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Dante in Exile
by an anonymous artist.
Exile means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state or country), while either being explicitly refused permission to return and/or being threatened by prison or death upon return. It can be a form of punishment.
It is common to distinguish between internal exile, i.e., forced resettlement within the country of residence, and external exile, deportation outside the country of residence.
Exile can also be a self-imposed departure from one's homeland. Self-exile is often practiced as a form of protest, to avoid persecution, an act of shame or repentance, or isolating oneself to be able to devote time to a particular thing.
Exile was used particularly for political opponents of those in power. Governments sometimes find exile to be a politically useful option for punishments since it prevents the exiled person from organizing in his or her native land or from becoming a martyr. People feared exile and banishment so much because it effectively meant that he or she was going to die. In European history, at a time prior to Roman invasion, people subsisted in farm towns.
Where the state controls a vast territory, it is possible to put great distance between offenders and their families or associates and still fix the location of the exile. Normally this will be in a culturally or economically backward region. Ovid was made to live on the Black Sea, the very periphery of the Roman Empire. In imperial China, the island of Hainan received many exiles, being viewed as the "end of the world". Other victims of imperial displeasure (Galeote Pereira, Vasco Calvo) were made to live in places well within the bounds of "civilization".
Mikhail Bakunin and Prince Menshikov were made to live in Siberia, Russia's "Wild East". Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn spent years in Communist Russia's vast interior, in what he was to term The Gulag Archipelago, before finally being properly deported to "a life in exile" beyond Moscow's purview. See sybiraks for more information on people exiled to Siberia. Of course in this system and in modern China's analogous Laogai Archipelago there is not much difference between "internal exile" and simple Incarceration.
Government in exile
During a foreign occupation or after a coup d'état, a government in exile of a such afflicted country may be established abroad. One of the most well-known instances of this is the Polish government-in-exile, a government in exile that commanded Polish armed forces operating outside Poland after German occupation during World War II. Another example was the Free French Forces government of Charles De Gaulle of the same time.
Nation in exile
Main articles: Diaspora
When large groups, or occasionally a whole people or nation is exiled, it can be said that this nation is in exile, or Diaspora. Nations that have been in exile for substantial periods include the Jews, who were deported by Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II in 597 BC and again in the years following the destruction of the second Temple in Jerusalem in the year AD 70.
After the partitions of Poland in the late 18th century, and following the uprisings (like Kościuszko Uprising, November Uprising and January Uprising) against the partitioning powers (Russian Empire, Prussia and Austro-Hungary), many Poles have chosen – or been forced – to go into exile, forming large diasporas (known as Polonia), especially in France and the United States.The entire population of Crimean Tatars (200,000) that remained in their homeland Crimea was exiled on 18 May 1944 to Central Asia as a form of ethnic cleansing and collective punishment on false accusations. At Diego Garcia, between 1967 and 1973 the British Government forcibly removed some 2,000 Chagossian resident islanders to make way for a military base today jointly operated by the US and UK.
Since the Cuban Revolution over one million Cubans have left Cuba. Most of these self-identify as exiles as their motivation for leaving the island is political in nature. It is to be noted that at the time of the Cuban Revolution, Cuba only had a population of 6.5 million, and was not a country that had a history of significant emigration, it being the sixth largest recipient of immigrants in the world as of 1958. Most of the exiles' children also consider themselves to be Cuban Exiles. It is to be noted that under Cuban law, children of Cubans born abroad are considered Cuban Citizens.
A wealthy citizen who departs from a former abode for a lower tax jurisdiction (a "tax haven") in order to reduce his/her tax burden is termed a tax exile.
Exile in Greek tragedy
To wander away from the city-state (the home) is to be exposed without the protection of government (laws), friends and family. In the ancient Greek world, this was seen as a fate worse than death. Euripedes’ Medea–because of her actions (both in Iolcus and Corinth)-made herself and her family (including Jason) exiles in Corinth. She talks of her exiled state in Corinth: 'I, a desolate woman without a city... no relative at all'. Jason justifies his marriage, to a Corinth royal family member, as an attempt to better this situation: 'When I moved here from the land of Iolkos... what happier godsend could I have found than to marry the king's daughter, poor exile that I was... that I should bring up our children in a manner worthy of my house, and producing brothers to my children by you, I should place them all on level footing'.
The tutor in Medea further reminds us of how selfish men are. Euripides likens all women's position to exile; in their having to leave home to serve their husbands. So Medea was doubly in exile, both in the ordinary sense, as a non-Greek foreigner, and as a woman. In the same speech, Medea talks of her status as 'a foreigner [falling] in the city['s ways]' and, on being married, 'we come to new behaviour, new customs'.
The theme of exile also appears in Euripedes The Bacchae when Dionysus sends Agave and her sisters into exile. Dionysus: 'With your sisters you shall live in exile' and later Agave laments: 'Farewell my city…show us the way Asian women, show us the way to bitter exile'.
From the Bacchae:
All foreign lands now dance to his [Dionysus's] drum.
That is why they are foreign and we're not.
Notable people who have been in exile
- Charles X, King of France exiled from France after his slide to abdication.
- Michael I, King of Portugal exiled in Austria in 1834, following his defeat in the Portuguese civil war.
- Manuel II, King of Portugal exiled in England in 1910, following the proclamation of the republic.
- Alfonso XII, King of Spain exiled before his acceding to the throne 1868-1874.
- Alfonso XIII, King of Spain, son of the preceding, exiled since 1931.
- Juan Emilio Bosch Gaviño, dominican expatriate and later elected president of the Dominican Republic was exiled from his country from 1939 until May 30, 1961, during the dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo Molina or "El Jefe".
- Assata Shakur, Black Panther activist who escaped from prison in the US in 1979, and has been in self-exile in Cuba since 1984.
- Julia the Elder, daughter of Augustus, who exiled her from Rome until her death (2 to 14 or 15).
- Seneca the Younger, exiled from Rome 41–49 by Caligula.
- Charlie Chaplin self-exiled from the [United States] 1952-1972 in Switzerland.
- The 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso self-exiled in India from Tibet in 1959.
- Pablo Neruda exiled 1948–1952 in Spain.
- Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last Mughal King exiled to Rangoon after 1857.
- Wajid Ali Shah, the last King of Awadh exiled to Calcutta.
- Abd el-Krim, the Riffian guerilla leader, exiled from Morocco to the island of Réunion (a French territory).
- Niceto Alcalá Zamora, President of the Spanish Republic exiled since 1936.
- Manuel Altolaguirre exiled from Spain, in Cuba and Mexico.
- Michel Aoun, exiled from Lebanon, in France returned in May 2005.
- Reinaldo Arenas exiled from Cuba, in United States.
- Manuel Azaña, President of the Spanish Republic exiled in France in 1939.
- Nawaz Sharif exiled from Pakistan, in Saudi Arabia and then moved to England and some other countries.
- Muhammad exiled from Mecca in 622 in Medina. Returned to Mecca 8 years later.
- Mirza Tahir Ahmad 4th Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community exiled from Pakistan in 1984, died in London in 2003.
- Shahbaz Sharif exiled from Pakistan, in Saudi Arabia.
- Aloysius Ambrozic
- Miklós Horthy, Regent of Hungary exiled in Cascais, Portugal.
- Umberto II, King of Italy exiled in Portugal.
- Jean-Bertrand Aristide exiled from Haiti, in Venezuela and United States (1990–1994), and then in Central African Republic and South Africa (2004–present).
- Miguel Ángel Asturias exiled from Guatemala in France.
- Francisco Ayala exiled from Spain in Argentina.
- Michel Bakunin fled Russia.
- Emperor Bao Dai of Vietnam.
- Paul Robeson, American singer, lived the latter part of his life in exile in the Soviet Union.
- Crown Prince Bao Long of Vietnam.
- Infante Juan of Bourbon, Count of Barcelona, Head of the Spanish Royal House from 1941 to 1977 (1931–1977).
- Thomas Becket fled to France.
- Gioconda Belli exiled from Nicaragua, in Mexico.
- Isabella II, Queen of Spain, exiled in France since 1868.
- Napoleon I exiled from France to Elba and, later, St Helena.
- Napoleon III, exiled in England.
- King Kigeli V of Rwanda exiled from Rwanda in Uganda and later received political asylum to live in the United States.
- Andrej Bajuk
- Willy Brandt exiled in Norway and Sweden, during the Nazi era.
- Bertolt Brecht
- Breyten Breytenbach
- Joseph Brodsky exiled from Soviet Union in United States.
- Lord Byron self-exiled from United Kingdom, in Italy and Ottoman Empire.
- Pau Casals, self-exiled during the Spanish Civil War, vowing not to return before democracy was restored in Spain. He died in exile, in 1973. Francisco Franco died in 1975, restoring the monarchy, which became constitutional by degrees.
- Alejo Carpentier exiled from Cuba in Haiti and Venezuela.
- Frédéric Chopin exiled from Poland in France.
- Marcus Tullius Cicero exiled in 58 BC in a political controversy that involved his execution of six members of a conspiracy to overthrow the Roman Republic. He was recalled a year later to cheering crowds.
- El Cid, banned from Castile, served other Iberian kings ending with the conquest of Valencia.
- Dante Alighieri, Medieval Italian poet and author of the Divine Comedy, sentenced to two years of exile and condemned to pay a fine when the Black Guelfs took control of Florence. However, Dante could not pay his fine because he was staying in Rome at the request of Pope Boniface VIII and so was considered to be an absconder and sentenced to permanent exile.
- Nadia Comăneci, famous Romanian gymnast, self-exiled in United States.
- Lluís Companys, exiled from Catalonia, Spain in France in 1939 after the Spanish Civil War.
- Gustave Courbet, French painter, died in political exile from France.
- Celia Cruz, exiled from Cuba in United States.
- Humberto Delgado, exiled from Portugal in Brazil and Algeria.
- Porfirio Díaz, exiled from Mexico in France.
- Ariel Dorfman, exiled from Chile, in United States.
- Du Fu
- Jean-Claude Duvalier, exiled from Haiti in France.
- Albert Einstein self-exiled from Germany in the United States.
- Farinelli self-exiled from Italy in Spain .
- Lion Feuchtwanger
- Sigmund Freud self-exiled from Austria in United Kingdom.
- Alberto Fujimori, exiled from Peru in Japan.
- Manuel Zelaya, exiled from Honduras in Costa Rica.
- Eduardo Galeano, exiled from Uruguay in Argentina and Spain.
- Garibaldi exiled in South America.
- Francisco de Goya exiled in Bordeaux as afrancesado.
- Jorge Guillén
- Heinrich Heine
- Victor Hugo exiled from France in the Channel Islands.
- Juan Ramón Jiménez, fled to United States, Cuba, and finally to Puerto Rico.
- Arthur Koestler
- Kim Dae-jung
- Idi Amin, exiled in Libya, and Saudi Arabia until his death.
- Konstantinos Karamanlis
- Sultan Yusuf Ali Kenadid, exiled from Italian Somaliland to Aden and then to Eritrea.
- Ruhollah Khomeini, exiled from Iran in Turkey, then exiled from Turkey in Iraq. Later exiled from Iraq in France.
- Pavel Kohout
- Milan Komar
- Jan Amos Komenský
- Tadeusz Kościuszko
- Lajos Kossuth
- Prince Norodom Sihanouk, exiled from Cambodia in China and North Korea twice.
- Peter Kropotkin
- Lenin self-exiled in Switzerland.
- Lotte Lehmann
- Félix Lope de Vega y Carpio exiled 8 years from Castille for slander.
- Fernão Lopez self-exiled in Saint Helena.
- La Lupe, in Puerto Rico and United States.
- Heinrich Mann self-exiled in Switzerland and in the United States.
- Thomas Mann self-exiled in Switzerland and in the United States, moved back to Switzerland.
- Ferdinand Marcos exiled from the Philippines to Hawaii.
- Karl Marx self-exiled from Germany in Great Britain.
- José Martí
- Giuseppe Mazzini
- Rigoberta Menchú, exiled from Guatemala, in Mexico.
- Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov
- Ezekiel Mphahlele, exiled from South Africa in Kenya, Zambia and United States.
- Adam Mickiewicz
- Mobutu Sese Seko
- Mireya Moscoso, fled to Spain.
- Kwame Nkrumah exiled from Ghana in Guinea.
- Juan Carlos Onetti exiled from Uruguay in Spain until his death.
- Ovid, exiled by Augustus from Rome to Tomis until his death (where he wrote Tristia and Epistulae ex Ponto).
- Shahrnush Parsipur, exiled from Iran in the United States of America.
- Víctor Paz Estenssoro, exiled from Bolivia in Argentina, Perú.
- Carlos Andrés Pérez, exiled from Venezuela, in Colombia, Costa Rica, and United States.
- Marcos Pérez Jiménez, exiled from Venezuela in United States and Spain.
- Juan Perón exiled from Argentina in Paraguay and Spain.
- Saint-John Perse exiled from Vichy France in United States.
- Bob Powell
- Ferenc Puskás from Hungary in Spain.
- Victor Raúl Haya de la Torre, fled to Mexico.
- Franc Rode
- Romain Rolland, fled to Switzerland.
- Wilhelm Röpke fled Germany during Nazi rule.
- Prince Sauryavong Savang, lives in exile in Paris, France.
- Crown Prince Soulivong Savang, lives in exile in Paris, France.
- Jorge Semprún, exiled from Spain, in France.
- Sultan Mohamoud Ali Shire, exiled from British Somaliland to the Seychelles.
- Costas Simitis, exiled from Greece, in Germany.
- Prince Mangkra Souvannaphouma, lives in exile in Paris, France.
- Prince Nguyen Phuc Buu Chanh of Vietnam, lives in exile in the United States.
- Prince Hso Khan Pha lives in exile in Canada.
- Fernando Savater
- Benjamin Sehene exiled from Rwanda in Uganda and, later, in Canada.
- Emperor Amha Selassie I, lived in exile in Switzerland and Great Britain and United States.
- Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia
- Crown Prince Zera Yacob Amha Selassie lived in exile in Djibouti, Israel, Great Britain, and United States.
- Juliusz Slowacki
- Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn exiled from the Soviet Union, returned after the fall of Communism.
- Mário Soares
- Álvaro Cunhal
- Américo Thomaz
- Marcelo Caetano
- Wole Soyinka
- Alfredo Stroessner exiled from Paraguay in Brazil.
- Sun Yat-sen
- Oliver Tambo
- Leon Trotsky, exiled to Siberia, and later in Turkey, France, Norway and Mexico.
- Xiao Qiang, exiled from China, in United States.
- Miguel de Unamuno confined to Fuerteventura, fled to France.
- Clement Vallandigham, exiled to the Confederate States of America, in Bermuda, then Canada.
- Caetano Veloso, exiled from Brazil in United Kingdom.
- Bruno Walter
- Wilhelm II of Prussia and Germany, exiled from Prussia and Germany in the Netherlands.
- Mohammad Zaher Shah exiled from Afghanistan in Italy.
- Nicholas I of Montenegro
- Carlos Salinas de Gortari self-exiled in Ireland.
- The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor, by virtue of his marriage to Wallis Simpson and his falling-out with the Royal Family and his brother King George VI, in France.
- John Calvin, exiled from Switzerland in France, but later let back into Switzerland, due to change in government.
- Hector Gramajo, fled the United States to avoid facing charges filed under the Torture Victim Protection Act.
- Cesar Vallejo, fled from Peru to France in fear of further incarceration by the government. He was to spend the rest of his life in France, mainly in Paris.
- Benazir Bhutto, exiled from Pakistan in Dubai.
- Taslima Nasrin, exiled from Bangladesh in India, then Sweden.
- Andres Eloy Blanco, exiled from Venezuela in Mexico until his death in 1955.
- Jiju Cherian, the all conquering kidilam of KSA, on a self imposed exile due to inexplicable reasons, from sometime in 2007 to 17th of Feb, 2009.
Fictional characters in exile
- Omnius, an artificial intelligence, is banished forever to an alternate universe in Sandworms of Dune, the final novel in the Dune (novel) series of science fiction works.
- Shadam IV is exiled to selusa secundus in the first novel of the Dune Series after Duke Paul Atreides usurps the imperial throne.
- In Dragon Quest VIII: Journey of the Cursed King, after defeating Sir Leopold, the player's party are blamed by Captain Marcello for an attempted assassination of the Lord High Priest, causing High Priest Rolo and the player's party to be subsequently banished to Purgatory Island.
- In Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, Romeo is exiled to Mantua after killing Tybalt.
- Voldemort goes into self exile in Albania after losing his physical form in Godric's Hollow in 1981.
- Ender Wiggin is exiled from Earth after winning the Bugger War in the Orson Scott Card book Ender's Game.
- In the book The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien, Aragorn is the heir in exile to the throne of Gondor.
- In the television series Avatar: The Last Airbender, Prince Zuko is exiled from the Fire Nation by his father, and tasked with finding the Avatar.
- Chancellor Sutler is in self-exile in the film V for Vendetta.
- In the British sci-fi TV series Doctor Who, The Doctor was exiled to Earth by his own people, the Time Lords for interfering in the affairs of other planets. He was also forced to regenerate in order to help conceal his identity. All this happened in the 1969 story The War Games. This was the last Doctor Who story to feature Patrick Troughton as the Doctor. He was eventually forgiven by his own people and allowed to roam the Universe again in the 1972–73 adventure The Three Doctors, by this time starring Jon Pertwee as the Doctor.
- In the TV series 24, Jack Bauer went into self-exile, after being threatened with being extradited for torture in a Chinese prison camp following the events of Season 4. He eventually fled to the fictional African Nation of Sangala in 24: Redemption. The original title for Redemption was actually Exiled, but was changed to Redemption because the crew too hastily named it.
- Oedipus went into self exile after finding out that he had killed his father and slept with his mother (Sophocles)
- Medea sent herself into exile to follow Jason into Corinth (Euripedes).
- Agave went into self exile after killing her son Pentheus (Euripedes)
- Thyestes was sent into exile after raping his brother's wife (Aeschylus)
- Orestes was sent into exile by his mother Clytaemnestra but returned to kill her in the garb of a stranger (Aeschylus)
- Philoctetes was exiled on the Island of Lemnos or Chryse by the Greeks on the way to Troy ( Sophocles )
- Simba, shortly after his father's death went into exile from the Pridelands for much of his childhood and teenage life in The Lion King. He later returns to avenge his father's death and take his rightful place as king of the Pridelands.
- A Dwarven Clan Chief in Brisingr was exiled from the Dwarven Land when he attempted to assassinate Eragon.
- Leiji Matsumoto's Captain Harlock is depicted in several stories as being branded a pirate and exiled from Earth by the government; most notably in Arcadia of My Youth.
- Fictional former Law & Order and Law & Order: Criminal Intent Detective Mike Logan (portrayed by Chris Noth) was exiled by the NYPD after publicly assaulting fictional New York City councilman Kevin Crossley in the 1995 Law & Order episode Pride. The 1998 TV Movie Exiled: A Law & Order Movie shows Logan at the "NYPD Graveyard" in Staten Island, New York in both in a personal (feelings of resentment, isolation, and anger) and professional exile (demoted to lowest possible job; no longer considered "a real detective'.)
- Prince Nuada went on an exile after his father merged with the human race in Hellboy II:The Golden Army.
- Yoda, After his defeat at the hands of Darth Sidious, he sent himself into exile in order to remain hidden from the empire. Obi-Wan Kenobi does the same after failing to finish off Darth Vader. Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith
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