European Atomic Energy Community: Wikis

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European Atomic Energy Community
Current membership of Euratom
Administrative center Brussels, Belgium
Official languages 23
Type International Organisation
Membership 27 EU Members
Establishment 1958
 -  Treaty of Rome 1 January 1958 
 -  Merger Treaty 1 July 1967 
Fully controlled by the European Union

The European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom) is an international organisation which is legally distinct from, but completely controlled by, the European Union.

It was established on 25 March 1957 along with the European Economic Community (EEC) by the Treaty of Rome, being taken over by the executive institutions of the EEC in 1967. Even though the other communities were merged together in 1993 and 2009, the community has maintained a legally distinct nature from the European Union.

Contents

History

The Common Assembly proposed extending the powers of the European Coal and Steel Community to cover other sources of energy. However Jean Monnet, ECSC architect and President, desired a separate community to cover nuclear power. Louis Armand was put in charge of a study into the prospects of nuclear energy use in Europe, his report concluded that further nuclear development was needed to fill the deficit left by the exhaustion of coal deposits and to reduce dependence on oil producers. However the Benelux states and Germany were also keen on creating a general common market, although it was opposed by France due to its protectionism and Jean Monnet thought it too large and difficult a task. In the end, Monnet proposed the creation of separate atomic energy and economic communities, to reconcile both groups.[1]

The Intergovernmental Conference on the Common Market and Euratom at Val Duchesse in 1956 drew up the essentials of the new treaties. Euratom would foster co-operation in the nuclear field, at the time a very popular area, and would, along with the EEC, share the Common Assembly and Court of Justice of the ECSC, but not its executives. Euratom would have its own Commission, with fewer powers than the ECSC's High Authority, and Council. On 25 March 1957, the Treaties of Rome were signed by the ECSC members and on 1 January 1958 they came into force.[2][3][4]

To save on resources, these separate executives created by the Rome Treaties were merged in 1965 by the Merger Treaty. The institutions of the EEC would take over responsibilities for the running of the EEC and Euratom, with all three then becoming known as the European Communities although each legally existed separately. In 1993, the Maastricht Treaty created the European Union, which absorbed the Communities into the European Community pillar, yet Euratom still maintains a distinct legal personality and the treaty remains in force relatively un-amended from its original signing.

The European Constitution was intended to consolidate all previous treaties and increase democratic accountability in them. The Euratom had not been amended in the same way the other treaties had and hence the European Parliament had been granted few powers of it. However, the reason it had gone unamended was the same reason the Constitution left it to remain separate from the rest of the EU: anti-nuclear sentiment among the European electorate which may unnecessarily turn voters against the treaty.[5][6][7]

Signed
In force
Treaty
1948
1948
Brussels
1951
1952
Paris
1954
1955
Paris Agr.
1957
1958
Rome
1965
1967
Merger
1986
1987
Single Act
1992
1993
Maastricht (EU est.)
1997
1999
Amsterdam
2001
2003
Nice
2007
2009
Lisbon
Pix.gif Pix.gif Pix.gif Pix.gif Pix.gif Pix.gif Pix.gif Pix.gif
                   
      European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM)
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Treaty of Paris expired in 2002    European Union (EU)
    European Economic Community (EEC)
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European Community (EC)
  European Communities Justice & Home Affairs (JHA)
    Police & Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJCC)
European Political Cooperation (EPC) Common Foreign & Security Policy (CFSP)
Unconsolidated bodies Western European Union (WEU)    
                   
European Union

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Aims and achievements

The purposes of Euratom are to create a specialist market for nuclear power and distribute it through the Community and to develop nuclear energy and sell surplus to non-Community States. Its major project is currently its participation in the international fusion reactor ITER [8] financed under the nuclear part of FP7. Euratom also provides a mechanism for providing loans to finance nuclear projects in the EU.

In European regulation's history Article 37 of the Euratom Treaty represents pioneering legislation concerning binding transfrontier obligations with respect to environmental impact and protection of humans[9]

Presidents of the EAEC

The five member Commission was led by only three Presidents while it had independent executives (1958-1967), all from France;

See also

References

External links

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