Exclusive Economic Zone: Wikis

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Sea areas in international rights

Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. It stretches from the seaward edge of the state's territorial sea out to 200 nautical miles from its coast. In casual use, the term may include the territorial sea and even the continental shelf beyond the 200 mile limit.

Contents

Definition

The World's EEZs, shown as a white extension of land territory

Generally a state's EEZ extends to a distance of 200 nautical miles (370 km) out from its coastal baseline. The exception to this rule occurs when EEZs would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nautical miles (740 km) apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual boundary.[1] Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the most proximate state.[2]

A state's Exclusive Economic Zone starts at the seaward edge of its territorial sea and extends outward to a distance 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the baseline.[3] Thus, the EEZ includes the contiguous zone. States also have rights to the seabed of the continental shelf up to 350 nautical miles (650 km) from the coastal baseline, where this extends beyond the EEZ, but this does not form part of their EEZ.

Origin of EEZ

This concept of allotting nations EEZs to give better control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century.

Originally, a country's sovereign territorial waters extended 3 nautical miles (range of cannon shot) beyond the shore. In modern times traditionally, a country's sovereign territorial waters extend to 12 nmi beyond the shore. In the early 1970s, Ecuador claimed territorial waters extending to 200 nautical miles. They began seizing U.S. tuna-fishing boats and charging heavy fines (that the U.S. government paid). Eventually the U.S. agreed to submit the issue to the International Court of Justice at The Hague.[4] This eventually led to the recognition of 12 nmi as normal for the territorial sea/waters and binding international recognition of the 200 mile Exclusive Economic Zone by the Third United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea in 1982.

Part V, Article 55 of the Convention states:

Specific legal regime of the Exclusive Economic Zone
The Exclusive Economic Zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, subject to the specific legal regime established in this Part, under which the rights and jurisdiction of the coastal State and the rights and freedoms of other States are governed by the relevant provisions of this Convention.
Baselines and EEZ claims in East and Southeast Asia. Note the amount of overlap in the disputed South China Sea, the Spratlys in particular.

EEZ disputes

Disputes over the exact extent of Exclusive Economic Zones are a common source of conflict between states over marine waters.

Regions where a permanent ice shelf extends beyond the coastline are also sources of potential dispute.[5]

Transboundary stocks

Fisheries management, usually adhering to guidelines set by the FAO, provides significant practical mechanisms for the control of EEZs. Transboundary fish stocks are an important concept in this control.[6] Transboundary stocks are fish stocks that range in the EEZs of at least two countries. They can be contrasted with straddling stocks, which range both within an EEZ as well as in the high seas, outside any EEZ. A stock can be both transboundary and straddling.[7]

By country

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Argentina

Argentina's Exclusive Economic Zone excluding territorial claims

.

1,159,063 km2

Australia

Australia's Exclusive Economic Zones
  • Seas and Submerged Lands Act 1973[8]

Australia has the third largest Exclusive Economic Zone, behind the United States and France, but ahead of Russia, with the total area actually exceeding that of its land territory. As per UN convention, Australia's EEZ generally extends 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coastline of Australia and its external territories, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with another state.[9]

The United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf confirmed, in April 2008, Australia's rights over an additional 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed beyond the limits of Australia's EEZ.[10] Australia also claimed, in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, an EEZ of 200 nautical miles (370 km) from its Antarctic Territory but has requested it not be acted upon at this time, in accordance with the spirit of cooperation embodied in the Antarctic Treaty.[11] Nevertheless, Australia maintains the right to explore and exploit the seabed and water column within its EEZ.

See also: Australian Whale Sanctuary

EEZ Area (km2) [12]
Heard and McDonald Islands 410,722
 Christmas Island 463,371
 Cocos Islands 325,021
 Norfolk Island 428,618
Macquarie Island 471,837
 Australia 6,048,681
TOTAL 8,148,250

Brazil

Brazil's Exclusive Economic Zones.

Brazil's Exclusive Economic Zone covers 3,660,995 km2.

In 2004, the country submitted its claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its maritime continental margin[13].

Canada

Canada's Exclusive Economic Zone and territorial waters

Canada is unusual in that its Exclusive Economic Zone, covering 2,755,564 km2, is slightly smaller than its territorial waters.[14] The latter generally extend only 12 nautical miles (22 km) from the shore, but also include inland marine waters such as Hudson Bay (about 300 nautical miles (560 km) across), the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the internal waters of the Arctic archipelago.

Chile

Chile's Exclusive Economic Zones

Chile's EEZ includes areas around the Juan Fernández Islands, the Desventuradas Islands and Easter Island.

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2) Land area Total
Mainland 2 017 717 755 757 2 773 474
Desventuradas 443 907
Easter 713 465 164 713 629
Juan Fernandez 500 190
Total 3 675 279 756 102 4 431 381

People's Republic of China

People's Republic of China's Exclusive Economic Zone:      China's EEZ877,019 km2      EEZ claimed by China, disputed by the Republic of China (Taiwan)      EEZ claimed by China, disputed by others3,000,000 km2 total:3,877,019

Denmark

The Exclusive Economic Zones and territorial waters of the Kingdom of Denmark

The Kingdom of Denmark includes the two autonomous provinces of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The EEZs of the latter two do not form part of the EEZ of the European Union.

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2) [12] Land area Total
 Denmark 105 989 42 506 149 083
 Faroe Islands 260 995 1 399 262 394
 Greenland 2 184 254 2 166 086 4 350 340
Total 2 551 238 2 210 579 4 761 817

European Union

See also Common Fisheries Policy

The EEZ of the European Union is shared, so vessels or a national from one country can fish in another country's EEZ.[15] The combined zone amounts to 25 million km2, making it the largest EEZ.[16]

France

The Exclusive Economic Zones of France.

Due to its numerous overseas départements and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the second-largest EEZ in the world, covering 11,035,000 km2 (4,260,000 mi2), just behind the EEZ of the United States (11,351,000 km2 / 4,383,000 mi2), but ahead of the EEZ of Australia (10,648,250 km2 / 4,111,312 mi2). According to a different calculation cited by the Pew Research Center, the EEZ of France would be 10,084,201 km2 (3,893,532 mi2), behind the United States (12,174,629 km2 / 4,700,651 mi2) and Australia (10,648,250 km2 / 4,111,312 mi2), but ahead of Russia (7,566,673 km2 / 2,921,508 mi2).

The EEZ of France covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of the Earth.

Greece

Greece has not yet claimed an exclusive economic zone, although it is entitled to do so, as per UNCLOS 1982 as well as customary international law. This has been prompted by threats of war by Turkey.[citation needed]

Turkey's declaration of casus belli is not related to the EEZ issue. Turkey claims that the Aegean Sea's status as a semi-closed sea affords it a special nature (unlike other semi-closed seas as the Adriatic or even fully enclosed seas as the Black Sea). Moreover, Turkey is not among the signatories of UNCLOS which allows countries to expand the width of their territorial waters up to 12 nautical miles (22 km). Even though Turkey is a persistent objector to the relevant article of UNCLOS, it has expanded its own territorial waters in the Black Sea to 12 nautical miles (22 km). In 1995, just after Greece's ratification of UNCLOS, Turkey declared that if Greece expands the width of her territorial waters over 6 nautical miles (11 km), Turkey would conceive this action as a containment attempt and a direct offence to her sovereignty. So, the Turkish Parliament decided that if Greece attempts to expand the width of her territorial waters it would be a cause of war (casus belli).

India

India's Exclusive Economic Zones

Indonesia

  • 6 159 032 km2

Japan

Japan's Exclusive Economic Zones:     Japan's EEZ     Joint regime with South Korea     EEZ claimed by Japan, disputed by others

Japan has disputes over its EEZ boundaries with all its Asian neighbors (Russia, South Korea, PRC and ROC). The above, and relevant maps at the Sea Around Us Project[17][18] both indicate Japan's claimed boundaries, and do not take into account neighboring powers' claims.

Mexico

Exclusive Economic Zone of Mexico.

Mexico's Exclusive Economic Zones comprise a total surface area of 5,144,295 km2, and places Mexico among the countries with the largest areas in the world.[19]

New Zealand

Exclusive Economic Zones of the Realm of New Zealand, excluding the Ross Dependency

New Zealand's EEZ covers 4,083,744 km2, according to the Sea Around Us Project,[20][21] which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country. Sources vary significantly on the size of New Zealand's EEZ; for example, a recent government publication gave the area as roughly 4,300,000 km2.[22] These figures are for the EEZ of New Zealand proper, and do not include the EEZs of other territories in the Realm of New Zealand (Tokelau, Niue, the Cook Islands and the Ross Dependency).

Norway

Norway's Exclusive Economic Zones, including dependent territory Bouvet Island.

Norway has a large exclusive economic zone of 819 620 km2 around its coast. The country has a fishing zone of 1,878,953 km2, including fishing zones around Svalbard and Jan Mayen [23]. The fact that the European Union shares its economic zones was a big reason why Norway did not enter the EU as a member.

In April 2009, the United Nations Commission for the Limits of the Continental Shelf approved Norway's claim to an additional 235,000 square kilometres of continental shelf. The commission found that Norway and Russia both had valid claims over a portion of shelf in the Barents Sea.[24]

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2) Land area Total
Mainland 1 273 482 323 802 1 597 284
Svalbard 402 574 61 002 463 576
Jan Mayen 273 118 373 273 491
Bouvet 436 004 49 436 053
Total 2 385 178 385 226 2 770 404

Pakistan

On 07 May 2009, Pakistan’s continental shelf, or sea-water limits, was extended from 200 to 350 nautical miles. After four years of surveys, the United Nations accepted Pakistan’s claim for extension of the continental shelf. Pakistan would have legal control over another 50,000 square-kilometres into the Arabian Sea. This would enable and would provide a reliable and firm database and foundation, essential for future marine research and exploration of living and non-living marine resources. It will also provide a good basis for Pakistani scientists and technicians to further promote and develop the marine geological and geophysical research and survey capabilities. It will also contribute directly to the petroleum and mineral sector in general and to the offshore maritime industry. Militarily, the Pakistan Navy also gained massive strategic depth as a result of the extension.[26]

Philippines

Philippines' Exclusive Economic Zone. Claim shown in the lighter blue shade.

Philippines' EEZ covers 1,590,780 (272,921) km2 according to this website.

Poland

The Polish EEZ covers the area of 30,533 km2. within the Baltic Sea.[27]

Portugal

Portugal's Exclusive Economic Zones[28]

Portugal has the 3rd largest Exclusive Economic Zone of the EU and the 11th in the world.[citation needed]

The boundary between the EEZs of Portugal and Spain is disputed. Spain maintains that the southernmost EEZ border between Spain and Portugal should consist on an equidistant line drawn halfway between Madeira and the Canary Islands. But Portugal exercises sovereignty over the Savage Islands (a small archipelago north of the Canaries), and claims this pushes the EEZ border further south. Spain objects on the basis that the Savage Islands do not have a separate continental shelf,[29] according to the article 121 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea:

"Rocks which cannot sustain human habitation or economic life of their own shall have no exclusive economic zone or continental shelf."[30]

Portugal submitted a claim to extend its jurisdiction over 1.2 million square kilometres of the neighbouring continental shelf in May 2009.[31]

Russia

Russia's Exclusive Economic Zone
  • Asia: 6,
  • Baltic: 24,549
  • Barents Sea: 1,159,594
  • total 7,566,673 km2

Source

South Africa

South Africa's Exclusive Economic Zones

South Africa's EEZ includes both that next to the African mainland and that around the Prince Edward Islands, totalling 1 535 538 km2.[32]

  • Mainland 1 068 659 km2
  • Prince Edward islands 466 879 km2


South Korea

South Korean Exclusive Economic Zone:     Korean EEZ     Joint regime with Japan     EEZ claimed by South Korea, disputed by Others

Area: 300,851 (225,214) km2

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom's exclusive economic zone is the eighth largest in the world, covering 3,973,760 km2. It is comprised of the exclusive economic zones surrounding the United Kingdom, the Crown Dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories.

The Exclusive Economic Zones of the United Kingdom, including the British Overseas Territories and the Crown Dependencies in blue. British Antarctica claims in pale blue.[33]

United States

Exclusive Economic Zones of the United States, including insular areas.

The United States' exclusive economic zone is the largest in the world, covering 11,351,000 km2. Areas of its EEZ are located not only along the eastern and western seaboards and Gulf of Mexico-bordering region of the continental United States, but are also located in the Caribbean Sea, Pacific Ocean and Arctic Ocean.

Rankings by area

This list includes dependent territories within their sovereign states (including uninhabited territories), but does not include claims on Antarctica. EEZ+TA is Exclusive Economic Zone plus total internal area.

Country EEZ km2[34] Shelf km2 EEZ+TA km2
 United States 12,174,629 2,193,526 21,814,306
 France 10,084,201 389,422 10,755,724
 Australia 8,505,348 2,194,008 16,197,464
 Russia 7,566,673 3,817,843 24,664,915
 New Zealand 6,682,503 277,610 6,953,478
 Indonesia 6,159,032 2,039,381 8,019,392
 Canada 5,599,077 2,644,795 15,583,747
 United Kingdom 5,453,428 722,891 5,714,564
 Japan 4,479,388 454,976 4,857,318
 Chile 3,675,279 252,947 4,431,381
 Brazil 3,660,955 774,563 12,175,832
 Kiribati 3,441,810 7,523 3,442,536
 Mexico 3,177,593 419,102 5,141,968
 Micronesia 2,996,419 19,403 2,997,121
 Denmark 2,551,238 495,657 4,761,811
 Papua New Guinea 2,402,288 191,256 2,865,128
 Norway 2,385,178 434,020 2,770,404
 India 2,305,143 402,996 5,592,406
 Marshall Islands 1,990,530 18,411 1,990,711
 Portugal 1,727,408 26,902 1,819,498
 Philippines 1,590,780 272,921 1,890,780
 Solomon Islands 1,589,477 36,282 1,618,373
 South Africa 1,535,538 156,337 2,756,575
 Seychelles 1,336,559 39,063 1,337,014
 Mauritius 1,284,997 29,061 1,287,037
 Fiji 1,282,978 47,705 1,301,250
 Madagascar 1,225,259 101,505 1,812,300
 Argentina 1,159,063 856,346 3,939,463
 Ecuador 1,077,231 41,034 1,333,600
 Spain 1,039,233 77,920 1,545,225
 Maldives 923,322 34,538 923,622
 China 879,666 831,340 10,520,487
 Somalia 825,052 55,895 1,462,709
 Peru 815,915 82,000 2,101,131
 Colombia 808,158 53,691 1,949,906
 Cape Verde 800,561 5,591 804,594
 Iceland 751,345 108,015 854,345
 Tuvalu 749,790 3,575 749,816
 Vanuatu 663,251 11,483 675,440
 Tonga 659,558 8,517 660,305
 Bahamas 654,715 106,323 668,658
 Palau 603,978 2,837 604,437
 Mozambique 578,986 94,212 1,380,576
 Costa Rica 574,725 19,585 625,825
 Namibia 564,748 86,698 1,388,864
 Yemen 552,669 59,229 1,080,637
 Italy 541,915 116,834 843,251
 Oman 533,180 59,071 842,680
 Myanmar 532,775 220,332 1,209,353
 Sri Lanka 532,619 32,453 598,229
 Angola 518,433 48,092 1,765,133
 Greece 505,572 81,451 637,529
 Venezuela 470,666 107,759 1,382,716
 Vietnam 417,663 365,198 748,875
 Ireland 410,310 139,935 480,583
 Libya 351,589 64,763 2,111,129
 Cuba 350,751 61,525 460,637
 Panama 335,646 53,404 411,163
 Malaysia 334,671 323,412 665,474
 Nauru 308,480 41 308,501
 Equatorial Guinea 303,509 7,820 331,560
 South Korea 300,851 225,214 400,529
 Thailand 299,397 230,063 812,517
 Western Sahara 279,863 57,395 545,863
 Morocco 274,577 53,746 721,127
 Egypt 263,451 61,591 1,265,451
 Turkey 261,654 56,093 1,045,216
 Jamaica 258,137 9,802 269,128
 Dominican Republic 255,898 10,738 304,569
 Liberia 249,734 17,715 361,103
 Honduras 249,542 68,718 362,034
 Tanzania 241,888 25,611 1,186,975
 Pakistan 235,999 51,383 1,117,911
 Ghana 235,349 22,502 473,888
 Saudi Arabia 228,633 107,249 2,378,323
 Nigeria 217,313 42,285 1,141,081
 Sierra Leone 215,611 28,625 287,351
 Gabon 202,790 35,020 470,458
 Barbados 186,898 426 187,328
 Côte d'Ivoire 176,254 10,175 498,717
 Iran 168,718 118,693 1,797,468
 Mauritania 165,338 31,662 1,190,858
 Comoros 163,752 1,526 165,987
 Sweden 160,885 154,604 602,255
 Senegal 158,861 23,092 355,583
 Netherlands 154,011 77,246 192,345
 Ukraine 147,318 79,142 750,818
 Uruguay 142,166 75,327 318,381
 Guyana 137,765 50,578 352,734
 North Korea 132,826 54,566 253,364
 São Tomé and Príncipe 131,397 1,902 132,361
 Samoa 127,950 2,087 130,781
 Suriname 127,772 53,631 291,592
 Haiti 126,760 6,683 154,510
 Algeria 126,353 9,985 2,508,094
 Nicaragua 123,881 70,874 254,254
 Guinea-Bissau 123,725 39,339 159,850
 Kenya 116,942 11,073 697,309
 Guatemala 114,170 14,422 223,059
 Antigua and Barbuda 110,089 4,128 110,531
 Tunisia 101,857 67,126 265,467
 Cyprus 98,707 4,042 107,958
 El Salvador 90,962 16,852 112,003
 Finland 87,171 85,109 425,590
 Bangladesh 86,392 66,438 230,390
 Taiwan 83,231 43,016 119,419
 Eritrea 77,728 61,817 195,328
 Trinidad and Tobago 74,199 25,284 79,329
 East Timor 70,326 25,648 85,200
 Sudan 68,148 19,827 2,573,961
 Cambodia 62,515 62,515 243,550
 Guinea 59,426 44,755 305,283
 Croatia 59,032 50,277 115,626
 United Arab Emirates 58,218 57,474 141,818
 Germany 57,485 57,485 414,599
 Malta 54,823 5,301 55,139
 Estonia 36,992 36,992 82,219
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 36,302 1,561 36,691
 Belize 35,351 13,178 58,317
 Bulgaria 34,307 10,426 145,186
 Benin 33,221 2,721 145,843
 Qatar 31,590 31,590 43,176
 Congo, Republic of the 31,017 7,982 373,017
 Poland 29,797 29,797 342,482
 Dominica 28,985 659 29,736
 Latvia 28,452 27,772 93,011
 Grenada 27,426 2,237 27,770
 Israel 26,352 3,745 48,424
 Romania 23,627 19,303 262,018
 The Gambia 23,112 5,581 34,407
 Georgia 21,946 3,243 91,646
 Lebanon 19,516 1,067 29,968
 Cameroon 16,547 11,420 491,989
 Saint Lucia 15,617 544 16,156
 Albania 13,691 6,979 42,439
 Togo 12,045 1,265 68,830
 Kuwait 11,026 11,026 28,844
 Syria 10,503 1,085 195,683
 Bahrain 10,225 10,225 10,975
 Brunei 10,090 8,509 15,855
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 9,974 653 10,235
 Montenegro 7,745 3,896 21,557
 Djibouti 7,459 3,187 30,659
 Lithuania 7,031 7,031 72,331
 Belgium 3,447 3,447 33,975
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,606 1,593 2,346,464
 Singapore 1,067 1,067 1,772
 Iraq 771 771 439,088
 Monaco 288 290
 Palestine 256 256 6,276
 Slovenia 220 220 20,493
 Jordan 166 59 89,508
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 50 50 51,259
 Afghanistan 652,090
 Andorra 468
 Armenia 29,743
 Austria 83,871
 Azerbaijan 86,600
 Belarus 207,600
 Bhutan 38,394
 Bolivia 1,098,581
 Botswana 582,000
 Burkina Faso 274,222
 Burundi 27,834
 Central African Republic 622,984
 Chad 1,284,000
 Czech Republic 78,867
 Ethiopia 1,104,300
 Hungary 93,028
 Kazakhstan 2,724,900
 Kosovo 10,887
 Kyrgyzstan 199,951
 Laos 236,800
 Lesotho 30,355
 Liechtenstein 160
 Luxembourg 2,586
 Malawi 118,484
 Mali 1,240,192
 Moldova 33,846
 Mongolia 1,564,100
 Nepal 147,181
 Niger 1,267,000
 Paraguay 406,752
 Republic of Macedonia 25,713
 Rwanda 26,338
 San Marino 61
 Serbia 77,474
 Slovakia 49,035
 Swaziland 17,364
 Switzerland 41,284
 Tajikistan 143,100
 Turkmenistan 488,100
 Uganda 241,038
 Uzbekistan 447,400
 Vatican City 0.44
 Zambia 752,612
 Zimbabwe 390,757

See also

References

  1. ^ William R. Slomanson, 2006. Fundamental Perspectives on International Law, 5th edn. Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth, 294.
  2. ^ UN Convention on the Law of The Sea.
  3. ^ Article 55, 1982 UN Convention on the Law of The Sea.
  4. ^ Time.com
  5. ^ The Legal Status of Ice in the Antarctic Region
  6. ^ FAO: The State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2006 Part3: highlights of Special studies Rome. ISBN 978-92-5-105568-7
  7. ^ FAO (2007) Report of the FAO workshop on vulnerable ecosystems and destructive fishing in deep sea fisheries Rome, Fisheries Report No. 829.
  8. ^ Comlaw.gov.au
  9. ^ Geoscience Australia. 2005. Maritime Boundary Definitions.
  10. ^ UN confirms Australia’s rights over extra 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed. Minister for Resources and Energy, The Hon Martin Ferguson AM MP, Media Release, 21 April 2008.
  11. ^ Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea. Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, Submission by Australia
  12. ^ a b Geoscience Australia, Australian Maritime Boundaries Information System 2001. Area of the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone
  13. ^ UN Continental Shelf and UNCLOS Article 76: Brazilian Submission
  14. ^ Wildlife Habitat Canada. Canada's Marine Waters: Integrating the Boundaries of Politics and Nature.
  15. ^ About the Common Fisheries Policy
  16. ^ EU Glossary europa.eu
  17. ^ Japan (main islands) The Sea Around Us Project
  18. ^ Japan (outer islands) The Sea Around Us Project
  19. ^ Geographic location
  20. ^ New Zealand Sea Around Us Project
  21. ^ Kermadec Islands (New Zealand) The Sea Around Us Project
  22. ^ New Zealand Ministry for the Environment (2007). Improving Regulation of Environmental Effects in New Zealand’s Exclusive Economic Zone: Discussion Paper - Introduction. Published August 2007, Publication number ME824. ISBN 0978478301601. Accessed 2006-01-07.
  23. ^ Statistisk årbok 2007 Accessed January 2008
  24. ^ UN backs Norway claim to Arctic seabed extension, Canwest News Service, 15 April 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2009.
  25. ^ Coastal and Marine Ecosystems — Marine Jurisdictions Accessed 1 November 2006
  26. ^ Dawn.com
  27. ^ Exploration and Extraction of sand and gravel resources in the Polis exclusive economical zone of the Baltic Sea, European marine sand and gravel – shaping the future, EMSAGG Conference 20-21 February 2003, Delft University, The Netherlands
  28. ^ Task Group for the Extension of the Portuguese Continental Shelf
  29. ^ Lacleta Muñoz, José Manuel: "Las fronteras de España en el mar". Documentos de trabajo 34-2004, Real Instituto Elcano
  30. ^ United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Part VIII, Article 121
  31. ^ Portugal Applies To UN To Extend Its Continental Shelf Zone, Dow Jones Newswires, 8 May 2009. Accessed 13 May 2009.
  32. ^ Sea around us project
  33. ^ 10 Downing Street. "Countries within a country". http://www.number10.gov.uk/Page823. Retrieved 2010-01-16. 
  34. ^ Seaaroundus.org

External links


Simple English

Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is an area in the ocean where only one country gets to look into and do economic activity, such as mining underwater resources and fishing. In the case of islands far from the mainland, EEZ stretches from coasts of the islands. Normally, EEZ stretches up to 200 nautical miles (370 km), unless EEZs of two or more countries overlap. In fact, many EEZs actually overlap; many countries argue over where their outermost boundaries of EEZ should be.

It is different from territorial waters in that ships and submarines from other countries can freely travel without any permission. However, this is under the condition that they are just passing by and not taking any resource home.



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