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"The long walk":[1] A British Army ATO approaches a suspect device in Northern Ireland.
Various types of unexploded ordnance, fitted with multiple M112 demolition charges (black rectangular blocks) containing C4 explosive in preparation for destruction.

Bomb disposal is the process by which hazardous explosive devices are rendered safe. Bomb disposal is an all encompassing term to describe the separate, but interrelated functions in the following fields:

  • Military:
    • Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD)
    • Improvised Explosive Device Disposal (IEDD)
  • Public safety:
    • Public Safety Bomb Disposal (PSBD)
    • Bomb Squad

Contents

History

World War I and the interwar period

Bomb Disposal became a formalised practice in the first World War. The swift mass production of munitions led to many manufacturing defects, and a large proportion of shells fired by both sides were found to be "duds".[2] These were hazardous to attacker and defender alike. In response, the British dedicated a section of Ordnance Examiners from the Royal Army Ordnance Corps to handle the growing problem.

In 1918, the Germans developed delayed-action fuzes that would later develop into more sophisticated versions during the 1930s, as Nazi Germany began its secret course of arms development. These tests led to the development of UXBs (unexploded bombs), pioneered by Herbert Ruehlemann of Rheinmetall, and first employed during the Spanish Civil War of 1936–37. Such delayed-action bombs provoked terror in the civilian population because of the uncertainty of time, and also complicated the task of disarming them. The Germans saw that unexploded bombs caused far more chaos and disruption than bombs that exploded immediately. This caused them to increase their usage of delayed-action bombs in World War II.

Initially there were no specialised tools, training, or core knowledge available, and as Ammunition Technicians learned how to safely neutralise one variant of munition, the enemy would add or change parts to make neutralisation efforts more hazardous. This trend of cat-and-mouse extends even to the present day, and the various techniques used to disarm munitions are not publicised.

World War II

Modern EOD Technicians across the world can trace their heritage to the Blitz, when the United Kingdom's cities were subjected to extensive bombing raids by Nazi Germany. In addition to conventional air raids, unexploded bombs (UXBs) also took their toll on population and morale, paralyzing vital services and communications. Bombs fitted with delayed-action fuzes provoked fear and uncertainty in the civilian population.

The problem of UXBs was further complicated when Royal Engineer bomb disposal personnel began to encounter munitions fitted with anti-handling devices e.g. the Luftwaffe's ZUS40 anti-removal bomb fuze of 1940. Bomb fuzes incorporating anti-handling devices were specifically designed to kill bomb disposal personnel. Scientists and technical staff responded by devising methods and equipment to render them safe.

Northern Ireland 1969–present

The Ammunition Technicians of the Royal Logistic Corps (formerly RAOC) have become the world's foremost experts, after many years of dealing with bombs planted by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA). The bombs PIRA employed ranged from simple pipe bombs to sophisticated victim-triggered devices. The roadside bomb was in use by PIRA from the early 1970s onwards, evolving over time with different types of explosives and triggers.

A specialist Army unit 321 EOD Company (now part of 11 EOD Regiment RLC) was deployed to tackle increased IRA violence and willingness to use IEDs against both economic and military targets. The unit's radio callsign was Felix, many believe this to be an allusion to the cat with nine lives and led to the phrase "Fetch Felix" whenever a suspect device was encountered and became the title of the 1981 book Fetch Felix; it is however due to the fact that all units in Northern Ireland, had a 'callsign' to be used over the radios. 321 Sqn being a newly formed unit hadn't such a callsign, and so a young signaller was sent to the OC of 321 Sqn, the OC having lost 2 technicians that morning decided on Phoenix, to rise again from the ashes. This was misheard as Felix by the signaller and never changed. 321 EOD Coy RAOC (now 321 EOD Sqn RLC) is unique in that it is the most decorated unit (in peace time) in the British Army, notably for acts of bravery during OP BANNER (1969–2007) in Northern Ireland.[3]

British bomb disposal experts of 11 EOD Regiment RLC were amongst the first personnel sent into Iraq in 2003 prior to the actual invasion itself.

United States EOD history

The United States War Department felt the British Bomb Disposal experience could be a valuable asset, based on reports from U.S. Army, Navy, and Marine Corps observers at RAF Melksham in Wiltshire, England in 1940. The next year, the Office of Civilian Defense (OCD) and War Department both sponsored a bomb disposal program, which gradually fell under military governance due to security and technical reasons. OCD personnel continued to train in UXB reconnaissance throughout the war. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, the British sent instructors to Aberdeen Proving Ground, where the U.S. Army would inaugurate a formal bomb disposal school under the Ordnance Corps.

1946 The Naval Ordnance Disposal Unit was relocated to the Naval Powder Factory in Indian Head, Md. An important component of those schools was the Ordnance Investigation Lab (OIL) located at the Stump Neck Annex, which was tasked to develop standardized procedures and tools for that core of EOD professionals. Through the post war period and many name changes, the OIL evolved to keep pace with the increasingly complex and rapidly proliferating ordnance threat.

In May 1941, Lt. Col. Geoffrey Yates (Ret.) and his British colleagues also helped establish the Naval Mine Disposal School at the Naval Gun Factory, Washington, D.C. Not to be outdone, the U.S. Navy, under the command of Lt. Cmdr. Draper L. Kauffman (who would go on to found the Underwater Demolition Teams – better known as UDTs or the U.S. Navy Frogmen), created the Naval Bomb Disposal School at University Campus, Washington, D.C. U.S. Ordnance and British Royal Engineers would forge a partnership that worked quite effectively in war – a friendship persisting to this day.

1942 was a banner year for the fledgling EOD program. U.S. Army Lt. Col. Thomas Kane, who began in 1940 as a Bomb Disposal Instructor in the School of Civilian Defense, traveled with eight other troops to the UK for initial EOD training. Kane took over the US Army Bomb Disposal School at Aberdeen Proving Ground. Three members of Kane's training mission later served as Bomb Disposal squad commanders in the battlefield: Ronald L. Felton (12th Bomb Disposal Squad Separate) in Italy, Joseph C. Pilcher (17th Bomb Disposal Squad Separate) in France and Germany, and Richard Metress (209th Bomb Disposal Squad Separate) in the Philippines Islands. Captain Metress and most of his squad were killed in 1945 while dismantling a Japanese IED.

Late in 1942, the first US Navy EOD casualty was recorded. Ensign Howard, USNR, was performing a render-safe procedure against a German moored mine when it detonated. Only a few months later, the first two Army EOD fatalities occurred during the Aleutian Islands Campaign. While conducting EOD operations on Attu Island, Lt. Rodger & T/Sgt. Rapp (commander and NCOIC of the 5th Ordnance Bomb Disposal Squad) were fatally injured by unexploded ordnance.

Graduates of the Aberdeen School formed the first Army Bomb Disposal companies, starting with the 231st Ordnance Bomb Disposal Company. The now-familiar shoulder emblem for Army EOD Technicians, a red bomb on an oval, black background was approved for them to wear. Following initial deployments in North Africa and Sicily, U.S. Army commanders registered their disapproval of these cumbersome units. In 1943, companies were phased out, to be replaced by mobile seven-man squads in the field.

In 1944, Col. Thomas Kane oversaw all European Theater Bomb Disposal operations, starting with reconnaissance training for the U.S. forces engaging the Germans on D-Day. Unfortunately, the Pacific Theater lacked a similar administration.

In 1945, the Naval Mine Disposal School and the Naval Bomb Disposal School combined to form the Naval Ordnance Disposal Unit.

U.S. Navy explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) divers.

Overall, about forty Americans were killed outright performing the specialized services of bomb and mine disposal in World War II. Scores more were maimed or injured during combat operations requiring ordnance support. At Schwammanuel Dam in Germany, two bomb disposal squads acting as a "T Force" were exposed to enemy mortar and small arms fire. Captain Marshall Crow (18th Squad) took serious wounds, even as his party drove German defenders from their positions.

Ironically, the only major ordnance attack against the continental U.S. would be handled by the 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion, who dealt with the Japanese Fu-Go balloon bomb menace in 1945. The all-black 555th "Smokejumpers" were trained by ordnance personnel to defuse these incendiary bombs before they could kill civilians or start forest fires.

Following the war, U.S. bomb disposal technicians continued to clear Nazi and Japanese stockpiles, remove UXO from battlefields, while training host nation (HN) troops to do these tasks. This established a tradition for U.S. EOD services to operate during peace as well as war.

Colonel Kane remained in contact with EOD until his retirement in 1955. He urged reforms in the bomb disposal organization and training policy. Wartime errors were rectified in 1947 when Army personnel started attending a new school at Indian Head, Maryland, under U.S. Navy direction. This course was named the Explosive Ordnance Disposal Course, governing training in all basic types of ammunition and projectiles.

1947 also saw the Army Air Corps separate and become the U.S. Air Force, gaining their own EOD branch. That same year, the forerunner of the EOD Technology Center, the USN Bureau of Naval Weapons, charged with research, development, test, and evaluation of EOD tools, tactics and procedures was born. 1949 marked the official end of an era, as Army and Navy Bomb Disposal squads were reclassified into Explosive Ordnance Disposal units.

In 1951, the Navy was assigned Joint Service responsibilities for EOD research and development, and training. As a result, the Navy took on the responsibility for training all Joint Service EOD operators (Army, Marine Corps, Navy, and Air Force) and for the development EOD technologies in support of the Joint Service EOD Community.

In 1953, the research and development tasks were assumed by OIL, which was renamed the Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Center (NAVEODTECHCEN). Reflecting the trend in name changing, the Naval Ordnance Disposal Unit was renamed the Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School and remained at the Naval Powder Factory. Two years later, the Army Bomb Disposal School would close, making Indian Head the sole Joint Service EOD School in the U.S. at the time, though currently NAVSCOLEOD has relocated to Eglin AFB FL.

In 1955, NAVEODTECHCEN's technical staff grew to include civilian engineers and support technicians.

In 1962, NAVEODTECHCEN was placed under the direction of a Commanding Officer and again renamed the Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Facility (NAVEODFAC).

In 1971, DoD Directive 5160.62 assigned the Secretary of the Navy as Single Manager for Military Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology and Training. Subsequently, NAVEODFAC was redesignated as a fouth echelon field activity under the Naval Sea Sytstems Command (NAVSEA) and asked to provide EOD research and development in carrying out the Secretary of the Navy's responsibility for meeting Joint Service EOD technology requirements as defined by the Joint Service Explosive Ordnance Disposal Program Board.

In 1988, NAVEODFAC was redesignated as Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Center (NAVEODTECHCEN).

In 1995, NAVEODTECHCEN became the Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division (NAVEODTECHDIV) under the Naval Ordnance Center (NOC).

In 2007, NAVEODTECHDIV was realigned underneath Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) as a division of the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC).

The current, most recognizable distinctive item of wear by EOD Technicians, affectionately referred to as the "crab", began uniform wear as the Basic EOD Qualification Badge in 1957. The Master Badge would not appear until 1969.

On 31 March 2004, the U.S. Army EOD Headquarters at Fort Gillem, Georgia dedicated its new building to Col. Thomas J. Kane (1900–65).

EOD in low intensity conflicts

IDF American Andros EOD robot. This particular model is the MarkV-A1.

The eruption of low intensity conflicts and terrorism waves at the beginning of the 21st century caused further development in the techniques and methods of Bomb Disposal. EOD Operators and Technicians had to adapt to rapidly evolving methods of constructing improvised explosive devices ranging from shrapnel-filled explosive belts to 100 kg IED charges. Since improvised explosives are generally unreliable and very unstable they pose great risk to the public and especially to the EOD Operator, trying to render them safe. Therefore, new methods like greater reliance on remote techniques, such as advanced remotely operated vehicles similar to the British Wheelbarrow or armored bulldozers evolved. Many nations have developed their own versions such as the D7 MCAP and the armored D9R.

The British Armed Forces have become experts in IED disposal after many years of dealing with bombs 'planted' by the IRA. These came in many different forms, particularly car bombs rigged to detonate via a variety of manners including command wire and remote trigger. As such the first personnel sent into Iraq in 2003 were, amongst others, British Bomb Disposal experts of 11 EOD Regiment RLC.

During the al-Aqsa Intifada, Israeli EOD forces have disarmed and detonated thousands of explosive charges, lab bombs and explosive ammunition (such as rockets). Two Israeli EOD teams gained high reputation for leading the efforts in that area: the Army's Israeli Engineering Corps' Sayeret Yahalom and the Israeli Border Guard Gaza-area EOD team.

In the Iraq War, the International coalition multinational force in Iraq forces have faced many improvised explosive devices (IEDs) on travel routes. Such charges can easily destroy light vehicles such as the Humvee, and large ones can even destroy main battle tanks. Such charges caused many casualties and along with car bombs and suicide bombers are the cause of casualties in Iraq.

In Basque Country (Spain), where bombings by Basque separatist groups were common during the 1980s and 1990s, there are three corps in charge of bomb disposal: Policia Nacional, Guardia Civil, and Ertzaintza. The Ertzaintza handle general civilian threats, while the Policia Nacional and Guardia Civil maintain capabilities mainly to defend its own assets and personnel. In other parts of the country, Guadia Civil and CNP develope their tasks within their own competences, with the exception of Mossos d'Esquadra in Cataluña (same situation than in the Basque Country).

Fields of operations

EOD

In the United Kingdom, EOD Operators are held within all three Services. Each Service has differing responsibilities for UXO, however they will often work closely on operations. Ammunition Technicians of the Royal Logistic Corp primarily deal with just one aspect of EOD namely improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Ammunition Technicians are also trained in chemical, biological, incendiary, radiological ("dirty bombs"), and nuclear weapons. They provide support to VIPs, help civilian authorities with bomb problems, teach personnel from all three services about bomb safety, and a variety of other tasks. The Royal Engineers of 33 Engineer Regiment (EOD) provide EOD expertise for conventional munitions on operations during peace time and conflicts, conduct battle area clearance and also provide support for improvised explosive device disposal. Like the Ammunition Technicians Bomb Disposal Engineers also have the skill set to deal with IED's, chemical, radiological and biological devices. They also provide protection for VIP's and support the civil powers to deal with bomb related issues. Sometimes, people confuse Engineers or Sappers with Ammunition Technicians. However, while complimentary, and often working closely, they have differing skill sets with Royal Navy, RAF or RE Bomb Disposal Operators handling the large scale problem of conventional unexploded munitions, Royal Engineers dealing providing search advice and assets and the Royal Logistic Corps providing Improvised Explosive Device Disposal. All prospective Ammunition Technicians attend a grueling course of instruction at The Army School of Ammunition and the Felix Centre, UK. The time frame for an Ammunition Technician to complete all necessary courses prior to finally be placed on an EOD team is around 36 months. Whereas the Engineer EOD training period although shorter in total is spread over a number of years and interspersed with opertional experience.

Ammunition Technicians, having completed their training will be posted to a variety of units involved in IEDD, EOD or plain conventional ammunition duties. Until recent times the most prestigious EOD unit in the world was 321 EOD, that has now been surpassed by 11 EOD Regiment RLC , who not only provides all the mainland IEDD capabilities, but also provides detachments for Op TELIC Iraq and Afghanistan.(321 EOD is a Squadron within 11 Regt EOD, NOT a separate unit as indicated here)

PSBT

An FBI agent in a bomb suit performing a training mission.

US EOD covers both on and off base calls in the US unless there is a local PSBT or "Public Safety Bomb Technician" that can handle the IED - ordnance should only be handled by the EOD experts. Also called a "Hazardous Devices Technician", PSBTs are usually members of a Police department, although there are teams formed by fire departments or emergency management agencies.

To be certified, PSBTs must attend the joint U.S. Army-FBI Hazardous Devices School at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama which is modeled on the International IEDD Training school at The Army School of Ammunition, known as the Felix Centre. This school helps them to become knowledgeable in the detection, diagnosis and disposal of hazardous devices. They are further trained to collect evidence in hazardous devices, and present expert witness testimony in court on bombing cases.

UXO

Before bombing ranges can be re utilized for other purposes, these ranges must be cleared of all unexploded ordnance. This is usually performed by civilian specialists trained in the field, often with prior military service in explosive ordnance disposal. These technicians use specialized tools for subsurface examination of the sites. When munitions are found, they safely neutralize them and remove them from the site.

Other (training, mining, fireworks)

In addition to neutralizing munitions or IEDs, conducting training and presenting evidence, EOD Technicians and Engineers also respond to other problems. They dispose of old or unstable explosives, such as ones used in quarrying or mining, as well as old or unstable fireworks and ammunition. They escort VIPs and dignitaries. They assist specialist police units, raid and entry teams with boobytrap detection and avoidance. Another function of an EOD Operator is the conducting of post-blast investigations. The EOD Operators' training and experience with improvised explosive devices (IEDs) make them an integral part of any bombing investigation. Another part of a EOD operators job involves supporting the government intelligence units. This involves searching all places that the high ranking government officers or other protected dignitaries travel, stay or visit.

Techniques

Wheelbarrow remotely controlled bomb disposal tool.

Generally EOD render safe procedures (RSP) are a type of tradecraft protected from public dissemination in order to limit access and knowledge, depriving the enemy of specific technical procedures used to render safe ordnance or an improvised device. Many techniques exist for the making safe of a bomb or munition. Selection of a technique depends on several variables. The greatest variable is the proximity of the munition or device to people or critical facilities. Explosives in remote localities are handled very differently from those in densely-populated areas. Contrary to the image portrayed in modern day movies, the role of the Bomb Disposal Operator is to accomplish their task as remotely as possible. Actually laying hands on a bomb is only done in an extremely life-threatening situation, where the hazards to people and critical structures can't be lessened.

Ammunition Technicians have many tools for remote operations, one of which is the RCV, or remotely controlled vehicle, also known as the "Wheelbarrow". Outfitted with cameras, microphones, and sensors for chemical, biological, or nuclear agents, the Wheelbarrow can help the Technician get an excellent idea of what the munition or device is. Many of these robots even have hand-like manipulators in case a door needs to be opened, or a munition or bomb requires handling or moving. The first ever Wheelbarrow was invented by Lieutenant-Colonel 'Peter' Miller[4] in 1972 and used by Ammunition Technicians in the battle against Provisional Irish Republican Army IED's.

Also of great use are items that allow Ammunition technicians to remotely diagnose the innards of a munition or IED. These include devices similar to the X-ray used by medical personnel, and high-performance sensors that can detect and help interpret sounds, odors, or even images from within the munition or bomb. Once the technicians determine what the munition or device is, and what state it is in, they will formulate a procedure to disarm it. This may include things as simple as replacing safety features, or as difficult as using high-powered explosive-actuated devices to shear, jam, bind, or remove parts of the item's firing train. Preferably, this will be accomplished remotely, but there are still circumstances when a robot won't do, and a technician must put themself at risk by personally going near the bomb. The Technician will don a specialized protective suit, using flame and fragmentation-resistant material similar to bulletproof vests. Some suits have advanced features such as internal cooling, amplified hearing, and communications back to the control area. This suit is designed to increase the odds of survival for the Technician should the munition or IED function while they are near it.

Rarely, the specifics of a munition or bomb will allow the Technician to first remove it from the area. In these cases, a containment vessel is used. Some are shaped like small water tanks, others like large spheres. Using remote methods, the Technician places the item in the container and retires to an uninhabited area to complete the neutralization. Because of the instability and complexity of modern bombs, this is rarely done. After the munition or bomb has been rendered safe, the Technicians will assist in the removal of the remaining parts so the area can be returned to normal. All of this, called a Render Safe Procedure, can take a great deal of time. Because of the construction of devices, a waiting period must be taken to ensure that whatever render-safe method was used worked as intended. While time is usually not on the EOD Operator's side, rushing usually ends in disaster.

Another technique is Trepanation, in which a bore is cut into the sidewall of a bomb and the explosive contents are extracted through a combination of steam and acid bath liquification of bomb contents.[citation needed]

EOD equipment

A bomb manipulator of the German Army

"Pigstick" is a British Army term for the waterjet disrupter commonly deployed on the Wheelbarrow remotely operated vehicle against IRA bombs in the 1970s. The pigstick is a device that disables improvised explosive devices (IEDs). It fires an explosively-propelled jet of water to disrupt the circuitry of a bomb and thereby disable it with a low risk of detonation. The modern pigstick is a very reliable device and fires many times with minimal maintenance. It is now used worldwide. It is about 485 mm long and weighs 3 kg. It is made of metal, and can be mounted on a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). These factors make it a very effective, safe way to disarm IEDs. The "Pigstick" is also known as the PAN (Percussion Actuated Neutralizer), or just water cannon.

History

The name "pigstick" is an odd analogy coming from the verb meaning “to hunt the wild boar on horseback with a spear.”

It was invented for the British army in 1972; prior to that time bombs would be dismantled by hand, which was obviously very dangerous. It has to be held three inches (76 mm) from the IED to disarm it, still putting the user in danger. So explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) operators started connecting them to Wheelbarrow robots, and “in the period 1972-1978, and taking into account machines which had been exported, over 400 Wheelbarrows were destroyed while dealing with terrorist devices. In many of these cases, it can be assumed that the loss of a machine represented the saving of an EOD man's life.” [5]

The ZEUS-HLONS (HMMWV Laser Ordnance Neutralization System), commonly known as ZEUS, was developed for surface land mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) neutralization by the U.S. Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division (NAVEODTECHDIV). It uses a moderate-power commercial solid state laser (SSL) and beam control system, integrated onto a Humvee (HMMWV), to clear surface mines, improvised explosive devices (IEDs), or unexploded ordnance (UXO) from supply routes and minefields.

See also

Notes and references

In-line
  1. ^ http://www.monmouth.army.mil/monmessg/newmonmsg/feb022007/m05bomb.htm
  2. ^ (English) David Payne. "Duds On The Western Front In The Great War". westernfrontassociation.com. The Western Front Association. http://www.westernfront.co.uk/thegreatwar/articles/research/dudswestern.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-10. 
  3. ^ (English) Patrick, Derrick (1981). Fetch Felix: The Fight Against the Ulster Bombers, 1976–1977. Hamish Hamilton. ISBN 0241103711. 
  4. ^ (English) "Lieutenant-Colonel 'Peter' Miller". The Times (London) (September 06, 2006). September 2006. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,60-2344226,00.html. 
  5. ^ House of Commons Hansard Debates for 21 Oct 1998 (pt 17)
General
  • Samuel J. Hooper, The History of U.S. Army Bomb Disposal and Explosive Ordnance Disposal (1941–1980). (unpublished manuscript) c.1981.
  • Jeffrey M. Leatherwood, Nine from Aberdeen: Colonel Thomas J. Kane and the Genesis of U.S. Army Bomb Disposal in World War II. [Master's Thesis] Western Carolina University. Department of History, c. 2004.
  • Christopher Ransted, Bomb Disposal and the British Casualties of WW2, c. 2004.

Further reading

  • Styles, George (1975). Bombs Have No Pity: My War Against Terrorism. W Luscombe. ISBN 0-86002-133-5. 
  • Gurney, Peter (1994). Braver Men Walk Away. Ulverscroft. ISBN 0-7089-8762-1. 
  • Smith, Gary (1997). Demo Men. Pocket. ISBN 978-0671520533. 
  • Webster, Donovan (1996). Aftermath: The Remnants of War. Pantheon. ISBN 0-679-43195-0. 
  • Birchall, Peter (1998). The Longest Walk: The World of Bomb Disposal. Sterling Pub Co Inc. ISBN 1-85409-398-3. 
  • Tomajczyk, Stephen (1999). Bomb Squads. Motorbooks International. ISBN 0-7603-0560-9. 
  • Durham, J. Frank (2003). You Only Blow Yourself Up Once: Confessions of a World War Two Bomb Disposaleer. iUniverse, Inc.. ISBN 0-595-29543-6. 
  • Ryder, Chris (2005). A Special Kind of Courage: Bomb Disposal and the Inside Story of 321 EOD Squadron. Methuen Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-413-77276-4. 
  • Bundy, Edwin A. (2006). Commonalities in an Uncommon Profession: Bomb Disposal. http://www.wmdtraining.com/Commonalities_in_Bomb_Disposal_Technicians.pdf. 
  • Esposito, Richard (2007). Bomb Squad: A Year Inside the Nation's Most Exclusive Police Unit. Hyperion. ISBN 1-4013-0152-5. 
  • Hunter, Chris (2007). Eight Lives Down. Bantam Press. ISBN 0-5930-5860-7. 
  • Phillips, Stephen (2007). Proximity: A Novel of the Navy's Elite Bomb Squad. Xlibris. ISBN 978-1425751722. 
  • Wharton, Paul (2009). First Light: Bomb Disposal during the Ulster Campaign. Brisance Books. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/978-0-9563529-0-3|978-0-9563529-0-3]]. 

External links


ATO approaches a suspect device in Northern Ireland]]
in preparation for destruction]]

Bomb disposal is the process by which hazardous explosive devices are rendered safe. Bomb disposal is an all encompassing term to describe the separate, but interrelated functions in the following fields:

  • Military:
    • Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD)
    • Improvised Explosive Device Disposal (IEDD)
  • Public safety:
    • Public Safety Bomb Disposal (PSBD)
    • Bomb Squad

Contents

History

Early bomb squads

The New York City Police Department established its first bomb squad in 1903. Known as the "Italian Squad", its primary mission was to deal with dynamite bombs used by the Mafia to intimidate immigrant Italian merchants and residents. It would later be known as the "Anarchist Squad" and the "Radical Squad".[1]

World War I and the interwar period

Bomb Disposal became a formalised practice in the first World War. The swift mass production of munitions led to many manufacturing defects, and a large proportion of shells fired by both sides were found to be "duds".[2] These were hazardous to attacker and defender alike. In response, the British dedicated a section of Ordnance Examiners from the Royal Army Ordnance Corps to handle the growing problem.

In 1918, the Germans developed delayed-action fuzes that would later develop into more sophisticated versions during the 1930s, as Nazi Germany began its secret course of arms development. These tests led to the development of UXBs (unexploded bombs), pioneered by Herbert Ruehlemann of Rheinmetall, and first employed during the Spanish Civil War of 1936–37. Such delayed-action bombs provoked terror in the civilian population because of the uncertainty of time, and also complicated the task of disarming them. The Germans saw that unexploded bombs caused far more chaos and disruption than bombs that exploded immediately. This caused them to increase their usage of delayed-action bombs in World War II.

Initially there were no specialised tools, training, or core knowledge available, and as Ammunition Technicians learned how to safely neutralise one variant of munition, the enemy would add or change parts to make neutralisation efforts more hazardous. This trend of cat-and-mouse extends even to the present day, and the various techniques used to disarm munitions are not publicised.

World War II

Modern EOD Technicians across the world can trace their heritage to the Blitz, when the United Kingdom's cities were subjected to extensive bombing raids by Nazi Germany. In addition to conventional air raids, unexploded bombs (UXBs) also took their toll on population and morale, paralyzing vital services and communications. Bombs fitted with delayed-action fuzes provoked fear and uncertainty in the civilian population.

The problem of UXBs was further complicated when Royal Engineer bomb disposal personnel began to encounter munitions fitted with anti-handling devices e.g. the Luftwaffe's ZUS40 anti-removal bomb fuze of 1940. Bomb fuzes incorporating anti-handling devices were specifically designed to kill bomb disposal personnel. Scientists and technical staff responded by devising methods and equipment to render them safe.

Northern Ireland 1969–present

The Ammunition Technicians of the Royal Logistic Corps (formerly RAOC) have become the world's foremost experts, after many years of dealing with bombs planted by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA). The bombs PIRA employed ranged from simple pipe bombs to sophisticated victim-triggered devices. The roadside bomb was in use by PIRA from the early 1970s onwards, evolving over time with different types of explosives and triggers.

A specialist Army unit 321 EOD Company (now part of 11 EOD Regiment RLC) was deployed to tackle increased IRA violence and willingness to use IEDs against both economic and military targets. The unit's radio callsign was Felix, many believe this to be an allusion to the cat with nine lives and led to the phrase "Fetch Felix" whenever a suspect device was encountered and became the title of the 1981 book Fetch Felix; it is however due to the fact that all units in Northern Ireland, had a 'callsign' to be used over the radios. 321 Sqn being a newly formed unit hadn't such a callsign, and so a young signaller was sent to the OC of 321 Sqn, the OC having lost 2 technicians that morning decided on Phoenix, to rise again from the ashes. This was misheard as Felix by the signaller and never changed. 321 EOD Coy RAOC (now 321 EOD Sqn RLC) is unique in that it is the most decorated unit (in peace time) in the British Army, notably for acts of bravery during OP BANNER (1969–2007) in Northern Ireland.[3]

British bomb disposal experts of 11 EOD Regiment RLC were amongst the first personnel sent into Iraq in 2003 prior to the actual invasion itself.

United States

The United States War Department felt the British Bomb Disposal experience could be a valuable asset, based on reports from U.S. Army, Navy, and Marine Corps observers at RAF Melksham in Wiltshire, England in 1940. The next year, the Office of Civilian Defense (OCD) and War Department both sponsored a bomb disposal program, which gradually fell under military governance due to security and technical reasons. OCD personnel continued to train in UXB reconnaissance throughout the war. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, the British sent instructors to Aberdeen Proving Ground, where the U.S. Army would inaugurate a formal bomb disposal school under the Ordnance Corps.

1946 The Naval Ordnance Disposal Unit was relocated to the Naval Powder Factory in Indian Head, Md. An important component of those schools was the Ordnance Investigation Lab (OIL) located at the Stump Neck Annex, which was tasked to develop standardized procedures and tools for that core of EOD professionals. Through the post war period and many name changes, the OIL evolved to keep pace with the increasingly complex and rapidly proliferating ordnance threat.

In May 1941, Lt. Col. Geoffrey Yates (Ret.) and his British colleagues also helped establish the Naval Mine Disposal School at the Naval Gun Factory, Washington, D.C. Not to be outdone, the U.S. Navy, under the command of Lt. Cmdr. Draper L. Kauffman (who would go on to found the Underwater Demolition Teams – better known as UDTs or the U.S. Navy Frogmen), created the Naval Bomb Disposal School at University Campus, Washington, D.C. U.S. Ordnance and British Royal Engineers would forge a partnership that worked quite effectively in war – a friendship persisting to this day.

1942 was a banner year for the fledgling EOD program. U.S. Army Lt. Col. Thomas Kane, who began in 1940 as a Bomb Disposal Instructor in the School of Civilian Defense, traveled with eight other troops to the UK for initial EOD training. Kane took over the US Army Bomb Disposal School at Aberdeen Proving Ground. Three members of Kane's training mission later served as Bomb Disposal squad commanders in the battlefield: Ronald L. Felton (12th Bomb Disposal Squad Separate) in Italy, Joseph C. Pilcher (17th Bomb Disposal Squad Separate) in France and Germany, and Richard Metress (209th Bomb Disposal Squad Separate) in the Philippines Islands. Captain Metress and most of his squad were killed in 1945 while dismantling a Japanese IED.

Late in 1942, the first US Navy EOD casualty was recorded. Ensign Howard, USNR, was performing a render-safe procedure against a German moored mine when it detonated. Only a few months later, the first two Army EOD fatalities occurred during the Aleutian Islands Campaign. While conducting EOD operations on Attu Island, Lt. Rodger & T/Sgt. Rapp (commander and NCOIC of the 5th Ordnance Bomb Disposal Squad) were fatally injured by unexploded ordnance.

Graduates of the Aberdeen School formed the first Army Bomb Disposal companies, starting with the 231st Ordnance Bomb Disposal Company. The now-familiar shoulder emblem for Army EOD Technicians, a red bomb on an oval, black background was approved for them to wear. Following initial deployments in North Africa and Sicily, U.S. Army commanders registered their disapproval of these cumbersome units. In 1943, companies were phased out, to be replaced by mobile seven-man squads in the field.

In 1944, Col. Thomas Kane oversaw all European Theater Bomb Disposal operations, starting with reconnaissance training for the U.S. forces engaging the Germans on D-Day. Unfortunately, the Pacific Theater lacked a similar administration.

In 1945, the Naval Mine Disposal School and the Naval Bomb Disposal School combined to form the Naval Ordnance Disposal Unit.

Overall, about forty Americans were killed outright performing the specialized services of bomb and mine disposal in World War II. Scores more were maimed or injured during combat operations requiring ordnance support. At Schwammanuel Dam in Germany, two bomb disposal squads acting as a "T Force" were exposed to enemy mortar and small arms fire. Captain Marshall Crow (18th Squad) took serious wounds, even as his party drove German defenders from their positions.

The only major ordnance attack against the continental U.S. was handled by the 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion, who dealt with the Japanese Fu-Go balloon bomb menace in 1945. The all-black 555th "Smokejumpers" were trained by ordnance personnel to defuse these incendiary bombs before they could kill civilians or start forest fires.

Following the war, U.S. bomb disposal technicians continued to clear Nazi and Japanese stockpiles, remove UXO from battlefields, while training host nation (HN) troops to do these tasks. This established a tradition for U.S. EOD services to operate during peace as well as war.

Colonel Kane remained in contact with EOD until his retirement in 1955. He urged reforms in the bomb disposal organization and training policy. Wartime errors were rectified in 1947 when Army personnel started attending a new school at Indian Head, Maryland, under U.S. Navy direction. This course was named the Explosive Ordnance Disposal Course, governing training in all basic types of ammunition and projectiles.

1947 also saw the Army Air Corps separate and become the U.S. Air Force, gaining their own EOD branch. That same year, the forerunner of the EOD Technology Center, the USN Bureau of Naval Weapons, charged with research, development, test, and evaluation of EOD tools, tactics and procedures was born. 1949 marked the official end of an era, as Army and Navy Bomb Disposal squads were reclassified into Explosive Ordnance Disposal units.

In 1951, the Navy was assigned Joint Service responsibilities for EOD research and development, and training. As a result, the Navy took on the responsibility for training all Joint Service EOD operators (Army, Marine Corps, Navy, and Air Force) and for the development EOD technologies in support of the Joint Service EOD Community.

In 1953, the research and development tasks were assumed by OIL, which was renamed the Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Center (NAVEODTECHCEN). Reflecting the trend in name changing, the Naval Ordnance Disposal Unit was renamed the Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School and remained at the Naval Powder Factory. Two years later, the Army Bomb Disposal School would close, making Indian Head the sole Joint Service EOD School in the U.S. at the time, though currently NAVSCOLEOD has relocated to Eglin AFB FL.

In 1955, NAVEODTECHCEN's technical staff grew to include civilian engineers and support technicians.

In 1962, NAVEODTECHCEN was placed under the direction of a Commanding Officer and again renamed the Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Facility (NAVEODFAC).

In 1971, DoD Directive 5160.62 assigned the Secretary of the Navy as Single Manager for Military Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology and Training. Subsequently, NAVEODFAC was redesignated as a fourth echelon field activity under the Naval Sea Sytstems Command (NAVSEA) and asked to provide EOD research and development in carrying out the Secretary of the Navy's responsibility for meeting Joint Service EOD technology requirements as defined by the Joint Service Explosive Ordnance Disposal Program Board.

In 1988, NAVEODFAC was redesignated as Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Center (NAVEODTECHCEN).

In 1995, NAVEODTECHCEN became the Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division (NAVEODTECHDIV) under the Naval Ordnance Center (NOC).

In 2007, NAVEODTECHDIV was realigned underneath Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) as a division of the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC).

The current, most recognizable distinctive item of wear by EOD Technicians, affectionately referred to as the "crab", began uniform wear as the Basic Explosive Ordnance Disposal Badge in 1957. The Master Badge would not appear until 1969.

On 31 March 2004, the U.S. Army EOD Headquarters at Fort Gillem, Georgia dedicated its new building to Col. Thomas J. Kane (1900–65).

Low intensity conflicts

American Andros EOD robot. This particular model is the MarkV-A1.]]

The eruption of low intensity conflicts and terrorism waves at the beginning of the 21st century caused further development in the techniques and methods of Bomb Disposal. EOD Operators and Technicians had to adapt to rapidly evolving methods of constructing improvised explosive devices ranging from shrapnel-filled explosive belts to 100 kg IED charges. Since improvised explosives are generally unreliable and very unstable they pose great risk to the public and especially to the EOD Operator, trying to render them safe. Therefore, new methods like greater reliance on remote techniques, such as advanced remotely operated vehicles similar to the British Wheelbarrow or armored bulldozers evolved. Many nations have developed their own versions such as the D7 MCAP and the armored D9R.

The British Armed Forces have become experts in IED disposal after many years of dealing with bombs 'planted' by the IRA. These came in many different forms, particularly car bombs rigged to detonate via a variety of manners including command wire and remote trigger. As such the first personnel sent into Iraq in 2003 were, amongst others, British Bomb Disposal experts of 11 EOD Regiment RLC.

During the al-Aqsa Intifada, Israeli EOD forces have disarmed and detonated thousands of explosive charges, lab bombs and explosive ammunition (such as rockets). Two Israeli EOD teams gained high reputation for leading the efforts in that area: the Army's Israeli Engineering Corps' Sayeret Yahalom and the Israeli Border Guard Gaza-area EOD team.

In the Iraq War, the International coalition multinational force in Iraq forces have faced many improvised explosive devices (IEDs) on travel routes. Such charges can easily destroy light vehicles such as the Humvee, and large ones can even destroy main battle tanks. Such charges caused many casualties and along with car bombs and suicide bombers are the cause of casualties in Iraq.

In Basque Country (Spain), where bombings by Basque separatist groups were common during the 1980s and 1990s, there are three corps in charge of bomb disposal: Policia Nacional, Guardia Civil, and Ertzaintza. The Ertzaintza handle general civilian threats, while the Policia Nacional and Guardia Civil maintain capabilities mainly to defend its own assets and personnel. In other parts of the country, Guadia Civil and CNP develop their tasks within their own competences, with the exception of Mossos d'Esquadra in Cataluña (same situation than in the Basque Country).

Fields of operations

EOD

Bomb Disposal Team in Coventry.]]

In the United Kingdom, EOD Operators are held within all three Services. Each Service has differing responsibilities for UXO, however they will often work closely on operations. Ammunition Technicians of the Royal Logistic Corp primarily deal with just one aspect of EOD namely improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Ammunition Technicians are also trained in chemical, biological, incendiary, radiological ("dirty bombs"), and nuclear weapons. They provide support to VIPs, help civilian authorities with bomb problems, teach personnel from all three services about bomb safety, and a variety of other tasks. The Royal Engineers of 33 Engineer Regiment (EOD) provide EOD expertise for conventional munitions on operations during peace time and conflicts, conduct battle area clearance and also provide support for improvised explosive device disposal. Like the Ammunition Technicians Bomb Disposal Engineers also have the skill set to deal with IED's, chemical, radiological and biological devices. They also provide protection for VIP's and support the civil powers to deal with bomb related issues. Sometimes, people confuse Engineers or Sappers with Ammunition Technicians. However, while complimentary, and often working closely, they have differing skill sets with Royal Navy, RAF or RE Bomb Disposal Operators handling the large scale problem of conventional unexploded munitions, Royal Engineers dealing providing search advice and assets and the Royal Logistic Corps providing Improvised Explosive Device Disposal. All prospective Ammunition Technicians attend a grueling course of instruction at The Army School of Ammunition and the Felix Centre, UK. The time frame for an Ammunition Technician to complete all necessary courses prior to finally be placed on an EOD team is around 36 months. Whereas the Engineer EOD training period although shorter in total is spread over a number of years and interspersed with opertional experience.

Ammunition Technicians, having completed their training will be posted to a variety of units involved in IEDD, EOD or plain conventional ammunition duties. Until recent times the most prestigious EOD unit in the world was 321 EOD, that has now been surpassed by 11 EOD Regiment RLC , who not only provides all the mainland IEDD capabilities, but also provides detachments for Op TELIC Iraq and Afghanistan.(321 EOD is a Squadron within 11 Regt EOD, NOT a separate unit as indicated here)

PSBT

in a bomb suit performing a training mission.]]

US EOD covers both on and off base calls in the US unless there is a local PSBT or "Public Safety Bomb Technician" that can handle the IED - ordnance should only be handled by the EOD experts. Also called a "Hazardous Devices Technician", PSBTs are usually members of a Police department, although there are teams formed by fire departments or emergency management agencies.

To be certified, PSBTs must attend the joint U.S. Army-FBI Hazardous Devices School at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama which is modeled on the International IEDD Training school at The Army School of Ammunition, known as the Felix Centre. This school helps them to become knowledgeable in the detection, diagnosis and disposal of hazardous devices. They are further trained to collect evidence in hazardous devices, and present expert witness testimony in court on bombing cases.

UXO

Before bombing ranges can be re utilized for other purposes, these ranges must be cleared of all unexploded ordnance. This is usually performed by civilian specialists trained in the field, often with prior military service in explosive ordnance disposal. These technicians use specialized tools for subsurface examination of the sites. When munitions are found, they safely neutralize them and remove them from the site.

Other (training, mining, fireworks)

In addition to neutralizing munitions or IEDs, conducting training and presenting evidence, EOD Technicians and Engineers also respond to other problems. They dispose of old or unstable explosives, such as ones used in quarrying or mining, as well as old or unstable fireworks and ammunition. They escort VIPs and dignitaries. They assist specialist police units, raid and entry teams with boobytrap detection and avoidance. Another function of an EOD Operator is the conducting of post-blast investigations. The EOD Operators' training and experience with improvised explosive devices (IEDs) make them an integral part of any bombing investigation. Another part of a EOD operators job involves supporting the government intelligence units. This involves searching all places that the high ranking government officers or other protected dignitaries travel, stay or visit.

Techniques

Generally EOD render safe procedures (RSP) are a type of tradecraft protected from public dissemination in order to limit access and knowledge, depriving the enemy of specific technical procedures used to render safe ordnance or an improvised device. Another reason for keeping tradecraft secret is to hinder the development of new anti-handling devices by their opponents: if the enemy has thorough knowledge of specific EOD techniques, they can develop fuze designs which are more resistant to existing render-safe procedures.

Many techniques exist for the making safe of a bomb or munition. Selection of a technique depends on several variables. The greatest variable is the proximity of the munition or device to people or critical facilities. Explosives in remote localities are handled very differently from those in densely-populated areas. Contrary to the image portrayed in modern day movies, the role of the Bomb Disposal Operator is to accomplish their task as remotely as possible. Actually laying hands on a bomb is only done in an extremely life-threatening situation, where the hazards to people and critical structures cannot be reduced.

Ammunition Technicians have many tools for remote operations, one of which is the RCV, or remotely controlled vehicle, also known as the "Wheelbarrow". Outfitted with cameras, microphones, and sensors for chemical, biological, or nuclear agents, the Wheelbarrow can help the Technician get an excellent idea of what the munition or device is. Many of these robots even have hand-like manipulators in case a door needs to be opened, or a munition or bomb requires handling or moving. The first ever Wheelbarrow was invented by Lieutenant-Colonel 'Peter' Miller[4] in 1972 and used by Ammunition Technicians in the battle against Provisional Irish Republican Army IED's.

Also of great use are items that allow Ammunition technicians to remotely diagnose the innards of a munition or IED. These include devices similar to the X-ray used by medical personnel, and high-performance sensors that can detect and help interpret sounds, odors, or even images from within the munition or bomb. Once the technicians determine what the munition or device is, and what state it is in, they will formulate a procedure to disarm it. This may include things as simple as replacing safety features, or as difficult as using high-powered explosive-actuated devices to shear, jam, bind, or remove parts of the item's firing train. Preferably, this will be accomplished remotely, but there are still circumstances when a robot won't do, and a technician must put themself at risk by personally going near the bomb. The Technician will don a specialized protective suit, using flame and fragmentation-resistant material similar to bulletproof vests. Some suits have advanced features such as internal cooling, amplified hearing, and communications back to the control area. This suit is designed to increase the odds of survival for the Technician should the munition or IED function while they are near it.

Rarely, the specifics of a munition or bomb will allow the Technician to first remove it from the area. In these cases, a containment vessel is used. Some are shaped like small water tanks, others like large spheres. Using remote methods, the Technician places the item in the container and retires to an uninhabited area to complete the neutralization. Because of the instability and complexity of modern bombs, this is rarely done. After the munition or bomb has been rendered safe, the Technicians will assist in the removal of the remaining parts so the area can be returned to normal. All of this, called a Render Safe Procedure, can take a great deal of time. Because of the construction of devices, a waiting period must be taken to ensure that whatever render-safe method was used worked as intended. While time is usually not on the EOD Operator's side, rushing usually ends in disaster.

Another technique is Trepanation, in which a bore is cut into the sidewall of a bomb and the explosive contents are extracted through a combination of steam and acid bath liquification of bomb contents.[5]

Although professional EOD personnel have expert knowledge, skills and equipment, they are not immune to misfortune because of the inherent dangers: in June 2010, construction workers in Göttingen discovered an allied 500 kilogram bomb dating from World War II buried approximately 7 metres below the ground. German EOD experts were notified and attended the scene. Whilst residents living nearby were being evacuated and the EOD personnel were preparing to disarm the bomb, it detonated, killing three of them and injuring 6 others. The dead and injured each had over 20 years of hands-on experience, and had previously rendered safe between 600 and 700 unexploded bombs. The bomb which killed and injured the EOD personnel was of a particularly dangerous type because it was fitted with a delayed-action chemical fuze, which had become highly unstable after over 65 years underground.[6][7][8][9]

EOD equipment

]]

Projected water disruptors

Projected water disruptors use a water projectile shaped charge to destroy IEDs, severing any detonating cord. One example is the BootBanger, deployed under the boot of cars suspected to be carrying IEDs[10]. Projected water distruptors can be directional, such as the BootBanger; or omni-directional, an example being the Bottler[11].

Pigstick

"Pigstick" is a British Army term for the waterjet disrupter commonly deployed on the Wheelbarrow remotely operated vehicle against IRA bombs in the 1970s. It is a device that disables improvised explosive devices (IEDs). It fires an explosively-propelled jet of water to disrupt the circuitry of a bomb and thereby disable it with a low risk of detonation. The modern pigstick is a very reliable device and fires many times with minimal maintenance. It is now used worldwide. It is about 485 mm long and weighs 3 kg. It is made of metal, and can be mounted on a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). These factors make it a very effective, safe way to disarm IEDs. The "Pigstick" is also known as the PAN (Percussion Actuated Neutralizer), or just water cannon.

The name pigstick is an odd analogy coming from the verb meaning “to hunt the wild boar on horseback with a spear.”

It was invented for the British army in 1972; prior to that time bombs would be dismantled by hand, which was obviously very dangerous. It has to be held three inches (76 mm) from the IED to disarm it, still putting the user in danger. So explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) operators started connecting them to Wheelbarrow robots.

...in the period 1972-1978, and taking into account machines which had been exported, over 400 Wheelbarrows were destroyed while dealing with terrorist devices. In many of these cases, it can be assumed that the loss of a machine represented the saving of an EOD man's life.
—House of Commons Hansard Debates for 21 Oct 1998[12]

ZEUS

The ZEUS-HLONS (HMMWV Laser Ordnance Neutralization System), commonly known as ZEUS, was developed for surface land mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) neutralization by the U.S. Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division (NAVEODTECHDIV). It uses a moderate-power commercial solid state laser (SSL) and beam control system, integrated onto a Humvee (HMMWV), to clear surface mines, improvised explosive devices (IEDs), or unexploded ordnance (UXO) from supply routes and minefields.

See also

References

Notes
  1. ^ Kareem Fahim (2010-05-02). "Bomb Squad Has Hard-Won Expertise". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/03/nyregion/03squad.html?scp=2&sq=bomb%20squad&st=Search. Retrieved 2010-05-21. 
  2. ^ David Payne. "Duds On The Western Front In The Great War". westernfrontassociation.com. The Western Front Association. http://www.westernfront.co.uk/thegreatwar/articles/research/dudswestern.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-10. 
  3. ^ Patrick, Derrick (1981). Fetch Felix: The Fight Against the Ulster Bombers, 1976–1977. Hamish Hamilton. ISBN 0241103711. 
  4. ^ "Lieutenant-Colonel 'Peter' Miller". The Times (London) (September 06, 2006). September 2006. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,60-2344226,00.html. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  5. ^ "Van Trepan{TM} Mk 3 explosive trepanning tool for vehicles (United Kingdom), Equipment - EOD weapons". Jane's Explosive Ordnance Disposal. Jane's Information Group. http://www.janes.com/articles/Janes-Explosive-Ordnance-Disposal/Van-Trepan-TM-Mk-3-explosive-trepanning-tool-for-vehicles-United-Kingdom.html. Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
  6. ^ http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/0,1518,698245,00.html
  7. ^ "WWII bomb kills three in Germany". BBC News. 2010-06-02. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/10212890.stm. 
  8. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/germany/7795709/Three-dead-as-Second-World-War-bomb-explodes-in-Germany.html
  9. ^ http://www.dailyexpress.co.uk/posts/view/178648/Bomb-kills-German-explosive-experts/
  10. ^ "Boot Banger{TM} Mk4 Projected Water Disruptor (United Kingdom), Equipment - EOD weapons". Janes website. Jane's Information Group. February 15, 2010. http://www.janes.com/articles/Janes-Explosive-Ordnance-Disposal/Boot-Banger-TM-Mk4-Projected-Water-Disruptor-United-Kingdom.html. Retrieved 2010-08-31. 
  11. ^ "Omni-Directional Disruptors". Alford Technologies website. Alford Technologies Ltd.. http://www.explosives.net/modules.php?name=Products&pa=list_categories&pid=20&cid=2&cid2=3&cid3=22&cid4=. Retrieved 2010-08-31. 
  12. ^ House of Commons Hansard Debates for 21 Oct 1998 (pt 17)
Bibliography
  • Samuel J. Hooper, The History of U.S. Army Bomb Disposal and Explosive Ordnance Disposal (1941–1980). (unpublished manuscript) c.1981.
  • Jeffrey M. Leatherwood, Nine from Aberdeen: Colonel Thomas J. Kane and the Genesis of U.S. Army Bomb Disposal in World War II. [Master's Thesis] Western Carolina University. Department of History, c. 2004.
  • Christopher Ransted, Bomb Disposal and the British Casualties of WW2, c. 2004.

Further reading

External links








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