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Extracellular fluid (ECF) usually denotes all body fluid outside of cells. The remainder is called intracellular fluid.

In some animals, including mammals, the extracellular fluid can be divided into two major subcompartments, interstitial fluid and blood plasma. The extracellular fluid also includes the transcellular fluid; making up only about 2.5 percent of the ECF.

In humans, the normal glucose concentration of extracellular fluid that is regulated by homeostasis is approximately 5 mM.

The pH of extracellular fluid is tightly regulated by buffers around 7.4.

The volume of ECF is typically 15L (of which 12L is interstitial fluid and 3L as plasma)

Contents of ECF

Main Cations: Sodium (Na+ = 136-145 mEq/L) Potassium (K+ = 3,5-5,5 mEq/L) Calcium (Ca2+ = 8,4-10,5 mEq/L)

Main Anions: Chloride (Cl- = 99-109 mEq/L) Hydrogen Carbonate (HCO3- 26 mM)

It is poorer in proteins compared to intracellular fluid

See also

External links


Simple English

Extracellular fluid is a type of fluid in the body that exists outside cells. It makes up about 1/3 of total body water.


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