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The eutrophication of the Potomac River is evident from its bright green water, caused by a dense bloom of cyanobacteria.

Eutrophication is an increase in the concentration of chemical nutrients in an ecosystem to an extent that increases the primary productivity of the ecosystem. Depending on the degree of eutrophication, subsequent negative environmental effects such as anoxia and severe reductions in water quality, fish, and other animal populations may occur.


Lakes and rivers

Eutrophication is often the result of anthropogenic pollution with nutrients, particularly the release of sewage effluent and agricultural run-off carrying fertilizers into natural waters. However, it also occurs naturally in situations where nutrients accumulate (e.g. depositional environments) or where they flow into systems on an ephemeral basis. Eutrophication generally promotes excessive plant growth and decay, favours simple algae and plankton over other more complicated plants, and causes a severe reduction in water quality. In aquatic environments, enhanced growth of choking aquatic vegetation or phytoplankton (e.g.algal blooms) disrupts normal functioning of the ecosystem, causing a variety of problems such as a lack of oxygen in the water, needed for fish and shellfish to survive. The water then becomes cloudy, coloured a shade of green, yellow, brown, or red. Human society is impacted as well: eutrophication decreases the resource value of rivers, lakes, and estuaries such that recreation, fishing, hunting, and aesthetic enjoyment are hindered. Health-related problems can occur where eutrophic conditions interfere with drinking water treatment.[1]

Eutrophication was recognized as a pollution problem in European and North American lakes and reservoirs in the mid-20th century.[2] Since then, it has become more widespread. Surveys showed that 54% of lakes in Asia are eutrophic; in Europe, 53%; in North America, 48%; in South America, 41%; and in Africa, 28%.[3]

Although eutrophication is commonly caused by human activities, eutrophication can also be a natural process in lakes; thus, eutrophy is a natural condition for many lakes (e.g., in temperate grasslands). Paleolimnologists now recognise that climate change, geology, and other external influences are critical in regulating the natural productivity of lakes. Some lakes also demonstrate the reverse process (meiotrophication), becoming less nutrient rich with time.[4][5]

Eutrophication can also be a natural process in seasonally inundated tropical floodplains such as the Barotse Floodplain of the Zambezi River. The first floodwaters to move down the floodplain after the onset of the rainy season, called "red waters", are usually hypoxic and kill many fish as a result of eutrophication brought on by material picked up by the flood from the plain such as cattle manure, and by the decay of vegetation which grew during the dry season.[6] The process may be made worse by the use of fertilizers in crops such as maize, rice, and sugarcane grown on the floodplain.

Human activities can accelerate the rate at which nutrients enter ecosystems. Runoff from agriculture and development, pollution from septic systems and sewers, and other human-related activities increase the flux of both inorganic nutrients and organic substances into terrestrial, and aquatic ecosystems. Elevated atmospheric compounds of nitrogen can increase nitrogen availability. Phosphorus is often regarded as the main culprit in cases of eutrophication in lakes subjected to point source pollution from sewage. The concentration of algae and the trophic state of lakes correspond well to phosphorus levels in water. Studies conducted in the Experimental Lakes Area in Ontario have shown a relationship between the addition of phosphorus and the rate of eutrophication. Humankind has increased the rate of phosphorus cycling on Earth by four times, mainly due to agricultural fertilizer production and application. Between 1950 and 1995; 600,000,000 tonnes of phosphorus were applied to Earth's surface, primarily on croplands.[7] Control of point sources of phosphorus have resulted in rapid control of eutrophication, mainly due to policy changes.

Ocean waters

Eutrophication is also a common phenomenon in marine, coastal waters. In contrast to freshwater systems, nitrogen is more commonly the key limiting nutrient of marine waters; thus, nitrogen levels have greater importance to understanding eutrophication problems in salt water. Estuaries tend to be naturally eutrophic because land-derived nutrients are concentrated where run-off enters the marine environment in a confined channel. Upwelling in coastal systems also promotes increased productivity by conveying deep, nutrient-rich waters to the surface, where the nutrients can be assimilated by algae.

The World Resources Institute has identified 375 hypoxic coastal zones in the world, concentrated in coastal areas in Western Europe, the Eastern and Southern coasts of the US, and East Asia, particularly in Japan.[8]

In addition to runoff from land, atmospheric anthropogenic fixed nitrogen can enter the open ocean. A study in 2008 found that this could account for around one third of the ocean’s external (non-recycled) nitrogen supply and up to 3% of the annual new marine biological production.[9] It has been suggested that accumulating reactive nitrogen in the environment may prove as serious as putting carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.[10]

Terrestrial ecosystems

Although traditionally thought of as enrichment of aquatic systems by addition of fertilizers into lakes, bays, or other semi-enclosed waters (even slow-moving rivers), terrestrial ecosystems are subject to similarly adverse impacts.[11] Increased content of nitrates in soil frequently leads to undesirable changes in vegetation composition and many plant species are endangered as a result of eutrophication in terrestrial ecosystems, such as the majority of orchid species in Europe.[12] Ecosystems (like some meadows, forests, and bogs that are characterized by low nutrient content and species-rich, slowly growing vegetation adapted to lower nutrient levels) are overgrown by faster growing and more competitive species-poor vegetation, like tall grasses, that can take advantage of unnaturally elevated nitrogen levels and the area may be changed beyond recognition and vulnerable species may be lost. For example, species-rich fens are overtaken by reed or reedgrass species, and forest undergrowth affected by run-off from a nearby fertilized field can be turned into a thick nettle and bramble shrub.

Chemical forms of nitrogen are most often of concern with regard to eutrophication because plants have high nitrogen requirements so that additions of nitrogen compounds stimulate plant growth (primary production). This is also the case with increased levels of phosphorus. Nitrogen is not readily available in soil because N2, a gaseous form of nitrogen, is very stable and unavailable directly to higher plants. Terrestrial ecosystems rely on microbial nitrogen fixation to convert N2 into other physical forms (such as nitrates). However, there is a limit to how much nitrogen can be utilized. Ecosystems receiving more nitrogen than the plants require are called nitrogen-saturated. Saturated terrestrial ecosystems contribute both inorganic and organic nitrogen to freshwater, coastal, and marine eutrophication, where nitrogen is also typically a limiting nutrient.[13] However, because phosphorus is generally much less soluble than nitrogen, it is leached from the soil at a much slower rate than nitrogen. Consequently, phosphorus is much more important as a limiting nutrient in aquatic systems.[14]

Ecological effects

Eutrophication is apparent as increased turbidity in the northern part of the Caspian Sea, imaged from orbit.

Many ecological effects can arise from stimulating primary production, but there are three particularly troubling ecological impacts: decreased biodiversity, changes in species composition and dominance, and toxicity effects.

  • Increased biomass of phytoplankton
  • Toxic or inedible phytoplankton species
  • Increases in blooms of gelatinous zooplankton
  • Decreased biomass of benthic and epiphytic algae
  • Changes in macrophyte species composition and biomass
  • Decreases in water transparency (increased turbidity)
  • Colour, smell, and water treatment problems
  • Dissolved oxygen depletion
  • Increased incidences of fish kills
  • Loss of desirable fish species
  • Reductions in harvestable fish and shellfish
  • Decreases in perceived aesthetic value of the water body

Decreased biodiversity

When an ecosystem experiences an increase in nutrients, primary producers reap the benefits first. In aquatic ecosystems, species such as algae experience a population increase (called an algal bloom). Algal blooms limit the sunlight available to bottom-dwelling organisms and cause wide swings in the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water. Oxygen is required by all respiring plants and animals and it is replenished in daylight by photosynthesizing plants and algae. Under eutrophic conditions, dissolved oxygen greatly increases during the day, but is greatly reduced after dark by the respiring algae and by microorganisms that feed on the increasing mass of dead algae. When dissolved oxygen levels decline to hypoxic levels, fish and other marine animals suffocate. As a result, creatures such as fish, shrimp, and especially immobile bottom dwellers die off.[15] In extreme cases, anaerobic conditions ensure, promoting growth of bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum that produces toxins deadly to birds and mammals. Zones where this occurs are known as dead zones.

New species invasion

Eutrophication may cause competitive release by making abundant a normally limiting nutrient. This process causes shifts in the species composition of ecosystems. For instance, an increase in nitrogen might allow new, competitive species to invade and out-compete original inhabitant species. This has been shown to occur[16] in New England salt marshes.


Some algal blooms, otherwise called "nuisance algae" or "harmful algal blooms", are toxic to plants and animals. Toxic compounds they produce can make their way up the food chain, resulting in animal mortality.[17] Freshwater algal blooms can pose a threat to livestock. When the algae die or are eaten, neuro- and hepatotoxins are released which can kill animals and may pose a threat to humans.[18][19] An example of algal toxins working their way into humans is the case of shellfish poisoning.[20] Biotoxins created during algal blooms are taken up by shellfish (mussels, oysters), leading to these human foods acquiring the toxicity and poisoning humans. Examples include paralytic, neurotoxic, and diarrhoetic shellfish poisoning. Other marine animals can be vectors for such toxins, as in the case of ciguatera, where it is typically a predator fish that accumulates the toxin and then poisons humans.

Sources of high nutrient runoff

Characteristics of point and nonpoint sources of chemical inputs ([7] modified from Novonty and Olem 1994)
Point Sources
  • Wastewater effluent (municipal and industrial)
  • Runoff and leachate from waste disposal systems
  • Runoff and infiltration from animal feedlots
  • Runoff from mines, oil fields, unsewered industrial sites
  • Overflows of combined storm and sanitary sewers
  • Runoff from construction sites less than 20,000 m² (220,000 ft²)
  • Untreated sewage

Nonpoint Sources

  • Runoff from agriculture/irrigation
  • Runoff from pasture and range
  • Urban runoff from unsewered areas
  • Septic tank leachate
  • Runoff from construction sites >20,000 m²
  • Runoff from abandoned mines
  • Atmospheric deposition over a water surface
  • Other land activities generating contaminants

In order to gauge how to best prevent eutrophication from occurring, specific sources that contribute to nutrient loading must be identified. There are two common sources of nutrients and organic matter: point and nonpoint sources.

Point sources

Point sources are directly attributable to one influence. In point sources the nutrient waste travels directly from source to water. Point sources are relatively easy to regulate.

Nonpoint sources

Nonpoint source pollution (also known as 'diffuse' or 'runoff' pollution) is that which comes from ill-defined and diffuse sources. Nonpoint sources are difficult to regulate and usually vary spatially and temporally (with season, precipitation, and other irregular events).

It has been shown that nitrogen transport is correlated with various indices of human activity in watersheds,[21][22] including the amount of development.[16] Agriculture and development are activities that contribute most to nutrient loading. There are three reasons that nonpoint sources are especially troublesome:[14]

Soil retention

Nutrients from human activities tend to accumulate in soils and remain there for years. It has been shown[23] that the amount of phosphorus lost to surface waters increases linearly with the amount of phosphorus in the soil. Thus much of the nutrient loading in soil eventually makes its way to water. Nitrogen, similarly, has a turnover time of decades or more.

Runoff to surface water and leaching to groundwater

Nutrients from human activities tend to travel from land to either surface or ground water. Nitrogen in particular is removed through storm drains, sewage pipes, and other forms of surface runoff. Nutrient losses in runoff and leachate are often associated with agriculture. Modern agriculture often involves the application of nutrients onto fields in order to maximise production. However, farmers frequently apply more nutrients than are taken up by crops[24] or pastures. Regulations aimed at minimising nutrient exports from agriculture are typically far less stringent than those placed on sewage treatment plants[7] and other point source polluters.

Atmospheric deposition

Nitrogen is released into the air because of ammonia volatilization and nitrous oxide production. The combustion of fossil fuels is a large human-initiated contributor to atmospheric nitrogen pollution. Atmospheric deposition (e.g., in the form of acid rain) can also affect nutrient concentration in water,[25] especially in highly industrialized regions.

Other causes

Any factor that causes increased nutrient concentrations can potentially lead to eutrophication. In modeling eutrophication, the rate of water renewal plays a critical role; stagnant water is allowed to collect more nutrients than bodies with replenished water supplies. It has also been shown that the drying of wetlands causes an increase in nutrient concentration and subsequent eutrophication blooms.[26]

Prevention and reversal

Eutrophication poses a problem not only to ecosystems, but to humans as well. Reducing eutrophication should be a key concern when considering future policy, and a sustainable solution for everyone, including farmers and ranchers, seems feasible. While eutrophication does pose problems, humans should be aware that natural runoff (which causes algal blooms in the wild) is common in ecosystems and should thus not reverse nutrient concentrations beyond normal levels.


Cleanup measures have been mostly, but not completely, successful. Finnish phosphorus removal measures started in the mid-1970s and have targeted rivers and lakes polluted by industrial and municipal discharges. These efforts have had a 90% removal efficiency.[27] Still, some targeted point sources did not show a decrease in runoff despite reduction efforts.

Minimizing nonpoint pollution: future work

Nonpoint pollution is the most difficult source of nutrients to manage. The literature suggests, though, that when these sources are controlled, eutrophication decreases. The following steps are recommended to minimize the amount of pollution that can enter aquatic ecosystems from ambiguous sources.

Riparian buffer zones

Studies show that intercepting non-point pollution between the source and the water is a successful means of prevention.[7] Riparian buffer zones are interfaces between a flowing body of water and land, and have been created near waterways in an attempt to filter pollutants; sediment and nutrients are deposited here instead of in water. Creating buffer zones near farms and roads is another possible way to prevent nutrients from traveling too far. Still, studies have shown[28] that the effects of atmospheric nitrogen pollution can reach far past the buffer zone. This suggests that the most effective means of prevention is from the primary source.

Prevention policy

Laws regulating the discharge and treatment of sewage have led to dramatic nutrient reductions to surrounding ecosystems,[14] but it is generally agreed that a policy regulating agricultural use of fertilizer and animal waste must be imposed. In Japan the amount of nitrogen produced by livestock is adequate to serve the fertilizer needs for the agriculture industry.[29] Thus, it is not unreasonable to command livestock owners to clean up animal waste—which when left stagnant will leach into ground water.

Nitrogen testing and modeling

Soil Nitrogen Testing (N-Testing) is a technique that helps farmers optimize the amount of fertilizer applied to crops. By testing fields with this method, farmers saw a decrease in fertilizer application costs, a decrease in nitrogen lost to surrounding sources, or both.[30] By testing the soil and modeling the bare minimum amount of fertilizer needed, farmers reap economic benefits while the environment remains clean and pure.

Organic Farming

Researchers at the National Academy of Sciences found that organically fertilized fields "significantly reduce harmful nitrate leaching" over conventionally fertilized fields.[31]

See also


  1. ^ Bartram, J., Wayne W. Carmichael, Ingrid Chorus, Gary Jones, and Olav M. Skulberg. 1999. Chapter 1. Introduction, In: Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water: A guide to their public health consequences, monitoring and management. World Health Organization. URL: WHO document
  2. ^ Rodhe, W. 1969 Crystallization of eutrophication concepts in North Europe. In: Eutrophication, Causes, Consequences, Correctives. National Academy of Sciences, Washington D.C., Standard Book Number 309-01700-9, 50-64.
  3. ^ ILEC/Lake Biwa Research Institute [Eds]. 1988-1993 Survey of the State of the World's Lakes. Volumes I-IV. International Lake Environment Committee, Otsu and United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi.
  4. ^ Walker, I. R. 2006. Chironomid overview. pp.360-366 in S.A. EIias (ed.) Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science, Vo1. 1, Elsevier, Amsterdamians are jewish
  5. ^ Whiteside. M. C. 1983. The mythical concept of eutrophication. Hydrobiologia 103, 107-111.
  6. ^ "Barotse Floodplain, Zambia: local economic dependence on wetland resources." Case Studies in Wetland Valuation #2: IUCN, May 2003.
  7. ^ a b c d Carpenter, S.R., N.F. Caraco, and V.H. Smith. 1998. Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecological Applications 8:559-568.
  8. ^ Selman, Mindy (2007) Eutrophication: An Overview of Status, Trends, Policies, and Strategies. World Resources Institute.
  9. ^ Duce, R A and 29 others (2008) Impacts of Atmospheric Anthropogenic Nitrogen on the Open Ocean Science. Vol 320, pp 893–89
  10. ^ Addressing the nitrogen cascade Eureka Alert, 2008.
  11. ^ APIS. 2005. Website: Air Pollution Information System Eutrophication
  12. ^ Pullin, Andrew S. (2002). Conservation biology. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-5216-4482-8. 
  13. ^ Hornung M., Sutton M.A. and Wilson R.B. [Eds.] (1995): Mapping and modelling of critical loads for nitrogen - a workshop report. Grange-over-Sands, Cumbria, UK. UN-ECE Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution, Working Group for Effects, 24-26 October 1994. Published by: Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Edinburgh, UK.
  14. ^ a b c Smith, V.H.; G.D. Tilman, and J.C. Nekola (1999). "Eutrophication: impacts of excess nutrient inputs on freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems". Environmental Pollution 100 (1-3): 179–196. doi:10.1016/S0269-7491(99)00091-3. PMID 15093117. 
  15. ^ Horrigan, L.; R. S. Lawrence, and P. Walker (2002). "How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture". Environmental health perspectives 110 (5): 445–456. PMID 12003747. 
  16. ^ a b Bertness et al. 2001
  17. ^ Anderson D.M. 1994. Red tides. Scientific American 271:62-68.
  18. ^ Lawton, L.A.; G.A. Codd (1991). "Cyanobacterial (blue-green algae) toxins and their significance in UK and European waters". Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 40: 87–97. 
  19. ^ Martin, A.; G.D. Cooke (1994). "Health risks in eutrophic water supplies". Lake Line 14: 24–26. 
  20. ^ Shumway, S.E. (1990). "A review of the effects of algal blooms on shellfish and aquaculture". Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 21: 65–104. doi:10.1111/j.1749-7345.1990.tb00529.x. 
  21. ^ Cole J.J., B.L. Peierls, N.F. Caraco, and M.L. Pace. (1993). Nitrogen loading of rivers as a human-driven process. Pages 141-157 in M.J. McDonnell and S.T.A. Pickett, editors. Humans as components of ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, New York, New York, USA.
  22. ^ Howarth R.W., G. Billen, D. Swaney, A. Townsend, N. Jaworski, K. Lajtha, J.A. Downing, R. Elmgren, N. Caraco, T. Jordan, F. Berendse, J. Freney, V. Kudeyarov, P. Murdoch, and Zhu Zhao-liang. 1996. Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine inputs of N and P for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: natural and human influences. Biogeochemistry 35:75-139.
  23. ^ Sharpley A.N., T.C. Daniel, J.T. Sims, and D.H. Pote. 1996. Determining environmentally sound soil phosphorus levels. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 51:160-166.
  24. ^ Buol S. W. 1995. Sustainability of Soil Use. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 26:25-44.
  25. ^ Paerl H. W. 1997. Coastal Eutrophication and Harmful Algal Blooms: Importance of Atmospheric Deposition and Groundwater as "New" Nitrogen and Other Nutrient Sources. Limnology and Oceanography 42:1154-1165.
  26. ^ Mungall C. and D.J. McLaren. 1991. Planet under stress: the challenge of global change. Oxford University Press, New York, New York, USA.
  27. ^ Raimammake A., O.P. Pietilainen, S. Rekolainen, P. Kauppila, H. Pitkanen, J. Niemi, A. Raateland, J. Vuorenmaa. 2003. Trends of phosphorus, nitrogen, and chlorophyll a concentrations in Finnish rivers and lakes in 1975-2000. The Science of the Total Environment 310:47-59.
  28. ^ Angold P. G. 1997. The Impact of a Road Upon Adjacent Heathland Vegetation: Effects on Plant Species Composition. The Journal of Applied Ecology 34:409-417.
  29. ^ Kumazawa K. 2002. Nitrogen fertilization and nitrate pollution in groundwater in Japan: Present status and measures for sustainable agriculture. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 63:129-137.
  30. ^ Huang W. Y., Y. C. Lu, and N. D. Uri. 2001. An assessment of soil nitrogen testing considering the carry-over effect. Applied Mathematical Modelling 25:843-860.
  31. ^ "Reduced nitrate leaching and enhanced dentrifier activity and efficiency in organically fertilized soils". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2006-03-21. 

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