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European Green Party
Europäische Grüne Partei
Parti Vert européen
Partito Verde Europeo
Partido Verde europeo
Il-Partit tal-Ħodor Ewropew
Páirtí Glas na hEorpa
Secretary-General Jacqueline Cremers
Spokesperson Monica Frassoni and Philippe Lamberts
Founded February 21, 2004 (2004-02-21)
Headquarters Rue Wiertzstraat 31, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
Ideology Green politics
International affiliation Global Greens
European Parliament Group European Greens–European Free Alliance
Official colours Green and yellow
Website
www.europeangreens.eu
Politics of the European Union
Political parties
Elections

The European Green Party (or European Greens or EGP) is the Green political party at European level. As such it is a federation of green parties in Europe.

Contents

History

Before the foundation of the European Green Party in 2004 the Green Parties of Europe were organized differently, in a loose coordination between 1979 and 1993 and in a federation between 1993 and 2004[1].

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1979 to 1993

In 1979 the Coordination of European Green and Radical Parties (CEGRP) was set up to coordinate the participation of Green and Radical parties in the 1979 European Parliament election. There was considerable diversity between the Green and Radical groups and the parties were unable to form a common pan-European electoral platform. Although some parties polled well, no Green entered the European Parliament.

In the 1984 election the Greens entered again. They held a congress in the spring of 1984 in Liège and set up a restructured European Green Coordination (EGC), with a secretariat provided by the Dutch Political Party of Radicals. They also issued a Joint Declaration of the European Green Parties. Furthermore, overall the member parties had grown stronger. Eleven MEPs of member parties were elected to the European Parliament.[2] They formed the Green Alternative European Link (GRAEL) in the European Parliament. The group was too small to be recognized by the Parliament for funds and committees and therefore it joined the Rainbow Group, which also encompased regionalists, the Danish People's Movement against the European Community and some radicals and socialists. The European Greens formed a loose confederal triangular structure with the autonomous GRAEL in parliament, the weak EGC as a supra-national coordinating body and the member parties. The position of the European Greens was also weakened by the principle of rotation which some member parties (Germany and the Netherlands) used, with their MEPs being replaced by another after serving half their term. This rotation technique originated with the German Greens to prevent their members being co-opted by the informal negotiation system within the Bundestag,[3] but it served them badly within the European Parliament. For the Dutch parties the choice for rotation was a compromise between three parties which had only two seats in parliament: one seat was kept by the top candidate while the second seat rotated between the second and the third candidate. This way each party would have a representative in the EP. Finally there still was considerable diversity in the opinions of the Greens, especially between pro-European and Eurosceptic tendencies. These factors weakened the position of the Greens in Parliament.

In 1989 election the Green parties won 26 seats.[4] Because of political conflicts with the continuing Rainbow Group, the European Greens formed a separate parliamentary group, The Green Group in the European Parliament. During this period the Greens became more entrenched in parliament.

1993 to 2004

In June 1993 the European Federation of Green Parties was formed by the members of the EGC in Kirkkonummi, Finland. The organization became more structured, it now had a three-yearly Congress, a Council and a Federation Committee (executive). It strengthened its ties with the Green Group in the European parliament.

In the 1994 election Green parties won a total of 20 seats.[5] They were joined by a member of the Danish Socialist People's Party and one member of both the Italian South Tyrolean People's Party and La Rete. Again the Greens formed a separate group from Rainbow Group, now renamed the European Radical Alliance.

In the 1999 election the Greens performed particularly well winning 38 seats.[6]. They formed a combined group with the European Free Alliance, which represented regionalist parties and independence movements, which previously participated in the European Radical Alliance. The relationship between the Greens and these parties was different from before, as the Greens were stronger numerically and politically.

Since 2004

The European Green Party was founded at the Fourth Congress of the European Federation of Green Parties on February 20–22, 2004 in Rome in a party convention with over 1,000 delegates. Thirty-two Green parties from all over Europe joined this new pan-European party. The foundation of the new party was finished with a signing of the treaty constituting the party in the Capitol of Rome. As such the Greens were the first to form a political party at European level, the other European federations follow suit in the period 2004-2006

In the 2004 European Parliament election the member parties won 35 MEPs. In 2009 European Parliament election campaign, even though the European Parliament was made smaller, the EGP member parties won 46 seats, the best result of the Green Parties in 30 years.

Ideology and issues

The European Greens have always been committed to basic tenets of Green politics, such as environmental responsibility, individual freedom, inclusive democracy, diversity, social justice, gender equality, global sustainable development and non-violence.[7]

However, its relationship to the European Union and its institutions have changed dramatically and are still the subject of a lively debate. In the 1970s and 1980s the European Greens were generally skeptical of European political and economic integration, which was seen as contrary to environmental and social interests. In its 1984 program, the European Greens advocated the formation of an alternative Europe, which was neutral and decentralized. In 1989, some member parties adopted a more parliamentary course and became more supportive of European integration. The program advocates the democratization of Europe's institutions. In their 1994 program, the Greens abandoned their principled opposition of European integration and began to propose pragmatic alternatives for the European Union's policies and institutions. The 1999 and 2004 programs also reflect this.

There is also considerable diversity between the opinions of member parties: they range from pro-European, such as the Luxembourgish Dei Greng to Eurosceptic, such as the Swedish Miljöpartiet de Gröna.

In the area of Internet politics, the European Greens–European Free Alliance parliamentary group became famous for the strong support of proponents for a free information infrastructure, especially in their work on the directive against software patents in 2003.

Representation

In this table one can see the results of the Greens for the six direct elections to the European Parliament, in terms of seats and votes. It is also shows how many European Commissioners the European Greens have, who led the parliamentary group. It also lists how the Green parliamentary group and supra-national organizations was named and what European parliamentary group they joined.

Year MEPs MEPs % Votes % EC Leaders EP Subgroup EP group Organization
1979 0 0 2.4% 0 none none none Coordination of European Green and Radical Parties
1984 11 2.5% 4.2% 0 Alexander Langer and Maria Amelia Santos Green Alternative European Link Rainbow Group European Green Coordination
1989 25 4.8% 7.4% 0 Alexander Langer and Maria Amelia Santos Green Group in the European Parliament European Green Coordination
1994 21 3.7% 7.4% 0 Alexander Langer and Claudia Roth Green Group in the European Parliament European Federation of Green Parties
1999 38 6.1% 7.7% 1[8] Heidi Hautala and Paul Lannoye European Greens European Greens–European Free Alliance European Federation of Green Parties
2004 35 4.8% 7.3% 0 Daniel Cohn-Bendit and Monica Frassoni European Greens European Greens–European Free Alliance European Green Party
2009 46[9] 6.3% ? 0 Daniel Cohn-Bendit and Rebecca Harms European Greens European Greens–European Free Alliance European Green Party

Organization

Organizational structure

The European Green Party is constituted out of political parties from European countries (although not necessarily from European Union member states). Parties can also become observer. Since 2004 individual membership of the European Green Party is also possible, these do not enjoin special rights however.

The most important bodies of the EGP are the Congress, the Council and the Committee.[10]

  • The Congress consists out of 400 representatives of member parties and Green MEPs. These are allotted proportionally on basis of their votes in the most recent European or national election. Each party has at least four members. The congress has the last word on general policy of the EGP and its guiding principles.
  • The Council consists out of representatives of the MEPs and the member parties, small parties have one representative, larger ones two. The council is responsible for political affairs between congresses and it decides over organizational matters, such as the election of committee, the application of members and observers and the statutes of the EGP.
  • The Committee consists out of nine members, including two spokespersons (one man and one woman), a secretary-general and a treasurer. They are responsible for daily political affairs, execution of the council's decisions and the activities of the secretariat-general.

All of these bodies decide with a two-thirds majority.

The European Greens are organized in several regional networks. These are organized around seas, creating somewhat of a bioregional structure: such as the Green Islands Network ("a network for Green Parties in Britain, Ireland and associated islands"), the Baltic Sea Greens, the Green Mediterranean Network, Green Adriatic Network and the North Sea Greens

Member parties

Country or Region Name (original language) Name (in English) Status MEPs
AlbaniaAlbania Partia e Gjelber Green Party member n/a
AustriaAustria Die Grünen The Greens member 2
FlandersFlemish Community of Belgium Groen! Green! member 1
BelgiumFrench Community and German-speaking Community of Belgium Ecolo Ecolo member 2
BulgariaBulgaria Зелена партия/Зелените Green Party/The Greens[11] member 0
CyprusCyprus Κίνημα Οικολόγων Περιβαλλοντιστών Ecological and Environmental Movement member 0
Czech RepublicCzech Republic Strana zelených Green Party member 0
EstoniaEstonia Eestimaa Rohelised Estonian Greens member 0
FinlandFinland Vihreät Green League member 2
EnglandWalesEngland and Wales Green Party of England and Wales Green Party of England and Wales member 2
FranceFrance Les Verts The Greens member 7
Georgia (country)Georgia საქართველოს მწვანეთა პარტია Georgia Greens member n/a
GermanyGermany Bündnis 90/Die Grünen Alliance '90/The Greens member 14
GreeceGreece Οικολόγοι Πράσινοι Ecologists Greens member 1
HungaryHungary Zöld Demokraták Green Democrats member 0
Republic of IrelandIreland Green Party/Comhaontas Glas Green Alliance member 0
ItalyItaly Federazione dei Verdi Federation of Greens member 0
LatviaLatvia Latvijas Zaļā Partija Latvian Green Party member 0
LuxembourgLuxembourg Déi Gréng The Greens member 1
MaltaMalta Alternattiva Demokratika Democratic Alternative member 0
MoldovaMoldova Partidul Ecologist din Moldova "Aliante Verde" Ecologist Party of Moldova Green Alliance member 0
NetherlandsNetherlands De Groenen The Greens member 0
NetherlandsNetherlands GroenLinks GreenLeft member 3
United KingdomNorthern Ireland Green Party in Northern Ireland Green Party in Northern Ireland member 0
NorwayNorway Miljøpartiet De Grønne Environmental Party The Greens member n/a
PolandPoland Zieloni 2004 Greens 2004 member 0
PortugalPortugal Os Verdes The Greens member 0
RomaniaRomania Partidul Verde Green Party member 0
RussiaRussia Zelyonaya Alternativa Green Alternative member n/a
ScotlandScotland Scottish Green Party Scottish Green Party member 0
SlovakiaSlovakia Strana zelených Green Party member 0
SloveniaSlovenia Stranka mladih Slovenije Youth Party of Slovenia member 0
SpainSpain Los Verdes The Greens member 0
SpainSpain Iniciativa per Catalunya Verds Initiative for Catalonia Greens member 1
SwedenSweden Miljöpartiet de Gröna Environmental Party The Greens member 2
SwitzerlandSwitzerland Grüne / Les Verts / La Verda / Verdi The Greens member n/a
UkraineUkraine Партія Зелених України (Partija Zelenych Ukrajiny) Green Party of Ukraine member n/a
AndorraAndorra Els Verds d'Andorra Greens of Andorra observer n/a
AzerbaijanAzerbaijan Azərbaycan Yaşıllar Partiyası Green Party of Azerbaijan observer n/a
BelarusBelarus Bielaruskaja Partyja "Zialonye" Belarussian party The Greens observer n/a
CroatiaCroatia Zelena lista Green List of Croatia observer n/a
DenmarkDenmark Socialistisk Folkeparti Socialist People's Party observer 2
HungaryHungary Lehet Más a Politika Politics Can Be Different observer 0
SerbiaSerbia Zeleni Greens observer n/a
TurkeyTurkey Yeşiller Greens observer n/a
European UnionEurope Federation of Young European Greens Federation of Young European Greens observer n/a
European UnionEurope European Network of Green Seniors European Network of Green Seniors observer n/a
sources[12][13]

De Grønne from Denmark were expelled from the EGP in 2008.[14] The reason was that De Grønne intended to cooperate with the People's Movement against the EU in the upcoming elections which sits in the European United Left–Nordic Green Left parliamentary group instead of the European Greens–European Free Alliance-group.

Linked organisations

The most important organization linked to the EGP is the Federation of Young European Greens, which is a similar federation of Green youth organizations.

The EGP fosters a European Network of Green Seniors and a European Green Gender Observatory.

Formally the European Greens–European Free Alliance in the European Parliament is also an independent organization with official ties to the EGP.

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ history of the European Green Party at europeangreens.org
  2. ^ 7 for the German Greens, 1 for the Dutch Political Party of Radicals, 1 for the Dutch Pacifist Socialist Party, an ally of the PPR, 1 for Ecolo and 1 for Agalev
  3. ^ Hines, Eric (2003). "The European Parliament And The Europeanization Of Green Parties" (PDF). University of Iowa. http://myweb.uiowa.edu/ehhines/culturaldyamicshines.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-01. 
  4. ^ 7 for the German Greens, 8 for French Greens, 2 for the Dutch GroenLinks, 2 for Ecolo and 1 for Agalev, 1 for the Spanish IP, 2 for the Italian Rainbow Greens and 2 for the Italian Federation of Greens
  5. ^ 12 for the German Greens, 1 for the Dutch GreenLeft, 1 for Ecolo and 1 for Agalev, 1 for the Luxembourgish Dei Greng IP, 2 for the Italian Federation of Greens and 2 for the Green Party
  6. ^ 7 for the German Greens, 4 for the Dutch GreenLeft, 3 for Ecolo and 2 for Agalev, 1 for the Luxembourgish Dei Greng, 2 for the Italian Federation of Greens, 2 for the Green Party, 9 for Les Verts, 2 for the Austrian Greens, 2 for the Finnish Green League, 2 for the Swedish Green Party and 2 for the Green Party of England and Wales
  7. ^ charter of the European Green Party at europeangreens.org
  8. ^ Michaele Schreyer for the German Greens
  9. ^ includes 6 independent MEPs elected for the Europe Écologie group
  10. ^ statutes of the European Green party at europeangreens.org
  11. ^ Bulgarian Green Party/Bulgarian Greens - Bulgaria on EuropeanGreens.org
  12. ^ Member Parties
  13. ^ Observer Parties
  14. ^ new item on the site of the Danish Greens

External links


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