.S. objective in foreign policy.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Countries such as Sweden, Holland, and Denmark, which initially pledged to let migrants from the 10 new states work freely in their countries from day one have changed their minds.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • That in order to achieve the triumph of liberty, justice and peace in the international relations of Europe, and to render civil war impossible among the various peoples which make up the European family, only a single course lies open: to constitute the United States of Europe
  • The Federated Republic of Europe—the United States of Europe—that is what must be.^ (I'm only making this up if Tony Robinson was too.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ June 01, 2003 Sunday The British Government caught red-handed Perry de Havilland (London) European Union • UK affairs (40) Former Italian prime minister Lamberto Dini , one of the people drawing up the new European Constitution on the EU Convention on the Future of Europe , has flatly and explicitly contradicted British ministers who claimed that the new constitution is only a 'tidying up exercise'.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ September 12, 2007 Wednesday Euro-Newspeak Perry de Havilland (London) Civil liberty/regulation • European Union (18) Orwell imagined a political order that would try to change people by expunging certain terms from the vocabulary in order to make the very concepts those words represent un-knowable.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    National autonomy no longer suffices. Economic evolution demands the abolition of national frontiers. .If Europe is to remain split into national groups, then Imperialism will recommence its work.^ With national socialists already on the march throughout much of Europe, that's going to be like throwing a match into a tinderbox .
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Why must the nations of EUrope homogenise themselves into one nation?
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Remaining EU 15 nations are projected to suffer losses in working population ranging from the manageable (France, minus 8%) to the catastrophic (Spain, minus 35%, Italy, minus 41%).
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Only a Federated Republic of Europe can give peace to the world.^ Only the anarcho-capitalist option of voluntary exchange and contract seems capable of offering a peaceful alternative to a World State.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The only argument consistently employed by the federasts is that submission to the Euro and a federal Europe is inevitable so you might as well just plunge in right now and get it all over with.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • If Ireland is to become a new Ireland she must first become European.^ 'First World' will come to mean the USA, Switzerland, Japan (maybe), Canada (maybe), Australia and new Zealand and, if it finally breaks clear of the European suicide pact, Britain and possibly even Ireland.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In effect, the other European states must become petit France .
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But it is only the first step in meeting the European and global political challenges that the new Europe must address.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Whatever else may divide us, Europe is our common home; a common fate has linked us through the centuries, and it continues to link us today.^ This website is our invitation to you to discuss with us your ideas, hopes and worries for Europe's future.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In today's Telegraph's opinion section, Ambrose Evans-Pritchard is concerned that "while we liberate Iraq, Europe is busy planning to enslave us": .
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Whatever else it may or may not have achieved, the Iraq war has driven a coach and horses through the fond ambitions of the enarques .
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • We are asking the nations of Europe between whom rivers of blood have flowed to forget the feuds of a thousand years.^ They say that the EEUUGGHH! will end a thousand years of Britain's history as a sovereign nation.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In continental Europe, by contrast, unemployment has been stuck between 8 and 11 per cent since 1991 and growth has reached 3 per cent only once in those 14 years.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Between now and the Italian national polls next year, it would be smart to keep a very close eye on the euro zone financial markets indeed.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Why should there not be a European group which could give a sense of enlarged patriotism and common citizenship to the distracted peoples of this turbulent and mighty continent?^ I do not even grasp what he is talking about, let alone understand why even more money should be appropriated from people to pay for that sublimely corrupt institution.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It does give us cause for a deeply ironic chuckle when we see him being compared to Winston Churchill in the foreign press.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Never again should Europeans be forced to watch in frustration as the Americans give some tinpot dictator a good kicking.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    .And why should it not take its rightful place with other great groupings and help to shape the onward destinies of men?^ On the other hand, according to the official, there was concern on the parliament's side that a national government should not be allowed to dictate the composition of the group.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Prodi is on an honesty roll as he notes: "I wonder what makes this great nation happy to be a junior partner in a transatlantic relationship, but afraid to take its rightful place alongside its European allies?"
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • If Europe were once united in the sharing of its common inheritance there would be no limit to the happiness, the prosperity, and the glory which its 300,000,000 or 400,000,000 people would enjoy.^ But then people began to talk about a single currency, a master race that would sweep throughout Europe.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For a start, there are no good ideas in Western Europe but there is a mountain of 'Very Bad Ideas' and no shortage of people who know how to disseminate them very effectively.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The passion that the romantic vision of a united Europe once provoked was the result of a world-view which we cannot understand.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

  • My revenge is fraternity! No more frontiers! The Rhine for everyone! .Let us be the same Republic, let us be the United States of Europe, let us be the continental federation, let us be European liberty, let us be universal peace!^ I mean, there is no way in hell that he would sign up the Tory Party to be a member of a group within the European 'parliament' who had a charter objective that included "the realisation of a United States of Europe", right?
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Keeping Britain both in the [United States of Europe] and outside of it militarily, diplomatically, and monetarily should become a prime U.S. objective in foreign policy.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The candidate should have strong political experience and international influence; the ability to communicate well; and the desire to draw the United States of America and Europe closer together.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Victor Hugo August 21, 1849 in Paris in his opening Address to the Peace Congress.
  • A day will come when all nations on our continent will form a European brotherhood...^ June 21, 2004 Monday Myth guided David Carr (London) European Union (6) Our Glorious Leader is seeking the Holy Grail of truth : .
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The only thing we can do is save our nation and watch from the sidelines as this 'tide of history' drowns all those it engulfs.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But, aside from our relationship with the Americans, there is one issue on which the isolationists and I see eye-to-eye and that is the matter of the European Union; when it comes to the EU, I am the Mother-of-all-Isolationists.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    A day will come when we shall see... the .United States of America and the United States of Europe face to face, reaching out for each other across the seas.^ Keeping Britain both in the [United States of Europe] and outside of it militarily, diplomatically, and monetarily should become a prime U.S. objective in foreign policy.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Well, now the smug grins of satisfaction are on the other faces and the Wankers of the world are united in their creeping realisation that they bought a pup.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The candidate should have strong political experience and international influence; the ability to communicate well; and the desire to draw the United States of America and Europe closer together.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Europe thus divided into nationalities freely formed and free internally, peace between States would have become easier: the United States of Europe would become a possibility.^ American military) and it is NATO, not the EEC/EU, that was responsible for the peace of post war Western Europe, which may well be why so many Europeans hate the United States - people often hate those they have long depended on.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In a world state, pesky local regulatory differences would be obliterated and replaced by a rational grid of laws from which no escape was possible.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ With national socialists already on the march throughout much of Europe, that's going to be like throwing a match into a tinderbox .
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • The ocean is rough and whirling, and the currents go to two possible endings: the autocrat, or the United States of Europe'.
    • Carlo Cattaneo
  • Does this boat go to Europe, France?^ The first two of these to be built were in the United States: the George Washington Bridge in New York and the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Keeping Britain both in the [United States of Europe] and outside of it militarily, diplomatically, and monetarily should become a prime U.S. objective in foreign policy.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The candidate should have strong political experience and international influence; the ability to communicate well; and the desire to draw the United States of America and Europe closer together.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    • Anita Loos

Politics of Europe

  • A spectre is haunting Europe—the spectre of communism.
  • When Paris sneezes, Europe catches cold.
    • Metternich

Definitions of Europe by geography or culture

.
  • So there is no single European people.^ For a start, there are no good ideas in Western Europe but there is a mountain of 'Very Bad Ideas' and no shortage of people who know how to disseminate them very effectively.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If the people who flew the aircraft into the WTC were mostly French and German, no doubt there would be more of an imperitive to secure French and German co-operation.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There is no doubt that 2004 ought to have been a great year, the year East Europeans became full members of a revived, streamlined and more democratised European Union.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    There is no single all-embracing community of culture and tradition among, say, Warsaw, Amsterdam, Berlin and Belgrade. In fact, there are at least four communities: the Northern Protestant, the Latin Catholic, the Greek Orthodox, and the Muslim Ottoman. .There is no single language - there are more than twenty.^ The rest does not matter (and, besides, UKIP are probably no more hostile to immigration than is our current Labour Home Secretary).
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ That is no more 'putting up shutters' than the manner in which the US and UK interacted with Nazi Germany.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I have no doubt whatsoever as to which side will emerge triumphant but what worries me deeply is that Britain is already more than half-way signed up to the wrong side.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    (...) .There are no real European political parties (...^ The political classes of Europe may disagree on many things but of on one issue there is no dissent: the European Union and the overriding importance of creating a country called 'Europe'.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Antoine Clarke (London) European Union (7) The election results from Belgium are the usual mess: there are two sets of political parties, which hate each other on linguistic as well as political grounds.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There is no doubt that 2004 ought to have been a great year, the year East Europeans became full members of a revived, streamlined and more democratised European Union.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ). .And most significantly of all: unlike the United States, Europe still does not have a common story.^ Well, we have been smacked; smacked with the bill for paying for all this recycling which Europe's state-backed monopoly giants will simply pass onto us consumers.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Keeping Britain both in the [United States of Europe] and outside of it militarily, diplomatically, and monetarily should become a prime U.S. objective in foreign policy.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Unlike most of continental Europe, there is a significant anti-statist element in the mainstream of British society...
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

  • Europe is not really even a geographic entity; it is separated from Asia only at one point, the Bosphorus, by a small stretch of water. North of that there is continuity over the russians steppes, a complete terrestrial flow. I suggest that is also true of culture, and indeed of social organization. Indeed Europe has never been purely isolated, purely Christian. Instead of Christian Europe, one has to see the continent as penetrated by the three world religions that originated in the Near East and which indeed had a common mythology or sacred text; in order of arrival these were Judaism, Christianity and Islam. (...) All have equal entitlements to be present, and in this general ('objective') sense none can be considered only as the Other; they are part of Europe, part of our heritage.
  • As to the territorial limits of Europe, they may seem relatively clear on its seaward flanks, but many island groups far to the north and west—Svalbard, the Faroes, Iceland, and the Madeira and Canary islands—are considered European, while Greenland (though tied politically to Denmark) is conventionally allocated to North America. Furthermore, the Mediterranean coastlands of North Africa and southwestern Asia also exhibit some European physical and cultural affinities. Turkey and Cyprus in particular, while geologically Asian, possess elements of European culture and may be regarded as parts of Europe.
  • The peoples of Europe are a work in progress and always must be... .The history of the people of Europe has not ended -- it never will.^ The EU's leaders have never explained in a manner that makes simultaneous sense to all of EUrope's people.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    Ethnogenesis is a process of the present and future as much as it is the past. No efforts of romantics, politicians, or social scientists can preserve once and for all some essential soul of a people or nation. Nor can any effort ensure that nations, ethnic groups, and communities of today will not vanish utterly in the future. The past may have set the parameters within which one can build the future, but it cannot determine what that future must be.
    • Patrick J. Geary, The Myth of Nations: The Medieval Origins of Europe, Princeton University Press, 2003
  • Oui, c'est l'Europe, depuis l'Atlantique jusqu'à l'Oural, c'est l'Europe, c'est toute l'Europe, qui décidera du destin du monde!
    • Translation: Yes, it is Europe, from the Atlantic to the Urals, it is Europe, it is the whole of Europe, that will decide the fate of the world.
    • Charles de Gaulle, 23 November 1959, Strasbourg.
  • Whoever speaks of Europe is wrong: it is a geographical expression.
    • Otto Von Bismarck, speech to Reichstag, 14 May 1872
  • Europe is so well gardened that it resembles a work of art, a scientific theory, a neat metaphysical system. Man has re-created Europe in his own image.
  • If you live in Europe... things change... but continuity never seems to break. You don't have to throw the past away.
  • Europe has what we do not have yet, a sense of the mysterious and inexorable limits of life, a sense, in a word, of tragedy. And we have what they sorely need: a sense of life’s possibilities.
  • Two principles, according to the Settembrinian cosmogony, were in perpetual conflict for possession of the world: force and justice, tyranny and freedom, superstition and knowledge; the law of permanence and the law of change, of ceaseless fermentation issuing in progress. One might call the first the Asiatic, the second the European principle.
  • Purity of race does not exist. Europe is a continent of energetic mongrels.
    • Herbert Albert Laurens Fisher, A history of Europe, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1939, p.14
  • I know that Europe’s wonderful, yet something seems to lack; The Past is too much with her, and the people looking back.
  • Hey, this is Europe. We took it from nobody; we won it from the bare soil that the ice left. The bones of our ancestors, and the stones of their works, are everywhere. Our liberties were won in wars and revolutions so terrible that we do not fear our governors: they fear us. Our children giggle and eat ice-cream in the palaces of past rulers. We snap our fingers at kings. We laugh at popes. When we have built up tyrants, we have brought them down. And we have nuclear *fucking* weapons. .
    • Ken Macleod
  • Africa north of the Sahara, from a zoological point of view, is now, and has been since early Tertiary times, a part of Europe.^ The relative economic decline of "old" Europe since the early 1990s - especially of Germany and Italy, but also of the Netherlands and France - has been a disaster almost unparalleled in modern history.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But Mr Cameron also states that this time (1957) was a time when the European Economic Community (EEC, now the EU) had to deal with a Europe that had been devastated by war, that was under the threat of Soviet attack, and was on the point of economic collapse.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    This is true both of animals and of the races of man.
    • Madison Grant, The Passing of the Great Race, Scribner's sons, 1916, p.137

Europe and the World

  • The immense popularity of American movies abroad demonstrates that Europe is the unfinished negative of which America is the proof.
  • I've come to think of Europe as a hardcover book, America as the paperback version.
    • Don Delillo
  • It is a complex fate, being an American, and one of the responsibilities it entails is fighting against a superstitious evaluation of Europe.
  • Europe cannot confine itself to the cultivation of its own garden.
    • Juan Carlos of Spain
  • In America the cohesion was a matter of choice and will. But in Europe it was organic.
  • The time to enjoy a European tour is about three weeks after you unpack.
  • Until now when we have started to talk about the uniqueness of America we have almost always ended by comparing ourselves to Europe. Toward her we have felt all the attraction and repulsions of Oedipus.
    • Daniel J Boorstin

Reaction to European Constitution

  • "The EU Constitution is something new in human history. .Though it is not as eloquent as the French and U.S. constitutions, it is the first governing document of its kind to expand the human franchise to the level of global consciousness.^ In simply refusing to recognise the outcome of the first referendum, the government makes the point of the No campaigners more eloquently than a thousand speeches.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Tony Blair insisted, however, that the humiliating inability of heads of government to get beyond the first items on the summit agenda did not spell doom for the constitution.
    • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

    The language throughout the draft constitution speaks of universalism, making it clear that its focus is not a people, or a territory, or a nation, but rather the human race and the planet we inhabit."
    • Jeremy Rifkin in Utne, 24 October 2004
  • “[The Constitution] will seal the victory of the nation-states over the European 'super-state'".
    • Le Figaro (France), 21 April 2004
  • "The EU Constitution safeguards national sovereignty of Member States."
    • Guilherme Oliveira Martins (Portugese Socialist MP), 19 June 2004
  • "This is a Constitution … which consecrates the EU as a union of sovereign states, which continues not to opt for federal institutions."
    • El Mundo (Spain), 20 June 2004
  • "This Constitution does not reflect the thoughts, hopes and aspirations of ordinary people. It does nothing for jobs or economic growth and widens further still the democratic deficit. The gap between the governors and the governed is now a gaping chasm."
    • Nigel Farage (Leader of UK Independence Party), 24 September 2003
  • "A consensus [that] has been established … around the British concept of a market system stretching from the Atlantic to the Urals, accompanied by intergovernmental co-operation in areas where collective action is more efficient, and a security policy integrated with that of the USA."
    • Nicolas Baverez (French commentator and author), 2003
  • "There is no place for concern that it would change the structure and operation of the EU in a radical way. 90% of the constitution agreement is already in the current agreements. The innovations in the draft will clarify the structure of the EU and make its activity more efficient, as well as strengthen citizens’ rights."
    • Egils Levits (Latvian ECJ Judge), Quoted in “Latvijas avize”, 21 June 2004
  • "Europe is and will be a Union of States."
  • "The British won the day."
    • Corriere della Sera (Italy), 19 Jun 2004
  • "An extraordinary disappointment."
    • Elmar Brok MEP (German federalist), Economist, 31 May 2003
  • "I want to kill myself."
    • Giuliano Amato (Italian federalist),Telegraph, 24 May 2003

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe [1] encompasses an area of 10,400,000 km² (4,000,000 square miles), stretching from Asia to the Atlantic, and from Africa to the Arctic. It is one of the world’s seven continents. .European countries welcome more than 480 million international visitors per year, more than half of the global market, and 7 of the 10 most visited countries are European nations.^ January 21, 2002 Monday All animals are equal David Carr (London) European Union But some animals are more equal than others .
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The scoundrels in Brussels have sold the European people a lot of things: a single market, the euro, the lifting of many border controls and, most recently, a binding global climate policy.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Will the people of this country not accept more readily the institutions of the EU if they are confident that decisions are taken by democratically elected Ministers, rather than by unelected bureaucrats?
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.It's easy to see why - a well preserved cultural heritage, open borders and efficient infrastructure makes visiting Europe a breeze, and rarely will you have to travel more than a few hours before you can immerse yourself in a new culture, and dive into a different Phrasebook.^ LOUIS: Why didn't you say so before?
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ However if you want to see a glimpse of the true future of 'democratic' Europe, don't look at Italy or Austria, look at post-war 'democratic' Bosnia-Herzegovina.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The more it is absorbed into the European project the more it will distance itself from self-government and the more it will be excluded from the huge economic and technological successes for which it is qualified by history and culture.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

Understand

History

.Europe probably has more human history packed into it than any place on the earth.^ The rest does not matter (and, besides, UKIP are probably no more hostile to immigration than is our current Labour Home Secretary).
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The more it is absorbed into the European project the more it will distance itself from self-government and the more it will be excluded from the huge economic and technological successes for which it is qualified by history and culture.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We do not have to be ruled by EUrope in order to have European style cafés in London, any more than we have to be ruled by China to have Chinese Restaurants.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.Starting with ancient Greece and the Roman Empire, the spread of Christianity, the Viking Age, through the Renaissance, to the development of the nation states which explored the world and built empires (Great Britain, Spain, Portugal, France and the Netherlands), and in the past century the World Wars and the growth of the European Union, ...^ Left-wing Labour MPs are girding themselves for a rebellion over a European Union plan which they say could spell the end of the National Health Service .
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The British Council belongs to EUNIC , the European Union National Institutes for Culture, and this new organisation was launched on the 21st February 2007 (pdf file).
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ David Carr (London) European Union • North American affairs The world is a complex and confusing place oftentimes.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

in .Europe you won't go short on history.^ Go and buy a history book if you don't believe me.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

Geography

Europe's longest river is the Volga, which meanders 3,530 km (2,193 miles) through Russia, and flows into the Caspian Sea. Europe's highest point is Russia's Mt. Elbrus, which rises to 5,642 m (18,510 feet) above sea level. Western Europe's highest point is Mont Blanc in the French-Italian Alps, which rises to 4,810 m (15,771 feet) above sea level. .Other important high mountain ranges include the Pyrenees between France and Spain and the Carpathians that run through Central Europe to the Balkans.^ "In retrospect, all Sweden got was to put itself at a disadvantage in a car market that still includes, Britain, Japan, India, and various other important places.
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Remaining EU 15 nations are projected to suffer losses in working population ranging from the manageable (France, minus 8%) to the catastrophic (Spain, minus 35%, Italy, minus 41%).
  • European Union Archives | Samizdata.net 27 January 2010 23:51 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

Cyprus is also considered part of Europe.

Climate

Europe's climate ranges from subtropical near the Mediterranean Sea in the south, to subarctic near the Barents Sea and Arctic Ocean in the northern latitudes. There is much here for the traveller to enjoy, with a bewildering array of diversity and languages and culture, cosmopolitan cities and spectacular scenery, let alone some of the leading cities of the world.
Map of Europe's regions
Map of Europe's regions
Balkans
Baltic states
Britain and Ireland
Caucasus
Central Europe
France and the Benelux
Greece, Turkey, and Cyprus
Iberia
Italy
Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus
Scandinavia
See also European M