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F/A-18E/F Super Hornet
A US Navy F/A-18F Super Hornet conducts a mission over the Persian Gulf
Role Multirole fighter
National origin United States
Manufacturer McDonnell Douglas
Boeing Defense, Space & Security
First flight 29 November 1995
Introduction 1999
Primary users United States Navy
Royal Australian Air Force
Produced 1995–present
Number built 400 as of 2009[1]
Unit cost US$60.3 million (2010 flyaway cost)[2]
Developed from F/A-18 Hornet
Variants EA-18G Growler

The Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet is a 4.5+ generation[3] carrier-based multirole fighter aircraft. The F/A-18E single-seat variant and F/A-18F tandem-seat variant are larger and more advanced derivatives of the F/A-18C and D Hornet. The Super Hornet has an internal 20 mm gun and can carry air-to-air missiles and air-to-surface weapons. Additional fuel can be carried with up to five external fuel tanks and the aircraft can be configured as an airborne tanker by adding an external air refueling system.

Designed and initially produced by McDonnell Douglas, the Super Hornet first flew in 1995. Full-rate production began in September 1997, after the merger of McDonnell Douglas and Boeing the previous month. The Super Hornet entered service with the United States Navy in 1999, replacing the F-14 Tomcat since 2006, and serves alongside the original Hornet. In 2007, the Royal Australian Air Force ordered Super Hornets to replace its aging F-111 fleet.




The Super Hornet is a larger and more advanced variant of the F/A-18C/D Hornet. An early version was marketed by McDonnell Douglas as Hornet 2000 in the 1980s. The Hornet 2000 concept was an advanced version of the F/A-18 with a larger wing and a longer fuselage to carry more fuel and more powerful engines.[4]

US Naval Aviation faced a number of problems in the early 1990s. The A-12 Avenger II program, intended to replace the obsolete A-6 Intruders and A-7 Corsair IIs, had run into serious problems and was canceled. During this time the end of the Cold War resulted in military restructuring and budget cuts.[5] With no clean-sheet program in the works, the Navy considered updating an existing design a more attractive approach. As an alternative to the A-12, McDonnell Douglas proposed the "Super Hornet" (initially "Hornet II" in the 1980s) to improve early F/A-18 models,[6] and serve as an alternate replacement for the A-6 Intruder. At the same time, the Navy needed a fleet defense fighter to replace the canceled NATF, which was a proposed navalized variant of the F-22 Raptor.[4]

Testing and production

The Super Hornet was first ordered by the U.S. Navy in 1992. The Navy would also direct that this fighter replace the aging F-14 Tomcat, essentially basing all naval combat jets on Hornet variants until the introduction of the F-35C Lightning II.[7] The Navy retained the F/A-18 designation to help sell the program to Congress as a low-risk "derivative", though the Super Hornet is largely a new aircraft. The Hornet and Super Hornet share many design and flight characteristics, including avionics, ejection seats, radar, armament, mission computer software, and maintenance/operating procedures. In particular the F/A-18E/F retained most of the avionics systems from the F/A-18C/D's then current configuration.[4]

Four F/A-18Fs of VFA-41 "Black Aces" fly over the Pacific in a trail formation in 2003. Note AN/ASQ-228 ATFLIR pods on the first and third aircraft, and a buddy store tank on the fourth aircraft

The Super Hornet first flew on 29 November 1995.[4] Initial production on the F/A-18E/F began in 1995. Flight testing started in 1996 with the F/A-18E/F's first carrier landing in 1997.[4] Low-rate production began in March 1997[8] with full production beginning in September 1997.[9] Testing continued through 1999, finishing with sea trials and aerial refueling demonstrations. Testing involved 3,100 test flights covering 4,600 flight hours.[6] The Super Hornet underwent U.S. Navy operational tests and evaluations in 1999,[10] and was approved in February 2000.[11]

Initial Operational Capability (IOC) was achieved in September 2001 with VFA-115 at Naval Air Station Lemoore, California. The Navy considers acquisition of the Super Hornet a success with it meeting cost, schedule, and weight (400 lb, 181 kg below) requirements.[12]

Despite having the same general layout and systems, the Super Hornet differs in many ways from the original F/A-18 Hornet. The Super Hornet is informally referred to as the "Rhino" to distinguish it from earlier model "legacy" Hornets and prevents confusion in radio calls. This aids safe flight operations, since the catapult and arresting systems must be set differently for the heavier Super Hornet. The "Rhino" nickname was earlier used by the F-4 Phantom II, retired from the fleet in 1987.

The U.S. Navy currently flies both the F/A-18E single-seater and F/A-18F two-seater in combat roles, taking the place of the retired F-14, A-6 Intruder, S-3 Viking, and KA-6D. An electronic warfare variant, the EA-18G Growler, will replace the aging EA-6B Prowler. The Navy calls this reduction in aircraft types a "neck-down". In the Vietnam War era, the Super Hornet's capabilities were covered by no less than the A-1/A-4/A-7 (light attack), A-6 (medium attack), F-8/F-4 (fighter), RA-5C (recon), KA-3/KA-6 (tanker) and EA-6 (electronic warfare). It is anticipated that $1 billion in fleet wide annual savings will result from replacing other types with the Super Hornet.[13]

In 2003, the Navy identified a flaw in the Super Hornet's under wing pylons, which could reduce the aircraft's service life unless repaired. The problem has been corrected on new airplanes and existing airplanes will be repaired starting in 2009.[14]


In early 2008, Boeing discussed creating a Super Hornet Block III with the U.S. and Australian militaries. It would be a generation 4.75 upgrade with extra forward stealth capabilities and extended range, to be succeeded in 2024 by a sixth-generation fighter.[15]

Development of an improved F414 engine version with better resistance to foreign object damage, and a reduced fuel burn rate is underway in 2009. Work is also being done on possible performance improvements to increase thrust by 20%.[16][17]


The Super Hornet is largely a new aircraft. It is about 20% larger, 7,000 lb (3,200 kg) heavier empty, and 15,000 lb (6,800 kg) heavier at maximum weight than the original Hornet. The Super Hornet carries 33% more internal fuel, increasing mission range by 41% and endurance by 50% over the "Legacy" Hornet. The empty weight of the Super Hornet is about 11,000 lb (5,000 kg) less than that of the F-14 Tomcat that it replaced, while approaching, but not matching its payload / range.[18]

Airframe changes

Rectangular Super Hornet vs oval Hornet air intakes

The forward fuselage is unchanged but the remainder of the aircraft shares little with earlier F/A-18C/D models. The fuselage was stretched by 34 inches (860 mm) to make room for fuel and future avionics upgrades and increased the wing area by 25%.[19] However, the Super Hornet has 42% fewer structural parts than the original Hornet design.[20] The General Electric F414 engine, developed from the Hornet's F404, has 35% more power.[19] The Super Hornet can return to an aircraft carrier with a larger load of unspent fuel and munitions than the original Hornet. The term for this ability is known as "bringback". Bringback for the Super Hornet is in excess of 9,000 pounds (4,100 kg).[21]

Other differences include rectangular intakes for the engines and two extra wing hard points for payload (for a total of 11).[22] Among the most significant aerodynamic changes are the enlarged leading edge extensions (LEX) which provide improved vortex lifting characteristics in high angle of attack maneuvers, and reduce the static stability margin to enhance pitching characteristics. This results in pitch rates in excess of 40 degrees per second, and high resistance to departure from controlled flight.[23]

Radar signature reduction measures

Survivability is an important feature of the Super Hornet design. The US Navy took a "balanced approach" to survivability in its design.[24] This means that it does not rely on low-observable technology, such as stealth systems, to the exclusion of other survivability factors. Instead, its design incorporates a combination of stealth, advanced electronic-warfare capabilities, reduced ballistic vulnerability, the use of standoff weapons, and innovative tactics that cumulatively and collectively enhance the safety of the fighter and crew.[25]

Two U.S. Navy F/A-18 Super Hornets of Strike Fighter Squadron 31 fly a combat patrol over Afghanistan, Dec. 15, 2008

The F/A-18E/F's radar cross section was reduced greatly from some aspects, mainly the front and rear.[4] The design of the engine inlets reduces the aircraft's frontal radar cross section. The alignment of the leading edges of the engine inlets is designed to scatter radiation to the sides. Fixed fanlike reflecting structures in the inlet tunnel divert radar energy away from the rotating fan blades.[26]

The Super Hornet also makes considerable use of panel joint serration and edge alignment. Considerable attention has been paid to the removal or filling of unnecessary surface join gaps and resonant cavities. Where the F/A-18A-D used grilles to cover various accessory exhaust and inlet ducts, the F/A-18E/F uses perforated panels that appear opaque to radar waves at the frequencies used. Careful attention has been paid to the alignment of many panel boundaries and edges, to scatter traveling waves away from the aircraft.[4]

It is claimed that the Super Hornet employs the most extensive radar cross section reduction measures of any contemporary fighter, other than the F-22 and F-35. While the F/A-18E/F is not a true stealth fighter like the F-22, it will have a frontal RCS an order of magnitude smaller than prior generation fighters.[26]


The Super Hornet's original avionics and software have a 90% commonality with then current F/A-18C/Ds.[27] The Super Hornet features a new touch-sensitive, up-front control display; a larger, liquid crystal multipurpose color display; and a new engine fuel display.[27] The Super Hornet has a quadruplex digital fly-by-wire system,[28] as well as a digital flight-control system that detects and corrects for battle damage.[23] Initial production models used the APG-73 radar, later replaced by the APG-79 AESA.

The AN/ASQ-228 ATFLIR (Advanced Targeting Forward Looking InfraRed), is the main electro-optical sensor and laser designator pod for the Super Hornet. Defensive systems are coordinated through the Integrated Defensive Countermeasures system (IDECM). The IDECM system includes the ALE-47 countermeasures dispenser, the ALE-50 towed decoy (being replaced by ALE-55 towed decoy, the AN/ALR-67(V)3 radar warning receiver, the ALQ-165 Airborne Self-Protect Jammer (ASPJ), and AN/AAR-47, an Infra-Red and Ultra-Violet Missile Approach Warning System (MAWS). Aircrew have the ability to use night vision goggles (NVG) for Super Hornet operations which means the aircraft interior and exterior lighting are NVG compatible.

Tanker role

A F/A-18F refueling a F/A-18E over the Bay of Bengal, 2007

The Super Hornet, unlike the previous Hornet, is designed so it can be equipped with an aerial refueling system (ARS) or "buddy store" for the refueling of other aircraft,[29] filling the tactical airborne tanker role the Navy had lost with the retirement of the KA-6D and S-3B Viking tankers. The ARS includes an external 330 US gallons (1,200 L) tank with hose reel on the centerline along with four external 480 US gallons (1,800 L) tanks and internal tanks for a total of 29,000 pounds (13,000 kg) of fuel on the aircraft.[29][30]


Beginning in 2005, new build aircraft received the APG-79 AESA radar. Earlier production aircraft will have their APG-73 replaced with the APG-79.[31] As of January 2008, 135 earlier production aircraft were to receive AESA radar retrofits.[32] VFA-213 "Black Lions" and VFA-106 "Gladiators" based at Oceana Naval Air Station were the first two squadrons to fly the AESA-equipped Super Hornets.[33]

The new APG-79 AESA offers several advantages for the Super Hornet. The new radar enables the aircrew to execute simultaneous air-to-air and air-to-ground attacks. The APG-79 also provides higher quality high-resolution ground mapping at long standoff ranges.[34] The AESA radar can also detect smaller targets, such as inbound missiles[35] and can track air targets beyond the range of the Super Hornet's own air to air missiles.[36] VFA-213 became "safe for flight" (independently fly and maintain the F/A-18F) on 27 October 2006 and is the first Super Hornet squadron to fly AESA-equipped Super Hornets.[37]

F/A-18F at RIAT 2004

The AN/ALE-55 Fiber-Optic Towed Decoy will replace the ALE-50.[38] The improved AN/ALQ-214 jammer was added on Super Hornet Block II.[39]

The first Super Hornet upgraded with an aft cockpit Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) was delivered to VFA-213 on 18 May 2007. VFA-213 is the first squadron to receive the Dual-Cockpit Cueing System for both pilot and Weapon systems officer.[40] The JHMCS provides multi-purpose aircrew situational awareness including high-off-bore-sight cueing of the AIM-9X Sidewinder missile. Shared Reconnaissance Pod (SHARP) is a high-resolution, digital tactical air reconnaissance system that features advanced day/night and all-weather capability.[41]

In the future, air-to-air target detection using Infrared Search and Track (IRST) in the form of a passive, long range sensor that detects long wave IR emissions will be an option with a unique solution. This new device will be a sensor built into the front of a centerline external fuel tank. Operational capability of this device is expected in 2013.[42] On May 18, 2009, Lockheed Martin announced it had been selected by Boeing to conduct the technology development phase of this sensor.[43]

Missions performed

A U.S. Navy F/A-18E above the deck of USS Abraham Lincoln in 2002
  • Day/night strikes with precision-guided weapons
  • Anti-air warfare
  • Fighter escort
  • Close air support
  • Suppression of enemy air defense
  • Maritime strike
  • Reconnaissance
  • Forward Air Control (Airborne) (FAC(A))
  • Air-to-Air Refueling
  • Leaflet drops with Payload Delivery Unit 5 (PDU-5) containers[44]

Operational history

United States Navy

An F/A-18F parked on the flight deck of aircraft carrier USS Dwight D. Eisenhower, as the ship operates in the Arabian Sea, December 2006

The first unit to bring their F/A-18 Super Hornets to combat was VFA-115. On 6 November 2002, two F/A-18Es conducted a "Response Option" strike in support of Operation Southern Watch on two surface-to-air missile launchers at Al Kut and an air defense command and control bunker at Tallil air base. One of the pilots, Lieutenant John Turner, dropped 2,000 pounds (910 kg) JDAM bombs for the first time from the Super Hornet during combat.[45]

In support of the Operation Iraqi Freedom (Iraq War), VFA-14, VFA-41 and VFA-115 flew close air support, strike, escort, SEAD and aerial refueling sorties. Two F/A-18Es from VFA-14 and two F/A-18Fs from VFA-41 were forward deployed to the USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72). The VFA-14 jets flew mostly as aerial refuelers and the VFA-41 jets as Forward Air Controller (Airborne) or FAC(A)s.

On 6 April 2005, VFA-154 and VFA-147 (the latter squadron then still operating F/A-18Cs) dropped two 500-pound (230 kg) laser-guided bombs on enemy insurgent location east of Baghdad.[46]

On 8 September 2006, VFA-211 F/A-18F Super Hornets expended GBU-12 and GBU-38 bombs against Taliban fighters and Taliban fortifications west and northwest of Kandahar. This was the first time the unit was in combat with the Super Hornet.[47]

During the 2006-2007 cruise with USS Dwight D. Eisenhower, VFA-103 and VFA-143 supported Operations Iraqi Freedom, Enduring Freedom and operations off the Somali coast. Alongside "Legacy Hornet" squadrons, VFA-131 and VFA-83, they dropped 140 precision guided weapons and performed nearly 70 strafing runs.[48]

In 2007 Boeing proposed additional F/A-18E/Fs to the US Navy in a multi-year contract.[49] In 2008, it was reported that the Navy was considering buying additional F/A-18 Super Hornets to bridge a "strike-fighter" gap.[50][51] As of October 2008, Boeing had delivered 367 Super Hornets to the US Navy.[52]

On 6 April 2009 Defense Secretary Gates announced that the Department of Defense intends to acquire further 31 F/A-18s in FY2010.[53] Congressional action has requested that the DoD study a further multi-year contract in order to avoid a projected strike fighter shortfall.[54] The House Armed Services Committee has supported an additional multi-year contract to buy more Super Hornets at around $50 million each to cover the strike fighter gap, while the Navy has suggested it could spend $25 million for each F/A-18 Hornet to extend its lifespan from 8,600 to 10,000 flight hours.[55] The FY2010 budget bill authorizes, but does not require, a multiyear purchase agreement for additional Super Hornets.[56]

Royal Australian Air Force

On 3 May 2007, the Australian Government signed a contract to acquire 24 F/A-18Fs for the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), at a cost of AU$2.9 billion, as an interim replacement for the aging F-111s.[57] The total cost with training and support over 10 years is AU$6 billion (US$4.6 billion).[58] The Super Hornet order has resulted from concern that the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) will not be operational by the time the F-111s are retired. RAAF pilots and air combat officers will begin training in the USA in 2009, with No. 1 Squadron and No. 6 Squadron planned to become fully operational with the F/A-18F in 2010.

The order has proved to be controversial, with the critics including some retired senior RAAF officers. Air Vice Marshal (ret.) Peter Criss, a former Air Commander Australia, said he was "absolutely astounded" that the Australian government would spend AU$6 billion on an interim aircraft.[59] Criss has also cited evidence given by the US Senate Armed Services Committee that the Super Hornet block I specific excess power is inferior to the MiG-29 and Su-30,[60] which are already operated, or have been ordered, by air forces in South East Asia. Air Commodore (ret.) Ted Bushell stated that the F/A-18F could not perform the role that the Australian government had given it, and the F-111 airframe design would remain suitable for the strategic deterrent/strike role until at least 2020.[59] Some critics have claimed that the decision to buy the F/A-18F merely serves to ease the sale of additional Super Hornets to Australia, should the F-35 program "encounter more problems".[61]

The initial Block ll package offered to the RAAF will include installed engines and six spares, APG-79 AESA radars, Link 16 connectivity, LAU-127 guided missile launchers, AN/ALE-55 fiber optic towed decoys and other equipment.[62]

On 31 December 2007, the new Australian Labor government announced that it would review the purchase as part of a wider review of the RAAF's fighter procurement plans, with the possibility of the order for F/A-18Fs being either reduced or canceled. The main reasons given were concerns over operational suitability, the lack of a proper review process, and internal beliefs that an interim fighter was not required.[63]

On 17 March 2008, the Government announced that it would proceed with plans to acquire all 24 F/A-18Fs.[64] The Government has also sought US export approval for EA-18G Growlers.[65] On 27 February 2009 Defence Minister Joel Fitzgibbon announced that 12 of the 24 Super Hornets would be wired on the production line for future modification as EA-18Gs. The additional wiring would cost AU$35 million. The final decision on conversion to EA-18Gs, at a cost of AU$300 million, would be made in 2012.[66] The first of RAAF's Super Hornets was completed in 2009 and it first flew from Boeing's factory in St. Louis, Missouri on 21 July 2009.[67]

Potential operators

The United States Marine Corps has avoided the Super Hornet program. This is said to be because they fear that any USMC Super Hornet buys will be at the cost of the F-35B STOVL fighters that they intend to operate from their amphibious ships.[68]

Boeing offered Malaysia the Super Hornets as part of a buy-back package for its existing F/A-18 Hornets in 2002. However, the Super Hornet procurement was halted after the government decided to purchase the Sukhoi Su-30MKM instead in 2007. But RMAF Chief Gen. Datuk Nik Ismail Nik Mohamaed indicated that the RMAF had not planned to end procurement of the Super Hornets, instead saying that the air force needed such fighters.[69]

Boeing has delivered Super Hornet proposals to the Danish and Brazilian governments in 2008. The Super Hornet is one of three fighter aircraft in a Danish competition to replace 48 F-16s.[70][71] In October 2008, it was reported the Super Hornet was selected as one of three finalists in Brazil's fighter competition. Brazil has put forward an initial requirement for 36 planes, with a potential total purchase of 120.[72][73]

Boeing submitted a proposal for India's Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft (MMRCA) competition on 24 April 2008. The Super Hornet variant being offered to India is named F/A-18IN. It will include Raytheon's APG-79 AESA radar.[74] In August 2008, Boeing submitted an industrial participation proposal to India describing partnerships with companies in India.[75] Super Hornets arrived in India for field trials on 18 August 2009.[76]

On 10 March 2009, Boeing offered the Super Hornet for Greece's Next-Generation Fighter Program.[77]

The House version of the fiscal 2010 defense authorization bill includes language that advises the USAF to consider adopting Super Hornets in order to avoid a gap in the nation's air defenses while the JSF ramps up.[78]


  • F/A-18E Super Hornet: single seat variant
  • F/A-18F Super Hornet: two-seat variant
  • EA-18G Growler: The electronic warfare version of the F/A-18F Super Hornet, slated to begin production in 2008, with fleet deployment in 2009. The EA-18G will replace the U.S. Navy's EA-6B Prowler.


A VFA-11 F/A-18F Super Hornet performing evasive maneuvers during an air power demonstration
U.S. Navy F/A-18F from VFA-106 Gladiators at Paris Air Show 2007
A VFA-122 F/A-18F pulling a high-g maneuver at the NAS Oceana "In Pursuit of Liberty" air show, 2004
 United States
  • United States Navy
    • Pacific Fleet
      • VFA-2 "Bounty Hunters" (F/A-18F)
      • VFA-14 "Tophatters" (F/A-18E)
      • VFA-22 "Fighting Redcocks" (F/A-18F)[79]
      • VFA-27 "Royal Maces" (F/A-18E)
      • VFA-41 "Black Aces" (F/A-18F)
      • VFA-102 "Diamondbacks" (F/A-18F)
      • VFA-115 "Eagles" (F/A-18E)
      • VFA-122 "Flying Eagles" (Fleet Replacement Squadron, operates F/A-18E/F)[80]
      • VFA-137 "Kestrels" (F/A-18E)
      • VFA-147 "Argonauts" (F/A-18E)
      • VFA-154 "Black Knights" (F/A-18F)
    • Atlantic Fleet
      • VFA-11 "Red Rippers" (F/A-18F)
      • VFA-31 "Tomcatters" (F/A-18E)
      • VFA-32 "Swordsmen" (F/A-18F)
      • VFA-81 "Sunliners" (F/A-18E)
      • VFA-103 "Jolly Rogers" (F/A-18F)
      • VFA-105 "Gunslingers" (F/A-18E)
      • VFA-106 "Gladiators" (Fleet Replacement Squadron, operates F/A-18A/B/C/D/E/F)
      • VFA-136 "Knighthawks" (F/A-18E)
      • VFA-143 "Pukin' Dogs" (F/A-18E)
      • VFA-211 "Fighting Checkmates" (F/A-18F)
      • VFA-213 "Black Lions" (F/A-18F)
    • Test and Evaluation Units
      • VX-9 Vampires (Air Test and Evaluation Squadron, operates F/A-18E/F and other aircraft)
      • VX-23 Salty Dogs (Air Test and Evaluation Squadron, operates F/A-18E/F and other aircraft)
      • VX-31 Dust Devils (Air Test and Evaluation Squadron, operates F/A-18E/F and other aircraft)
      • NSAWC (Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center), received F/A-18F, also operates other aircraft)

Each squadron has a standard unit establishment of 12 aircraft. The F/A-18E/F transition is still in progress as of early 2007.

Specifications (F/A-18E/F)

Three view projection of the Super Hornet

Data from U.S. Navy fact file,[12] Aerospaceweb[81]

General characteristics

  • Crew: F/A-18E: 1, F/A-18F: 2
  • Length: 60 ft 1¼ in (18.31 m)
  • Wingspan: 44 ft 8½ in (13.62 m)
  • Height: 16 ft (4.88 m)
  • Wing area: 500 ft² (46.45 m²)
  • Empty weight: 30,600 lb (13,900 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 47,000 lb (21,320 kg) (in fighter configuration)
  • Max takeoff weight: 66,000 lb (29,900 kg)
  • Powerplant:General Electric F414-GE-400 turbofans
    • Dry thrust: 14,000 lbf (62.3 kN) each
    • Thrust with afterburner: 22,000 lbf (97.9 kN) each
  • Internal fuel capacity: F/A-18E: 14,400 lb (6,530 kg), F/A-18F: 13,550 lb (6,145 kg)
  • External fuel capacity: 5 × 480 gal tanks, totaling 16,380 lb (7,430 kg)




Popular culture

Jane's Combat Simulations released a simulator based on the F/A-18E Super Hornet titled "Jane's F/A-18" in 2000. The Super Hornet is the main carrier jet in the film Behind Enemy Lines. An F/A-18F is shot down in the movie. Another PC simulator titled "Top Gun: Hornet's Nest" also focuses on the Super Hornet. Vertical Reality Simulations has also released a F/A-18E for use in Microsoft's Flight Simulator games.[83]

See also

Related development

Comparable aircraft

Related lists



  1. ^ "Boeing Delivers 400th F/A-18E/F Super Hornet to US Navy". Boeing, 24 July 2009.
  2. ^ "Department Of The Navy Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 Budget Estimates, Aircraft Procurement, Vol. I, BA 1-4". Department of the Navy. February 2010. (see p. 27)
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Jenkins, Dennis R (2000). F/A-18 Hornet: A Navy Success Story. New York City: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0071346961. 
  5. ^ Donald 2004, p. 45.
  6. ^ a b F/A-18E/F Super Hornet program milestones
  7. ^ Young, J., Anderson, R., Yurkovich, R., AIAA-98-4701, "A Description of the F/A-18E/F Design and Design Process", 7th AIAA/USAF/NASA/ISSMO Symposium on Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, St. Louis, Missouri, 2-4 September 1998. (F/A-18E intended to replace A-6 and F-14D)
  8. ^ F/A-18E/F Super Hornet Approved For Low-Rate Production
  9. ^ F/A-18E/F Super Hornet Enters Production
  10. ^ Operational and Test Evaluation of F/A-18E/F and F-22 review to Senate Armed Services Committee, 22 March 2000.
  11. ^ DoD Special Briefing on "Super Hornet" Operation Evaluation Results
  12. ^ a b c d F/A-18 fact file, US Navy, 13 October 2006.
  13. ^ "The F/A-18E/F Super Hornet: Tomorrow's Air Power Today" (PPT). National Defense Industrial Association. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  14. ^ Cavas, Christopher P. (2007-05-18). "Navy, Boeing downplay alleged F/A-18 problems". Navy Times. 
  15. ^ Fulghum, David A. (2008-01-30). "Boeing Plans Sixth Generation Fighter With Block 3 Super Hornet". Aviation Week. Retrieved 2008-02-17. 
  16. ^ Norris, Guy. "GE Eyes More Powerful Engine For Super Hornets, Growlers". Aviation Week, 14 May 2009.
  17. ^ Trimble, Stephen. "Boeing's Super Hornet seeks export sale to launch 20% thrust upgrade". Flight International, 12 May 2009.
  18. ^ Bob Kress and RADM Gilchrist USN ret. "F-14D Tomcat vs. F/18 E/F Super Hornet". Flight Journal Magazine, February 2002 Issue. "it has only 36 percent of the F-14's payload/range capability"
  19. ^ a b Donald 2004, pp. 49-52.
  20. ^ F/A-18E/F Super Hornet - maritime strike attack aircraft
  21. ^ Ready On Arrival: Super Hornet Joins The Fleet, Navy League, June 2002.
  22. ^ Elward 2001, pp. 74-75.
  23. ^ a b F/A-18E/F Super Hornet page, Boeing
  24. ^ Gaddis, BD. F/A-18 & EF-18G Program brief, US Navy, 24 April 2007.
  25. ^ F/A-18-E/F Super Hornet .... Leading Naval Aviation into the 21st Century, US Navy, Accessed 13 December 2007.
  26. ^ a b Donald 2004, pp. 50-51, 56.
  27. ^ a b Elward 2001, p. 77.
  28. ^ Winchester, Jim. The Encyclopedia of Modern Aircraft, p. 166. Thunder Bay Press, 2006. ISBN 1592236286.
  29. ^ a b "Boeing Super Hornet Demonstrates Aerial Refueling Capability", Boeing Global Strike Systems, April 14, 1999.
  30. ^ Donald 2004, p. 76.
  31. ^ Boeing Frontiers: F/A-18E/F Block II upgrades add to Super Hornet's potent arsenal, Boeing, June 2005.
  32. ^ "Raytheon to Provide Revolutionary AESA Capabilities to 135 F/A-18s", Raytheon, 23 January 2008.
  33. ^ Boeing Press Release January 8, 2007.
  34. ^ New APG-79 AESA Radars for Super Hornets, Defense Industry Daily, April 26, 2005.
  35. ^ "New U.S. Navy Radar Detects Cruise Missiles". Aviation Week and Space Technology. 2007-04-30. 
  36. ^ F/A-18 AESA - New Technology Revolutionizes Radar Benefits
  37. ^ Boeing F/A-18E/F Block 2 Super Hornets Flying at Naval Air Station Oceana, Boeing
  38. ^ AN/ALE-55 Fiber Optic Towed Decoy,
  39. ^ Navy Details New Super Hornet Capabilities, Aviation Week and Space Technology, February 25, 2007
  40. ^ Boeing Dual-Cockpit Cueing System Introduced to U.S. Navy Squadron
  41. ^ Raytheon Awarded Navy Contract to Increase SHARP System Capability, October 4, 2006
  42. ^ Boeing Selects Supplier for Super Hornet Block II Infrared Search and Track Capability, July 2, 2007.
  43. ^ Lockheed Martin Press Release, May 18, 2009
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  55. ^ Bill would give go-ahead to buy Super Hornets
  56. ^ US defense compromise authorizes F/A-18 multiyear deal
  57. ^ Super Hornet Acquisition Contract Signed
  58. ^ Australia to Acquire 24 F/A-18F Super Hornets
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  78. ^ Air Force urged to consider Navy F-18s
  79. ^ The aircrew of an F/A-18F Super Hornet, assigned to the "Fighting Redcocks" of Strike Fighter Squadron (VFA) 22, wait to launch from Catapult 3 during night flight operations.
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  • Donald, David. "Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet", Warplanes of the Fleet. AIRtime Publishing Inc, 2004. ISBN 1-880588-81-1
  • Elward, Brad. Boeing F/A-18 Hornet (WarbirdTech, Vol. 31). Specialty Press, 2001. ISBN 1-58007-041-8
  • Jenkins, Dennis R. F/A-18 Hornet: A Navy Success Story. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000. ISBN 0-07-134696-1

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