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Exanthem
Classification and external resources

rubella
ICD-10 A38., B05.-B09.
ICD-9 034, 055-057, 782.1
DiseasesDB 25831
MeSH D005076

An exanthem (from Greek "exanthema", a breaking out[1]) is a widespread rash usually occurring in children. Exanthems can be caused by toxins or drugs, microorganisms, or can result from autoimmune disease.

It can be contrasted with an enanthem.

Contents

Types

Historically, six "classical" infectious childhood exanthems have been recognized.[2] Numbers were provided in 1905.[3]

They include:

Scarlet fever is the only rash on this list caused by a bacterium; the others are caused by viruses. Many common viruses such as rhinovirus (the common cold) can also produce an exanthem.

Other exanthematic diseases exist that are not part of the classic list, either because they have only recently been discovered (e.g. unilateral laterothoracic exanthem of childhood) or because they have been found to represent not a single disease, but a general manifestations of various possible viral infections (once called Duke's disease); obviously there are other also other common paediatric infections that do not cause exanthems (e.g. mumps).

Prevention

Vaccinations now exist against measles, rubella and chickenpox.[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Roseola Glossary of Terms with Definitions on MedicineNet.com". http://www.medicinenet.com/roseola/glossary.htm.  
  2. ^ Drago F, Rampini E, Rebora A (August 2002). "Atypical exanthems: morphology and laboratory investigations may lead to an aetiological diagnosis in about 70% of cases". Br. J. Dermatol. 147 (2): 255–60. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2133.2002.04826.x. PMID 12174095. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/resolve/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=0007-0963&date=2002&volume=147&issue=2&spage=255.  
  3. ^ fifth disease at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  4. ^ a b c Weisse ME (January 2001). "The fourth disease, 1900-2000". Lancet 357 (9252): 299–301. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)03623-0. PMID 11214144. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0140-6736(00)03623-0.  
  5. ^ Altman, Lawrence K (November 30, 1982). [www.nytimes.com/1982/11/30/science/the-doctor-s-world.html?pagewanted=all "THE DOCTOR'S WORLD"]. The New York Times. www.nytimes.com/1982/11/30/science/the-doctor-s-world.html?pagewanted=all. Retrieved 2009-11-07.  
  6. ^ Michael A. Pfaller; Murray, Patrick R.; Rosenthal, Ken S. (2005). Medical Microbiology (Medical Microbiology). Mosby Elsevier. p. 700. ISBN 0-323-03303-2.  

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