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Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

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Welcome to a page meant for investigating terms that are used to discuss Child Development and Elementary Education. This page has been started to support pre-service teachers in a real-world foundational Child Development course.

Please Log in in the upper right-hand corner of this screen. Please use your first name and last initial as your username so I will know who you are.


Any field of study has vocabulary terms that are necessary for understanding ideas within the field. We will begin this wiki page by considering a number of terms that are often misunderstood. Some of the words we will put here have a specific meaning within the study of development, and some will just be words we run across that we want to be sure we are all understanding in the same way.

Please begin by adding your own personal definitions to 2 to 4 of the words below. By this I mean, do not go look them up yet. Think about what YOU know about these words. If you disagree with a classmate, or if you have something to add, PLEASE DO. At this point, don't make changes to your classmates' entries, just add your own comments. We will be adding more words throughout the semester.

You can't mess up this page. Go ahead and experiment.

Beginning Tuesday, September 9th, please begin to add definitions that you have looked up. Please tell us the source as well as the definition. Each of you is responsible for adding at least three definitions. If you would like to add a definition to a word that someone has already looked up, that's fine, as long as you use a different source. Obviously, some words have more than one definition, and it will be good to gather several different meanings, too.

Hello class, I have added three new words from our latest reading assignments. Please let me know your definitions of these words. I am looking forward to your additions as well.--Betsyl 03:03, 18 September 2008 (UTC)

Contents

A

Acceptence - a sense of belonging--Lisaz 19:40, 18 September 2008 (UTC)an agreeing either expressly or by conduct to the act or offer of another so that a contract is concluded and the parties become legally bound--Anitha R 22:23, 6 October 2008 (UTC)Merrian-Webster's

ACCOMMODATIONS: to make special arrangements to help.--Betsyl 01:59, 14 October 2008 (UTC) Def: The act of accommodating or the state of being accommodated (American Heritage Dictionary consandram)

"Achievement test" a test that assesses actual knowledgte and skill attainment. --Anitha R 01:20, 12 December 2008 (UTC)

adaptation - to change a behavior in response to a change in circumstances--Lisaz 20:49, 19 October 2008 (UTC) - I think it's when you try to conform to your surrounding in order to fit in.--AmyJ 03:23, 27 October 2008 (UTC) Def:Adjustment, agreement and flexibility.(ENCARTA Dictionary)--Betsyl 02:03, 29 October 2008 (UTC)


Adoption:- a process when an individual or couple takes responsibility/ raises a child that is not biologically theirs.

Definition: Adoption is the act of legally placing a child with a parent or parents other than those they were born to. An adoption order has the effect of severing parental responsibilities and rights of the original parent(s) and transferring those responsibilities and rights to the adoptive parent(s). (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adoption)

Annotate- to give a comment or suggestion, or to make notes about

Definition: to make or furnish critical or explanatory notes or comments. (merriam-webster.com)

Androgens- Chapt. 5-- chemical released in males during puberty.--Betsyl 02:19, 8 October 2008 (UTC) DEF:a natural or artificial male sex hormone responsible for the development of male sexual characteristics. Testosterone and androsterone are androgens.(Encarta Dictionary)--Betsyl 01:44, 14 October 2008 (UTC)

"Analogical problem solving" taking a solution strategy from one problem and applying it to other relevant problems. --Anitha R 01:14, 12 December 2008 (UTC)

"Aptitude test" a test that assesses an individual's potential to learn a specialixed activity. --Anitha R 01:14, 12 December 2008 (UTC)

Arbitrary- random, unsupported, or on impulse

Definition: determined by will or caprice: selected at random (Merriam-Webster dictionary LisaZ)

Assimilation - to make changes in one's behavior to conform to a norm of a group--Lisaz 20:49, 19 October 2008 (UTC) - to change in order to be like everyone around you.--AmyJ 03:23, 27 October 2008 (UTC) Assimilation is the process by which individuals from one cultural group merge, or "blend," into a second group. --Anitha R 02:41, 29 October 2008 (UTC)< www.merriam-webster.com

Attributions(chapter 11) explaining behaviors.--Betsyl 19:33, 15 November 2008 (UTC)

"Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)"- A childhood disorder that involves inattention, impulsivity, and excessive motor activity. --Anitha R 01:14, 12 December 2008 (UTC)

CARDINALITY: Maybe it means, quanity of numbers in a set/ got to do with math.--Betsyl 01:59, 14 October 2008 (UTC) Def: A principle specifying that the last word in a counting sequence indicates the quanity of items in a set.(Child Development Book --209.215.27.212 21:09, 19 October 2008 (UTC)

CAPACITY-FILLED----Betsyl 20:27, 6 November 2008 (UTC)Def:the maximum amount that can be held or taken in(Encarta DIC)--Betsyl 22:34, 4 December 2008 (UTC)

Child- an adolescent -- anyone under the age of 18--someone of small stature, someone who needs to be taken care of - someone who cannot take care of themselves

Definition: a young person between the period of infancy and youth (Merriam-Webster dictionary LisaZ)

A child is a young human being between birth and puberty; a boy or girl. The legal definition of "child" generally refers to a minor, otherwise known as a person younger than the age of majority. "Child" may also describe a relationship with a parent or authority figure, or signify group membership in a clan, tribe, or religion; it can also signify being strongly affected by a specific time, place, or circumstance, as in "a child of nature" or "a child of the Sixties." (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child)

Child- A person between birth and puberty http://www.thefreedictionary.com/child --Betsyl 14:05, 9 September 2008 (UTC) Definition: baby or infant, boy or girl, son or daughter, product. (Webster's Dictionary)--Anitha R 15:10, 19 September 2008 (UTC)

Cite- name a source, giving authors credit for their work

Definition:To quote as an authority or example or as proof. (Webster's II New Riverside Dictionary)--[(User:Anithar)]

Cognitive - learning, thinking--Lisaz 21:29, 27 September 2008 (UTC) brain functions, Thinking--Betsyl 23:45, 30 September 2008 (UTC) DEF:relating to the process of acquiring knowledge by the use of reasoning, intuition, or perception.(Encarta Dictionary)--Betsyl 01:44, 14 October 2008 (UTC)

"Cognitive inhibition" the ability to control internal and external distracting stimuli, thereby ensuring that working memory is not cluttered with irrelevant information.--Anitha R 01:14, 12 December 2008 (UTC)

"control deficiency" the inability to execute a mental strategy effectively.--Anitha R 01:14, 12 December 2008 (UTC)

COMPLIANCE-(Chapter 12)one obeying commands.--Betsyl 19:33, 15 November 2008 (UTC) Def of Compliance; the state or act of conforming with or agreeing to do something.--Betsyl 22:34, 4 December 2008 (UTC)

Context-words in a sentence-determine the meaning of a word by using other word in a sentence - word that helps you figure out the definition

Definition:The circumstances in which an event occurs; A setting; (American Heritage Dictionary)

CORRELATION HAVING THE SAME THINGS IN COMMON.

"Creativity" the ability to produce work that is original yet appropriate-something that others have not thought of but that is useful in some way. --Anitha R 01:14, 12 December 2008 (UTC)

Culture- beliefs, traditions, how someone is raised, customs, arts

Definition: a particular form or stage of civilization (Merriam-Webster Dictionary LisaZ)

Culture- The totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/child --Betsyl 14:05, 9 September 2008 (UTC)

Control- to have power over something or someone.--Betsyl 21:23, 17 September 2008 (UTC) DEF:to exercise power or authority over something such as a business or nation.http://www.thefreedictionary.com/child--Betsyl 01:44, 14 October 2008 (UTC)

Curriculum- Standard Course of Study, what needs to be taught, state requirements

Definition:A course of study offered by a school. (Webster's II New Riverside Dictionary)-- --Anitha R 17:35, 17 September 2008 (UTC) Definition:the subjects taught at an educational institution.(Encarta Dictionary).

Develop/Development -- The way someone/thing changes- how things evolve, how things progress

Definition:To elabortate or enlarge. (Webster's II New Riverside Dictionary)--[(User:Anithar)]


Discipline - punishment/bring under control, steps taken to punish one for bad behavior- how you handle a situation

Definition:training, acceptance of control, system of rules. (Webster's Dictionary)--Anitha R 15:10, 19 September 2008 (UTC)


Domain- my specific space, my territory, my area

Definition: a sphere of knowledge, influence or activity. (merriam-webster.com) Definition:the scope of a subject(Encarta Dictionary).shhere or control. (Webster's Dictionary)--Anitha R 15:10, 19 September 2008 (UTC)


Dynamic- level of intensity or just a level of a certain something

Definition: 1. Of or relating to energy or to certain objects. 2. Marked by continuous cahnge or activity. 3. Marked by intensity and vigor; forceful. (The American Heritage dictionary 3rd edition)

D

Diagnosis-investigation or analysis of the cause or nature of a condition, situation, or problem --Anitha R 02:23, 29 September 2008 (UTC) Def:Identification of illness.(ENCARTA DICTIONARY)--Betsyl 02:10, 29 October 2008 (UTC)

A medical procedure that identifies a particlar illness.--Betsyl 01:44, 14 October 2008 (UTC)

E

Elaboration-to expand something in detail --Anitha R 02:46, 29 October 2008 (UTC)

Empathy-understanding others.--Betsyl 21:23, 17 September 2008 (UTC) the action of understanding--Anitha R 02:26, 29 September 2008 (UTC)empathy. (2008). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.


Education- What is learned, a learning process, knowledge, the key to success

Definition: Education encompasses both the teaching and learning of knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency. It thus focuses on the cultivation of skills, trades or professions, as well as mental, moral & aesthetic development. (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education ) The act or process of educating or being educated(American Heritage Dictionary)--Anitha R 02:12, 19 September 2008 (UTC)The process of educationg or of being educated. (Webster's II Dictionary)Anithar

egocentrism - making judgements about things based on only your views and experiences --Lisaz 20:49, 19 October 2008 (UTC)-- someone that 's self-centered (consandram) Definition: concerned or overly concerned with the self (Merriam-Webster Dictionary)--Lisaz 01:48, 29 October 2008 (UTC) concerned with the individual rather than society--Anitha R 02:46, 29 October 2008 (UTC)Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Emergent literacy- Young children's active efforts to construct literacy knowledge through informal experiences.--Anitha R 02:54, 29 October 2008 (UTC)

EMOTION(chapt 10) The way a person feels or the way a person expresses themself.--Betsyl 19:33, 15 November 2008 (UTC) Def:a strong feeling about somebody or something.--Betsyl 22:34, 4 December 2008 (UTC)

ethics - a belieg system that someone adheres to when determining right and wrong--Lisaz 04:47, 15 November 2008 (UTC) Def:the study of moral standards and how they affect conduct(encarta dic.)--Betsyl 22:34, 4 December 2008 (UTC)

Evidence - Proof of someone's actions, facts

Definition: 1. The data on which a conclusion or judgement can be established. 2. Something indicative; an outward sign. 3. The statements and material objects admissible as testimony in a court of law.(The American Heritage dictionary 3rd edition)


Evolution- Changing (Change over a period of time -AmyJ)

Definition: 1. A gradual process in which something changes into a different and usually more complex form. 2. Biol. 2.a The theory that groups of organisms change with passage of time, mainly as a result of natural selection, so that descendants differ morphologically and physiologically from their ancestors. b. The historical development of related group of organisms; phylogeny. 3. Math. The extraction of a root of a quanity. (The American Heritage dictionary 3rd edition)

Family: your closest loved ones/loved ones who are there for you for nurture and support whom you will be around throughout your life.

Definition: Family denotes a group of people affiliated by consanguinity, affinity, and co-residence. Although the concept of consanguinity originally referred to relations by "blood," many anthropologists have argued that one must understand the notion of "blood" metaphorically, and that many societies understand 'family' through other concepts rather than through genetic distance. (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Family)

Friendship-close relationship with another--Betsyl 21:23, 17 September 2008 (UTC)--Anitha R 02:12, 19 September 2008 (UTC)someone your close too--Anitha R 02:12, 19 September 2008 (UTC)Anitha R DEFa relationship between two or more people who are friends.(www.thefreedictionary.com)--Betsyl 01:59, 14 October 2008 (UTC)

Fact - something that is true, truth (Something that has been proven to be the absolute truth-Ashley Bos)-can be proven

Definition: Generally, a fact is defined as something that is true, something that actually exists, or something that can be verified according to an established standard of evaluation.[1][2] There is a range of other uses, depending on the context. For example, fact may be argued under authority of a specific pedagogy, such as scientific facts or historical facts. Rhetorical assertion of fact is often forwarded without an implied or express basis of authority. (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fact) Information presented as objectively real. (American Heritage Dictionary)

Fact- Knowledge or information based on real occurrences: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/child --Betsyl 14:05, 9 September 2008 (UTC)

an event known to have happened or something known to have existed; an assertion that can be proved. The most important term with which a private investigator must become familiar. (www.mangrum-pi.com/glossaryOfTerms.php)


Guess - To try , to predict the answer or outcome, to attempt

Definition:To make a judgment (about) on the basis of insuficient evidence. (Webster's II New Riverside Dictionary)--[(User:Anithar)]--Anitha R 02:12, 19 September 2008 (UTC)

"Healthy"-enjoying health and vigor of body, mind, or spirit--Anitha R 02:23, 29 September 2008 (UTC) to be free of illness.--Betsyl 01:44, 14 October 2008 (UTC) DEF:in good physical or mental condition.(http://www.thefreedictionary.com)--Betsyl 01:44, 14 October 2008 (UTC)

Hypothesis - theory (An educated guess-Ashley Bos), what someone thinks the outcome will be Defintion:a tentative explanation for a phenomenon.Encarta Dictionary).

Definition: A theory based on fact, put forth for further testing. (Webster's Standard Dictionary)

Inclusion - to allow a person to take part in activity of a group.--Lisaz 19:40, 18 September 2008 (UTC)

To include all into a get group. --Betsyl 23:59, 28 September 2008 (UTC)

DEF:he addition of somebody or something to, or the presence of somebody or something in, a group or mixture.(http://www.thefreedictionary.com)--Betsyl 01:44, 14 October 2008 (UTC)

Influence - ability to cause an effect on someone or something--Lisaz 21:29, 27 September 2008 (UTC)

Trying to get others to understand your way of thinking.-- Betsyl 23:59, 28 September 2008 (UTC) Defthe power that somebody has to affect other people's thinking or actions by means of argument, example, or force of personality.(http://www.thefreedictionary.com) --Betsyl 01:44, 14 October 2008 (UTC)

Intelligence - is the way in which we process and apply what we learn and know.--AmyJ 23:14, 13 October 2008 (UTC) - capacity to learn and apply information and concepts--Lisaz 20:52, 19 October 2008 (UTC) Definition: ability to learn and understand or to deal with new or trying situations (Merriam-Webster Dictionary--Lisaz 04:47, 15 November 2008 (UTC))

Knowledge:The information one knows

Definition: expertise, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject, what is known in a particular field or in total (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge) AmandaB

mainstream - the normal or usual way to do something--Lisaz 19:40, 18 September 2008 (UTC)--Anitha R 02:12, 19 September 2008 (UTC)The chief direction or trend of an action or line of thought. (Wesbter'sII Dictionary)

Malnutrition- Faulty nutrition due to inadequate or unbalanced intake of nutrients or their impaired assimilation or utilization. ( Webster's Dictionary) Bobbie D

Metacognition:-

Definition: refers to awareness and understanding of various aspects of thought. (Child Development(7th edition)by: Laura E. Berk pg. 296)~ AmandaB

Method - a way in which you do certain things, a process and/or technique Definition: Definition: A sa way of doing something or carrying something ouystematic procedure; orderliness in manner or mode. (Webster's Standard Dictionary)

MEMORY STORED INFORMATION..--Betsyl 20:27, 6 November 2008 (UTC) Memory the act of remembering; recollection--Consandram 01:55, 8 November 2008 (UTC)The American Heritage dictionary

Normal --Anything accepted by majority of society- the usual way

Definition: the usual condition, level or quantity; someone of average intelligence (Merriam-Webster dictionary LisaZ)--Anitha R 02:14, 29 September 2008 (UTC)occurring naturally <normal immunity>normal. (2008). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.

O

Obesity- being over weight Definition:Obesity is a condition in which the natural energy reserve, stored in the fatty tissue of humans and other mammals, is increased to a point where it is associated with certain health conditions or increased mortality. (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obesity) ~AmandaB~

A body weight greater than 20 percent over the average for the child's age, sex, and physical build. (Child Development(7th edition)by: Laura E. Berk pg. 193)


Observe - to watch or oversee, to study ones actions, to watch something without interferring Definition: watching something attentively.Encarta Dictionary).to come to realize or know especially through consideration of noted facts--Anitha R 02:14, 29 September 2008 (UTC)observe. (2008). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.

Definition: To notice or view, especially carefully or with attention to detail; To follow the custom, practice, or rules (especially of a religion.); To comment on something; to make an observation (en.wiktionary.org/wiki/observe)

Ordinality-Order relationships between quantities. --Anitha R 02:54, 29 October 2008 (UTC)

Opinion - what you think personally/not necessarily a fact (Your outlook on something, but may not be another persons-Ashley Bos); an individuals point of view on a subject, personal feelings that aren't necessarily true Definition: personal view, estimation, body of generally held views. Definition: A judgement based on special knowledge and given by an expert (American Heritage Dictionary)


Paradigm- an example of something, a system

Definition:an example serving as a model; pattern.(Dictionary.com)

Definition:a written representation of the letter "r"

plasticity - able to be changed or molded--Lisaz 01:48, 29 October 2008 (UTC) - capable of being shaped or formed.-The American Heritage dictionary, 3rd edition.--AmyJ 22:16, 1 November 2008 (UTC)

play - an enjoyable activity--Lisaz 19:40, 18 September 2008 (UTC) the conduct, course, or action of a game --Anitha R 02:14, 29 September 2008 (UTC)play. (2008). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.

Poverty- the state of one with insufficient resources.--Anitha R 22:06, 6 October 2008 (UTC)Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.

Polices-a definite course or method of action selected from among alternatives and in light of given conditions to guide and determine present and future decisions --Anitha R 22:06, 6 October 2008 (UTC)Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.

Puberty- When young people go through a physical change. Definition: refers to the process of physical changes by which a child's body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puberty) ~AmandaB~

Reflect- to look back on something,memories,- remember, to look at something in an anaylitcal way

Definition: To mirror; to cast back an image. ( Webster's Standard Dictionary)


Reliable- Dependable, something or someone you can count on

Definition:that may be relied on; dependable in achievement, accuracy, honesty, etc.: reliable information.(Dictionary.com)suitable or fit to be relied on--Anitha R 02:14, 29 September 2008 (UTC)reliable. (2008). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.


Research - to investigate facts, (To look up information to prove a point-Ashley Bos)

Definition:diligent and systematic inquiry or investigation into a subject in order to discover or revise facts, theories, applications (Dictionary.com)


Science- the inside look at something or dissecting of something ,study of the earth; the natural and physical study of the earth i.e. botany, zoology, earth/environmental, physics, chemistry

Definition: 1. a branch of knowledge; what is known concerning a subject. 2. natural science, as physics or chemistry. 3. special skill


Scientific method - a system used to prove whether a hypothesis is true or false; a method used to test a hypothesis

Definition:the rules and methods for the pursuit of knowledge involving the finding and stating of a problem, the collection of facts through observation and experiment, and the making and testing of ideas that need to be proven right or wrong(merriam-webster dictionary)--Lisaz 01:03, 5 October 2008 (UTC)

Sociability- inclined to prefer company; Friendly; Characterized by friendly conversation. (Webster's Dictionary) Bobbie D

stereotype - labeling a person or group by the traits that are assumed to be possesed by that group--Lisaz 01:03, 5 October 2008 (UTC)

Definition: an idea that many people haveabout a thing or group and that may often untrue or only partially true (merriam-webster dictionary)--Lisaz 01:03, 5 October 2008 (UTC)

1. A conventional, oversimplified conception, opinion, or image. 2. One regarded as embodying or conforming to a set image or type. American Heritage dictionary -AmyJ October 6, 2008 --AmyJ 00:17, 7 October 2008 (UTC)

TALENT: ones ability to do something really well.--Betsyl 02:01, 14 October 2008 (UTC) Def: Someone with an exceptional ability. (Encarta Dic)--Betsyl 02:03, 29 October 2008 (UTC)

Teacher- one who teaches or instructs; one whose business or occupation is to instruct others. (Webster's Dictionary) '[[Bobbie D']]


Theory--Something someone believes to be true, however not necessarily true, idea, ones personal thoughts

Definition: analysis of a set of facts in their relation to one another. (merriam-webster.com)


Tradition - something handed down, something you do each year for a specific date or occasion, Something inherited from family that usually isn't wrote down

Definition: the handing down of customs, practices, doctrines, etc.; something so handed down.


Valid - has been proven beforehand and is then considered true, not out of date, proven correct

 Definition:  1. well supported by fact; sound; just 2. legally effective or binding

variable - changeable--Lisaz 21:29, 27 September 2008 (UTC)

Verify - to prove true, check into proof, to confirm

Definition: to establish truth accuracy or reality (Merriam-Webster dictionary)

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