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.In scientific research, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, "to try out") is a method of investigating causal relationships among variables, or to test a hypothesis.^ Symbolism and imagism, stream-of-consciousness and surrealism were all tried out, and three of the poems in Experiment 1 were simply titled ‘Poem’.
  • Jacket 20 - Kate Price: Experiment magazine, 1928-31 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC jacketmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Analysis of variance is complex and many researchers don’t bother; they do t-tests on the contrasts that interest them.

^ Although this particular experiment did not address Milgram's hypothesis about destructive obedience, in particular there were many variations on the basic experiment that Milgram carried out that were not addressed here, our conclusion is that virtual reality could be successfully used for this purpose.
  • PLoS ONE: A Virtual Reprise of the Stanley Milgram Obedience Experiments 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.An experiment is a cornerstone of the empirical approach to acquiring data about the world and is used in both natural sciences and social sciences.^ They are both facts about the world.
  • Experiment in Physics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, we have seen evidence that experiment plays similar roles in both biology and physics and also that the same epistemological strategies are used in both disciplines.
  • Experiment in Physics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Nevertheless there is something confusing about Pickering's invocation of the natural world.
  • Experiment in Physics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.An experiment can be used to help solve practical problems and to support or negate theoretical assumptions.^ The Wave Structure of Matter clearly solves these problems of the interference of light in the double slit experiment.
  • Physics Experiments on Reality 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Use this chemistry lesson plan to help students use the scientific method to design experiments to identify the components of an unknown mixture.
  • Chemistry Experiments & Demonstrations You Can Do at Home 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC chemistry.about.com [Source type: General]

^ Your CDL practice test helped me to pass it with no problems the second time around.

Contents

Controlled experiments

.An experiment or test can be carried out by using the scientific method.^ We carried out this experiment using two conditions that are far apart.
  • PLoS ONE: A Virtual Reprise of the Stanley Milgram Obedience Experiments 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This fits with the fact that the experiment is designed and carried out in such a was as to be (virtually) meaningless.
  • Twitter Experiment Starts Today! « Richard Wiseman's Blog 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC richardwiseman.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This phenomenon is what causes a battery to wear out with use and the measurements that we make with our experiments to change over time.
  • Experiments in Electrochemistry 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.funsci.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The steps are make an observation, ask a question, form a hypothesis, test the hypothesis, analyze the results, draw a conclusion, and communicate results.^ Have you contemplated writing a computer program that would ask and/or tabulate questions found on this test?
  • The 500 Point Nerdity Test! 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.armory.com [Source type: General]

^ A positive test result can bring relief from uncertainty and allow people to make informed decisions about their future, including taking steps to reduce their cancer risk.
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testi - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ All changes made to the original test suite should be documented in free-text form as part of the results submission.
  • Test - RIF 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The reason a hypothesis is tested is so that it can be confirmed, denied, or refined, with the knowledge currently available.^ For this reason, when doing a t-test, it is wise to confirm that neither group contains outliers.

.The test has one variable.^ Of course one should test that the discrepancies in variance estimates are not too large for many of the genes that are selected as differentially expressed.

.The control is the regular group and experimental is the group with the variable added to it.^ The simplest and most common experimental set-up is to compare two groups: for example, Treatment vs. Control, or Mutant vs. Wild type.

^ For these genes, the variation between samples will be large relative to the variation within groups due to random, but uneven allocation of the expression values to the treatment and control groups.

.To demonstrate a cause and effect hypothesis, an experiment must often show that, for example, a phenomenon occurs after a certain treatment is given to a subject, and that the phenomenon does not occur in the absence of the treatment.^ Failings of Animal Experiments Animal “models” often do not correctly predict real-world diseases and chemical effects on people.
  • Animal Experiments | Humane Society International 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.hsus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the creative contributions to Experiment the problem of subjectivity and objectivity produces more subtle effects.
  • Jacket 20 - Kate Price: Experiment magazine, 1928-31 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC jacketmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reduced fertility or entire sterility of certain forms, such as occurs in the offspring of many hybrids, would render the experiments very difficult or entirely frustrate them.
  • Mendel's Paper (English - Annotated) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.mendelweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(See Baconian method.)
Standard curve
.A controlled experiment generally compares the results obtained from an experimental sample against a control sample, which is practically identical to the experimental sample except for the one aspect whose effect is being tested (the independent variable).^ The object of the experiment was to observe these variations in the case of each pair of differentiating characters, and to deduce the law according to which they appear in successive generations .
  • Mendel's Paper (English - Annotated) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.mendelweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All that being said, I repeat: as of this writing there are no reproducible and generally accepted experiments that are inconsistent with SR, within its domain of applicability .
  • Experimental Basis of Special Relativity 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC math.ucr.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of the great variability in their diurnal variations, and the inadequacy of their monitoring and analysis, there is no reason to believe this result is inconsistent with SR; the experimenters themselves considered their result “preliminary”.
  • Experimental Basis of Special Relativity 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC math.ucr.edu [Source type: Academic]

A good example would be a drug trial. .The sample or group receiving the drug would be the experimental one; and the one receiving the placebo would be the control one.^ Dogs from group three were also paired up and leashed together, one receiving shocks, but the shocks didn’t end when the lever was pressed.
  • Top 10 Unethical Psychological Experiments - Listverse 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ So it would seem that spending is spiraling out of control on consumables that help no one, but are viewed as morally obligated and are too sacred to question.
  • Overcoming Bias : RAND Health Insurance Experiment 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.overcomingbias.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is an eleven year research program designed to produce and test drugs and biological agents that would be used for mind control and behavior modification.
  • A Biref History of Human Experiments 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.mnwelldir.org [Source type: Academic]

.In many laboratory experiments it is good practice to have several replicate samples for the test being performed and have both a positive control and a negative control.^ The top of the BTA test strip turns yellow when positive for bladder cancer, and it turns green when negative.
  • Cancer Tests 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.cancure.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In several cases (Esclangon, Miller, Marinov, Torr and Kolen, Cahill) it is possible to perform an error analysis which shows that the experiment is not inconsistent with SR after all.
  • Experimental Basis of Special Relativity 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC math.ucr.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The most common cause for a control line not developing or appearing is failure to add sufficient urine sample to complete full migration through the test panels.

.The results from replicate samples can often be averaged, or if one of the replicates is obviously inconsistent with the results from the other samples, it can be discarded as being the result of an experimental error (some step of the test procedure may have been mistakenly omitted for that sample).^ Some other rationale for the test.
  • OWL Web Ontology Language Test Cases 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ So there is no reason to believe this result is inconsistent with SR. Also see Experimenter's Bias below—this is a clear example of over-averaging.
  • Experimental Basis of Special Relativity 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC math.ucr.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Experimental results may be in conflict, or may even be incorrect.
  • Experiment in Physics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Most often, tests are done in duplicate or triplicate.^ This knowledge enables me to send an initial test which most often works fairly well across the board, sans a handful of unanticipated hiccups.
  • How to test HTML emails - Blog - Campaign Monitor 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.campaignmonitor.com [Source type: General]

.A positive control is a procedure that is very similar to the actual experimental test but which is known from previous experience to give a positive result.^ If an error is present, it is in the actual rectilineator, or in the procedure of positioning and securing the rectilineator segments.
  • Turning the Universe Inside-Out. 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.lhup.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phronk Says: June 2, 2009 at 6:47 pm Re: repeatability – many studies similar to this one have been done before, usually with positive results.
  • Twitter Experiment Starts Today! « Richard Wiseman's Blog 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC richardwiseman.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though the experiment lasted only a short time, the results are very telling.
  • Top 10 Unethical Psychological Experiments - Listverse 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

.A negative control is known to give a negative result.^ A home pregnancy test detects one specific hormone, referred to as HCG, to give you a positive or a negative result.
  • Tests | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ How a negative test result will be interpreted depends on whether or not someone in the tested person’s family is known to carry a harmful BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testi - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In cases in which a family has a history of breast and/or ovarian cancer and no known mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 has been previously identified, a negative test result is not informative.
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testi - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The positive control confirms that the basic conditions of the experiment were able to produce a positive result, even if none of the actual experimental samples produce a positive result.^ Do not intentionally inhale oxygen samples produced in these experiments.
  • Carbon Dioxide Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Oxygen Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Experimental results may be in conflict, or may even be incorrect.
  • Experiment in Physics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There have been new experiments and believers such as Jessica Utts say they replicate the earlier positive-result studies.
  • ganzfeld - The Skeptic's Dictionary - Skepdic.com 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.skepdic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The negative control demonstrates the base-line result obtained when a test does not produce a measurable positive result; often the value of the negative control is treated as a "background" value to be subtracted from the test sample results.^ What does a positive BRCA1 or BRCA2 test result mean?
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testi - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ If the control line does not appear then all results are invalid.

^ What does a negative BRCA1 or BRCA2 test result mean?
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testi - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Sometimes the positive control takes the quadrant of a standard curve.
.An example that is often used in teaching laboratories is a controlled protein assay.^ Ironically, methadone, used to control narcotic addiction, is a frequently abused narcotic, often encountered on the illicit market and methadone has been associated with a number of overdose deaths.

.Students might be given a fluid sample containing an unknown (to the student) amount of protein.^ Apart from this, a poor quality sample of de-ionized water can contain significant amounts of ions.
  • Experiments in Electrochemistry 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.funsci.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is their job to correctly perform a controlled experiment in which they determine the concentration of protein in fluid sample (usually called the "unknown sample").^ In some notable cases, doctors have performed experiments on themselves when they have been unwilling to risk the lives of others.
  • Top 10 Evil Human Experiments - Listverse 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Creatine is a natural protein created by the body and is usually excreted in the urine at fairly constant concentrations.
  • Pass Drug Test Is Guaranteed - How To Pass a Drug Test Information! 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.alwaystestclean.com [Source type: General]

^ Anybody who has worked in a repressive environment will recognise the Stanford Experiment, usually by someone who can’t do their job and resorts to bullying to do their job but cannot see anything wrong with what they’re doing (and are normal, nice people away from that situation).
  • Top 10 Unethical Psychological Experiments - Listverse 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

.The teaching lab would be equipped with a protein standard solution with a known protein concentration.^ In this case, in the buret you have to put an acid solution of concentration known with precision.
  • Experiments with Acids and Bases 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.funsci.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Students could make several positive control samples containing various dilutions of the protein standard.^ Certainly these variables do not exhaust the list that could be elicited from the parable, but they do suggest several research hypotheses.
  • John M 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.aug.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Negative control samples would contain all of the reagents for the protein assay but no protein.^ That would be nice to have in situations like my experiment where I create a lot of containers that are all the same.
  • An OpenVZ Experiment - How many containers? | MontanaLinux.org 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.montanalinux.org [Source type: General]

^ So it would seem that spending is spiraling out of control on consumables that help no one, but are viewed as morally obligated and are too sacred to question.
  • Overcoming Bias : RAND Health Insurance Experiment 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.overcomingbias.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To finish, I would recall (for the n th time) that all results, analysis and also tested settings are valid 1/ for classical music and 2/ for the 18 samples and 3/ for my sensitivity.
  • MPC vs VORBIS vs MP3 vs AAC at 180 kbps - Hydrogenaudio Forums 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.hydrogenaudio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In this example, all samples are performed in duplicate. .The assay is a colorimetric assay in which a spectrophotometer can measure the amount of protein in samples by detecting a colored complex formed by the interaction of protein molecules and molecules of an added dye.^ More precisely, the molecule of phenolphthalein is colorless in its associated form, but when the pH attain a certain threshold the molecule dissociates and it takes its typical purple color.
  • Experiments with Acids and Bases 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.funsci.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With a pH meter, measure the pH when the sample to be titrated change of color.
  • Experiments with Acids and Bases 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.funsci.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, as soon the sample of vinegar starts to change color, you have to note the amount of sodium hydroxide solution which has been used to neutralize it.
  • Experiments with Acids and Bases 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.funsci.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the illustration, the results for the diluted test samples can be compared to the results of the standard curve (the blue line in the illustration) in order to determine an estimate of the amount of protein in the unknown sample.^ These test theories can also be used to examine potential alternative theories to SR; such alternative theories predict particular values of the parameters of the test theory, which can easily be compared to values determined by experiments analyzed with the test theory.
  • Experimental Basis of Special Relativity 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC math.ucr.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Similar to ok(), is() and isnt() compare their two arguments with eq and ne respectively and use the result of that to determine if the test succeeded or failed.
  • Test::More - search.cpan.org 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC search.cpan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use this redox-based iodometric titration to determine the amount of Vitamin C or ascorbic acid in juice and other samples.
  • Chemistry Demonstrations, Experiments, Labs & Projects 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC chemistry.about.com [Source type: General]

.Controlled experiments can be performed when it is difficult to exactly control all the conditions in an experiment.^ In several cases (Esclangon, Miller, Marinov, Torr and Kolen, Cahill) it is possible to perform an error analysis which shows that the experiment is not inconsistent with SR after all.
  • Experimental Basis of Special Relativity 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC math.ucr.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This allowed the group to successfully perform the technically more difficult experiments later in the sequence.
  • Experiment in Physics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Time required Students should be able to perform all of these experiments in a single 45 minute laboratory period.
  • Carbon Dioxide Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: Reference]

.In this case, the experiment begins by creating two or more sample groups that are probabilistically equivalent, which means that measurements of traits should be similar among the groups and that the groups should respond in the same manner if given the same treatment.^ This was a between-groups experiment with two conditions.
  • PLoS ONE: A Virtual Reprise of the Stanley Milgram Obedience Experiments 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Besides, any such curvature error should be the same for every measurement, and would not affect the results.
  • Turning the Universe Inside-Out. 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.lhup.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Don’t get me wrong, there are huge differences between the two clips, but there are also amazing similarities, ones that attempt to achieve the same goal.
  • Experiment – Michael Verdi 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC michaelverdi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This equivalency is determined by statistical methods that take into account the amount of variation between individuals and the number of individuals in each group.^ The Working Group may take account of favorable review of the tests and/or implementation reports, as well as other factors.
  • OWL Web Ontology Language Test Cases 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ We took into account the natural variation of SCL between individuals by subtracting the mean SCL for each participant obtained from the baseline period from their SCL waveform during the learning period.
  • PLoS ONE: A Virtual Reprise of the Stanley Milgram Obedience Experiments 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Significance levels (P) for sign tests for differences between event related heart rate variability before and after the shocks over a range of different numbers of beats, N .
  • PLoS ONE: A Virtual Reprise of the Stanley Milgram Obedience Experiments 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.In fields such as microbiology and chemistry, where there is very little variation between individuals and the group size is easily in the millions, these statistical methods are often bypassed and simply splitting a solution into equal parts is assumed to produce identical sample groups.^ Basically there is little difference between a blood, urine or a saliva drug test.
  • Pass Drug Test Is Guaranteed - How To Pass a Drug Test Information! 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.alwaystestclean.com [Source type: General]

^ There were differential responses within groups (comparing the baseline to the learning session) and between groups (comparing those in the VC with those in the HC).
  • PLoS ONE: A Virtual Reprise of the Stanley Milgram Obedience Experiments 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Here's a color change chemistry demo in which a solution seems to change from water to wine to milk to beer simply be being poured into the appropriate beverage glass.
  • Chemistry Demonstrations, Experiments, Labs & Projects 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC chemistry.about.com [Source type: General]

.Once equivalent groups have been formed, the experimenter tries to treat them identically except for the one variable that he or she wishes to isolate.^ The hybrids form 8 various kinds of egg and pollen cells: ABC , ABc , AbC , Abc , aBC , aBc , abC , abc , and each pollen form unites itself again on the average once with each form of egg cell.
  • Mendel's Paper (English - Annotated) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.mendelweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One objective of this experiment is to encourage students to try various mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.
  • Oxygen Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second group includes the signs ABb , aBb , AaB , Aab : these are constant in one character and hybrid in another, and vary in the next generation only as regards the hybrid-character.
  • Mendel's Paper (English - Annotated) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.mendelweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Human experimentation requires special safeguards against outside variables such as the placebo effect.^ Experience of artificial fertilization , such as is effected with ornamental plants in order to obtain new variations in color, has led to the experiments which will here be discussed.
  • Mendel's Paper (English - Annotated) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.mendelweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whether the variable hybrids of other plant species observe an entire agreement must also be first decided experimentally.
  • Mendel's Paper (English - Annotated) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.mendelweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such experiments are generally double blind, meaning that neither the volunteer nor the researcher knows which individuals are in the control group or the experimental group until after all of the data have been collected.^ Researcher: Lynn Lansbury, University of Portsmouth The relationship between individual, group, place, and religious attachment on college adjustment (12/03/09).
  • Psychological Research on the Net 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC psych.hanover.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I only speak of number 1 because it is the one I know about the most, there are many others such as the Tuskegee experiments that are also horrendous.
  • Top 10 Evil Human Experiments - Listverse 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This kind of thing influences not only how we figuratively perceive other people who are not in our group, such as stereotyping all X together, but also how we literally perceive them.
  • Change blindness experiment Boing Boing 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This ensures that any effects on the volunteer are due to the treatment itself and are not a response to the knowledge that he is being treated.
.In human experiments, a subject (person) may be given a stimulus to which he or she should respond.^ OPRR shuts down research at Duke University because of inadequate supervision of human subject experiments..
  • A Biref History of Human Experiments 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.mnwelldir.org [Source type: Academic]

^ But some physical experiments in which a human observer is required to round-off measurements can also be subject to it.
  • Experimental Basis of Special Relativity 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC math.ucr.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This delivers a life-sized virtual reality within which a person can experience events and interact with representations of objects and virtual humans.
  • PLoS ONE: A Virtual Reprise of the Stanley Milgram Obedience Experiments 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.The goal of the experiment is to measure the response to a given stimulus by a test method.^ But according to strict CI, this decision isn't made until the moment of measurement -- the system of experiment plus detectors are in superposition given by: .
  • Kathryn Cramer: Shahriar S. Afshar: Quantum Rebel 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.kathryncramer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In these experiments you will find tests using electromagnetic and nuclear measurements (including both strong and weak interactions).
  • Experimental Basis of Special Relativity 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC math.ucr.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ So far, looking only at the data, this would seem to be a good experiment, with measurement uncertainties consistent with the instruments and methods used.
  • Turning the Universe Inside-Out. 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.lhup.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Natural experiments

.The term "experiment" usually implies a controlled experiment, but sometimes controlled experiments are prohibitively difficult or impossible.^ What happens when one can perform the experiment with only one type of apparatus, such as an electron microscope or a radio telescope, or when intervention is either impossible or extremely difficult?
  • Experiment in Physics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In this case researchers resort to natural experiments or quasi-experiments. Natural experiments rely solely on observations of the variables of the system under study, rather than manipulation of just one or a few variables as occurs in controlled experiments.^ After this experiment you'll be able answer the question "Do larger objects fall faster than lighter ones under the same conditions?"
  • Science Fair Projects, Ideas, and Experiments at ScienceFairAdventure.com! 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.sciencefairadventure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One objective of this experiment is to encourage students to try various mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.
  • Oxygen Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Besides, many experiments like these are done on animals now so it’s not like this type of research just vanished after WWII.” .
  • Top 10 Evil Human Experiments - Listverse 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.To the degree possible, they attempt to collect data for the system in such a way that contribution from all variables can be determined, and where the effects of variation in certain variables remain approximately constant so that the effects of other variables can be discerned.^ They remained constant without any exception.
  • Mendel's Paper (English - Annotated) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.mendelweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Data on other variables such as age were also available, but were not significant in the regression).
  • PLoS ONE: A Virtual Reprise of the Stanley Milgram Obedience Experiments 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They are all worthless as they do not perform the elementary error analysis of his raw data (see Section II of arXiv:physics/0608238 ).
  • Experimental Basis of Special Relativity 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC math.ucr.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The degree to which this is possible depends on the observed correlation between explanatory variables in the observed data.^ This is vastly better than averaging the data taken at each orientation and looking for patterns in the averages, because such averaging introduces artifacts, because averaging cannot distinguish between orientation dependence and systematic drifts, and because the fit inherently accounts for correlations in the parameters that averaging ignores.
  • Experimental Basis of Special Relativity 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC math.ucr.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The correlation of religious personality variables with helping behavior dichotomized between the added category (1) and all of the others (0) was examined.
  • John M 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.aug.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rather disappointing correlation between the social psychologist's traditional set of personality variables and helping behavior in emergency .
  • John M 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.aug.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When these variables are not well correlated, natural experiments can approach the power of controlled experiments.^ The object of the experiment was to observe these variations in the case of each pair of differentiating characters, and to deduce the law according to which they appear in successive generations .
  • Mendel's Paper (English - Annotated) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.mendelweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From your About Chemistry Guide, these are recipes for education and family fun, as well as interesting experiments and demonstrations.
  • Chemistry Experiments & Demonstrations You Can Do at Home 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC chemistry.about.com [Source type: General]
  • Chemistry Demonstrations, Experiments, Labs & Projects 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC chemistry.about.com [Source type: General]

^ As a laboratory activity, these experiments are appropriate when discussing chemical compounds, chemical formulas, chemical reactions, the mole, as well as a variety of topics including physical and chemical changes.
  • Carbon Dioxide Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Usually, however, there is some correlation between these variables, which reduces the reliability of natural experiments relative to what could be concluded if a controlled experiment were performed.^ Then there are all sorts of relatively inexpensive extras you can buy, granting you some extra abilities, like the chance to see some Techdirt posts before everyone else...
  • CwF + RtB = Techdirt | Techdirt 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC techdirt.com [Source type: General]

^ The object of the experiment was to observe these variations in the case of each pair of differentiating characters, and to deduce the law according to which they appear in successive generations .
  • Mendel's Paper (English - Annotated) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.mendelweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reply The correlation studies I mentioned have continued over the last thirty years and continue to usually give the same result: no effect of variations in medicine on health.
  • Overcoming Bias : RAND Health Insurance Experiment 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.overcomingbias.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also, because natural experiments usually take place in uncontrolled environments, variables from undetected sources are neither measured nor held constant, and these may produce illusory correlations in variables under study.^ Because family members share a proportion of their genes and, often, their environment, it is possible that the large number of cancer cases seen in these families may be due in part to other genetic or environmental factors.
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testi - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ For this reason, we hope you do not limit yourself to the operational aspects of these experiments, but try also to take the occasion to study a text of inorganic chemistry to acquire its basic concepts.
  • Experiments with Acids and Bases 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.funsci.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People tend to respond to virtual environments as if the objects and events depicted are real, in spite of low fidelity representations and certain knowledge that the events taking place are within a virtual reality.
  • PLoS ONE: A Virtual Reprise of the Stanley Milgram Obedience Experiments 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.Much research in several important science disciplines, including economics, political science, geology, paleontology, ecology, meteorology, and astronomy, relies on quasi-experiments.^ A research science experiment?
  • Twitter Experiment Starts Today! « Richard Wiseman's Blog 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC richardwiseman.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are categorized into the subjects of astronomy, biological sciences, chemistry (several), earth sciences, mathematics, and physics.
  • Chemistry Experiments & Demonstrations You Can Do at Home 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC chemistry.about.com [Source type: General]

^ Researcher: Benjamin Voyer, London School of Economics and Political Science Character Strengths and Gambling Study (05/19/08).
  • Psychological Research on the Net 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC psych.hanover.edu [Source type: Academic]

.For example, in astronomy it is clearly impossible, when testing the hypothesis "suns are collapsed clouds of hydrogen", to start out with a giant cloud of hydrogen, and then perform the experiment of waiting a few billion years for it to form a sun.^ A lottery to choose who would be ‘Teacher’ and who ‘Learner’ was carried out at the start of the experiment.
  • PLoS ONE: A Virtual Reprise of the Stanley Milgram Obedience Experiments 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As with all experiments, you have to test your hypothesis.
  • Workplace Experiments - (37signals) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 37signals.com [Source type: General]

^ References: There are only a few of them, but Coulomb developed the theory so he could carry out other experiments, somewhere back around 1820.

.However, by observing various clouds of hydrogen in various states of collapse, and other implications of the hypothesis (for example, the presence of various spectral emissions from the light of stars), we can collect data we require to support the hypothesis.^ We’re around for emergencies, and we still do customer service/support on Fridays, but other than that work is not required on Fridays.
  • Workplace Experiments - (37signals) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 37signals.com [Source type: General]

^ Because they insulated each arm's light path from the room and from each other, it is clear that such variations did occur between the two arms (variations in the room itself were much larger).
  • Experimental Basis of Special Relativity 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC math.ucr.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, this was the strategy used in the fMRI study described in [19] , where participants passively observed virtual characters gazing at the participants themselves or at other virtual characters.
  • PLoS ONE: A Virtual Reprise of the Stanley Milgram Obedience Experiments 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.An early example of this type of experiment was the first verification in the 1600s that light does not travel from place to place instantaneously, but instead has a measurable speed.^ Example of some of the topics covered : Did the Philadelphia Experiment actually take place?, Which were they trying to accomplish: radar or optical invisibility?, What is refraction?

^ In fact, Young used this technique to make the first measurement of the wavelength of light.
  • Physics Experiments on Reality 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In particular, the Afshar Experiment falsifies the Copenhagen Interpretation, which requires the absence of interference in a particle-type measurement.
  • Kathryn Cramer: Shahriar S. Afshar: Quantum Rebel 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.kathryncramer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Observation of the appearance of the moons of Jupiter were slightly delayed when Jupiter was farther from Earth, as opposed to when Jupiter was closer to Earth; and this phenomenon was used to demonstrate that the difference in the time of appearance of the moons was consistent with a measurable speed.^ This phenomenon is what causes a battery to wear out with use and the measurements that we make with our experiments to change over time.
  • Experiments in Electrochemistry 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.funsci.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 11-MHz measurement did provide an opportunity to demonstrate a qualitative difference in the propagation in the Mycerinus structure from that in Chephren.
  • Electromagnetic Sounder Experiments at the Pyramids of Giza 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Using the propagation-velocity measurements and the known geometry, it is possible to calculate quite accurately the expected onset time of the echo in each case.
  • Electromagnetic Sounder Experiments at the Pyramids of Giza 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Academic]

Observational studies

Observational studies are not experiments. .By definition, observational studies lack the manipulation required for Baconian experiments.^ We all exist in reality so any simple experiment is still a valid observation of the real world which requires a Scientific explanation.
  • Physics Experiments on Reality 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

Observational studies also lack the statistical properties of randomized experiments. .In a randomized experiment, the method of randomization specified in the experimental protocol guides the statistical analysis, which is usually specified also by the experimental protocol.^ This is an important experimental technique used to reduce the impact of randomness on an experiment's outcome.
  • Experimental Basis of Special Relativity 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC math.ucr.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ However, this analysis clearly establishes that the method of the experiment was flawed.
  • Turning the Universe Inside-Out. 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.lhup.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is most commonly a concern in medical and sociological experiments, in which “single-blind” and “double-blind” protocols are usually required.
  • Experimental Basis of Special Relativity 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC math.ucr.edu [Source type: Academic]

.With a randomized experiment, the randomization itself provides the statistical model that is used in inference.^ This is an important experimental technique used to reduce the impact of randomness on an experiment's outcome.
  • Experimental Basis of Special Relativity 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC math.ucr.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Carl provided most of the "facts" that are still used in books today, for example; The name of the test ship, the location and date of the experiment, etc.

^ In this experiment, which used correlation between two entangled photons, it is proven that any semiclassical model a la lamb and Afshar is too naive.
  • Kathryn Cramer: Shahriar S. Afshar: Quantum Rebel 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.kathryncramer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1][2] Without a statistical model that reflects an objective randomization, the statistical analysis relies on a subjective model.[1][3][2] Inferences from subjective models are unreliable in theory and practice.[3] .In fact, there are several cases where well-done observational studies consistently give wrong results, that is, where the results of the observational studies are inconsistent and also differ from the results of experiments.^ There are even cases in which both experiment and theory are wrong.
  • Experiment in Physics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If the fitted parameter values differ significantly from the values corresponding to SR, then the experiment is inconsistent with SR. But more normally, such fits can show how well a given experiment confirms or disagrees with SR, and what the experimental accuracy is for doing so.
  • Experimental Basis of Special Relativity 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC math.ucr.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the case of one variety there were noticed, among a larger number of plants all alike, a few forms which were markedly different.
  • Mendel's Paper (English - Annotated) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.mendelweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, epidemiological studies eating broccoli and colon cancer consistently find beneficial results, while experiments find no benefit.^ Money reported no further results beyond insisting that the experiment had been a success, leaving out many details of David’s obvious struggle with gender identity.
  • Top 10 Unethical Psychological Experiments - Listverse 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Research studies are being conducted to find newer and better ways of detecting, treating, and preventing cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testi - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Many research studies are being conducted to find newer and better ways of detecting, treating, and preventing cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testi - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[4]
.Another problem is that observational studies have great difficulty attaining fair comparisons between treatments (or exposures), because the groups receiving different treatments (exposures) differ greatly according to their covariates.^ They also describe two different comparisons between USNO and the Paris Observatory.
  • Experimental Basis of Special Relativity 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC math.ucr.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It's a completely different model to the "consume this because that's what the cool kids are doing" approach preferred by the mainstream media groups.
  • CwF + RtB = Techdirt | Techdirt 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC techdirt.com [Source type: General]

^ The mean age was 29±8 years with no significant difference between the HC and VC groups.
  • PLoS ONE: A Virtual Reprise of the Stanley Milgram Obedience Experiments 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

In contrast, randomization implies that for each covariate, the mean for each group is expected to be the same. .For any randomized trial, some variation from the mean is expected, of course, but the randomization ensures that the experimental groups have mean values that are close, due to the central limit theorem and Markov's inequality.^ By "expected" I mean the value of Earth radius that the experimenters expected.
  • Turning the Universe Inside-Out. 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.lhup.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, as the shocks continue we would expect to see some evidence of a differential response between these two groups.
  • PLoS ONE: A Virtual Reprise of the Stanley Milgram Obedience Experiments 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Note also that some of the parameters in these test theories are not determined at all by SR (or by experiments)—this means that many different theories, characterized by different values of such parameters, are equivalent to SR in that they are experimentally indistinguishable from SR (though they differ from SR in other aspects).
  • Experimental Basis of Special Relativity 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC math.ucr.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Because of the lack of randomization, it is usually the case that observational studies exhibit confounding: That is, the systematic variation in covariates between the treatment groups (or exposure groups) makes it difficult to separate the effect of the treatment (exposure) from the effects of the other covariates, most of which have not been measured.^ I.e., variables that differ systematically between conditions.
  • Twitter Experiment Starts Today! « Richard Wiseman's Blog 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC richardwiseman.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This systematic error would automatically result in excellent agreement between the measuring instruments.
  • Turning the Universe Inside-Out. 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.lhup.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a differential measurement, the signals received with the transmitter and receiver in various different locations are compared with each other.
  • Electromagnetic Sounder Experiments at the Pyramids of Giza 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Academic]

In short, an observational study lacks any warrant of probabilistic equivalency between the exposure groups.
.The results of observational studies are considered much less convincing than those of designed experiments, as they are much more prone to selection bias.^ In my experience, most people are more likely to value the bird they have in hand much more than the two in the bush.
  • Workplace Experiments - (37signals) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 37signals.com [Source type: General]

^ Some questioned the experiment, but many were encouraged to go on and told they would not be responsible for any results.
  • Top 10 Unethical Psychological Experiments - Listverse 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Blood pressure is very susceptible to nervousness, and people who had regularly been to a doctor and had their blood pressure taken are likely to be a bit less nervous about having their blood pressure measured than those who hadn’t been to see a doctor much, or at all.
  • Overcoming Bias : RAND Health Insurance Experiment 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.overcomingbias.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Researchers attempt to reduce the biases of observational studies with complicated statistical methods such as propensity score matching methods, which require large populations of subjects and extensive information on covariates.^ Which would completely fly in the face of the scientific method and not be justified by such a flawed study, but Dr. Wiseman has done it before (e.g., with Sheldrake’s dog experiment).
  • Twitter Experiment Starts Today! « Richard Wiseman's Blog 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC richardwiseman.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The image tradition uses detectors such as cloud chambers or bubble chanbers, which provide detailed and extensive information about each individual event.
  • Experiment in Physics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ They sought a method for measuring the Earth's curvature that would not be subject to such "errors".
  • Turning the Universe Inside-Out. 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.lhup.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also propensity score matching, hierarchy of evidence and quasi-empirical methods.

Animal subjects

.Observational studies are also used because it is extremely difficult to conduct longitudinal experiments with animal subjects.^ These stories are unfortunate, how someone who studies the human mind can subject others or animals to these terrors is beyond me.
  • Top 10 Unethical Psychological Experiments - Listverse 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ The value and utility of any experiment are determined by the fitness of the material to the purpose for which it is used, and thus in the case before us it cannot be immaterial what plants are subjected to experiment and in what manner such experiment is conducted.
  • Mendel's Paper (English - Annotated) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.mendelweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These observations could be subject to criticism due to Optical Extinction, but some observations are for supernovas considerably closer than the extinction length of the X-ray wavelengths used.
  • Experimental Basis of Special Relativity 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC math.ucr.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Since lung cancer takes 30-40 years to develop, it is too expensive to conduct animal studies, whose extrapolation to humans would be unconvincing, anyhow.^ Research studies are being conducted to find newer and better ways of detecting, treating, and preventing cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testi - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In our study the human participants were required to carry out actions that would cause ‘pain’ to a virtual character.
  • PLoS ONE: A Virtual Reprise of the Stanley Milgram Obedience Experiments 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many research studies are being conducted to find newer and better ways of detecting, treating, and preventing cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testi - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Observational studies often suggest hypotheses whose consequences can be tested with randomized experiments or by collecting fresh data.^ However, no previous experiments have studied what might happen when participants have to actively engage in behaviours that would have consequences for the virtual humans.
  • PLoS ONE: A Virtual Reprise of the Stanley Milgram Obedience Experiments 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In order to facilitate study of the data in these experiments, the different characters of the seed plant will be indicated by A , B , C , those of the pollen plant by a , b , c , and the hybrid forms of the characters by Aa , Bb , and Cc .
  • Mendel's Paper (English - Annotated) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.mendelweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Employee screenings are on the rise, corporations have their own rules and acceptance of random drug testing is often a condition of employment.
  • Pass Drug Test Is Guaranteed - How To Pass a Drug Test Information! 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.alwaystestclean.com [Source type: General]

.In providing therapies for human subjects, for example in psychology or health care, it is unethical to provide a substandard treatment to patients.^ The CIS can provide more information about genetic testing and help in finding a health care professional trained in genetics.
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testi - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ When considering HRT use, both the potential harms and benefits of this type of treatment should be discussed carefully by a woman and her health care provider.
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testi - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Individuals who decide to get tested should check with their health care provider to find out when their test results might be available.
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testi - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Therefore, ethical review boards are supposed to stop clinical trials and other experiments unless a new treatment is believed to offer benefits as good as current best practice.^ Consequently it's currently impossible to use Apple's AAC encoder unless other contenders will output an average bitrate close to either 160 kbps or 192 kbps.
  • MPC vs VORBIS vs MP3 vs AAC at 180 kbps - Hydrogenaudio Forums 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.hydrogenaudio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If experiment is to play these important roles in science then we must have good reasons to believe experimental results, for science is a fallible enterprise.
  • Experiment in Physics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If experiment is to play all of the important roles in science mentioned above and to provide the evidential basis for scientific knowledge, then we must have good reasons to believe in those results.
  • Experiment in Physics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

[5]
.It is unethical and often illegal to conduct randomized experiments on the effects of substandard or harmful treatments, such as the effects of ingesting arsenic on human health.^ Effects of estrogen plus progestin on gynecologic cancers and associated diagnostic procedures: The Women's Health Initiative randomized trial.
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testi - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Stanford prison experiment was a psychological study of human responses to captivity and its behavioral effects on both authorities and inmates in prison.
  • Top 10 Evil Human Experiments - Listverse 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They might be considered unethical, but if the milligram study was not conducted or some other studies we might not have the insight to some, maybe rather important, human behaviour.
  • Top 10 Unethical Psychological Experiments - Listverse 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

.To understand the effects of such exposures, scientists use observational studies.^ For Esclangon and Miller this is understandable, as during their lifetimes the use of error bars and quantitative error analyses was not the norm; the modern authors have no such excuse.
  • Experimental Basis of Special Relativity 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC math.ucr.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The point of the experiment was simply to understand the effects of addiction and drug use; a point which, I think, most rational and ethical people would know did not require such horrendous treatment of animals.
  • Top 10 Unethical Psychological Experiments - Listverse 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ US is experimenting on people everyday with new and old methods of torture, using american psychologists to study the effects.
  • Top 10 Evil Human Experiments - Listverse 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

Field experiments

Field experiments are so named in order to draw a contrast with laboratory experiments. .Often used in the social sciences, and especially in economic analyses of education and health interventions, field experiments have the advantage that outcomes are observed in a natural setting rather than in a contrived laboratory environment.^ On the strength of these successful feasibility experiments, the SRI group proposed field experiments at Giza in Egypt to the National Science Foundation in early 1973.
  • Electromagnetic Sounder Experiments at the Pyramids of Giza 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.ldolphin.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A: Alcohol : Alcohol , while a legal drug, is often abused and habitual use can lead to addiction and significant physical and psychological health problems.

^ As I can imagine that this observation can cast a bit of gloom over one’s work in this field, doing a popular science experiment using the latest and highest profile social media technology must be a good thing whether it actually tells us anything about psychic powers or not.
  • Twitter Experiment Starts Today! « Richard Wiseman's Blog 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC richardwiseman.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, like natural experiments, field experiments suffer from the possibility of contamination: experimental conditions can be controlled with more precision and certainty in the lab...^ In my experience, most people are more likely to value the bird they have in hand much more than the two in the bush.
  • Workplace Experiments - (37signals) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 37signals.com [Source type: General]

^ Experiments in any field, including this one, are better if designed with he assistance of someone with relevant experience of that field, though, again, that would increase the possibility of “awkward” results.
  • Twitter Experiment Starts Today! « Richard Wiseman's Blog 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC richardwiseman.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bielek gave an update on the current use of mind control and psychic warfare, and also offered a more detailed account of his experience in the Montauk Project.

See also

Footnotes

Notes

  1. ^ a b Freedman et alia (2007)
  2. ^ a b Kempthorne[citation needed]
  3. ^ a b Freedman (2009)
  4. ^ Freedman (2009), Chapter 1
  5. ^ Bailey (2008)

References

  • Bailey, R. A (2008). Design of Comparative Experiments. .Cambridge University Press.^ Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 275-297.
    • Experiment in Physics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 409-435.
    • Experiment in Physics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Experiment in Physics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 978-0-521-68357-9.
      Pre-publication chapters are available on-line.
  • Hinkelmann, Klaus and Kempthorne, Oscar (2008). .Design and Analysis of Experiments, Volume I: Introduction to Experimental Design (Second ed.^ In order to bring these assumptions to an experimental proof, the following experiments were designed.
    • Mendel's Paper (English - Annotated) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.mendelweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The law of combining volumes can be determined experimentally by playing with the H 2 /O 2 mixture ratio in Experiments 3 and 4.
    • Oxygen Microscale Gas Chemistry Experiments 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Although Franklin's epistemology of experiment is designed to offer good reasons for belief in experimental results, they are not a set of rules.
    • Experiment in Physics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ). Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-72756-9.
     
  • Freedman, D.A., R. Pisani, and R. A. Purves. (2007) Statistics], 4th edition, W.W. Norton & Company. .ISBN 978-0-393-92972-0
  • Freedman, D.A. (2009) Statistical Models: Theory and Practice, Second edition, Cambridge University Press.^ Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 275-297.
    • Experiment in Physics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 409-435.
    • Experiment in Physics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Experiment in Physics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 9780521743853

External links

.

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

.In scientific research, an experiment is a method of investigating causal relationships among variables, or to test a hypothesis.^ As with all experiments, you have to test your hypothesis.
  • Workplace Experiments - (37signals) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC 37signals.com [Source type: General]

^ Which would completely fly in the face of the scientific method and not be justified by such a flawed study, but Dr. Wiseman has done it before (e.g., with Sheldrake’s dog experiment).
  • Twitter Experiment Starts Today! « Richard Wiseman's Blog 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC richardwiseman.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As well as being the first ever scientific experiment on Twitter, I think this is going to be the largest ever test of Remote Viewing, so I am excited about the project.
  • Twitter Experiment Starts Today! « Richard Wiseman's Blog 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC richardwiseman.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An experiment is a cornerstone of the empirical approach to acquiring data about the world and is used in both natural sciences and social sciences.^ They are both facts about the world.
  • Experiment in Physics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, we have seen evidence that experiment plays similar roles in both biology and physics and also that the same epistemological strategies are used in both disciplines.
  • Experiment in Physics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Nevertheless there is something confusing about Pickering's invocation of the natural world.
  • Experiment in Physics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.An experiment can be used to help solve practical problems and to support or negate theoretical assumptions.^ Published by CTB/McGraw-Hill Test of Mathematical Ability for Gifted Students (TOMAGS) ages Group test, measures students' ability to use mathematical reasoning and mathematical problem solving.
  • Hoagies' Gifted: Inventory of Tests 10 February 2010 11:38 UTC www.hoagiesgifted.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Use this chemistry lesson plan to help students use the scientific method to design experiments to identify the components of an unknown mixture.
  • Chemistry Experiments & Demonstrations You Can Do at Home 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC chemistry.about.com [Source type: General]
  • Chemistry Demonstrations, Experiments, Labs & Projects 6 February 2010 11:14 UTC chemistry.about.com [Source type: General]

^ Your CDL practice test helped me to pass it with no problems the second time around.

See also

Wikipedia-logo.png Run a search on Experiment at Wikipedia.

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also experiment

German

Noun

Experiment n. (genitive Experiments or Experimentes, plural Experimente)
  1. experiment

Simple English

An experiment is a test of an idea invented by someone, usually a scientist. An experiment is used to test a theory--to see how well the real world matches the theory. Experiments have been used for many years to help people understand the world around them.

One important observation about experiments is that they can tell us if a theory is false. They cannot tell us if a theory is true. For example, if we invent a theory that says All houses are made of wood, we cannot say that it is true because all the houses we have seen are made of wood. But, if we find a house that is not made of wood, we know that our theory is false.

Benjamin Franklin did a well known experiment by flying a kite during a thunderstorm. He did the experiment to see if lightning was made of electricity.

Experiments are not the same as faith (belief) or other ways to find truth because experiments must have proof. They begin by testing falsehood to find out truth.

"The universe does not tell us when we are right, only when we are wrong." - Karl Popper

Famous experiments


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 26, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Experiment, which are similar to those in the above article.








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