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Executive Office of the President
Seal Of The President Of The Unites States Of America.svg
Agency overview
Formed 1939
Headquarters White House
Employees Approx 2000
Agency executive Rahm Emanuel, Chief of Staff
Parent agency Federal government of the United States
Website
Executive Office of the President

The Executive Office of the President (EOP) consists of the immediate staff of the President of the United States, as well as multiple levels of support staff reporting to the President. The EOP is headed by the White House Chief of Staff, currently Rahm Emanuel.

The Eisenhower Executive Office Building at night.

Contents

History

In 1939, during Franklin D. Roosevelt's second term in office, the foundations of the modern White House staff were created. Based on the recommendations of a presidentially commissioned panel of political science and public administration experts, the Brownlow Committee, Roosevelt was able to get Congress to approve the Reorganization Act of 1939. This created the Executive Office of the President (EOP), reporting directly to the President. The EOP encompassed two subunits at its outset: the White House Office (WHO) and the Bureau of the Budget, the predecessor to today's Office of Management and Budget, which had been created in 1921 and originally located in the Treasury Department. Initially, the new staff system appeared more ambitious on paper than in practice; the increase in the size of the staff was quite modest at the start. But it laid the groundwork for the large and organizationally complex White House staff that would emerge during the presidencies of Roosevelt's successors[1].

Roosevelt's efforts are also notable in contrast to those of his predecessors in office. During the nineteenth century, Presidents had few staff resources. Thomas Jefferson had one messenger and one secretary at his disposal, both of whose salaries were paid by the President personally. It was not until 1857 that Congress appropriated money ($2,500) for the hiring of one clerk. By Ulysses S. Grant's presidency, the staff had grown to three. By 1900, the White House staff included one "secretary to the President" (then the title of the President's chief aide), two assistant secretaries, two executive clerks, a stenographer, and seven other office personnel. Under Warren G. Harding, the size of the staff expanded to thirty-one, although most were clerical positions. During Herbert Hoover's presidency, two additional secretaries to the President were added by Congress, one of whom Hoover designated as his Press Secretary. From 1933 to 1939, even as he greatly expanded the scope of the federal government's policies and powers in response to the Great Depression, Roosevelt muddled through: his "brains trust" of top advisers, although working directly for the President, often were appointed to vacant positions in agencies and departments, from whence they drew their salaries since the White House lacked statutory or budgetary authority to create new staff positions.

From 1939 through the present, the situation changed dramatically. New units within the EOP were created, some by statute, some by executive order of the President. Among the most important are the Council of Economic Advisers (1946), the National Security Council and its staff (1947), the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (1963), the Council on Environmental Quality (1970), the Office of Science and Technology Policy , with a budget of $300 to $400 million (President George W. Bush's budget request for Fiscal Year 2005 was for $341 million in support of 1,850 personnel)[2].

Organization

Senior staff within the Executive Office of the President have the title Assistant to the President, second-level staff have the title Deputy Assistant to the President, and third-level staff have the title Special Assistant to the President.

Very few EOP officials are required to be confirmed by the Senate, although there are a handful of exceptions to this rule (e.g., the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, and the United States Trade Representative). The core White House Staff appointments do not require Senate approval. The staff of the Executive Office to the President is headed by the White House Chief of Staff.

Office of the Vice President

The Office of the Vice President includes personnel who directly support or advise the Vice President of the United States. The Office is currently headed by the Vice President's Chief of Staff, currently Ron Klain. The Office also provides staffing and support to the Second Lady of the United States.

Entities in the Executive Office of the President

Council of Economic Advisers

Council on Environmental Quality

Domestic Policy Council

  • Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy and Director of the Domestic Policy Council: Melody Barnes[3]
    • Deputy Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy and Deputy-Director of the Domestic Policy Council: Heather Higginbottom[3]

National Economic Council

  • Assistant to the President for Economic Policy and Director of the National Economic Council: Lawrence Summers[3]
    • Deputy Assistant to the President for Economic Policy and Deputy-Director of the National Economic Council: Diana Farrell[5]
    • Deputy Assistant to the President for Economic Policy and Deputy-Director of the National Economic Council: Jason Furman[5]

National Security Council

Office of Administration

  • Director of the Office of Administration: Brad Kiley[9]

Office of Management and Budget

Office of National AIDS Policy

Office of National Drug Control Policy

  • Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy: Gil Kerlikowske[17]
    • Deputy Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy: Dr. Thomas McLellan[18]

Office of Science and Technology Policy

Office of the Trade Representative

President's Economic Recovery Advisory Board

President's Intelligence Advisory Board

White House Military Office

  • Director of the White House Military Office: Vacant

White House Office

References

  1. ^ Harold C. Relyea (2008-03-17). "The Executive Office of the President: An Historical Overview". Congressional Research Service. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/98-606.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-14.  
  2. ^ John P. Burke. "Administration of the White House". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. http://millercenter.org/academic/americanpresident/policy/whitehouse. Retrieved 2009-06-06.  
  3. ^ a b c d Office of the President-Elect (2008-11-25). "Geithner, Summers among key economic team members announced today". Press release. http://change.gov/newsroom/entry/geithner_summers_among_key_economic_team_members_announced_today/. Retrieved 2009-06-05.  
  4. ^ Office of the President-Elect (2008-12-15). "President-elect Barack Obama announces key members of energy and environment team". Press release. http://change.gov/newsroom/entry/president_elect_barack_obama_announces_key_members_of_energy_and_environmen/. Retrieved 2009-06-05.  
  5. ^ a b Office of the Press Secretary (2009-01-28). "President Obama Announces Deputy Directors for the National Economic Council". Press release. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/ObamaAnnouncesDeputyDirectorsfortheNationalEconomicCouncil/. Retrieved 2009-06-07.  
  6. ^ Office of the President-Elect (2008-12-01). "Key members of Obama-Biden national security team announced". Press release. http://change.gov/newsroom/entry/key_members_of_obama_biden_national_security_team_announced/. Retrieved 2009-06-05.  
  7. ^ Office of the President-Elect (2008-12-23). "President-elect Barack Obama announces key members of National Security Team". Press release. http://change.gov/newsroom/entry/president-elect_barack_obama_announces_key_members_of_national_security_tea/. Retrieved 2009-06-05.  
  8. ^ Office of the President (2009-12-22). "Introducing the New Cybersecurity Coordinator". Press release. http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2009/12/22/introducing-new-cybersecurity-coordinator. Retrieved 2009-12-22.  
  9. ^ GayPolitics.com (2009-01-05). "Obama names gay man as director of Office of Management and Administration". Press release. http://www.gaypolitics.com/2009/01/05/obama-names-gay-director-of-office-of-management-and-administration. Retrieved 2009-12-02.  
  10. ^ a b Office of the President-Elect (2008-11-25). "President-elect Barack Obama announces Office of Management and Budget Director and Deputy Director". Press release. http://change.gov/newsroom/entry/president_elect_barack_obama_announces_office_of_management_and_budget_dire/. Retrieved 2009-06-05.  
  11. ^ a b Office of the Press Secretary (2009-04-18). "Weekly Address: Efficiency and Innovation". Press release. http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/09/04/18/Weekly-Address-Efficiency-and-Innovation/. Retrieved 2009-06-05.  
  12. ^ Office of the Press Secretary (2008-08-04). "Nominations sent to the Senate". Press release. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Presidential-nominations-sent-to-the-Senate-8-04-09/. Retrieved 2009-11-15.  
  13. ^ Office of the Press Secretary (2009-10-05). "Nominations sent to the Senate". Press release. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Presidential-Nominations-Sent-to-the-Senate-10/5/09. Retrieved 2009-12-22.  
  14. ^ Office of the Press Secretary (2009-03-05). "President Obama Names Vivek Kundra Chief Information Officer". Press release. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/President-Obama-Names-Vivek-Kundra-Chief-Information-Officer/. Retrieved 2009-06-05.  
  15. ^ Office of the Press Secretary (2009-04-20). "President Obama Announces Another Key OMB Post". Press release. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/President-Obama-Announces-Another-Key-OMB-Post/. Retrieved 2009-06-07.  
  16. ^ Office of the Press Secretary (2009-02-26). "President Obama Selects Health Policy Expert to Head Office of National AIDS Policy". Press release. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/President-Obama-Selects-Health-Policy-Expert-to-Head-Office-of-National-AIDS-Polic/. Retrieved 2009-06-05.  
  17. ^ Office of the Press Secretary (2009-03-11). "White House Announces New Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy". Press release. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/White-House-Announces-New-Director-of-the-Office-of-National-Drug-Control-Policy/. Retrieved 2009-06-05.  
  18. ^ Office of the Press Secretary (2009-04-10). "President Obama Announces More Key Administration Posts". Press release. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/President-Obama-Announces-More-Key-Administration-Posts-04-10-09/. Retrieved 2009-06-05.  
  19. ^ Office of the President-Elect (2008-12-20). "President-elect Obama announces key members of Science and Technology team". Press release. http://change.gov/newsroom/entry/president-elect_obama_announces_key_members_of_science_and_technology_team/. Retrieved 2009-06-05.  
  20. ^ Office of the President-Elect (2008-12-19). "President-elect Obama announces choices for Transportation, Labor, SBA and USTR posts". Press release. http://change.gov/newsroom/entry/president-elect_obama_announces_choices_for_transportation_labor_sba_and_us/. Retrieved 2009-06-05.  
  21. ^ Office of the President-Elect (2008-11-26). "President-elect Barack Obama establishes President's Economic Recovery Advisory Board". Press release. http://change.gov/newsroom/entry/president_elect_barack_obama_establishes_presidents_economic_recovery_advis. Retrieved 2009-06-05.  
  22. ^ Office of the Press Secretary (2009-10-28). "Remarks by the President Before Meeting with the President's Intelligence Advisory Board Co-Chairmen and Senior Leadership of the Intelligence Community". Press release. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/remarks-president-meeting-with-presidents-intelligence-advisory-board-co-chairmen-a. Retrieved 2009-12-04.  
  23. ^ Office of the President-Elect (2008-11-07). "Emanuel to be Obama's White House Chief of Staff". Press release. http://change.gov/newsroom/entry/emanuel_to_be_obamas_white_house_chief_of_staff/. Retrieved 2009-06-05.  
  24. ^ "Deputy Chief of Staff Mona Sutphen," Whitehouse.gov
  25. ^ "Deputy Chief of Staff Jim Messina," Whitehouse.gov

External links

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