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See Gudari for disambiguation. It was also the pseudonym of the Basque nationalist Eli Gallastegi.

Euzko Gudarostea (modern spelling: Eusko Gudarostea, "Basque army") was the name of the army commanded by the Basque Government during the Spanish civil war. It was formed by Basque nationalists, Socialists and communists under the direction of lendakari José Antonio Aguirre and coordinating with the army of the Second Spanish Republic. It fought the troops of Francisco Franco during 1936 and 1937. It surrendered to the Italian Corpo Truppe Volontarie at Santoña (province of Cantabria), while the rest of the Republican army kept fighting until 1939. This event is referred as the Treason of Santoña by some Spanish leftists.


The Basque word for a soldier gudari (plural gudariak) is a neologism (from guda, "war", thus meaning "warrior" literally). The Standard Basque word is the Romance-derived soldadu.[1] Like other Nationalist neologisms (ikurriña, lendakari), its meaning has been restricted to Basque concepts.

ETA members fire salvoes in the Gudari Eguna (25 September 2006, Oiartzun).
PNV members celebrate the Gudari Eguna

The members of the Basque terrorist organization ETA consider themselves gudariak continuing the struggle of the Civil War Basque soldiers. This is contested by those war veterans that support PNV, PSOE or PCE.

The Gudari Eguna ("warrior day") is thus celebrated separately:

  • by ETA supporters on 27 September, remembering the date (1975) of the execution of Jon Paredes, a.k.a. Txiki in Barcelona, and Anjel Otaegi in Villalón, Burgos.[2]
  • by PNV supporters on 9 November since 1937.[3]

See also


  1. ^ Hiztegia 3000.
  2. ^ Gara: 27-IX-75: El día en que Franco gastó sus últimas balas.
  3. ^ PNV press release: Arzalluz acudirá el domingo al Gudari Eguna en Bilbao (2003/11/09)
  4. ^ Ertzaina 1936, Museo Policia Vasca


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