F/A-18 Hornet: Wikis

  
  

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F/A-18 Hornet
A U.S. Marine Corps F/A-18C
Role Multirole fighter
National origin United States
Manufacturer McDonnell Douglas / Boeing
Northrop
First flight 18 November 1978
Introduction 7 January 1983
Status Active
Primary users United States Navy
United States Marine Corps
Royal Australian Air Force
Spanish Air Force
Number built F/A-18A–D: 1,480[1]
Unit cost US$29–57 million (2006)[2]
Developed from Northrop YF-17
Variants CF-18 Hornet
High Alpha Research Vehicle
X-53 Active Aeroelastic Wing
Developed into F/A-18E/F Super Hornet
.The McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) F/A-18 Hornet is a supersonic, all-weather carrier-capable multirole fighter jet, designed to attack both ground and aerial targets.^ The McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) F/A-18 Hornet is an all-weather carrier-capable multirole fighter jet, designed to attack both ground and aerial targets.

^ March The Navy awarded a contract to McDonnell Douglas for development of night attack capabilities for the F/A-18 Hornet.
  • WAR and PEACE in the HORNET 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fisthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was designed to attack both ground and aerial targets.
  • F-18C Hornet Model Airplane - War Planes, Handmade Wooden Models Including Military Aircraft, Jets, Sail Boats, & Helicopters 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.warplanes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The F/A-18 was derived from the YF-17 in the 1970s for use by the United States Navy and Marine Corps.^ The F/A-18 was derived from the YF-17 in the 1970s for use by the United States Navy and Marine Corps.

^ Designed in the 1970s for service with the United States Navy and Marine Corps, the Hornet is also used by the air forces of several other nations.
  • simMarket: TURBINE SOUND STUDIOS - FA-18 HORNET SOUNDPACK 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC secure.simmarket.com [Source type: General]

^ The F-18 is a supersonic jet used widely in the Marine Corps and Navy.
  • Military Investigating F18 Crash into San Diego Neighborhood - ABC News 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC abcnews.go.com [Source type: News]
  • F-18 fighter jet crashes in San Diego residential area | NowPublic News Coverage 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.nowpublic.com [Source type: News]

.The Hornet is also used by the air forces of several other nations.^ Designed in the 1970s for service with the United States Navy and Marine Corps, the Hornet is also used by the air forces of several other nations.

^ The Hornet is also used by the air forces of several other nations.
  • Catalog - F/A-18 Hornet (Marines) 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aircraftmodelscorp.com [Source type: General]
  • F-18 Hornet, multirole fighter jet (photo) - Pravda.Ru 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC english.pravda.ru [Source type: General]
  • F-18 Hornet, multirole fighter jet (photo) - Pravda.Ru 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC newsfromrussia.com [Source type: General]

^ The Hornet has also been exported to several nations worldwide.
  • Hobby Lobby F/A-18 Hornet ARF Review - RC Groups 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.rcgroups.com [Source type: General]

It has been the aerial demonstration aircraft for the U.S. Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron, the Blue Angels, since 1986.
.The fighter's primary missions are fighter escort, fleet air defense, suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD), air interdiction, close air support and Aerial reconnaissance.^ In its fighter mode, the F/A-18 is used primarily as a fighter escort and for fleet air defense; in its attack mode, it is used for force projection, interdiction and close and deep air support.
  • The US Navy -- Fact File 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fighter-planes.com [Source type: Academic]
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC home.iae.nl [Source type: Academic]
  • F18 F/A-18 Hornet, Super Hornet, E, F models 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Wings & Wheels Expo 2004 -- F-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.teterboro-online.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Super Hornet to Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.strategypage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The F/A-18's primary missions are fighter escort, fleet air defense, suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD), interdiction, close air support and reconnaissance.
  • F-18 Blue Angels in Flying Formation Model Airplanes - War Planes, Handmade Wooden Models Including Military Aircraft, Jets, Sail Boats, & Helicopters 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.warplanes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its primary missions are fighter escort, fleet air defense, suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD), interdiction, close air support and reconnaissance.
  • Hobby Lobby F/A-18 Hornet ARF Review - RC Groups 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.rcgroups.com [Source type: General]
  • simMarket: TURBINE SOUND STUDIOS - FA-18 HORNET SOUNDPACK 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC secure.simmarket.com [Source type: General]

.Its versatility and reliability have proven it to be a valuable carrier asset, though it has been criticized for its lack of range and payload compared to its earlier contemporaries, such as the F-14 Tomcat in the fighter and strike fighter role, and the A-6 Intruder and A-7 Corsair II in the attack role.^ Its versatility and reliability have proven it to be a valuable carrier asset, though it has been criticized for its lack of range and payload compared to its contemporaries.
  • simMarket: TURBINE SOUND STUDIOS - FA-18 HORNET SOUNDPACK 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC secure.simmarket.com [Source type: General]

^ Its versatility and reliability have proven it to be a valuable carrier asset, though it has been criticized for its lack of range and payload compared to its earlier contemporaries, such as the F-14 Tomcat in the fighter and strike fighter role, and the A-6 Intruder and A-7 Corsair II in the attack role.

^ Its versatility and reliability have proven it to be a valuable carrier asset, and its only drawback is its relative lack of range.
  • F 18 Super Hornet Info | Facebook 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.F/A-18 Hornet provided the baseline design for the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, a larger, evolutionary redesign of the F/A-18. Compared to the Hornet, the Super Hornet is larger, heavier and has improved range and payload capability.^ Compared to the Hornet, the Super Hornet is larger, and heavier and has improved range and payload capability.

^ F/A-18 Hornet provided the baseline design for the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, a larger, evolutionary redesign of the F/A-18.

^ LOW FA-18 Super Hornet .
  • Hornet Videos - Metacafe 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The F/A-18E/F was originally proposed as an alternative to a completely new aircraft to replace existing dedicated attack aircraft such as the A-6. The larger variant was also directed to replace the aging F-14 Tomcat, thus serving a complementary role with Hornets in the U.S. Navy, and serving a wider range of roles including refueling tanker, and electronic jamming platform.^ The VFAX aircraft was to be a completely new aircraft.
  • http://library.thinkquest.org/3142/f-18.htm 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The larger variant was also directed to replace the aging F-14 Tomcat, thus serving a complementary role with Hornets in the U.S. Navy, and serving a wider range of roles including refueling tanker, and electronic jamming platform.

^ New aircraft: complete aircraft only .
  • FlightSim.Com 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.flightsim.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]

Contents

Development

Origins

.Development of the F/A-18 came as a result of the U.S. Navy's Naval Fighter-Attack, Experimental (VFAX) program to procure a multirole aircraft to replace the A-4 Skyhawk, the A-7 Corsair II, remaining F-4 Phantom IIs and to complement the F-14 Tomcat.^ STRIKE FIGHTER WEAPONS SCHOOL, ATLANTIC Strike Fighter Weapons School,Atlantic (SFWSLANT) was established in 1987 as Light Attack Weapons School, Atlantic at Naval Air Station Cecil Field, Jacksonville, Fla.
  • Naval Air Station Oceana | Shore Units 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.mynewbaseguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the YF-16 was chosen by the USAF, US Congress decided to evaluate two aircraft for the Naval Air Combat Fighter (ACF) project.
  • http://www.fsplanet.com/ 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fsplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In its fighter mode, the F/A-18 is used primarily as a fighter escort and for fleet air defense; in its attack mode, it is used for force projection, interdiction and close and deep air support.
  • The US Navy -- Fact File 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet aircraft 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.military.cz [Source type: Reference]
  • combatindex.com: F/A-18 Hornet / Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.combatindex.com [Source type: Reference]
  • F18 F/A-18 Hornet, Super Hornet, E, F models 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Reference]
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Super Hornet to Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.strategypage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Vice Admiral Kent Lee, then head of Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR), was the lead advocate for the VFAX against strong opposition from many Navy officers, including Vice Admiral William D. Houser, deputy chief of naval operations for air warfare - the highest ranking naval aviator.^ The Navy's design concept originated from Vice Admiral Kent Lee.
  • F 18 Super Hornet Info | Facebook 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Network Centric Warfare in naval operations .

^ Navy shortlists air warfare destroyers .

[5]
The Northrop YF-17 was developed into the carrier-capable F/A-18.
.In August 1973, Congress mandated that the Navy pursue a lower-cost alternative to the F-14. Grumman proposed a stripped F-14 designated the F-14X, while McDonnell Douglas proposed a naval variant of the F-15, but both were nearly as expensive as the F-14.[6] That summer, Secretary of Defense Schlesinger ordered the Navy to evaluate the competitors in the Air Force's Lightweight Fighter (LWF) program, the General Dynamics YF-16 and Northrop YF-17.^ McDonnell Douglas; main subcontractor: Northrop .
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet aircraft 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.military.cz [Source type: Reference]

^ Spanish Air Force designation CE.15.

^ A primary goal in the lightweight fighter program seems to be to prove this concept, by forcing a mix of F-15/F-16 on the Air Force, and F-14/F-18 on the Navy.

[7] .The Air Force competition specified a day fighter with no strike capability.^ The predecessor to the Super Hornet, the F/A-18 A/B/C/D, currently serves the armed services of eight nations for fighter escort, suppression of enemy air defenses, reconnaissance, forward air control, close air support, and day and night strike missions.
  • Raytheon Company: Special Interest Stories: Super Hornet Technology 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.raytheon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the A-6 Intruders and F-14 Tomcats have left the inventory, the F/A-18 Hornet alone will represent the Navy's carrier-based strike fighter capability.
  • F/A - 18 Hornet - WAVE 3 TV Louisville, KY | 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.wave3.com [Source type: News]

^ The F/A-18 fulfills these assignments: fighter escort, supression of enemy air defenses, forward air control, close air support and day and night strike missions.
  • F/A-18A Hornet Blue Angels, Military Channel Shop by Subject U.S. Navy , Military Channel Store 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC store.discovery.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • F/A-18A Hornet Blue Angels, TLC , TLC Store 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC store.discovery.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • F/A-18A Hornet Blue Angels, Gift Guide Gifts $100 and up , HISTORY Shop 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC shop.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In May 1974, the House Armed Services Committee redirected $34 million from the VFAX to a new program, the Navy Air Combat Fighter (NACF),[7] intended to make maximum use of the technology developed for the LWF program.^ May The House Armed Services Committee voted to allow women to fly combat missions.
  • WAR and PEACE in the HORNET 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fisthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The predecessor to the Super Hornet, the F/A-18 A/B/C/D, currently serves the armed services of eight nations for fighter escort, suppression of enemy air defenses, reconnaissance, forward air control, close air support, and day and night strike missions.
  • Raytheon Company: Special Interest Stories: Super Hornet Technology 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.raytheon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While much attention was focused on development problems, these were largely typical of those in any new program, with their resolution being part of the development process.
  • Federation of American Scientists :: F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]

Redesigning the YF-17

.Though the YF-16 won the LWF competition, the Navy was skeptical that an aircraft with one engine and narrow landing gear could be easily or economically adapted to carrier service, and refused to adopt an F-16 derivative.^ It was returning to the base after landing training on an aircraft carrier of the US Navy.
  • Bulgaria US F/A-18 Fighter Crash Kills at Least Three People in San Diego: US F/A-18 Fighter Crash Kills at Least Three People in San Diego - Novinite.com - Sofia News Agency 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.novinite.com [Source type: News]

^ Preferring twin-engine aircraft, the navy favored the YF-17.
  • Air Power:The F/A 18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC centennialofflight.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the two services ended up choosing different aircraft, McDonnell Douglas became the primary contractor for the Navy design(McDonnell Douglas merged with Boeing in 1997).
  • F 18 Super Hornet Info | Facebook 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Navy fought for and won permission to develop an aircraft based on the YF-17. Since the LWF did not share the design requirements of the VFAX, the Navy asked McDonnell Douglas and Northrop to design a new aircraft around the configuration and design principles of the YF-17. The new aircraft, designated the F-18, shared not a single essential dimension or primary structure with the YF-17. Secretary of the Navy W. Graham Claytor announced on 1 March 1977 that the name of the aircraft would be "Hornet".[6]
F/A-18 attached to catapult on the flight deck of USS Abraham Lincoln.
.Northrop had enlisted the aid of McDonnell Douglas as a secondary contractor on the NACF proposal to capitalize on the latter's extensive experience in building carrier aircraft, including the highly successful F-4 Phantom II.^ The Northrop/McDonnell Douglas proposal was chosen by the Navy on May 2, 1975.
  • http://library.thinkquest.org/3142/f-18.htm 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For the Navy version, Northrop teamed with McDonnell Douglas to capitalize on the latter's extensive experience in building carrier aircraft, including the highly successful F-4.
  • F 18 Super Hornet Info | Facebook 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ McDonnell-Douglas and Northrop are spelled incorrectly.
  • F/A-18 Hornet: a Dynasty in the Making | News | Site Features | Flight Journal Magazine 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.flightjournal.com [Source type: General]

.On the F-18, the two companies agreed to split the parts manufacture evenly, with McDonnell Douglas completing the final assembly, representing ~20% of the work.^ May 1995 – F/A-18E1 final assembly begins at McDonnell Douglas.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the two services ended up choosing different aircraft, McDonnell Douglas became the primary contractor for the Navy design(McDonnell Douglas merged with Boeing in 1997).
  • F 18 Super Hornet Info | Facebook 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Large structural components and landing gear components and complete landing gear assemblies Launch bar power unit and Side brace assembly (F/A-18A) (West Heights Manufacturing) .
  • FA-18 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC coat.ncf.ca [Source type: Reference]

.McDonnell Douglas built the wings, stabilators, and forward fuselage; Northrop built the center and aft fuselage and vertical stabilizers.^ The F/A-18 is built by a nationwide industry team of McDonnell Douglas (forward fuselage and wings), Northrop Grumman (center and aft fuselage), General Electric (engines), and Hughes (radar).
  • F/A-18 Hornet - Fighter Jet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.acepilots.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The center and aft fuselage is built by Northrop Grumman Corporation of Los Angeles, California.
  • F/A-18 Hornet - Fighter Jet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.acepilots.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Northrop would build the center and aft fuselage sections and the vertical fins in the rear.
  • http://library.thinkquest.org/3142/f-18.htm 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Reference]

.McDonnell Douglas was the prime contractor for the naval versions.^ McDonnell Douglas was brought in as prime contractor and the F/A-18 was born.
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.zap16.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the two services ended up choosing different aircraft, McDonnell Douglas became the primary contractor for the Navy design(McDonnell Douglas merged with Boeing in 1997).
  • F 18 Super Hornet Info | Facebook 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the Navy version, Northrop teamed with McDonnell Douglas to capitalize on the latter's extensive experience in building carrier aircraft, including the highly successful F-4.
  • F 18 Super Hornet Info | Facebook 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .Northrop would become the prime contractor and take over final assembly for the F-18L land-based version which Northrop hoped to sell on the export market.^ The foreign sales proved extremely frustrating to Northrop, which had been trying to sell the F-18L land-based version on the foreign market.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ F-18L This was a lighter land-based version of the F/A-18 Hornet.
  • F18 F/A-18 Hornet, Super Hornet, E, F models 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Export variants: F-18 L: This was a lighter land-based version of the F-18 Hornet.

[6]
.The F-18, initially known as McDonnell Douglas Model 267, was drastically modified from the YF-17 while retaining the same basic configuration.^ YF-17 model 267 .

^ The design by McDonnell-Douglas was based on the YF-17 Cobra .
  • F/A-18 Hornet - Wikimedia Commons 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The F-18 aircraft project was known as the Model 267 by the McDonnell Douglas prime contractor.
  • AirToAirCombat.Com: F/A-18C Hornet Boeing F/A-18 Origins 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airtoaircombat.com [Source type: Academic]
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For carrier operations, the airframe, undercarriage, and arrestor hook were strengthened, folding wings and catapult attachments were added, and the landing gear widened.^ Extends arrestor hook on F/A-18 for carrier landings.
  • F/A-18 Interceptor - Manual, Docs, Documentation - Lemon Amiga 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.lemonamiga.com [Source type: General]

^ Both the airframe and the undercarriage had to be strengthened for carrier operations, wing folding had to be incorporated and a tailhook had to be provided.
  • AirToAirCombat.Com: F/A-18C Hornet Boeing F/A-18 Origins 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airtoaircombat.com [Source type: Academic]
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All mechanicals are separated and pivoted so they will be easy to rig, including landing gear, refueling arm, arrestor, air brakes, and wing controls.
  • f 18 hornet blue angels max 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.turbosquid.com [Source type: General]

[8] .To meet Navy range and reserves requirements, McDonnell increased fuel capacity by 4,460 pounds (2,020 kg), with the enlargement of the dorsal spine and the addition of a 96 gallon fuel cell to each wing (the YF-17 had dry wings).^ Fuel capacity had to be increased to meet the Navy-specified mission radius.
  • AirToAirCombat.Com: F/A-18C Hornet Boeing F/A-18 Origins 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airtoaircombat.com [Source type: Academic]
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The aircraft emerged from Engineering and Manufacturing Development meeting all of its performance requirements on cost, on schedule and 400 pounds (181.4 kg) under weight.
  • The Boeing F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.plane-crazy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two F404-GE-402 with 17,700 pounds of thrust per engine (8,027 kg) Two F414-GE-400 with 22,000 pounds of thrust per engine (9,977 kg) .
  • http://library.thinkquest.org/3142/f-18.htm 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Reference]

.Most visibly, a "snag" was added to the leading edge of the wings and stabilators to prevent a flutter discovered in the F-15 stabilator.^ Later models of the F/A-18A have had a small wing fence added to the top of each LERX at the position of the wing leading edge in order to broaden the vortices generated, reducing loads on the tail unit and improving controllability at high angles of attack.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some stealth technology will be incorporated in the F/A-18E/F, notably on the wing leading edges to augment the beneficial effect of skinning with large areas of carbon epoxy.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18E/F Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fighter-planes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These problems were solved by filling in the dogtooth on the inboard leading edge of the horizontal stabilator, which gave the stabilator greater authority at an earlier juncture during the takeoff run.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The wings and stabilators were enlarged, the aft fuselage widened by 4 inches (102 mm), and the engines canted outward at the front.^ The two low-bypass turbofan engines are fed by fixed pilot air intakes located under the wings; the exhaust nozzles extend to the rear of the stabilators.

^ In order to provide more space for internal fuel, the width of the aft fuselage of the Hornet was increased by four inches over that of the YF-17, the engines were canted outwards at the front, and the fuselage spine was made significantly wider and taller.
  • AirToAirCombat.Com: F/A-18C Hornet Boeing F/A-18 Origins 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airtoaircombat.com [Source type: Academic]
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over that of the F/A-18C/D. The wing is proportionally enlarged by 25 percent, with an increase in wingspan of 4 feet 3 1/2 inches and an increase of 100 square feet in area.
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18E/F Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fighter-planes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These changes added 10,000 lb (4,540 kg) to the gross weight, bringing it to 37,000 lb (16,800 kg).^ Weight: 16,794 lbs.
  • F/A-18 Interceptor - Manual, Docs, Documentation - Lemon Amiga 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.lemonamiga.com [Source type: General]

^ N (16,000 lb st) with afterburning.
  • http://www.fsplanet.com/ 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fsplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wing span 54" Fuselage length 68" Weight 10 lbs Vertical fin height 10-1/4" Wing area 900 sq.
  • G&P Sales f-18 Hornet 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.rcuniverse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The computer-assisted control system of the YF-17 was replaced with a wholly digital fly-by-wire system with quadruple-redundancy, the first to be installed in a production fighter.^ The F-18 incorporated a quadruply-redundant digital fly-by-wire flight control system, the first of its kind to be installed in a production aircraft.
  • AirToAirCombat.Com: F/A-18C Hornet Boeing F/A-18 Origins 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airtoaircombat.com [Source type: Academic]
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Full digital fly-by-wire controls are used.
  • http://www.fsplanet.com/ 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fsplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The next logical step in fly-by-wire technology will likely be replacing pilots completely with computers—which is already happening with advanced unmanned aerial vehicles , says Pike.
  • F-18 Crash in San Diego - Fly-by-Wire Technology - Popular Mechanics 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.popularmechanics.com [Source type: General]

[8]
Heads up display (HUD) in an F/A-18 Hornet
.The original plan specified acquiring 780 total of three closely related models: the single seat F-18A fighter and A-18A attack aircraft, differing only in avionics, and the dual-seat TF-18A, which retained full mission capability of the F-18,[3] except with a reduced fuel load.^ The two-seat TF-18A was to retain the full mission capability and armament suite of the F-18A, but was to have slightly reduced fuel capacity.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Multi-role Attack and Fighter aircraft .

^ The aircraft retains the mission software and a high proportion of the avionics found in the C/D models.
  • F/A-18E/F Super Hornet Maritime Strike Attack Aircraft - Air Force Technology 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforce-technology.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With redesign of the stores stations and improvements in avionics and multifunction displays, it became possible to combine the A-18A and F-18A into one aircraft.^ After some tweaks and changes in the design, Northrop, aided by McDonnell Douglas, further developed the YF-17 into what eventually became the F/A-18A Hornet.
  • AVSIM Online - Flight Simulation's Number 1 Site! 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.avsim.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nine F-18A and two TF-18A two-seat FSD aircraft went into an intense flight test program.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One possible source of work: The V-22 Osprey , the so-called "tilt-rotor" aircraft that the U.S. Marine Corps flies.
  • Boeing Refurbishes 500th Super Hornet Fighter Jet, Makes Plans for Looming Dubai Air Show 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC moneymorning.com [Source type: News]

[6] Starting in 1980, the aircraft began being referred to as the F/A-18A, and the designation was officially announced on 1 April 1984. The TF-18A was redesignated F/A-18B.[3][6]

Northrop's F-18L

.Northrop developed the F-18L as a potential export aircraft.^ The US Navy however was implacably hostile to the winning single-engine YF-16, and decided to adopt an aircraft developed from the losing Northrop YF-17 Cobra.
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.zap16.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since it did not have to be strengthened for carrier service, it was expected to be lighter and better performing,[9] and a strong competitor to the F-16 Fighting Falcon then being offered to American allies.^ Since it did not have to carry any equipment for carrier-based operations, the F-18L was expected to be significantly lighter and better-performing than the carrier-based version.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ F-16 Fighting Falcon - iF-16 Fighting Falcon .
  • Download FA-18 Hornet 3.0 - Free DOS Games Downloads 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.classic-pc-games.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then again, i mostly flew up front as tech crew when i did, as the aircraft was being introduced into service back in 1999/2000.
  • Canada's First C-130J - Page 2 - 400 Scale Hangar 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.400scalehangar.net [Source type: General]

.The F-18L's maximum gross weight was 7,700 pounds (3,490 kg) (approximately 30%) lighter than the F/A-18A, due to lighter landing gear, removal of the wing folding mechanism, reduced part thickness in areas and lower fuel capacity.^ The F-18L was lighter due to the removal of carrier landing capability.
  • F18 F/A-18 Hornet, Super Hornet, E, F models 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Maximum fuel weight: .
  • Federation of American Scientists :: F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • F/A-18 Hornet 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Maximum weight capacity 88 lbs.
  • F-18 Hornet and Super Hornet Models  Jet Fighter Model Airplanes and Jet Fighter Pictures F18. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.yellowairplane.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though the aircraft retained a lightened arresting hook, the most obvious external difference was the removal of the "snags" on the leading edge of the wings and stabilators.^ Originally the most notable differences between an Australian (A)F/A-18A/B and a US F/A-18A/B were the lack of a catapult attachment, replacement of the carrier tailhook for a lighter "land" arresting hook, and the replacement of the automatic carrier landing system with an Instrument Landing System.
  • F18 F/A-18 Hornet, Super Hornet, E, F models 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Originally the most notable differences between a Australian (A)F-18 A/B and a US F-18 A/B were the lack of a catapult attachment, replacement of the carrier tailhook for a lighter "land" arresting hook, and the replacement of the automatic carrier landing system with a Instrument Landing System.

^ The F-16 is a single-seat aircraft with a single vertical tail, mid-mounted tailerons and wings, leading-edge flaps, and trailing-edge flaperons.
  • F/A-18 Interceptor - Manual, Docs, Documentation - Lemon Amiga 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.lemonamiga.com [Source type: General]

.It still retained 71% commonality with the F/A-18 by parts weight, and 90% of the high-value systems, including the avionics, radar, and ECM suite, though alternatives were offered.^ Cockpit systems were created to ease the pilots workload, including cathode ray tube (CRT) displays for radar, weapons, situation indicators, or moving maps.
  • Air Power:The F/A 18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC centennialofflight.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Super Hornet has a new, 25% larger airframe, more powerful GE F414 engines based on F/A-18's F404, and upgraded avionics suite.

^ Dec 9/08: Australia’s government announces that the final Hornet Upgrade (HUG) Phase 2.2 aircraft has now been delivered with modifications to the radar system, avionics system, electronic warfare suite and a Hornet aircrew training system.

.Unlike the F/A-18, the F-18L carried no fuel in its wings and lacked weapons stations on the intakes.^ Deploying with a single centerline tank (it's projected typical carrier configuration), the E/F's acceleration performance will be a substantial improvement over a cruise-configured (two fuel tanks on wing stations) CID everywhere in the flight envelope.
  • F/A-18 Super Hornet | Wings of Gold | Find Articles at BNET 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC findarticles.com [Source type: News]

^ Weapon stations include: two wingtip stations for Sidewinders; two outboard wing stations for air-to-air or air-to-ground weapons; two inboard wing stations for fuel tanks, air-to-air, or air-to-ground weapons; two nacelle fuselage stations for AMRAAMs, Sparrows, or sensor pods; and one centerline station for fuel or air-to-ground weapons.
  • Federation of American Scientists :: F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • F/A-18 Hornet 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hornet has a total of nine external weapons hardpoints--one at each wingtip, two underneath each wing, one on each corner of the fuselage just aft of the air intakes, and a centerline ventral underfuselage station.
  • AirToAirCombat.Com: F/A-18C Hornet Boeing F/A-18 Origins 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airtoaircombat.com [Source type: Academic]

.It had three underwing pylons on each side instead.^ Alternatively, it can carry as many as four Sparrows (one on each side of the fuselage and one on each outer underwing pylon).
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]
.The partnership between the McDonnell Douglas and Northrop soured over competition for foreign sales for the two models.^ McDonnell-Douglas and Northrop are spelled incorrectly.
  • F/A-18 Hornet: a Dynasty in the Making | News | Site Features | Flight Journal Magazine 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.flightjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ After some tweaks and changes in the design, Northrop, aided by McDonnell Douglas, further developed the YF-17 into what eventually became the F/A-18A Hornet.
  • AVSIM Online - Flight Simulation's Number 1 Site! 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.avsim.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As part of the original partnership arrangement between McDonnell Douglas and Northrop, it had been agreed that McDonnell Douglas would be the prime contractor for the carrier-based F-18A version of the Hornet, with Northrop being the prime contractor for the F-18L land-based version.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Northrop felt that McDonnell Douglas would put the F/A-18 in direct competition with the F-18L. In October 1979, Northrop filed a series of lawsuits charging that McDonnell was using Northrop technology developed for the F-18L for foreign sales in violation of their agreement, and asked for a moratorium on foreign sales of the Hornet via McDonnell Douglas.^ Review The McDonnell-Douglas F/A-18 Hornet is presented here showing its development, production and use by the United...
  • F/18 Hornet - Shop Smarter.com 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ The Hornet is the F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet’s predecessor, and the first models were introduced in the late 1970s as a spinoff of the USAF’s lightweight fighter competition.

^ The Super Hornet was ordered from McDonnell Douglas by the U.S. Navy in 1992, first flew in November 1995, made its first carrier landing in 1997 and entered service in 1999.
  • F-18 VFA-2 Bounty Hunter 1:72 Witty Wings Diecast 72008-01 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.badcattoys.com [Source type: General]

.The case was resolved in 1985 when McDonnell agreed to pay Northrop $50 million for complete rights to the design, without any admission of wrongdoing.^ After some tweaks and changes in the design, Northrop, aided by McDonnell Douglas, further developed the YF-17 into what eventually became the F/A-18A Hornet.
  • AVSIM Online - Flight Simulation's Number 1 Site! 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.avsim.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Northrop was to be given the rights to market a land-based version of the design to various foreign air forces.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Northrop and McDonnell Douglas agreed to jointly produce an F-18 fighter version for the Navy and an A-18 attack variant for the Marines, but the two missions were later combined.
  • Aerospaceweb.org | Aircraft Museum - F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aerospaceweb.org [Source type: Reference]

By then Northrop had ceased work on the F-18L, and most export orders were captured by the F-16 or the F/A-18.[10]

Into production

A US Navy F/A-18 on a mission during Operation Enduring Freedom in 2002
.During flight testing, the snag on the leading edge of the stabilators was filled in, and the gap between the Leading edge extensions (LEX) and the fuselage mostly filled in.^ It is extremely agile due to it's good thrust to weight ratio, digital fly by wire control system, and it's leading edge extensions.
  • BananaHobby - 6 CH BlitzRCWorks Jolly Roger F/A 18 Hornet Aerobatic Radio Remote Control Electric Ducted Fan RC Fighter Jet RTF 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.bananahobby.com [Source type: General]

^ Cutting Edge Set includes Lex fences as well as angled braces for vertical stabilizers.  .

^ Problems with the flight control software that reprogrammed the leading edge flaps had to be corrected with internal programming changes.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The gap, called the boundary layer air discharge (BLAD) slots, controlled the vortices generated by the LEX and presented clean air to the vertical stabilizers at high angles of attack.^ Perhaps the most significant of these was an alteration of the boundary layer air discharge slots.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These fences generate vortices that reduce loads on the tail group and confer a six-times (and perhaps as high as 27- times) increase in the tail section's fatigue life.

^ Several Hornet's in service with NASA as test aircraft including one    as the Hornet HARV , High Angle-of-attack Research Vehicle.

.However, they also generated a great deal of parasitic drag, worsening the problem of the F/A-18's inadequate range.^ Hi, A year ago I was experimenting with a 6" F-18 Hornet , but I abandoned that project because I had some range problems with my IR setup.
  • 6" F-18 hornet - RC Groups 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.rcgroups.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately, they also generated a log of aerodynamic drag, which adversely affected range and acceleration.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With a range of 5-8 miles at 15-16 mph and great hill-climbing ability, the F-18 will take you where you want to go.
  • Electric Scooters Performance - Electric-Bikes.com 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.electric-bikes.com [Source type: General]

.McDonnell filled in 80% of the gap, leaving a small slot to bleed air from the engine intake.^ The two low-bypass turbofan engines are fed by fixed pilot air intakes located under the wings; the exhaust nozzles extend to the rear of the stabilators.

^ A completely re-designed engine air intake of trapezoidal configuration replaces the D-shaped intakes of the earlier Hornets.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18E/F Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fighter-planes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the slots in the LERXes were filled in during prototype evaluation since they caused excessive drag, though one slot was retained behind the engine inlet.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This may have contributed to early problems with fatigue cracks appearing on the vertical stabilizers due to extreme aerodynamic loads, resulting in a momentary grounding in 1984 until the stabilizers were strengthened.^ It turned out that the Hornet was flown more than initially anticipated in the high angle of attack regime, where aerodynamic loads on the tail from turbulent air generated by the LERX were particularly severe, resulting in fatigue-related cracks in the tail area.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The strengthening structure of the vertical stabilizers is internal, with no cleats on the outside (as with older Hornets).
  • Finnish Air Force F-18 Hornet Walkaround 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC personal.eunet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early testing revealed two significant aerodynamic problems with the aircraft.
  • Aerospaceweb.org | Aircraft Museum - F/A-18E/F Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aerospaceweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Starting in May 1988, a small vertical fence was added to the top of each LEX to broaden the vortices and direct them away from the vertical stabilizers.^ Top view with durobatics vertical stabilizers.
  • 6" F-18 hornet - RC Groups 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.rcgroups.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cutting Edge Set includes Lex fences as well as angled braces for vertical stabilizers.  .

^ Later models of the F/A-18A have had a small wing fence added to the top of each LERX at the position of the wing leading edge in order to broaden the vortices generated, reducing loads on the tail unit and improving controllability at high angles of attack.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This also provided a minor increase in controllability as a side effect.^ The flight officer seated in the aft cockpit is provided with two stationary hand controls, one on each side of the seat, to operate the weapons systems.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These slots had the beneficial effect of generating a strong, high-enery vortex extending down each side of the fuselage, increasing directional stability at high angles of attack.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .F/A-18s of early versions had a problem with insufficient rate of roll, exacerbated by the insufficient wing stiffness, especially with the heavy underwing ordnance loads.^ The wing of the initial FSD machines had a leading-edge dogtooth which was eliminated as part of an attempt to improve the roll rate.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The whole wing had to be redesigned to improve the roll rate.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The first production F/A-18A flew on 12 April 1980. After a production run of 380 F/A-18As[12] (including the nine assigned to flight systems development), manufacture shifted to the F/A-18C in September 1987.[3]

Design

.
A Hornet performing a high-g pull-up during an air show.
^ Additionally, the Super Hornet will carry such proven performers as improved Sidewinder air-to-air missiles, HARMs (high-speed antiradiation missiles), SLAMs (stand-off land-attack missiles), and AMRAAMs (advanced medium-range air-to-air missiles).
  • Navy League of the United States - Citizens in Support of the Sea Services 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.navyleague.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Members of the U.S. Navy flight demonstration squadron the Blue Angels perform a high speed inverted crossing maneuver in F/A-18 Hornet strike fighters at the Naval Air Station Oceana 50th Anniversary Air Show.
  • F/A-18 Hornet: Blue Angels, the US Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ USN Blue Angels F/A-18 Hornet #5 military aviation air show stock photo #3768 .
  • USN Blue Angels F/A-18 Hornets Stock Photos Gallery Photo Gallery by Sunbird Photos by Don Boyd at pbase.com 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The high angle of attack causes powerful vortices to form at the leading edge extensions.
.The F/A-18 is a twin engine, mid-wing, multi-mission tactical aircraft.^ The combat proven F/A-18 Hornet is a single or dual seat, twin engine multi-mission tactical aircraft.
  • AVSIM Commercial Sim Review: AVSIM F/A-18 Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.avsim.com [Source type: General]

^ The F/A-18 is a twin engine, mid-wing, multi-mission tactical aircraft.
  • The US Navy -- Fact File 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • F18 F/A-18 Hornet, Super Hornet, E, F models 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Reference]
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The result was the multi-mission F/A-18 Hornet.
  • Aerospaceweb.org | Aircraft Museum - F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aerospaceweb.org [Source type: Reference]

.It is highly maneuverable, owing to its good thrust to weight ratio, digital fly-by-wire control system, and leading edge extensions (LEX).^ The Super Hornet is also fitted with more powerful General Electric F414 engines to maintain the same thrust-to-weight ratio as the earlier models.
  • Aerospaceweb.org | Aircraft Museum - F/A-18E/F Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aerospaceweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The resilient F/A-18 Hornet was the first aircraft to have carbon fiber wings and the first tactical jet fighter to use digital fly-by-wire flight controls.
  • HET-RC F-18 Hornet EDF Jet RC-WARBIRDS 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.rc-warbirds.com [Source type: General]

^ While this provides slightly less than a 1:1 thrust/weight ratio, the model will climb at 60 degrees indefinitely and cruises at only half throttlemore than enough for flying in small fields.
  • F/A-18 Hornet Foam Parkflyer - RC Groups 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.rcgroups.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The LEX allow the Hornet to remain controllable at high angles of attack.^ Several Hornet's in service with NASA as test aircraft including one    as the Hornet HARV , High Angle-of-attack Research Vehicle.

^ Later models of the F/A-18A have had a small wing fence added to the top of each LERX at the position of the wing leading edge in order to broaden the vortices generated, reducing loads on the tail unit and improving controllability at high angles of attack.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the thrust-vectoring vanes, the F-18 HARV has achieved stable flight at angles of attack as high as 70 degrees (previous maximum for conventional F/A-18 was 55 degrees).
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is because the LEX produce powerful vortices over the wings, creating turbulent airflow over the wings and thus delaying or eliminating the aerodynamic separation responsible for stall, allowing the Hornet's wings to generate lift several times the aircraft's weight, despite high angles of attack.^ The second issue was strong turbulence beneath the wings so severe that it damaged weapons and other stores carried on the underwing pylons.
  • Aerospaceweb.org | Aircraft Museum - F/A-18E/F Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aerospaceweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Super Hornet is also fitted with more powerful General Electric F414 engines to maintain the same thrust-to-weight ratio as the earlier models.
  • Aerospaceweb.org | Aircraft Museum - F/A-18E/F Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aerospaceweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A mix of seven intruder aircraft, ranging from a sailplane to a high-speed jet, flew 20 scenarios over a four-day period, one or two aircraft at a time.
  • NASA Dryden Proteus Photo Collection 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www1.dfrc.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Hornet is therefore capable of extremely tight turns over a large range of speeds.^ Super Hornet, flew combat sorties from Abraham Lincoln during Southern Watch, demonstrating reliability and an increased range and payload capability.
  • The US Navy -- Fact File 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Super Hornet takes the capabilities of the base F/A-18 series and ratchets it up a few notches by providing increased range and improved combat mission endurance.
  • Boeing / McDonnell Douglas / Northrop F/A-18 Super Hornet - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Super Hornet, has been flying combat sorties from Abraham Lincoln during Southern Watch, demonstrating reliability and an increased range and payload capability.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • :: Battlefield 2 Online.com :: - wfsection-F-18 Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.bf2online.com [Source type: Academic]

.Canted vertical stabilizers are another distinguishing design element, and among the other design characteristics that enable the Hornet's excellent high angle-of-attack capability include oversized horizontal stabilators, oversized trailing edge flaps that operate as flaperons, large full-length leading edge slats, and flight control computer programming that multiplies the movement of each control surface at low speeds and moves the vertical rudders inboard instead of simply left and right.^ Problems with the flight control software that reprogrammed the leading edge flaps had to be corrected with internal programming changes.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to this ability, the Hornet is capable of high speed tight turns, and high angles of attack.
  • BananaHobby - 6 CH BlitzRCWorks F/A 18 Hornet Aerobatic Radio Remote Control Electric Ducted Fan RC Fighter Jet ARF 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.bananahobby.com [Source type: General]

^ High speed pass of the F-18F Super Hornet right at the speed of sound.
  • F-18 Sonic on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Hornet's normally high angle-of-attack performance envelope was put to rigorous testing and enhanced in the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV).^ F-18 HARV :Single-seat high-alpha research vehicle for NASA. .

^ NASA's High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) program involved the use of a modified Hornet to explore the use of thrust vectoring in the high angle of attack regime.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several Hornet's in service with NASA as test aircraft including one    as the Hornet HARV , High Angle-of-attack Research Vehicle.

.NASA used the F-18 HARV to demonstrate flight handling characteristics at high angle-of-attack (alpha) of 65-70 degrees using thrust vectoring vanes.^ With the thrust-vectoring vanes, the F-18 HARV has achieved stable flight at angles of attack as high as 70 degrees (previous maximum for conventional F/A-18 was 55 degrees).
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ F-18 HARV :Single-seat high-alpha research vehicle for NASA. .

^ NASA's High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) program involved the use of a modified Hornet to explore the use of thrust vectoring in the high angle of attack regime.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] F/A-18 stabilators were also used as canards on NASA's F-15S/MTD.
F/A-18 Hornet in transonic flight (Note Prandtl-Glauert condensation).
.The Hornet was among the first aircraft to heavily utilize multi-function displays, which at the switch of a button allow the pilot to perform either fighter or attack roles or both.^ Multi-role Attack and Fighter aircraft .

^ Shipboard and shore-based multi-role fighter and attack aircraft.
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.zap16.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is an aircraft designed to fill the roles of fighter aircraft and attack aircraft.
  • 3D lwo F-18 Hornet F18 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.turbosquid.com [Source type: General]

.This "force multiplier" capability gives the operational commander more flexibility in employing tactical aircraft in a rapidly changing battle scenario.^ This "force multiplier" capability gives the operational commander more flexibility in employing tactical aircraft in a rapidly changing battle scenario.
  • F18 F/A-18 Hornet, Super Hornet, E, F models 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Reference]
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This gives for aircraft carrier operations, about three times more payload can be brought back to the ship.
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC faculty.hacc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ F/A-18 Hornets are currently operating in 37 tactical squadrons from air stations world-wide, and from 10 aircraft carriers.
  • F18 F/A-18 Hornet, Super Hornet, E, F models 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Reference]
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was the first Navy aircraft to incorporate a digital multiplex avionics bus, enabling easy upgrades.^ The resilient F/A-18 Hornet was the first aircraft to have carbon fiber wings and the first tactical jet fighter to use digital fly-by-wire flight controls.
  • HET-RC F-18 Hornet EDF Jet RC-WARBIRDS 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.rc-warbirds.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition, the F/A-18 was also the Navy's first tactical jet aircraft to incorporate a digital, MUX bus architecture for the entire system's avionics suite.
  • Federation of American Scientists :: F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The F-18 incorporated a quadruply-redundant digital fly-by-wire flight control system, the first of its kind to be installed in a production aircraft.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.The Hornet is also notable for having been designed with maintenance in mind, and as a result has required far less downtime than its heavier counterparts, the F-14 Tomcat and the A-6 Intruder.^ And the only reason the Tomcat lost in terms of maintenance downtime is because Dick Cheney (Hornet Mafioso Extraordinaire) ordered the Tomcat's production tooling destroyed, including the tools that would've been used to continue producing the Tomcat's required steady supply of spare parts.
  • F/A-18 E/F in Battle Stations in History Channel 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: General]

^ The system, designed with the pilots survivability in mind, is capable of taking rough damage and still having a short turnaround time in terms of maintenance and repair - sometimes as little as 24 hours.
  • Boeing / McDonnell Douglas / Northrop F/A-18 Hornet - History, Specifications and Pictures - Military Aircraft 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These aircraft are planned for assignment to the Atlantic Fleet to replace the F-14 (Tomcat) and earlier model F/A-18 (Hornet) aircraft.
  • Record of Decision for Introduction of F/A-18 E/F (Super Hornet) Aircraft to the East Coast of the United States | Federal Register Environmental Documents | USEPA 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its mean time between failure is three times greater than any other Navy strike aircraft, and requires half the maintenance time.^ However, growth in development costs and the Navy's commitment to the F-35C Joint Strike Fighter will likely limit production to less than 600 planes.
  • Aerospaceweb.org | Aircraft Museum - F/A-18E/F Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aerospaceweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the time taken to accelerate from Mach 0.8 to Mach 1.6 was originally longer than the required value.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This means that the Hornet can only fire on one target at a time with this weapon, which makes the fighter extremely vulnerable to attack by other enemy fighters during this phase.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .For example, whereas replacing the engine on the A-4 Skyhawk required removing the aircraft's tail, the engine on the Hornet is attached at only three points and can be directly removed without excessive disassembly.^ It was sole purpose was to become a multirole aircraft to replace the old but yet cunning, A-4 Skyhawk, A-7 Corsair II, and the few remaining F-4 Phantoms.
  • BananaHobby - 6 CH BlitzRCWorks F/A 18 Hornet Aerobatic Radio Remote Control Electric Ducted Fan RC Fighter Jet ARF 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.bananahobby.com [Source type: General]

^ The aircraft emerged from Engineering and Manufacturing Development meeting all of its performance requirements on cost, on schedule and 400 pounds under weight.
  • F18 F/A-18 Hornet, Super Hornet, E, F models 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Reference]
  • :: Battlefield 2 Online.com :: - wfsection-F-18 Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.bf2online.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Blue Angels have used the Hornet since 1986 when it replaced the A-4 Skyhawk.

.An experienced maintenance crew can remove and replace an F/A-18 engine in only a couple of hours.^ Maintenance tooling and Crew seats, engine containers (AWSM Enterprises) .
  • FA-18 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC coat.ncf.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ They are the results of thousands of hours of design and engineering, and are kept in tip-top shape by careful ground crew maintenance.
  • F/A-18 Interceptor - Manual, Docs, Documentation - Lemon Amiga 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.lemonamiga.com [Source type: General]

Exhaust nozzles of an RAAF F/A-18 at the Whenuapai Air Show in New Zealand in March 2009.
.The General Electric F404-GE-400 or F404-GE-402 engines powering the Hornet were also innovative in that they were designed with operability, reliability, and maintainability first.^ The F404-GE-402 engines will also be assembled locally, with General Electric supplying 137 kits.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Increased engine power comes from the F414-GE-400.
  • AVSIM Commercial Sim Review: AVSIM F/A-18 Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.avsim.com [Source type: General]

^ General Electric delivers first F414 production engine .
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The result is an engine that, while unexceptional on paper in terms of rated performance, demonstrates exceptional robustness under a variety of conditions and is resistant to stall and flameout.^ Visual interpretation was performed under masked conditions.
  • Review of F-18 Fluoro-2-Deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) Positron Emission Tomography in the Evaluation of Malignancy - August 4, 1999 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.fda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Blue Angels’ performance was the highlight of the three-day event, which included a variety of aerial demonstrations and static displays of civilian and military aircraft.
  • F/A-18 Hornet: Blue Angels, the US Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By contrast, the Pratt & Whitney TF30 engines that originally powered the F-14A were notoriously prone to compressor stall and flameout under certain flight conditions.^ Engine: The F-16 has a single Pratt and Whitney F100-PW-100 engine with 23,830 lbs.
  • F/A-18 Interceptor - Manual, Docs, Documentation - Lemon Amiga 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.lemonamiga.com [Source type: General]

^ Under routine conditions, a day may elapse before an aircraft can be reconfigured for a tanker mission and flight tested to ensure that fuel can be transferred properly.
  • Navy League of the United States - Citizens in Support of the Sea Services 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.navyleague.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The engine air inlets of the Hornet, like that of the F-16, are "fixed", while those of the F-4, F-14, and F-15 have variable geometry or variable ramp engine air inlets.^ Modify Search Criteria - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 .
  • JetPhotos.Net Aviation Photos: McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.jetphotos.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two low-bypass turbofan engines are fed by fixed pilot air intakes located under the wings; the exhaust nozzles extend to the rear of the stabilators.

^ It got a bad rap in the early days with some bugs that caused them to crash (enough to make the 16 get the "Lawn Dart" nickname) but those problems have been fixed since then.
  • F/A-18 E/F in Battle Stations in History Channel 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: General]

.The variable geometry enables high-speed aircraft to keep the velocity of the air reaching the engine below supersonic.^ Two of the Navy Blue Angels’ F/A-18s perform a high-speed maneuver during the 2007 Naval Air Station Oceana Air Show.
  • F/A-18 Hornet: Blue Angels, the US Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ T-38 Talon Thunderbirds History: The T-38 Talon is a twin-engine, high-altitude, supersonic jet trainer used in a variety of roles because of its...
  • US Navy Models : Handmade Military Model Planes, Model Air Planes, Wood Carved Helicopters and Wood Ship Models, Military Modelworks provides unique mahogany-based handcrafted military model planes, helicopters and ships. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.militarymodelworks.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Airliners and the B-2 are very large aircraft and often generate very high lift at lower speeds.
  • F-18 Sonic on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is one speed limiting factor in the Hornet design.^ Automation to Reduce Recruitment Issues One aspect of the adapted civilian design of the high speed transport ships is their level of automation.
  • Net Traveller 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.tomw.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The flexible design of the Hornet makes it one of the most upgradable aircraft in the military.

.Instead, the Hornet uses bleed air vents on the inboard surface of the engine air intake ducts to slow and reduce the amount of air reaching the engine.^ The Super Hornet has a new, 25% larger airframe, larger rectangular air intakes, more powerful GE F414 engines based on F/A-18's F404, and upgraded avionics suite.
  • F18 F/A-18 Hornet, Super Hornet, E, F models 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Hornets taking direct hits from surface-to-air missiles, recovering successfully, being repaired quickly, and flying again the next day proved the aircraft's survivability.
  • F18 F/A-18 Hornet, Super Hornet, E, F models 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Reference]
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two low-bypass turbofan engines are fed by fixed pilot air intakes located under the wings; the exhaust nozzles extend to the rear of the stabilators.

.While not as effective as variable geometry, the bleed air technique functions well enough to achieve near Mach 2 speeds, which is within the designed mission requirements.^ In keeping with its multi-role designation, at the heart of the F-18 is a multi-mode Hughes radar that is equally effective in air-to-air and air-to ground missions.
  • Aerospaceweb.org | Aircraft Museum - F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aerospaceweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Many World War II pilots were lost in dives that resulted in near mach 1 speeds.
  • F-18 Sonic on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Northrop was to be given the rights to market a land-based version of the design to various foreign air forces.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The less sophisticated design is also more robust.
.Because it was designed as a light multirole aircraft to complement the specialized F-14 and A-6 airframes, it had a relatively low internal fuel fraction.^ In the early 1970's the US Navy would procure a version of the USAF's winning light weight fighter contender as a low-cost supplement to the F-14 and as an A-7 replacement.
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC faculty.hacc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also had to be a low cost complement to the F-14 Tomcat and be able to operate from forward airstrips for the US Marine Corps.

^ Not all Navy Reserve and Marine F/A-18A/Bs were upgraded, with preference logically given to airframes with relatively low flight hours.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That is, its internal fuel capacity is small relative to its takeoff weight, at around 23%, a fuel fraction of .23. Most aircraft of its class have a fuel fraction between .30 to .35. This situation was exacerbated by the addition of new avionics over its lifespan, further reducing the fuel fraction.^ Upgraded one-seat model able to carry the AIM-120 AMRAAM and AGM-65 Maverick, also upgraded with new avionics, a new ejection seat, and small strakes on the LERXs to reduce buffet on the tailfins; 355 built .
  • Aerospaceweb.org | Aircraft Museum - F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aerospaceweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The two-seat TF-18A was to retain the full mission capability and armament suite of the F-18A, but was to have slightly reduced fuel capacity.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course, the F-18 had to have operational avionics -- most significantly a multimode radar capable of supporting both air combat and strike roles -- and the Navy wanted considerably more fuel capacity, plus an inflight refueling capability.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This led to 330-gallon external tanks being a common sight on F/A-18s, with the centerline and inner wings stations (numbered 3, 5 and 7) being plumbed to transfer fuel.^ When not used to carry bombs, the two inboard underwing stations and the fuselage centerline station can carry 330 US gallon external fuel tanks.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Weapon stations include: two wingtip stations for Sidewinders; two outboard wing stations for air-to-air or air-to-ground weapons; two inboard wing stations for fuel tanks, air-to-air, or air-to-ground weapons; two nacelle fuselage stations for AMRAAMs, Sparrows, or sensor pods; and one centerline station for fuel or air-to-ground weapons.
  • Federation of American Scientists :: F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • F/A-18 Hornet 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ External 1,250 liter (330 US gallon) could be carried on the centerline pylon and the inner stores pylon on each wing, complementing the fighter's internal fuel capacity of 6,060 liters (1,599 US gallons), most of which was stored under the aircraft's bulged spine, though there were tanks in the inboard wings.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Design evolution

.In the 1990s, the US Navy faced the need to replace its aging A-6 Intruders, EA-6 Prowlers, A-7 Corsair IIs and F-14 Tomcats without proper replacements in development.^ The Growler will replace the Navy's EA-6B Prowler.
  • F18 F/A-18 Hornet, Super Hornet, E, F models 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Designed as a replacement for the timeless F-4 Phantom II and the versatile A7 Corsair, the F/A-18 has filled a critical strategic need in the Navy's combat arsenal.
  • F/A-18 Interceptor - Manual, Docs, Documentation - Lemon Amiga 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.lemonamiga.com [Source type: General]

^ Though the USAF eventually selected the F-16, the US Navy felt that Northrop's concept offered greater potential as a replacement for the aging A-7 Corsair attack fighter.
  • Aerospaceweb.org | Aircraft Museum - F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aerospaceweb.org [Source type: Reference]

.To answer this deficiency, the Navy had the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet developed.^ The single seat F/A-18E and two-seat F/A-18F Super Hornets carry over the name and design concept of the original F/A-18, but have been extensively redesigned.
  • F18 F/A-18 Hornet, Super Hornet, E, F models 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Reference]

^ An F/A-18E Super Hornet assigned to the Argonauts of Strike Fighter Squadron 147 breaks away from the formation over the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS John C. Stennis.The Navy is testing biofuels in its aircraft to augment its energy supply.
  • Is energy 'miracle' finally taking off? 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.wnd.com [Source type: News]

^ Superscale 48-1206; XV-30/Strike Test F-18E/F Super Hornet .

.Despite its designation, it is not an upgrade of the F/A-18 Hornet, but rather, a new, larger airframe utilizing the design concepts of the Hornet.^ Although the Super Hornet represents an evolutionary extension of the Hornet's basic design, it is a new aircraft incorporating a larger airframe, upgraded engines, greater survivability features, and a more powerful sting in its improved combat systems in both strike and fighter profiles.
  • Navy League of the United States - Citizens in Support of the Sea Services 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.navyleague.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite the advantages, customers preferred the "ordinary" Hornet, and the F-18 L never went into production.

^ Spanish Hornets were also given an upgrade to provide AMRAAM support and other new capabilities during that decade.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hornets and Super Hornets will serve complementary roles in the US Navy carrier arsenal, until the deployment of the F-35C Lightning II, which will primarily replace F/A-18A-D Hornets.^ An F/A-18E Super Hornet assigned to the Argonauts of Strike Fighter Squadron 147 breaks away from the formation over the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS John C. Stennis.The Navy is testing biofuels in its aircraft to augment its energy supply.
  • Is energy 'miracle' finally taking off? 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.wnd.com [Source type: News]

^ Designed as a replacement for the timeless F-4 Phantom II and the versatile A7 Corsair, the F/A-18 has filled a critical strategic need in the Navy's combat arsenal.
  • F/A-18 Interceptor - Manual, Docs, Documentation - Lemon Amiga 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.lemonamiga.com [Source type: General]

^ Current plans call for the F-18A/B aircraft to remain in service with the US Navy until about 2015 while F-18C/D models will be retired by 2020.
  • Aerospaceweb.org | Aircraft Museum - F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aerospaceweb.org [Source type: Reference]

Operational history

United States

Entry into service

.McDonnell Douglas rolled out the first F/A-18A on 13 September 1978,[12] in blue-on-white colors marked with "Navy" on the left and "Marines" on the right.^ Left bracket zooms out, right zooms in.
  • F/A-18 Interceptor - Manual, Docs, Documentation - Lemon Amiga 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.lemonamiga.com [Source type: General]

^ The first Full-Scale Development (FSD) F-18A (BuNo 160775) was rolled out at St Louis on September 13, 1978.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not all Navy Reserve and Marine F/A-18A/Bs were upgraded, with preference logically given to airframes with relatively low flight hours.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its first flight was on 18 November.^ Date Deployed: First flight in November 1995.
  • F18 F/A-18 Hornet, Super Hornet, E, F models 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Reference]
  • :: Battlefield 2 Online.com :: - wfsection-F-18 Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.bf2online.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The first production CF-18 aircraft for Canada took off on its first flight at St Louis on July 29, 1982, and was delivered on October 27.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The F-18 incorporated a quadruply-redundant digital fly-by-wire flight control system, the first of its kind to be installed in a production aircraft.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .In a break with tradition, the Navy pioneered the "principal site concept"[7] with the F/A-18, where almost all testing was done at NAS Pax River,[3] instead of near the site of manufacture, and involving Navy test pilots instead of contractor pilots much earlier in the process.^ F/A-18 Hornet Last updated: March 21, 2003 Service: Navy and Marine Corps Description: All-weather fighter and attack aircraft.
  • :: Battlefield 2 Online.com :: - wfsection-F-18 Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.bf2online.com [Source type: Academic]

^ F9F Panther History: Panthers were the first carrier jets to see action in Korea and performed almost half of all attack missions for the Navy and...
  • US Navy Models : Handmade Military Model Planes, Model Air Planes, Wood Carved Helicopters and Wood Ship Models, Military Modelworks provides unique mahogany-based handcrafted military model planes, helicopters and ships. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.militarymodelworks.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Hardbound Book From the Patuxent River Naval Test Pilot’s School, here is an account of the heritage of naval test pilots starting with "Spuds" Ellyson in 1911 and continuing through those who tested the F/A-18.

.In March 1979, Lt Cdr John Padgett became the first Navy pilot to fly the F/A-18.[14] In all, nine F/A-18As and two F/A-18Bs were assigned to flight systems development.^ Navy and Marine pilots fly the F/A-18 Hornet from aircraft carriers.
  • FOXNews.com - U.S. Searches for Downed Fighter Pilot - U.S. & World 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: News]

^ F/A-18 Hornet Last updated: March 21, 2003 Service: Navy and Marine Corps Description: All-weather fighter and attack aircraft.
  • :: Battlefield 2 Online.com :: - wfsection-F-18 Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.bf2online.com [Source type: Academic]

^ F9F Panther History: Panthers were the first carrier jets to see action in Korea and performed almost half of all attack missions for the Navy and...
  • US Navy Models : Handmade Military Model Planes, Model Air Planes, Wood Carved Helicopters and Wood Ship Models, Military Modelworks provides unique mahogany-based handcrafted military model planes, helicopters and ships. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.militarymodelworks.com [Source type: Reference]

An F/A-18 taking off from USS Kitty Hawk.
.Following trials and operational testing by VX-4 and VX-5, Hornets began to fill the Fleet Replacement Squadrons (FRS) VFA-125, VFA-106, and VMFAT-101, where pilots are introduced to the F/A-18. The Hornet entered operational service with Marine Corps squadron VMFA-314 at MCAS El Toro on 7 January 1983,[12] and with Navy squadron VFA-113 in March 1983, replacing F-4s and A-7Es, respectively.^ The first line squadron, US Marines VMFA-314 "Black Knights", was declared operational on 7 January 1983.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Marine Corps was actually ahead of the Navy in getting the Hornet into actual operational service.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January The first F/A-18 Hornets entered operational service with VMFA-314, replacing that squadrons F-4 Phantom II aircraft.
  • WAR and PEACE in the HORNET 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fisthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.The initial fleet reports were complimentary, indicating that the Hornet was extraordinarily reliable, a major change from its predecessor, the F-4J.[15] Other squadrons that switched to F/A-18 are VFA-146 "Blue diamonds", and VFA-147 "Argonauts". In January 1985, the VFA-131 Wildcats and the VFA-132 Privateers moved from Naval Air Station Lemoore to Naval Air Station Cecil Field, Florida, and became the Atlantic Fleet’s first F/A-18 squadrons.^ The first Super Hornets join an East Coast Hornet squadron at Naval Air Station Oceana, Va.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Squadron deliveries began on November 18, 1989, with 163992 going to VFA-146 "Blue Diamonds" at NAS Lemoore, California.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First Super Hornet is delivered to VFA-115, the first operational Super Hornet squadron.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Blue Angels' #6 F/A-18A.
.The US Navy's Blue Angels Flight Demonstration Squadron switched to the F/A-18 Hornet in 1986,[12] when it replaced the A-4 Skyhawk.^ Superscale 48-1070: Blue Angels F-18B Hornet .

^ Members of the U.S. Navy flight demonstration squadron the Blue Angels perform a high speed inverted crossing maneuver in F/A-18 Hornet strike fighters at the Naval Air Station Oceana 50th Anniversary Air Show.
  • F/A-18 Hornet: Blue Angels, the US Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ USN Blue Angels F/A-18 Hornet #5 military aviation air show stock photo #3768 .
  • USN Blue Angels F/A-18 Hornets Stock Photos Gallery Photo Gallery by Sunbird Photos by Don Boyd at pbase.com 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Blue Angels perform in F/A-18A and B models at air shows and other special events across the US and worldwide.^ The Blue Angels are a demonstration group that flies at air shows.
  • F-18 Hornet and Super Hornet Models  Jet Fighter Model Airplanes and Jet Fighter Pictures F18. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.yellowairplane.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The F-18 A and F-18 B models are used by the US Navy's Blue Angels aerobatic team, performing at airshows and other special events across the US and worldwide.

^ Current plans call for the F-18A/B aircraft to remain in service with the US Navy until about 2015 while F-18C/D models will be retired by 2020.
  • Aerospaceweb.org | Aircraft Museum - F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aerospaceweb.org [Source type: Reference]

.Blue Angels pilots must have 1,350 hours and an aircraft carrier certification.^ The jet had just performed landing training on a Navy aircraft carrier before the pilot reported having trouble, according to the Marine Corps.
  • Officials: 3 dead after military jet crash - CNN.com 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ USN Blue Angels F/A-18 Hornets solo pilots takeoff military air show aviation stock photo #1296 .
  • USN Blue Angels F/A-18 Hornets Stock Photos Gallery Photo Gallery by Sunbird Photos by Don Boyd at pbase.com 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PM ET Blue Angel pilot 'fascinated' by flying By David Weber, AP writer Even as a young boy, Navy Blue Angels Lt. Cmdr.
  • F/A-18 Hornet - Tag Story Index - USATODAY.com 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC content.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

.The two-seat B-model is typically used to give rides to VIPs, but can also fill in for other aircraft in the squadron in a normal show if the need arises.^ The two-seat B model is typically used to give rides to VIPs, but can also fill in for other aircraft in the squadron in a normal show if the need arises.

^ The F-18 A and F-18 B models are used by the US Navy's Blue Angels aerobatic team, performing at airshows and other special events across the US and worldwide.

^ Although that model of aircraft normally has a two-​​man crew, the mishap aircraft was flown without anyone in the rear cockpit.
  • F-​​18 Crashes into San Diego Neighborhood | Defense Tech 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC defensetech.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Combat debut

.The F/A-18 first saw combat action in April 1986, when VFA-131 Hornets from USS Coral Sea flew SEAD missions against Libyan air defenses during Operation Prairie Fire and an attack on Benghazi as part of Operation El Dorado Canyon.^ F/A-18s from the Coral Sea flew combat air patrols, protecting the carrier group from Libyan aircraft.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First Super Hornet is delivered to VFA-115, the first operational Super Hornet squadron.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ April The Blue Angels conducted its first air show using F/A-18 Hornets.
  • WAR and PEACE in the HORNET 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fisthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]
.During the first Persian Gulf War, two U.S. Navy F/A-18s were destroyed with the loss of their pilots.^ Navy pilot Scott Speicher has been missing since the first Gulf War.
  • F/A-18 Hornet - Tag Story Index - USATODAY.com 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC content.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

^ Two of the Navy Blue Angels’ F/A-18s perform a high-speed maneuver during the 2007 Naval Air Station Oceana Air Show.
  • F/A-18 Hornet: Blue Angels, the US Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Navy carriers also launched 228 combat sorties, and a seventh battle group was enroute to the Persian Gulf .
  • WAR and PEACE in the HORNET 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fisthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .On 17 January 1991, the first day of the war, Lieutenant Commander Scott Speicher of VFA-81 was shot down and killed in the crash of his aircraft.^ On April 2nd 2003 a F/A-18C of VFA-195 from USS Kitty-Hawk (CV-63) was shot-down by friendly-fire (Patriot missile) in central Iraq, pilot killed.
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.zap16.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first of the order rolled out on October 8, 1991, for delivery in January 1992, with the entire purchase completed in fall 1993.

^ The navy says it proved itself in the 1991 Gulf War - shooting down enemy fighters on the way to its target, hitting the target, and breaking records for reliability.
  • BBC NEWS | Americas | Fact file: F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: News]

[16] .The other F/A-18, piloted by Lieutenant Robert Dwyer (who was officially listed as killed in action, body not recovered), was lost over the North Persian Gulf after a successful mission to Iraq.^ The Rookie is a pilot who has successfully completed the first three F/A-18 Interceptor missions; using the "R" callsign thus lets you select from a wider variety of missions right away.
  • F/A-18 Interceptor - Manual, Docs, Documentation - Lemon Amiga 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.lemonamiga.com [Source type: General]

^ January 27, 1973 - CDR Harley Hall (1970 team leader) was shot down flying an F-4J over Vietnam, and was officially listed as Missing In Action.
  • F/A-18 Hornet: Blue Angels, the US Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Gulf War (Iraq), 190 navy and US Marines Hornets were used in action, 106 from aircraft carriers and 84 from land based US Marine units.
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.zap16.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.F/A-18 pilots were credited with two kills during the Gulf War, both MiG-21s.^ One F/A-18C was accidentally shot down by a US Patriot surface to air missile during the Iraq invasion, the pilot being killed.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During its history, 26 Blue Angels pilots have been killed in air show or training accidents.
  • F/A-18 Hornet: Blue Angels, the US Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Gulf War (Iraq), 190 navy and US Marines Hornets were used in action, 106 from aircraft carriers and 84 from land based US Marine units.
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.zap16.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .On the first day of the war, U.S. Navy pilots Lieutenant Nick Mongilio and Lieutenant Commander (now Rear Admiral) Mark Fox were sent from the USS Saratoga in the Red Sea to bomb an airfield in southwestern Iraq.^ Pilots of numbers 2-7 are Navy Lieutenants or Lieutenant Commanders.
  • F/A-18 Hornet: Blue Angels, the US Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The initial production machines were used for training and evaluation, with the first one marked "NAVY" on one side and "MARINES" on the other.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Four Navy Hornets from VFA-81 "Sunliners" were on their way to a target on January 17, 1991 (the first day of the war) when two of them were engaged by Iraqi F-7As (Chinese-built MiG-21).
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While en route, they were warned by an E-2C of approaching MiG-21 aircraft.^ In one instance, a Hornet en route to an air-to-ground attack shot down a MiG-21 Fishbed with an AIM-9 before continuing to its target.

^ Two F/A-18C aircraft from VFA-81 were credited with shooting down a MiG-21.
  • WAR and PEACE in the HORNET 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fisthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Hornets shot down two MiGs and resumed their bombing run, each carrying four 2,000 lb bombs, before returning to Saratoga.^ In one instance, a Hornet en route to an air-to-ground attack shot down a MiG-21 Fishbed with an AIM-9 before continuing to its target.

^ Combat radius : - 720 km hi-lo-lo-hi attack profile with two 480 gallon tanks and four 1000 lbs bombs plus two Sidewinders for self-defense.
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC faculty.hacc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Combat radius: - 720 km hi-lo-lo-hi attack profile with two 480 gallon tanks and four 1000 lbs bombs plus two Sidewinders for self-defense.
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.zap16.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mongilio and Fox become the first pilots to register air-to-air kills while still completing their original air-to-ground mission.^ One F/A-18C was accidentally shot down by a US Patriot surface to air missile during the Iraq invasion, the pilot being killed.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During its history, 26 Blue Angels pilots have been killed in air show or training accidents.
  • F/A-18 Hornet: Blue Angels, the US Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first prototype of the "Hornet", as the type was named, took to the air on 18 November 1978, with MDD chief test pilot Jack Krings at the controls.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3][12] .The Hornet's survivability was demonstrated when a Hornet took hits in both engines and flew 125 mi (201 km) back to base.^ Hornets taking direct hits from surface-to-air missiles, recovering successfully, being repaired quickly, and flying again the next day proved the aircraft's survivability.
  • :: Battlefield 2 Online.com :: - wfsection-F-18 Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.bf2online.com [Source type: Academic]
  • US Navy F-18 hornet aircraft pictures history and facts 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both the single-seat E model and dual-seat F model offer increased range, greater endurance, more payload-carrying ability, more powerful engines and enhanced survivability.
  • AVSIM Commercial Sim Review: AVSIM F/A-18 Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.avsim.com [Source type: General]

^ The first Finnish Hornet crews will be trained by VFA-125 based at NAS Lemoore.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was repaired and flying within a few days.^ Hornets taking direct hits from surface-to-air missiles, recovering successfully, being repaired quickly, and flying again the next day proved the aircraft's survivability.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • :: Battlefield 2 Online.com :: - wfsection-F-18 Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.bf2online.com [Source type: Academic]
  • US Navy F-18 hornet aircraft pictures history and facts 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Overall during the Gulf War, F/A-18s flew 4,551 sorties with ten Hornets damaged including the two losses previously mentioned.^ Canadian Hornets flew in the Gulf War, performing substantial numbers of strike sorties.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Super Hornet, has been flying combat sorties from Abraham Lincoln during Southern Watch, demonstrating reliability and an increased range and payload capability.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • :: Battlefield 2 Online.com :: - wfsection-F-18 Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.bf2online.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Two of the Navy Blue Angels’ F/A-18s perform a high-speed maneuver during the 2007 Naval Air Station Oceana Air Show.
  • F/A-18 Hornet: Blue Angels, the US Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18]
.As the A-6 Intruder was retired in the 1990s, its role was filled by the F/A-18. The F/A-18 demonstrated its versatility and reliability during Operation Desert Storm, shooting down enemy fighters and subsequently bombing enemy targets with the same aircraft on the same mission.^ Background: The F/A-18 demonstrated its capabilities and versatility during Operation Desert Storm, shooting down enemy fighters and subsequently bombing enemy targets with the same aircraft on the same mission, and breaking all records for tactical aircraft in availability, reliability, and maintainability.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • :: Battlefield 2 Online.com :: - wfsection-F-18 Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.bf2online.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The F/A-18 demonstrated its capabilities and versatility during Operation Desert Storm , shooting down enemy fighters and subsequently bombing enemy targets with the same aircraft on the same mission, and breaking all records for tactical aircraft in availability, reliability, and maintainability.
  • US Navy F-18 hornet aircraft pictures history and facts 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The easily maneuverable Hornet can operate as a fighter jet, shooting down enemy planes, or as an attack plane, bombing enemy targets.
  • FOXNews.com - U.S. Searches for Downed Fighter Pilot - U.S. & World 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: News]

.It broke records for tactical aircraft in availability, reliability, and maintainability.^ Background: The F/A-18 demonstrated its capabilities and versatility during Operation Desert Storm, shooting down enemy fighters and subsequently bombing enemy targets with the same aircraft on the same mission, and breaking all records for tactical aircraft in availability, reliability, and maintainability.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • :: Battlefield 2 Online.com :: - wfsection-F-18 Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.bf2online.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The F/A-18 demonstrated its capabilities and versatility during Operation Desert Storm , shooting down enemy fighters and subsequently bombing enemy targets with the same aircraft on the same mission, and breaking all records for tactical aircraft in availability, reliability, and maintainability.
  • US Navy F-18 hornet aircraft pictures history and facts 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It handled nicely, and it was a rugged, reliable aircraft that was easy and cheap to maintain and keep flying.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

F/A-18C Hornet in 30th anniversary color scheme.
.Both U.S. Navy F/A-18A/C models and Marine F/A-18A/C/D models were used continuously in Operation Southern Watch and over Bosnia and Kosovo in the 1990s.^ Whereas the B model has both seats configured as pilot's stations, the D model's rear seat is configured for a Weapons and Sensors Officer to assist in operating the weapons systems.

^ The Marine Corps was actually ahead of the Navy in getting the Hornet into actual operational service.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Softbound Book The development, production and operation of the Navy, Marine and foreign air force mainstay.

.U.S. Navy Hornets flew during Operation Enduring Freedom in 2001 from carriers operating in the North Arabian Sea.^ It will carry every weapon in the naval aviation inventory, including the new J-family (i.e., joint) of through-the-weather precision-guided munitions that proved so effective during the Phase One combat operations of Operation Enduring Freedom.
  • Navy League of the United States - Citizens in Support of the Sea Services 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.navyleague.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hornet could operate as a tanker, carrying a buddy refueling pack.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ F/A-18 Hornets are currently operating in 37 tactical squadrons from air stations world-wide, and from 10 aircraft carriers.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • :: Battlefield 2 Online.com :: - wfsection-F-18 Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.bf2online.com [Source type: Academic]
  • US Navy F-18 hornet aircraft pictures history and facts 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both the F/A-18A/C and newer F/A-18E/F variants were used during Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003, operating from aircraft carriers.^ Operation Iraqi Freedom - the punchline .

^ It will carry every weapon in the naval aviation inventory, including the new J-family (i.e., joint) of through-the-weather precision-guided munitions that proved so effective during the Phase One combat operations of Operation Enduring Freedom.
  • Navy League of the United States - Citizens in Support of the Sea Services 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.navyleague.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This gives for aircraft carrier operations, about three times more payload can be brought back to the ship.
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC faculty.hacc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.zap16.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Later in the conflict USMC A+, C, and primarily D models operated from bases within Iraq.^ Designed as a  a twin-engined land-based fighter for the USAF. S/n: 72-1570 was later developed into a carrier-based fighter for the US Navy and USMC as the F-18 and A-18 variants.

^ The D model is primarily operated by the U.S. Marine Corps in the night attack and FAC(A) (Forward Air Controller (Airborne)) roles.

.An F/A-18C was accidentally downed in a friendly fire incident by a Patriot missile when a pilot tried to evade two missiles fired at him and crashed.^ On April 2nd 2003 a F/A-18C of VFA-195 from USS Kitty-Hawk (CV-63) was shot-down by friendly-fire (Patriot missile) in central Iraq, pilot killed.
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.zap16.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Or worse still, the missile he just fired at you that you were hoping to evade with chaff and flares just hit you.
  • AVSIM Commercial Sim Review: AVSIM F/A-18 Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.avsim.com [Source type: General]

^ The pilot told him that after he lost power in the first engine, and that it was decided he would try to get the jet to Miramar on the single working engine, Diamond told the paper.
  • Officials: 3 dead after military jet crash - CNN.com 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

[19] .Two others collided over Iraq in May 2005. In January 2007, two Navy F/A-18E/F Super Hornets collided in mid-air and crashed in the Persian Gulf.^ Kelly Hinz, 30, of Woodbury, died May 2, 2005, when his F/A-18 Hornet jet apparently was involved in a mid-air collision with a companion jet over south-central Iraq.
  • Minnesotans who died in Iraq | StarTribune.com 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.startribune.com [Source type: News]

^ Designed in the 1970s for service with the United States Navy and Marine Corps, the Hornet is also used by the air forces of several other nations.
  • simMarket: TURBINE SOUND STUDIOS - FA-18 HORNET SOUNDPACK 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC secure.simmarket.com [Source type: General]

^ Intended to serve the U.S. Navy well into the 21st century, the modified F/A-18E (single-seat) and F/A-18F (two-seat) Super Hornets feature a lengthened fuselage, enlarged wings and improved avionics.

[20]

Non-US service

.Though Navy aircraft have not historically sold well on the export market, the F/A-18 has been purchased and is in operation with a number of foreign air services.^ F/A-18 Hornet Last updated: March 21, 2003 Service: Navy and Marine Corps Description: All-weather fighter and attack aircraft.
  • :: Battlefield 2 Online.com :: - wfsection-F-18 Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.bf2online.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Designed in the 1970s for service with the U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps, the Hornet is also used by the air forces of several other nations.
  • Hobby Lobby F/A-18 Hornet ARF Review - RC Groups 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.rcgroups.com [Source type: General]

^ The F/A-18 Hornet had originally been ordered as a dual-role fighter and attack aircraft intended to replace the Vought A-7 Corsair II and the McDonnell F-4 Phantom in Navy service, and to augment the more costly Grumman F-14 Tomcat.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Export Hornets are typically similar to U.S. models of a similar manufacture date.^ Date Deployed: First flight - November 1978 Operational - October 1983 (A/B models); September 1987 (C/D models); F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet Ordnance Load Out .
  • :: Battlefield 2 Online.com :: - wfsection-F-18 Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.bf2online.com [Source type: Academic]

.Since none of the customers operate aircraft carriers, all export models have been sold without the automatic carrier landing system, and Royal Australian Air Force further removed the catapult attachment on the nose gear.^ This "force multiplier" capability gives the operational commander more flexibility in employing tactical aircraft in a rapidly changing battle scenario.
  • :: Battlefield 2 Online.com :: - wfsection-F-18 Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.bf2online.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although that model of aircraft normally has a two-​​man crew, the mishap aircraft was flown without anyone in the rear cockpit.
  • F-​​18 Crashes into San Diego Neighborhood | Defense Tech 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC defensetech.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Operating off an aircraft carrier meant much stronger landing gear, including nose gear with a catapult attachment; an arresting hook; high-lift devices to reduce carrier landing speeds; and folding wings.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .Except for Canada, all export customers purchased their Hornets through the U.S. Navy, via the U.S. Foreign Military Sales (FMS) Program, where the Navy acts as the purchasing manager but incurs no financial gain or loss.^ Canada was the first export customer for the Hornet and it has the largest fleet of Hornets outside the US. The Canadian F/A-18's are designated CF-188 by that country.

^ The Hornet comprises the aviation strike force for seven foreign customers including Canada, Australia, Finland, Kuwait, Malaysia, Spain and Switzerland.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This contract combines purchases for the U.S. Navy ($20 million; 70%) and the Government of Australia ($87 million; 30%) under the Foreign Military Sales Program.

.Canada, the largest Hornet operator outside of the U.S., ordered its aircraft directly from the manufacturer.^ F/A-18 Hornets are currently operating in 37 tactical squadrons from air stations world-wide, and from 10 aircraft carriers.
  • :: Battlefield 2 Online.com :: - wfsection-F-18 Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.bf2online.com [Source type: Academic]
  • US Navy F-18 hornet aircraft pictures history and facts 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January The first F/A-18 Hornets entered operational service with VMFA-314, replacing that squadrons F-4 Phantom II aircraft.
  • WAR and PEACE in the HORNET 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fisthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ August Aircraft from THEODORE ROOSEVELT , including F/A-18 Hornets attacked military targets in Bosnia during Operation Deliberate Force.
  • WAR and PEACE in the HORNET 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fisthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Australia

.The Royal Australian Air Force purchased 57 F/A-18A fighters and 18 F/A-18B two-seat trainers.^ F/A-18B two seat fighter trainer .
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The F/A-18B/D is a two seat operational trainer.
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC faculty.hacc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Softbound Books The single-seat F/A-18 Hornet is the nation's first strike-fighter, designed for traditional strike applications such as interdiction and close air support without compromise to its fighter capabilities, where it is used as a fighter escort and for fleet air defense.

[21] .The first F/A-18 was delivered to the RAAF on 29 October 1984.[12] The fleet is expected to be retired by 2015, replaced by the F-35 Lightning II.^ Designed as a replacement for the timeless F-4 Phantom II and the versatile A7 Corsair, the F/A-18 has filled a critical strategic need in the Navy's combat arsenal.
  • F/A-18 Interceptor - Manual, Docs, Documentation - Lemon Amiga 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.lemonamiga.com [Source type: General]

^ January The first F/A-18 Hornets entered operational service with VMFA-314, replacing that squadrons F-4 Phantom II aircraft.
  • WAR and PEACE in the HORNET 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fisthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ F-35 Lightning II Australian industry impact .

[22][23]
.Three options were considered for the replacement of the RAAF's Mirage IIIs: the F-15A Eagle, the F-16 Falcon, and the then new F/A-18 Hornet.^ You choose to fly either the F/A-18 Hornet or the F-16 Falcon (if yo select the carrier as your starting location you are assigned an F/A-18 automatically).
  • F/A-18 Interceptor - Manual, Docs, Documentation - Lemon Amiga 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.lemonamiga.com [Source type: General]

^ These aircraft are planned for assignment to the Atlantic Fleet to replace the F-14 (Tomcat) and earlier model F/A-18 (Hornet) aircraft.
  • Record of Decision for Introduction of F/A-18 E/F (Super Hornet) Aircraft to the East Coast of the United States | Federal Register Environmental Documents | USEPA 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Your F/A-18 Interceptor and F-16 Falcon aircraft are the best that the Navy and the Air Force can put in the air.
  • F/A-18 Interceptor - Manual, Docs, Documentation - Lemon Amiga 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.lemonamiga.com [Source type: General]

.The F-15 was discounted because the version offered did not have a ground-attack capability.^ Because it did not have to be carrier-capable, the F-18L was expected to be significantly lighter and better-performing than the carrier-based version.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the Navy (unlike the Air Force) wanted the VFAX to be capable of filling both air-to-air and ground-attack roles.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The F-16 was deemed unsuitable largely on the basis of its having only one engine.^ The F-16 would go on to become one of the mainstays of USAF power, and would be sold in large numbers on the export market as well.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Consequently, Australia signed a contract in October 1981. The first two aircraft were produced in the US, with the remainder assembled in Australia at Government Aircraft Factories.^ McDonnell was to be responsible for the manufacture of the first few examples, with the Government Aircraft Factory (later renamed Aerospace Technologies of Australia, or ASTA) at Avalon, Victoria being responsible for the assembly of the remainder out of parts supplied by both US and Australian factories.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first production CF-18 aircraft for Canada took off on its first flight at St Louis on July 29, 1982, and was delivered on October 27.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Produced 1984 - 1988 Government Aircraft Factory (GAF), Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (In 1987, became ASTA: Aerospace Technologies of Australia).

.Deliveries took place between February 1985 and May 1990. Original differences between the Australian and US Navy's standard F/A-18 were the removal of nose wheel tie bar for catapult launch (later re-fitted with a dummy version to remove nose wheel shimmy), addition of a high frequency radio, an Australian fatigue data analysis system, an improved video and voice recorder, and the use of ILS/VOR (Instrument Landing System/Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range) instead of the carrier landing system.^ The Australian Hornet deletes the catapult launch equipment, has a conventional ILS/VOR, has landing lights, is equipped with a fatigue recorder, and has an added high-frequency radio for long-range communications, but is otherwise identical to the Navy/Marine Corps version.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additionally, the Super Hornet will carry such proven performers as improved Sidewinder air-to-air missiles, HARMs (high-speed antiradiation missiles), SLAMs (stand-off land-attack missiles), and AMRAAMs (advanced medium-range air-to-air missiles).
  • Navy League of the United States - Citizens in Support of the Sea Services 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.navyleague.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The F-18A has a max speed of 1190 mph and a maximum climb rate of 60,000 ft/min The F-18 is used by the U.S. Navy Blue Angels .
  • F-18 Hornet and Super Hornet Jet Fighter Aviation Art Prints, Posters, Gifts and Jet Fighter Pictures. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.yellowairplane.com [Source type: General]

[24]
.In 2001, Australia deployed four aircraft to Diego Garcia, in an air defense role, during coalition operations against the Taliban in Afghanistan.^ July Secretary of Defense Les Aspin approved an order directing US aircraft to deploy and join NATOs planned air support in the UN protection zone in Bosnia .
  • WAR and PEACE in the HORNET 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fisthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ F/A-18 Hornets are currently operating in 37 tactical squadrons from air stations world-wide, and from 10 aircraft carriers.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ August Aircraft from THEODORE ROOSEVELT , including F/A-18 Hornets attacked military targets in Bosnia during Operation Deliberate Force.
  • WAR and PEACE in the HORNET 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fisthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 2003, 75 Squadron deployed 14 F/A-18s to Qatar as part of Operation Falconer and these aircraft saw action during the invasion of Iraq.[25] .A total of 71 Hornets were in Australian service as of 2006, with four lost to crashes.^ In 2005, the Australians also purchased a batch of Northrop Grumman / Rafael Litening AT targeting pods for their Hornets, with the pods entering service in 2007.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phantom, Hornet and Skyhawk in Australian Service Paperback Published 1993 Not Currently Available.

[21]

Canada

.
Canadian CF-18A Hornet off the coast of Hawaii.
^ Leading Edge 48.56: 425 Sq 2006 Display CF-18A Hornet .

^ Leading Edge 48-036 for the CF-18A Hornet (410 Sq 1993 Special Scheme).

^ You fly an F/A-18 Hornet from the deck of the carrier anchored off the coast of San Francisco.
  • F/A-18 Interceptor - Manual, Docs, Documentation - Lemon Amiga 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.lemonamiga.com [Source type: General]

Note the 'false cockpit' painted on the underside of the aircraft, intended to confuse enemy pilots during dogfights.
.Canada was the first export customer for the Hornet, replacing the CF-104 Starfighter (air reconnaissance & strike), the CF-101 Voodoo (air interception) and the CF-116 Freedom Fighter (ground attack).^ The first export customer for the Hornet was Canada.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CF-18B As F/A-18B, export version for Canada.

^ CF-18A As F/A-18A, export version for Canada.

.The Canadian Forces Air Command ordered 98 A-models (Canadian designation CF-188A/CF-18A) and 40 B models (designation CF-188B/CF-18B).^ Designed in the 1970s for service with the United States Navy and Marine Corps, the Hornet is also used by the air forces of several other nations.
  • simMarket: TURBINE SOUND STUDIOS - FA-18 HORNET SOUNDPACK 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC secure.simmarket.com [Source type: General]

^ Designed in the 1970s for service with the U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps, the Hornet is also used by the air forces of several other nations.
  • Hobby Lobby F/A-18 Hornet ARF Review - RC Groups 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.rcgroups.com [Source type: General]

^ The aircraft is designated CF-188 (single seat) and CF-188B (two seat) in Canadian Armed Forces service.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1991, Canada committed 26 CF-18s to the Gulf War, based in Qatar.^ Delivery had originally been scheduled to commence in August of 1991, but the occupation of Kuwait by Iraq and the ensuing Gulf War delayed the delivery of the Hornets.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following the end of the Cold War, Baden-Sollingen closed down in 1994, and all the Hornets based there were returned to Canada.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No Canadian Forces CF-18s were lost during the Gulf War.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In June 1999, with 18 CF-18s were deployed to Aviano AB, Italy, and they participated in both the air-to-ground and air-to-air roles in the former Yugoslavia.^ Of course, the F-18 had to have operational avionics -- most significantly a multimode radar capable of supporting both air combat and strike roles -- and the Navy wanted considerably more fuel capacity, plus an inflight refueling capability.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, because of cost issues, Swiss F/A-18s will not equipped for air-to-ground missions, nor for aerial reconnaissance.” .

^ This now leaves only 60 of the CF-18 fighters in four operational squadrons, each with 15 rather than 18 CF-18s.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fighters are undergoing an avionics and structural upgrade program to extend service to 2020,[15] upgrading F-18A and F-18B to F/A-18C and D standard.^ Upgraded with F/A-18C avionics during production.

^ The resultant F/A-18A single seat aircraft and the F/A-18B tandem two seat aircraft entered service in November 1983.
  • AVSIM Commercial Sim Review: AVSIM F/A-18 Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.avsim.com [Source type: General]

^ These suites will be used as lab assets for the design and development of a new cockpit display associated with both countries’ F/A-18C/D upgrade programs.

.A total of 80 CF-18s, consisting of 62 single-seat and 18 dual-seat models were selected from the fleet for the upgrade program.^ Softbound Books The single-seat F/A-18 Hornet is the nation's first strike-fighter, designed for traditional strike applications such as interdiction and close air support without compromise to its fighter capabilities, where it is used as a fighter escort and for fleet air defense.

^ Both the single-seat E model and dual-seat F model offer increased range, greater endurance, more payload-carrying ability, more powerful engines and enhanced survivability.
  • AVSIM Commercial Sim Review: AVSIM F/A-18 Super Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.avsim.com [Source type: General]

^ The aircraft is designated CF-188 (single seat) and CF-188B (two seat) in Canadian Armed Forces service.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As of 2003, Canada has 123 in service with 15 losses.[26]

Finland

A Finnish Air Force F-18C at RIAT 2005
.The Finnish Air Force (Suomen Ilmavoimat) ordered 64 F-18C/Ds.^ F/A-18C and D aircraft powered by F404-GE-402 turbofans were to equip three squadrons of the Swiss Air Force beginning in 1993.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orion Model Accessories F/A-18C/D - Kuwaiti Air Force .

^ In August of 1988, the Al Quwwat al Jawwiya al Kuwaitiya (Kuwait Air Force) ordered 40 Hornets.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Delivery started on 7 June 1995. The Hornet replaced the MiG-21bis and Saab 35 Draken in Finnish service.^ January The first F/A-18 Hornets entered operational service with VMFA-314, replacing that squadrons F-4 Phantom II aircraft.
  • WAR and PEACE in the HORNET 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fisthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hornet won in a flyoff against the F-16A MLU, SAAB Gripen, Dassault Mirage 2000-5, and Mikoyan MiG-29.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Sparrow missile is now a rather old design (the basic concept dating from the 1950s), and had been largely replaced by the AIM-120 AMRAAM in Hornet service.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One fighter was destroyed in a mid-air collision in 2001.[12] A damaged F-18C was rebuilt into a F-18D. In order to do so, a forward section of a Canadian CF-18B was purchased and incorporated into the jet.^ Kelly Hinz, 30, of Woodbury, died May 2, 2005, when his F/A-18 Hornet jet apparently was involved in a mid-air collision with a companion jet over south-central Iraq.
  • Minnesotans who died in Iraq | StarTribune.com 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.startribune.com [Source type: News]

^ Designer John Van Ryzin has incorporated all the challenges of authentic fighter jet operation into this stimulating game.

^ This will permit two different metals, one or both of which may be attached to F-18, to be incorporated into a targetable construct for eventual capture by a pretargeted bispecific antibody.
  • Methods and Compositions for F-18 Labeling of Proteins, Peptides and Other Molecules - Patent application 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Methods and Compositions for F-18 Labeling of Proteins, Peptides and Other Molecules - Patent application 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

[27] However, the modified plane crashed during a test flight in January 2010.[28]
.The Finnish F-18C includes the ASPJ (Airborne-Self-Protection-Jammer) jamming pod ALQ-165 that was canceled on original US Navy orders.^ The Ilmavoimat is the first customer for the ASPJ, the US Navy having cancelled its order in 1992.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The F/A-18C also had provision for the AN/ALQ-165 Advanced Self-Protection Jammer (ASPJ), which was to replace the AN/ALQ-126B, but the ASPJ program was badly delayed, and it was not actually fitted to the F/A-18C. Improved processors and software; extensive built-in test facilities; and an improved environmental control system (ECS) to support the upgraded avionics.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Navy/Marine Corps order was now up from the original figure of 780 to 1366 aircraft (this was later reduced to 1157).
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The US Navy later included the ALQ-165 on their Super Hornet (F-18E/F) procurement.^ The US Navy is planning to procure a minimum of 432 Super Hornets.
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.zap16.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Intended to serve the U.S. Navy well into the 21st century, the modified F/A-18E (single-seat) and F/A-18F (two-seat) Super Hornets feature a lengthened fuselage, enlarged wings and improved avionics.

^ The Navy stood up the first operational F/A-18E/F Super Hornet squadron - VFA-115 - in June 2001.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Finnish Hornets were initially to be used only for air defense, hence the designation F-18.
.Finland is upgrading its fleet of F-18s with new avionics, including helmet mounted sights (HMS), new cockpit displays, sensors and standard NATO data link.^ The USD $150 million Phase II of the CF-18 modernization program adds a data link system, a helmet-mounted sight system, new color cockpit displays and a new chaff- and flare-dispensing electronic warfare system to 79 CF-18 (F/A-18 A/B) Hornets.

^ As mentioned, Canada collaborated with the US Marines on a follow-on upgrade program, and Canadian Hornets are receiving the same second-phase updates as USMC Hornets, including AN/ALE-47 chaff-flare dispensers; the JHMCS helmet-mounted sight; improved cockpit displays; and the MIDS Link 16 datalink.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These suites will be used as lab assets for the design and development of a new cockpit display associated with both countries’ F/A-18C/D upgrade programs.

.A number of the 63 Hornets remaining are going to be fitted to carry air-to-ground ordnance such as the AGM-154C JSOW, in effect returning to the original F/A-18 multi-role configuration.^ The F/A-18 Hornet can perform both air-to-air and air-to-ground missions.
  • Federation of American Scientists :: F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Softbound Books The single-seat F/A-18 Hornet is the nation's first strike-fighter, designed for traditional strike applications such as interdiction and close air support without compromise to its fighter capabilities, where it is used as a fighter escort and for fleet air defense.

^ The McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) F/A-18 Hornet is a modern all-weather carrier-capable strike fighter jet, designed to attack both ground and aerial targets.
  • Hobby Lobby F/A-18 Hornet ARF Review - RC Groups 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.rcgroups.com [Source type: General]

.The upgrade includes also the procurement and integration of new AIM-9X Sidewinder and AIM-120C-7 AMRAAM air-to-air missiles.^ The primary air-to-air weapons are the AIM-7 Sparrow and the AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Up to six AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles or up to four AIM-7 Sparrow air-to-air missiles.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These Hornets carry the Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) and the infrared imaging Maverick air-to-ground missile.
  • Federation of American Scientists :: F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This Mid-Life Upgrade (MLU) is estimated to cost between €1-1.6 billion and work is scheduled to be finished by 2015. After the upgrades the planes are to remain in active service until 2020–2025.[29][30]

Kuwait

.The Kuwait Air Force (Al Quwwat Aj Jawwaiya Al Kuwaitiya) has 39 F/A-18C and F/A-18D Hornets as of 2008.[31] These aircraft were ordered before the Iraqi invasion of August 1990. Delivery of the fighters started on 8 October 1991.[12] The F/A-18C/Ds replaced A-4KU Skyhawk.^ In August of 1988, the Al Quwwat al Jawwiya al Kuwaitiya (Kuwait Air Force) ordered 40 Hornets.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ August Iraq forces invaded Kuwait .
  • WAR and PEACE in the HORNET 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fisthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Designed in the 1970s for service with the United States Navy and Marine Corps, the Hornet is also used by the air forces of several other nations.
  • simMarket: TURBINE SOUND STUDIOS - FA-18 HORNET SOUNDPACK 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC secure.simmarket.com [Source type: General]

Malaysia

.The Royal Malaysian Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Malaysia) has eight F/A-18Ds.^ The Royal Australian Air Force, Matthew Wright, Air International, August 1994, p 109.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aircraft: Malaysia - Air Force McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet .
  • JetPhotos.Net Aviation Photos: McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.jetphotos.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After months of debate on re-equipment of the Tentara Udara Diraja Malaysia (TUDM, or Royal Malaysian Air Force), the Malaysian Defense Minister confirmed on July 1, 1993 that they would order both MiG-29s and F/A-18s.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] .The air force split their order between the F/A-18 and the Mikoyan MiG-29.^ In its fighter mode, the F/A-18 is used primarily as a fighter escort and for fleet air defense; in its attack mode, it is used for force projection, interdiction and close and deep air support.
  • US Navy F-18 hornet aircraft pictures history and facts 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Your F/A-18 Interceptor and F-16 Falcon aircraft are the best that the Navy and the Air Force can put in the air.
  • F/A-18 Interceptor - Manual, Docs, Documentation - Lemon Amiga 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.lemonamiga.com [Source type: General]

^ The Hornet won in a flyoff against the F-16A MLU, SAAB Gripen, Dassault Mirage 2000-5, and Mikoyan MiG-29.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33]

Spain

Spanish Air Force's EF-18
.The Spanish Air Force (Ejército del Aire) ordered 60 EF-18A model and 12 EF-18B model Hornets (the "E" standing for "España", Spain), named respectively as C.15 and CE.15 by Spanish AF.[26] Delivery of the Spanish version started on 22 November 1985.[12] These fighters were upgraded to F-18A+/B+ standard, close to F/A-18C/D (plus version includes later mission and armament computers, databuses, data-storage set, new wiring, pylon modifications and software, new capabilities as AN/AAS-38B NITE Hawk targeting FLIR pods).^ Spanish EF-18 Hornet .

^ In 1993, plans were announced for the EdA's fleet of EF-18A/B Hornets to be upgraded to F/A-18C/D standards.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first European customer for the Hornet was the air force of Spain, the Ejercito del Aire Espanol .
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1995 Spain obtained 24 ex-USN F/A-18A Hornets, with six more on option.^ Spain also acquired 24 ex-US Navy F/A-18As in 1995 and 1996.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ USN Blue Angels F/A-18A Hornets at the 2006 Air & Sea practice show military air show stock photo #1089 .
  • USN Blue Angels F/A-18 Hornets Stock Photos Gallery Photo Gallery by Sunbird Photos by Don Boyd at pbase.com 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The initial order was for 113 single-seaters and 24 two seaters, with options being taken for 20 more.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These were delivered from December 1995 until December 1999. Prior to delivery, they were modified to EF-18A+ standard.^ However, plenty of F/A-18A/B machines remained in service with the Navy Reserve and the Marines, and to keep these aircraft useful, an upgrade program was initiated in 1995.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ None were delivered until 1992, after the Gulf War, with deliveries completed by September 1993.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1993, plans were announced for the EdA's fleet of EF-18A/B Hornets to be upgraded to F/A-18C/D standards.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34] This was the first sale of USN surplus Hornets.
.Spanish Hornets operate as an all-weather interceptor 60% of the time and as an all-weather day/night attack aircraft for the remainder.^ The F/A-18 Hornet , an all-weather aircraft, is used as an attack aircraft as well as a fighter.
  • US Navy F-18 hornet aircraft pictures history and facts 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Features: The F/A-18 Hornet, an all-weather aircraft, is used as an attack aircraft as well as a fighter.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All-weather fighter and attack aircraft.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In case of war, each of the front-line squadrons would take a primary role: 121 is tasked with tactical air support and maritime operations; 151 and 122 are assigned to all-weather interception and air combat roles; and 152 is assigned the SEAD mission.^ Lynx takes on maritime strike role .

^ Air support of land operations .

^ Air support for patrol boat operations .

Air refueling is provided by KC-130Hs and Boeing 707TTs. .Pilot conversion to EF-18 is centralized in 153 Squadron (Ala 15).^ VFA-125 initially provided conversion training for pilots transitioning from Marine VMFA squadrons and from Navy VA and VF squadrons.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This now leaves only 60 of the CF-18 fighters in four operational squadrons, each with 15 rather than 18 CF-18s.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Squadron 462's role is air defense of the Canary Islands, being responsible for fighter and attack missions from Gando AB.
.Spanish Air Force EF-18 Hornets have flown Ground Attack, SEAD, combat air patrol (CAP) combat missions in Bosnia and Kosovo, under NATO command, in Aviano detachment (Italy).^ Spanish EF-18 Hornet .

^ From Aviano AB, Italy, Canadian and Spanish Hornets flew combat-missions in Kosovo and former Yugoslavia.
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.zap16.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attack mission combat radius.
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.zap16.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They shared the base with Canadian and USMC F/A-18s. Eight of the Spanish Hornets have been lost in accidents as of 2009.[citation needed]
.Eight EF-18s, based at Aviano AB, participated in bombing raids against Yugoslavia in Operation Allied Force in 1999. They also performed air-to-air combat air patrol missions, close air support air-to-ground missions, photo reconnaissance missions, forward air controller-airborne missions, and tactical air controller-airborne missions over Bosnia.^ They flew combat-air-patrol and air-to-ground missions against the Taliban regime and Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan.
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.zap16.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its primary missions are fighter escort, fleet air defense, suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD), interdiction, close air support and reconnaissance.
  • Hobby Lobby F/A-18 Hornet ARF Review - RC Groups 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.rcgroups.com [Source type: General]

^ From Aviano AB, Italy, Canadian and Spanish Hornets flew combat-missions in Kosovo and former Yugoslavia.
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.zap16.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Switzerland

Switzerland's Luftwaffe purchased 26 C models and eight D models. .One D model was lost in a crash.^ Two A models and two B models have been lost in crashes.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] Delivery of the aircraft started on 25 January 1996.[12]
.In late 2007 Switzerland requested to be included in F/A-18C/D Upgrade 25 Program, in order to extend the useful life of its F/A-18C/Ds.^ However, plenty of F/A-18A/B machines remained in service with the Navy Reserve and the Marines, and to keep these aircraft useful, an upgrade program was initiated in 1995.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An upgrade program was implemented for Australian Hornets in the late 1990s.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The program includes significant upgrades to the avionics and mission computer, 20 ATFLIR surveillance and targeting pods, and 44 sets of AN/ALR-67v3 ECM equipment.^ In the meantime, an upgrade program is being planned which will probably include APG-65 radar improvements, modification of the ALR-67 radar warning receiver, and expanded capability for the mission computer and stores management system.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Night Attack Hornet carried the same navigation and targeting pods as the F/A-18A/B, but received a significant upgrade in capability when the improved AN/AAS-38A pod was introduced in 1991, providing a badly-needed laser target designation capability.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Malware includes computer viruses, key loggers, malicious active content, rogue programs and dialers, among others.
  • F-18 Strafing Runs | SPIKE 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.In October 2008 the Swiss Hornet fleet reached the 50,000 flight hour milestone.^ Super Hornet reaches 5,000 flight hours at NAWCWD, China Lake.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The F/A-18 Hornet fleet surpasses five million flight hours.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In October of 1988, the government of Switzerland announced that the Hornet would be the next fighter of the Schweizerische Flugwaffe/Troupe d'Aviation Suisse (Swiss Air Force).
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35]
U.S. Navy F/A-18C from VFA-131 launches from French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle off the Virginia Capes.

Potential operators

.The F/A-18C and F/A-18D were considered by the French Navy (Marine Nationale) during the 1980s for deployment on their aircraft carriers Clemenceau and Foch[36] and again in the 1990s for the later nuclear-powered Charles de Gaulle,[37] in the event that the Dassault Rafale M was not brought into service when originally planned.^ This gives for aircraft carrier operations, about three times more payload can be brought back to the ship.
  • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.zap16.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The F/A-18 Hornet had originally been ordered as a dual-role fighter and attack aircraft intended to replace the Vought A-7 Corsair II and the McDonnell F-4 Phantom in Navy service, and to augment the more costly Grumman F-14 Tomcat.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similarly, Hornets originally carried the AIM-7F version of the Sparrow, but moved up in the mid-1980s to the AIM-7M, with a much improved seeker.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Austria,[38] Chile,[15] Czech Republic,[38] Hungary,[38] Philippines,[38] Poland,[38] and Singapore[15] evaluated the Hornet but did not purchase it.^ "SUPER HORNET" OPERATIONAL EVALUATION RESULTS ANNOUNCED February 15, 2000 - Chief of Naval Operations, Adm.
  • Federation of American Scientists :: F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Singapore has also expressed interest in buying 18 F-16s, but is delaying a purchase decision until it completes an evaluation of the Hornet.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DoD Special Briefing on "SUPER HORNET" Operation Evaluation Results February 15, 2000 -- The results were the best we could hope for.
  • Federation of American Scientists :: F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thailand ordered four C and four D model Hornets but the Asian financial crisis in the late 1990s resulted in the order being canceled.^ An upgrade program was implemented for Australian Hornets in the late 1990s.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With Boeing's acquisition of McDonnell Douglas in the late 1990s, the Hornet became the Boeing Hornet.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The U.S. DoD then purchased the in-production Hornets for the Marine Corps.^ The Marine Corps was actually ahead of the Navy in getting the Hornet into actual operational service.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A milestone was crossed on April 22, 1992, when the Marine Corps received the 1000th Hornet.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The YF-17 led in turn to the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B and then F/A-18C/D Hornets for the US Navy, US Marine Corps, and several foreign users.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]
.The F/A-18A and F-18L land-based version competed for a fighter contract from Greece in the 1980s.^ The foreign sales proved extremely frustrating to Northrop, which had been trying to sell the F-18L land-based version on the foreign market.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Northrop was to be given the rights to market a land-based version of the design to various foreign air forces.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The F/A-18 "Hornet" is a single- and two-seat, twin engine, multi-mission fighter/attack aircraft that can operate from either aircraft carriers or land bases.
  • Federation of American Scientists :: F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39] .The Greek government chose F-16 and Mirage 2000 instead.^ Kelly reports why the Air Force chose to develop the YF-16, and how the Navy was allowed to develop the YF-17 instead.

Variants

An F/A-18B Hornet assigned to the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School
A Marine F/A-18D of VMFAT-101 prepares for takeoff

A/B

.The F/A-18A is the single-seat variant and the F/A-18B is the two seat variant.^ The two-seat F/A-18B was almost identical to the F/A-18A except for the addition of the second seat back in the fuselage.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The F/A-18 "Hornet" is a single- and two-seat, twin engine, multi-mission fighter/attack aircraft that can operate from either aircraft carriers or land bases.
  • Federation of American Scientists :: F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no mention of how the two readers decided on a single interpretation and there was no accounting of inter- and intra-reader variability.
  • Review of F-18 Fluoro-2-Deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) Positron Emission Tomography in the Evaluation of Malignancy - August 4, 1999 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.fda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The space for the two seat cockpit is provided by a relocation of avionic equipment and a 6% reduction in internal fuel; two-seat Hornets are otherwise fully combat-capable.^ Super Hornet, has been flying combat sorties from Abraham Lincoln during Southern Watch, demonstrating reliability and an increased range and payload capability.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The multi-mission F/A-18E/F "Super Hornet" strike fighter is an upgrade of the combat-proven night strike F/A-18C/D. The Super Hornet will provide the battle group commander with a platform that has range, endurance, and ordnance carriage capabilities comparable to the A-6 which have been retired.
  • Federation of American Scientists :: F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two-seat TF-18A was to retain the full mission capability and armament suite of the F-18A, but was to have slightly reduced fuel capacity.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The B model is used primarily for training.^ The B model is used primarily for training, while the D model is the current Navy aircraft for attack, tactical air control, forward air control and reconnaissance squadrons.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1992, the original Hughes AN/APG-65 radar was replaced with the Hughes (now Raytheon) AN/APG-73, a faster and more capable radar.^ The AN/APG-65 radar of the Hornet has now been superseded by the more capable AN/APG-73.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The radar is to be the Hughes AN/APG-73 that is used by later-build F/A-18Cs.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ APG-65 radar set.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A model Hornets that have been upgraded to the AN/APG-73 are designated F/A-18A+.^ While the carrier-based F-18A Hornet was being designed, a land-based version known as the F-18L was also planned.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The delay allowed Switzerland to specify the APG-73 radar for its Hornets, which should be delivered between 1996 and 1999.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1993, plans were announced for the EdA's fleet of EF-18A/B Hornets to be upgraded to F/A-18C/D standards.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

C/D

.The F/A-18C is the single-seat variant and the F/A-18D is the two seat variant.^ The E is a single seat while the F is a two-seater.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The aircraft is designated CF-188 (single seat) and CF-188B (two seat) in Canadian Armed Forces service.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The F/A-18D is the two-seat version of the F/A-18C. Unlike the F/A-18B, the F/A-18D has flying controls only in the front cockpit and was intended as a two-seat night attack aircraft rather than as a two-seat trainer.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The D-model can be configured for training or as an all-weather strike craft.^ Hornet pilots felt the Night Attack Hornet was the first Hornet to provide true all-weather, day-night strike capability.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The "missionized" D-model's rear seat is configured for a Weapons and Sensors Officer to assist in operating the weapons systems.^ There some two dozen on-board computers which operate in conjunction with the radar and weapons delivery systems.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As you take to the air in each mission, all of your instrumentation and weapons are operational; your aircraft is standing by, so strap on your G-suit and climb aboard.
  • F/A-18 Interceptor - Manual, Docs, Documentation - Lemon Amiga 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.lemonamiga.com [Source type: General]

^ The flight officer seated in the aft cockpit is provided with two stationary hand controls, one on each side of the seat, to operate the weapons systems.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The D model is primarily operated by the U.S. Marine Corps in the night attack and FAC(A) (Forward Air Controller (Airborne)) roles.^ In its fighter mode, the F/A-18 is used primarily as a fighter escort and for fleet air defense; in its attack mode, it is used for force projection, interdiction and close and deep air support.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Marine Corps was actually ahead of the Navy in getting the Hornet into actual operational service.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first Night Attack Hornet was delivered to the Marines on August 8, 1991, when VMFA-312 "Checkerboards".
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40][41]
.The F/A-18C and D models are the result of a block upgrade in 1987[12] incorporating upgraded radar, avionics, and the capacity to carry new missiles such as the AIM-120 AMRAAM air-to-air missile and AGM-65 Maverick[3] and AGM-84 Harpoon air-to-surface missiles.^ The F/A-18C and D models are the result of a block upgrade in 1987 incorporating provisions for employing updated missiles and jamming devices against enemy ordnance.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The F/A-18C is compatible with carriage of the AIM-120 AMRAAM air-to-air missile, and can carry the AGM-65F infrared Maverick and the AGM-84 Harpoon air-to-surface missiles.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Australian Hornets are fully compatible with the AGM-65 Maverick air-to- surface missile and the AGM-84 Harpoon anti-shipping missile.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other upgrades include the Martin-Baker NACES (Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat), and a self-protection jammer.^ Martin-Baker Mk.14 NACES .

^ The F/A-18C featured a Martin-Baker NACES (Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat), an improved mission computer, an airborne self-protection jammer, and a flight incident recording and monitoring system.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pilot got into the F/A-18A using a built-in ladder that retracted into the left LERX, and sat on a Martin Baker Mark 10 (SJU-5/A) ejection seat under a single-piece clamshell canopy that hinged on the rear.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A synthetic aperture ground mapping radar enables the pilot to locate targets in poor visibility conditions.^ NCW 101 Pt7 Synthetic aperture radar .

^ Although the gun port is located directly above the nose radar, it is claimed that the Hornet pilot can fire the gun without damaging the delicate radar.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The THREAT RADAR screen, located next to the compass on the upper left of the control panel, indicates the position of approaching ground and air threats well before they are within visible range.

.C and D models delivered since 1989 also include an improved night attack capability, consisting of the Hughes AN/AAR-50 thermal navigation pod, the Loral AN/AAS-38 NITE Hawk FLIR (forward looking infrared array) targeting pod, night vision goggles, and two full-color (previously monochrome) MFDs and a color moving map.^ The Hughes AN/AAR-50 Thermal Imaging Navigation Set (TINS) for night flight navigation.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the FLIR is the AAS-38 rather than the AAS-50.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The F/A-18D Night Attack Hornet has a pod-mounted Hughes AN/AAR-50 thermal imaging navigation set, a Loral AN/AAS-38 Nite Hawk FLIR targeting pod, and GEC Cat's Eyes pilot's night vision goggles.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.In addition, 60 D model Hornets are configured as the night attack F/A-18D (RC) with ability for reconnaissance.^ The first Night Attack Hornet was delivered to the Marines on August 8, 1991, when VMFA-312 "Checkerboards".
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first Night Attack F/A-18D was delivered to VMA(AW)-121 "Green Knights" on May 11, 1990.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The newest model, Super Hornet, is highly capable across the full mission spectrum: air superiority, fighter escort, reconnaissance, aerial refueling, close air support, air defense suppression and day/night precision strike.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] .These could be outfitted with the ATARS electro-optical sensor package that includes a sensor pod and equipment mounted in the place of the M61 cannon.^ In addition, it is equipped so that it can carry a reconnaissance pod in place of the internal cannon.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is also a reconnaissance version of the two-seat F/A-18D. With the amended designation F/A-18D(RC), some 48 F/A-18D Hornets have their M61A1 cannon replaced by a pallet-mounted electro-optical suite comprising a blister-mounted IR linescan and two roll-stabilized sensor units, all of these units recording onto video tape.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In order to test the feasibility of the concept, McDonnell modified a single Block 4 F/A-18A (BuNo 161214) with a twin-sensor package in place of the 20-mm cannon.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42]
.Beginning in 1992, the F404-GE-402 enhanced performance engine, providing approximately 10% more maximum static thrust became the standard Hornet engine.^ F/A-18C/Ds received a number of other upgrades in the 1990s, some of them significant: From early 1992, Hornets were delivered with F404-GE-402 Enhanced Performance Engines (EPE), which provided more power, being rated at 17.3 kN (7,982 kgp / 17,600 lbf) thrust each, and improved reliability.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beginning in January 1991, with Block 36, the F/A-18C switched to the General Electric F404-GE-402 EPE (Enhanced Performance Engine) The EPE engine generates approximately 17,600 lb.s.t., as compared to only 16,000 lb.s.t.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Blue Angels fly the F/A-18A Hornet , performing approximately 30 maneuvers during the aerial demonstration lasting over an hour.
  • F/A-18 Hornet: Blue Angels, the US Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] .Since 1993, the AAS-38A NITE Hawk added a designator/ranger laser, allowing it to self-mark targets.^ From January 1993 onwards, the AAS-38 pod added a laser target designator/ranger subsystem, allowing Hornets to deliver precision laser-guided weapons autonomously of an external laser source.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Marines liked to use the two-seaters for the "fast FAC (forward air control)" role, with the back-seater identifying targets with sensor pods and marking them with a laser designator, or with the aircrew firing unguided smoke rockets.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Night Attack Hornet carried the same navigation and targeting pods as the F/A-18A/B, but received a significant upgrade in capability when the improved AN/AAS-38A pod was introduced in 1991, providing a badly-needed laser target designation capability.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The later AAS-38B added the ability to strike targets designated by lasers from other aircraft.^ From January 1993 onwards, the AAS-38 pod added a laser target designator/ranger subsystem, allowing Hornets to deliver precision laser-guided weapons autonomously of an external laser source.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Night Attack Hornet carried the same navigation and targeting pods as the F/A-18A/B, but received a significant upgrade in capability when the improved AN/AAS-38A pod was introduced in 1991, providing a badly-needed laser target designation capability.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Site is designed and targeted to U.S. audiences and is governed by and operated in accordance with the laws of the U.S. We make no representation that this Site is operated in accordance with the laws or regulations of, or governed by, other nations.
  • F-18 Strafing Runs | SPIKE 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

[44]
.Production of the F/A-18C ended in 1999. In 2000, the last F/A-18D was delivered to the U.S. Marine Corps.^ Kevin J. Davis crashed his Hornet near the end of the Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort airshow in Beaufort, South Carolina and was killed.
  • F/A-18 Hornet: Blue Angels, the US Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This version was intended for the Marine Corps, with the F/A-18D(RC) initially replacing the aging RF-4B Phantoms which served with VMFP-3 at MCAS El Toro, California.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The YF-17 led in turn to the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B and then F/A-18C/D Hornets for the US Navy, US Marine Corps, and several foreign users.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]

E/F Super Hornet

A VFA-11 F/A-18F Super Hornet performing evasive maneuvers during an air power demonstration above USS Harry S. Truman.
.The single seat F/A-18E and two-seat F/A-18F Super Hornets carry over the name and design concept of the original F/A-18, but have been extensively redesigned.^ Two versions of the Super Hornet are currently in production for the U.S. Navy: the single-seat E model and the two-seat F model.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The name of the aircraft is CF-18 (single-seat) and CF-18B (two-seat) in Canadian service.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The E is a single seat while the F is a two-seater.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Super Hornet has a new, 25% larger airframe, larger rectangular air intakes, more powerful GE F414 engines based on F/A-18's F404, and upgraded avionics suite.^ Two General Electric F414-GE-400 engines power the Super Hornet.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1995 the first flight took place of the so-called Super Hornet or F/A 18E. Improvements incorporated into this aircraft over earlier versions include more powerful engines, longer operational range, higher take off weight and general improvements throughout the aircraft.
  • F-18 - Lulu.com 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.lulu.com [Source type: General]

^ There are two Super Hornet squadrons in the USS Nimitz (CVN 68) airwing: VFA 14 (F/A 18 E) and VFA 41 (F/A 18F).
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The aircraft is currently in production and will eventually equip 22 squadrons.^ F/A-18 Hornets are currently operating in 37 tactical squadrons from air stations world-wide, and from 10 aircraft carriers.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The B model is used primarily for training, while the D model is the current Navy aircraft for attack, tactical air control, forward air control and reconnaissance squadrons.
  • United States Navy/Marine F/A-18 Hornet Fighter 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airforceworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ F/A-18C and D aircraft powered by F404-GE-402 turbofans were to equip three squadrons of the Swiss Air Force beginning in 1993.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The EA-18G Growler is an electronic warfare version of the two-seat F/A-18F, which entered production in 2007. The Growler will replace the Navy's EA-6B Prowler.^ EA-6B Prowler Flight Ops .

^ Two of the Navy Blue Angels’ F/A-18s perform a high-speed maneuver during the 2007 Naval Air Station Oceana Air Show.
  • F/A-18 Hornet: Blue Angels, the US Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The F/A-18B is the two-seat combat trainer version of the F/A-18A. Two full-scale development two-seaters (BuNos 160781 and 160784) ' were followed by 39 production F/A-18Bs in Blocks 4 to 21.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other US variants

F-18(R) 
This was a proposed reconnaissance version of the F/A-18A. It included a sensor package that replaced the 20 mm cannon. The first of two prototypes flew in August 1984, however the variant was not produced.[42]
RF-18D 
Proposed two-seat reconnaissance version for the US Marine Corps in the mid-1980s. It was to carry a radar reconnaissance pod. The system was canceled after it was unfunded in 1988. This capability was later realized on the F/A-18D(RC).[42]
X-53, NASA's modified F/A-18.
TF-18A 
Two-seat training version of the F/A-18A fighter, later redesignated F/A-18B.[6]
F-18 HARV
Single-seat High Alpha Research Vehicle for NASA.[45] High angles of attack using thrust vectoring, modifications to the flight controls, and forebody strakes
X-53 Active Aeroelastic Wing 
A NASA F/A-18 has been modified to demonstrate the Active Aeroelastic Wing technology, and was designated X-53 in December 2006.

Export variants

F-18L 
This was a lighter land-based version of the F/A-18 Hornet. It was designed to be a single-seat air-superiority fighter and ground-attack aircraft. It was originally intended to be assembled by .Northrop as the export version of the F/A-18 Hornet.^ At that time, it was agreed that McDonnell Douglas would be prime contractor for all existing and future versions of the Hornet, and Northrop terminated all work on its F-18L land-based version.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ McDonnell Douglas is attempting to market an advanced version of the F/A-18 known as the Hornet 2000.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NORTHROP YF-17 [1.2] DEVELOPING THE F/A-18 [1.3] F/A-18A/B DESCRIBED [1.4] F/A-18C/D / NIGHT ATTACK F/A-18C/D / F/A-18A/B UPDATES [1.5] HORNET IN FOREIGN SERVICE .
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The F-18L was lighter due to the removal of carrier landing capability.^ While the carrier-based F-18A Hornet was being designed, a land-based version known as the F-18L was also planned.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because it did not have to be carrier-capable, the F-18L was expected to be significantly lighter and better-performing than the carrier-based version.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since it did not have to carry any equipment for carrier-based operations, the F-18L was expected to be significantly lighter and better-performing than the carrier-based version.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite the advantages, customers preferred the "ordinary" Hornet, and the F-18L never went into production.^ In fact, the insufficient range of the Hornet has been its most-often criticized defect, and has never really been fully corrected despite numerous attempted fixes.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]
(A)F/A-18A/B
  • (A)F/A-18A: Single-seat fighter/attack version for the Royal Australian Air Force.
  • (A)F/A-18B: Two-seat training version for the Royal Australian Air Force.
"F/A-18A" was the original company designation, designations of "AF-18A" & "ATF-18A" have also been applied. Assembled in Australia (excluding the first two (A)F/A-18Bs) by Aero-Space Technologies of Australia (ASTA) from 1985 through to 1990, from kits produced by McDonnell Douglas with increasing local content in the later aircraft. Originally the most notable differences between an Australian (A)F/A-18A/B and a US F/A-18A/B were the lack of a catapult attachment, replacement of the carrier .tailhook for a lighter "land" arresting hook, and the replacement of the automatic carrier landing system with an Instrument Landing System.^ It was considerably strengthened to meet the 24 feet/second descent rate requirement that is needed for arrested carrier landings.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Extends arrestor hook on F/A-18 for carrier landings.
  • F/A-18 Interceptor - Manual, Docs, Documentation - Lemon Amiga 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.lemonamiga.com [Source type: General]

^ Operating off an aircraft carrier meant much stronger landing gear, including nose gear with a catapult attachment; an arresting hook; high-lift devices to reduce carrier landing speeds; and folding wings.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Australian Hornets have been involved in a number of major upgrade programs.^ An upgrade program was implemented for Australian Hornets in the late 1990s.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NASA's High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) program involved the use of a modified Hornet to explore the use of thrust vectoring in the high angle of attack regime.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This program called HUG (Hornet Upgrade) has had a few evolutions over the years.^ An upgrade program was implemented for Australian Hornets in the late 1990s.
  • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first was to give Australian Hornets F/A-18C model avionics.^ The first completely all-Australian Hornet took off on its maiden flight on June 3, 1985.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The F/A-18C is the current production model of the single-seat Hornet, and was introduced beginning with Block 23.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first Australian-assembled Hornet was flown on February 26, 1985 and was delivered on May 4.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The second and current upgrade program (HUG 2.2) updates the fleet's avionics even further.
CF-18 Hornet
.
  • CF-18A : Single-seat fighter/attack version for the Canadian Forces.^ Eventually, however, careful redesign made it possible to merge the two single-seat fighter and attack versions into a single aircraft, which was initially referred to as F/A-18A in Defense Department press releases.
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In December of 1982, Spain announced that they had selected the Hornet, and made plans to order 72 single-seaters and 12 two-seat versions.
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/C is a single seat shipboard and shore-based multi-role fighter and attack aircraft.
    • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.zap16.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Canadian Forces' official designation is CF-188A Hornet.
  • CF-18B : Two-seat training and combat version for the Canadian Forces.^ The aircraft is designated CF-188 (single seat) and CF-188B (two seat) in Canadian Armed Forces service.
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The name of the aircraft is CF-18 (single-seat) and CF-18B (two-seat) in Canadian service.
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ F/A-18B two seat fighter trainer .
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The Canadian Forces' official designation is CF-188B Hornet.
F/A-18C of the Swiss Air Force taxis for takeoff
EF-18 Hornet
.
  • EF-18A: Single-seat fighter/attack version for the Spanish Air Force.^ The aircraft is designated CF-188 (single seat) and CF-188B (two seat) in Canadian Armed Forces service.
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Northrop was to be given the rights to market a land-based version of the design to various foreign air forces.
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ By this time, the stakes in the competition had been raised: the Air Force had established an "Air Combat Fighter (ACF)" requirement in April 1974, and the winner of the LWF competition would be selected to fill this requirement.
    • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Spanish Air Force designation is C.15.
  • EF-18B: Two-seat training version for the Spanish Air Force.^ F/A-18B two seat fighter trainer .
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The F/A-18B/D is a two seat operational trainer.
    • McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.zap16.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The two-seat F/A-18B was almost identical to the F/A-18A except for the addition of the second seat back in the fuselage.
    • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The Spanish Air Force designation is CE.15.
KAF-18 Hornet
  • KAF-18C: Single-seat fighter/attack version for the Kuwait Air Force.
  • KAF-18D: Two-seat training version for the Kuwait Air Force.
F-18C/D Hornet
.
  • The Finnish Air Force uses F/A-18C/D Hornets, with a Finland-specific mid-life update.^ The Ilmavoimat Hornets will be used solely for air defense, and will be capable of carrying and firing the AIM-120 AMRAAM air-to-air missile.
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In October of 1988, the government of Switzerland announced that the Hornet would be the next fighter of the Schweizerische Flugwaffe/Troupe d'Aviation Suisse (Swiss Air Force).
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Hornet had experienced stiff competition from the F-16, a type which was already in service with the Republic of Korea Air Force.
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The first 7 Hornets (D-models) were produced by McDonnell Douglas.^ The first few two-seaters were sent to Whiteman AFB in Missouri, where McDonnell Douglas personnel assisted in the training of the first few Spanish instructors.
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Serials of F/A-18B: 160781 McDonnell Douglas F/A-18B-2-MC Hornet - 160781 to NASA as 845 in July 1986 160784 McDonnell Douglas F/A-18B-3-MC Hornet - w/o 9/8/80 near Farnborough after engine failure.
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A-12-MC Hornet - to NASA as 848 in December 1989.
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [46] .The 57 single-seat F-18C model units were assembled by Patria in Finland.^ A letter of acceptance was signed on June 5 for a total of 64 aircraft, with the first seven F/A-18Ds being built by McDonnell and the remaining 57 F/A-18C single seaters all being assembled by the Valmet Aircraft Industry Co.
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The F/A-18C is the current production model of the single-seat Hornet, and was introduced beginning with Block 23.
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In September 1988, Kuwait ordered 32 "KAF-18C" single-seat machines and 8 "KAF-18D" two-seat machines.
    • [1.0] McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B & F/A-18C/D 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.vectorsite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [47]
F-18C/D Hornet
  • Switzerland uses F-18C/D,[48] later Swiss specific mid-life update. The Swiss F-18s were originally without ground attack capability until hardware was retrofitted.

Operators

Operators of the F/A-18 are shown in blue.
 Australia
 Finland
 Kuwait
  • Kuwait Air Force has 28 F/A-18Cs and 7 F/A-18Ds in service as of November 2008.[49]
    • 9 Fighter and Attack Squadron[50]
    • 25 Fighter and Attack Squadron[50]
 Malaysia
 Spain
.
  • Spanish Air Force
    • Ala de Caza 15 (15th Fighter Wing) Zaragoza AB, with 30 A+ and six B+ shared between Squadrons 151, 152 and 153
    • Ala de Caza 12, Torrejon AB (Squadron 121 and 122) with 30 A+ and six B+.
    • Ala 46, Gando AB (Canary islands), with Squadron 462 operating 22 ex-US Navy F/A-18s.^ The Hornet serves with Escuadron 151 and Escuadron 152 of Ala de Caza 15 at Zaragoza-Valenzuela and with Escuadron 121 and Escuadron 122 of Ala de Caza 12 at Torrejon de Ardoz.
      • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Designed in the 1970s for service with the United States Navy and Marine Corps, the Hornet is also used by the air forces of several other nations.
      • simMarket: TURBINE SOUND STUDIOS - FA-18 HORNET SOUNDPACK 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC secure.simmarket.com [Source type: General]

      ^ These three squadrons are currently the only fighter squadrons operated by the Finnish Defense Forces.
      • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      [52]
 Switzerland
FA-18 Automated Aerial Refueling.ogg
NASA video of an F/A-18A aerial refueling operation, documenting behavior of the drogue basket, 2002.
 United States
.
  • United States Navy had 409 F/A-18A/B/C/D Hornets in operation as of late 2008.[49]
  • United States Marine Corps had 238 F/A-18A/B/C/D Hornets in service as of late 2008.[49]
  • NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center operates four F/A-18s.^ A visitor from United States posted Wed March 22, 2006: Hornet's Nest!
    • Photos: Boeing F/A-18... Super Hornet Aircraft Pictures | Airliners.net 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airliners.net [Source type: General]

    ^ The United States Navy's Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron, popularly known as the Blue Angels, was formed in 1946 and was the world's first officially sanctioned military aerial demonstration team.
    • F/A-18 Hornet: Blue Angels, the US Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Navy/Marine Corps order was now up from the original figure of 780 to 1366 aircraft (this was later reduced to 1157).
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [54]

Accidents

.On 13 June 2008, a F/A-18C Hornet collided with a F-5F Tiger II over northern Nevada's high desert, killing its pilot.^ The pilot of the CF-18 Hornet that was killed over Karlsruhre West Germany on 17 April 1990 did not die because his parachute malfunctioned.

^ Two USN F/A-18C Hornets from NAS Lemoore, California collided in mid-air .

^ Three squadrons at Payerne, Sion, and Meiringen will operate the Hornets in the air defense role, allowing some of the F-5E/F Tiger IIs to be transferred to ground attack roles.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Both pilots of the F-5 were injured, but managed to parachute to safety.[55]
.On 8 December 2008, a F/A-18D crashed in a populated area of San Diego, while on approach to Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, killing four people on the ground.^ An F/A-18F Super Hornet assigned to the "Screaming Eagles" of Strike Fighter Squadron One Two Two (VFA-122), flown by Lt. Matt Turner, pushes the limits of the sound barrier during a performance at the Miramar Air Show on board Marine Corps Air Station Miramar.
  • F/A-18 Hornet: Blue Angels, the US Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Four F/A-18 Hornet strike fighters from the Blue Angels fly in formation during the precision flight demonstration squadron's performance at the 50th Golden Anniversary 2008 Air Show at Naval Air Station Oceana.
  • F/A-18 Hornet: Blue Angels, the US Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Marine Corps service, the Hornet now forms the backbone of the Corps' air power.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56] .The pilot ejected safely; there was no WSO in the aircraft.^ Since there is no requirement for the Hornet to exceed Mach 2, the aircraft does not need sophisticated variable-ramp air intakes.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57]
.On 21 January 2010, a Finnish F-18D Hornet crashed after both pilots lost control and falling 30.000 feet.^ The first F/A-18 Hornet for Finland's Ilmavoimat , an F/A-18D two-seater, was flown at St Louis on April 21, 1995.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first three Hornets were flown to Kuwait on January 25, 1992, and the last of the initial batch (from Block 40) arrived in Kuwait on August 21, 1993.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both pilots ejected and parachuted to safety, but were injured.^ Andy Caputi ejected and parachuted to safety.
  • F/A-18 Hornet: Blue Angels, the US Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58]

Specifications (F/A-18C/D)

Orthographically projected diagram of the F/A-18 Hornet
Refueling an F/A-18 Hornet

Data from U.S. Navy fact file,[59] Aerospaceweb[60]

General characteristics
  • Crew: F/A-18C: 1, F/A-18D: 2 (pilot and weapons system officer)
  • Length: 56 ft (17.1 m)
  • Wingspan: 40 ft (12.3 m)
  • Height: 15 ft 4 in (4.7 m)
  • Wing area: 400 ft² (38 m²)
  • Airfoil: NACA 65A005 mod root, 65A003.5 mod tip
  • Empty weight: 24,700 lb (11,200 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 37,150 lb (16,850 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 51,550 lb (23,400 kg)
  • Powerplant:General Electric F404-GE-402 turbofans
    • Dry thrust: 11,000 lbf (48.9 kN) each
    • Thrust with afterburner: 17,750 lbf (79.2 kN) each
Performance
Armament
A Finnish F-18 releasing flares
Avionics
  • Hughes APG-73 radar
  • ROVER (Remotely Operated Video Enhanced Receiver) antenna for use by US Navy's F/A-18C strike fighter squadrons

Notable appearances in Media

Hornets make frequent appearances in action movies and military novels. The Hornet was featured in the film Independence Day. .The Hornet has a major role in Jane's US Navy Fighters (1994), Jane's Fighters Anthology (1997) and Jane's F/A-18 Simulator computer simulators.^ Members of the U.S. Navy flight demonstration squadron the Blue Angels perform a high speed inverted crossing maneuver in F/A-18 Hornet strike fighters at the Naval Air Station Oceana 50th Anniversary Air Show.
  • F/A-18 Hornet: Blue Angels, the US Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The F/A-18 Hornet had originally been ordered as a dual-role fighter and attack aircraft intended to replace the Vought A-7 Corsair II and the McDonnell F-4 Phantom in Navy service, and to augment the more costly Grumman F-14 Tomcat.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When either VF or VA Navy squadrons received the Hornet, they were redesignated VFA squadrons, indicating that they could perform both fighter and attack missions.
  • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

Related development
Comparable aircraft
Related lists

References

Notes

  1. ^ Jenkins 2000, pp. 186–187.
  2. ^ "F/A-18 Hornet strike fighter." U.S. Navy. Retrieved: 12 December 2008.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "F/A-18 Hornet." Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved: 4 July 2008.
  4. ^ "F/A-18E/F Super Hornet ...Leading Naval Aviation into the 21st Century." U.S. Navy, 28 February 2006. Retrieved: 4 July 2008.
  5. ^ Kelly, Orr. Hornet: the Inside Story of the F/A-18. Novato, California: Presido Press, 1990. ISBN 0-89141-344-8.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Jenkins 2000, pp. 19–21.
  7. ^ a b c d "F/A-18 Hornet and F/A-18 Super Hornet." U.S. Navy. Retrieved: 4 July 2008.
  8. ^ a b Jenkins 2000, pp. 22–26.
  9. ^ Northrop F-18L. Joe Baugher's site,
  10. ^ a b Jenkins 2000, pp. 26–29.
  11. ^ Jenkins 2000, p. 35.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "F/A-18 Hornet Milestones." Boeing. Retrieved: 17 March 2007.
  13. ^ "F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) fact sheet." NASA/Dryden Flight Research Center. Retrieved: 1 November 2009.
  14. ^ Jenkins 2000, p. 29.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i Jenkins 2000.
  16. ^ "Officials Identify Gulf War Pilot’s Remains." US Navy, 2 August 2009. Retrieved: 1 November 2009.
  17. ^ Miller, David. The Illustrated Directory of Modern Weapons. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company, 2002. ISBN 0-7603-1346-6.
  18. ^ Jenkins 2000, p. 72.
  19. ^ http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/nathan-white.htm
  20. ^ "2 Navy Fighter Jets Crash In Persian Gulf." CBS. 7 January 2008. Retrieved: 1 November 2009.
  21. ^ a b Crick, Darren. "ADF Aircraft Serial Numbers RAAF A21 McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A/B Hornet." adf-serials.com. Retrieved: 31 December 2006.
  22. ^ Nelson, Brendan. "Joint Strike Fighter." Defence Ministers & Parliamentary secretary Media Release, 1 February 2007. Retrieved: 4 July 2008.
  23. ^ Nelson, Brendan. "$6 Billion to maintain Australia's regional air superiority." Defence Ministers & Parliamentary secretary Media Release, 3 June 2007. Retrieved: 4 April 2008.
  24. ^ Tewes, Alex. "Australia's F/A-18 Hornet Aircraft: Implications of Use in Iraq." Parliament of Australia Parliamentary Library, 18 March 2003. Retrieved: 1 November 2009.
  25. ^ Holmes 2006, p. 38.
  26. ^ a b c Senior, Tim. "F/A-18 Hornet, The AirForces Monthly book." AirForces Monthly, 2003. ISBN 0-946219-69-9.
  27. ^ "Patria unveils twin-seat F-18 built out of single-seat F-18 Hornet." Patria, 21 September 2009. Retrieved: 24 September 2009.
  28. ^ http://www.yle.fi/uutiset/news/2010/01/fighter_jet_crashes_in_forest_1384722.html
  29. ^ Helsingin Sanomat
  30. ^ Helsingin Sanomat
  31. ^ Kuwait Air Force, milaviapress.com.
  32. ^ "Boeing Delivers Malaysian Hornets on Schedule." Boeing, 9 September 1997. Retrieved: 4 July 2008.
  33. ^ Malaysia
  34. ^ Jenkins 2000, p. 93.
  35. ^ Swiss Hornets reach 50,000 flight hours milestone, milaviapress.com
  36. ^ Tillman Barrett. MiG Master: Story of the F-8 Crusader (second edition). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990. ISBN 0-87021-585-X.
  37. ^ Donald 2001, p. 122.
  38. ^ a b c d e "Philippine Pilots Complete F/A-18 HORNET Flight Evaluation", McDonnell Douglas, 11 December 1996.
  39. ^ "Greek fighter marathon nears end". Flight International, 31 July 1982.
  40. ^ a b Jenkins 2000, pp. 64–66.
  41. ^ fa18hornet wiki
  42. ^ a b c Jenkins 2000, pp. 66–70.
  43. ^ Donald, David. "Boeing F/A-18 Hornet". Warplanes of the Fleet. AIRtime Publishing Inc, 2004. ISBN 1-880588-81-1.
  44. ^ Jenkins 2000, pp. 61–62, 156.
  45. ^ Jenkins 2000, pp. 49–52.
  46. ^ Jenkins 2000, pp. 100–101.
  47. ^ Karivalo, Perttu. Tomcat vs. Hornet: An Air Forces Monthly Special, p. 68. Key Publishing Ltd, 2003.
  48. ^ Nicholls, Mark. Tomcat vs. Hornet: An Air Forces Monthly Special, p. 78. Key Publishing Ltd, 2003.
  49. ^ a b c d e f g "Directory: World Air Forces". Flight International, 11–17 November 2008.
  50. ^ a b "Kuwait Air Force Overview. Aircraft Order of Battle." Scramble Magazine. Retrieved: 31 December 2008.
  51. ^ "Malaysian Air Force Overview. Aircraft Order of Battle." Scramble Magazine. Retrieved: 31 December 2008.
  52. ^ Yañez and Rodriguez 2008, p. 23.
  53. ^ a b c "Schweizer Luftwaffe. Aircraft Order of Battle." Scramble Magazine. Retrieved: 31 December 2008.
  54. ^ NASA F-18 Mission Support Aircraft
  55. ^ Associated Press. "Navy: Pilot killed in jet collision over Nevada." Dallas News, 13 June 2008.
  56. ^ "Man returns to site where jet crash killed his family". Sign On San Diego, 10 December 2008. Retrieved: 11 December 2008.
  57. ^ "Four dead in San Diego jet crash." BBC, 10 December 2008. Retrieved: 10 December 2008.
  58. ^ Associated Press. "Hornet-turman lentäjille murtumia". YLE, 21 January 2010.
  59. ^ F/A-18 US Navy fact file
  60. ^ "F/A-18 Hornet." Aerospaceweb.org. Retrieved: 12 October 2009.
  61. ^ Designations of U.S. Nuclear Weapons

Bibliography

  • Baugher, Joseph. "Boeing F/A-18C Hornet". Air to Air Combat.com, 11 April 2000.
  • Donald, David. Carrier Aviation Air Power Directory. London: AIRtime Publishing Inc, 2001. ISBN 1-880588-43-9.
  • Drendel, Lou. .F/A-18 Hornet in action (Aircraft Number 136).^ A U.S. Navy F/A-18 Hornet aircraft operating from USS Carl Vinson (CVN 70) crashed in the Western Pacific ocean at approximately 8:15 p.m.

    Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1993. ISBN 0-89747-300-0.
  • Elward, Brad. .Boeing F/A-18 Hornet (WarbirdTech, Vol.^ F/A-18 Hornet by member Gietje A McDonnell Douglas/Boeing miracle!
    • Photos: Boeing F/A-18... Super Hornet Aircraft Pictures | Airliners.net 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airliners.net [Source type: General]

    31). Specialty Press, 2001. ISBN 1-58007-041-8.
  • Gunston, Bill. .F/A-18 Hornet (Modern Combat Aircraft 22).^ F/A-18 Hornet, Lindsay Peacock, Osprey Combat Aircraft Series, Osprey, 1986.
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ RE: G&P Sales f-18 Hornet - 8/22/2005 1:44 AM .
    • G&P Sales f-18 Hornet 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.rcuniverse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ RE: G&P Sales f-18 Hornet - 8/22/2005 4:45 PM .
    • G&P Sales f-18 Hornet 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.rcuniverse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 1985. ISBN 0-710-1485-X.
  • Holmes, Tony. "RAAF Hornets at War". Australian Aviation. .Canberra: Phantom Media, January/February 2006/No.^ A visitor from United States posted Thu January 26, 2006: No words to describe it...Great Shot!!
    • Photos: Boeing F/A-18... Super Hornet Aircraft Pictures | Airliners.net 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.airliners.net [Source type: General]

    .224. ISSN 08130876.
  • Jenkins, Dennis R. F/A-18 Hornet: A Navy Success Story.^ F/A-18 Hornet: Blue Angels Navy Flight Demonstration Team: San Diego (Oct.
    • F/A-18 Hornet: Blue Angels, the US Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ F/A-18 Hornet: Blue Angels Navy Flight Demonstration Team: KANEOHE BAY, Hawaii (Oct.
    • F/A-18 Hornet: Blue Angels, the US Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The story of the F/A-18 Hornet now continues with an account of its service with the US Navy and the US Marine Corps.
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000. ISBN 0-07-134696-1.
  • Miller, Jay. .McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet (Aerofax Minigraph 25).^ McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A-7-MC Hornet - to NASA as 847 in September 1989.
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ However, the aircraft continues to be referred to as the F-18 on McDonnell Douglas documents.
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Serials of F/A-18B: 160781 McDonnell Douglas F/A-18B-2-MC Hornet - 160781 to NASA as 845 in July 1986 160784 McDonnell Douglas F/A-18B-3-MC Hornet - w/o 9/8/80 near Farnborough after engine failure.
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Arlington, Texas: Aerofax Inc., 1988. ISBN 0-942548-39-6.
  • Peacock, Lindsay. .F/A-18 Hornet (Osprey Combat Aircraft Series).^ A U.S. Navy F/A-18 Hornet aircraft operating from USS Carl Vinson (CVN 70) crashed in the Western Pacific ocean at approximately 8:15 p.m.

    ^ F-18 , MILITARY , Jet , aviation , Navy , aircraft , War , jets , Hornet , airplanes ...
    • F-18 - Lulu.com 9 January 2010 20:55 UTC www.lulu.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The "Blues" FA-18 aircraft are former fleet aircraft that are nearly combat-ready.
    • F/A-18 Hornet: Blue Angels, the US Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    London: Osprey Publishing, 1986. ISBN 0-85045-707-6.
  • Spick, Mike. .McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet (Classic Warplanes).^ McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A-7-MC Hornet - to NASA as 847 in September 1989.
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) F/A-18A, F/A-18B Hornet - November 1986-Present .
    • F/A-18 Hornet: Blue Angels, the US Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron | Aviation Spectator - Airplanes, airliners, jets, videos, photos - RC to ballooning, civil and military aircraft, aerospace 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.aviationspectator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ However, the aircraft continues to be referred to as the F-18 on McDonnell Douglas documents.
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    London, Salamander Books, 1991. ISBN 0-8317-1412-3.
  • Vann, Frank. .McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet (How They Work: Jet Fighter).^ The F/A-18 Hornet had originally been ordered as a dual-role fighter and attack aircraft intended to replace the Vought A-7 Corsair II and the McDonnell F-4 Phantom in Navy service, and to augment the more costly Grumman F-14 Tomcat.
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ When either VF or VA Navy squadrons received the Hornet, they were redesignated VFA squadrons, indicating that they could perform both fighter and attack missions.
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A-7-MC Hornet - to NASA as 847 in September 1989.
    • F/A-18 Hornet specs. 17 January 2010 11:35 UTC www.planet.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    New York: Exeter Books, 1988. ISBN 07917-0226-X.
  • Yañez, Roberto and Alex Rodriguez. "Spanish Hornets: Providing a Potent Sting". Air International, Volume 75, Number 2, August 2008, pp. 22–25.

External links


Simple English

The F/A-18 Hornet (CF-18, F-18) is a fighter jet that is made by Boeing, and was originally manufactured by the McDonnell-Douglas Company. It first flew in 1978 and was introduced in 1983.  Its main user is the United States Navy. It can fly off of a type of boat called an aircraft carrier, because of its special design. The F/A-18 can attack land and air targets, something that is called "multi-role". The Hornet is also flown by the Blue Angels.

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