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Coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 3
Symbols F2RL3; PAR4
External IDs OMIM602779 MGI1298207 HomoloGene36148 IUPHAR: PAR4 GeneCards: F2RL3 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE F2RL3 207221 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 9002 14065
Ensembl ENSG00000127533 ENSMUSG00000050147
UniProt Q96RI0 Q0VDX1
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_003950 NM_007975
RefSeq (protein) NP_003941 NP_032001
Location (UCSC) Chr 19:
16.86 - 16.87 Mb
Chr 8:
75.66 - 75.66 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4), previously known as Coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 3, is a protein encoded by the F2RL3 gene in humans.[1]

Coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 3 (F2RL3) is a member of the large family of 7-transmembrane-region receptors that couple to guanosine-nucleotide-binding proteins. F2RL3 is also a member of the protease-activated receptor family. F2RL3 is activated by proteolytic cleavage of its extracellular amino terminus. The new amino terminus functions as a tethered ligand and activates the receptor. F2RL3 is activated by thrombin and trypsin.[1]


See also


External links

Further reading

  • Leger AJ, Covic L, Kuliopulos A (2006). "Protease-activated receptors in cardiovascular diseases.". Circulation 114 (10): 1070–7. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.574830. PMID 16952995.  
  • Xu WF, Andersen H, Whitmore TE, et al. (1998). "Cloning and characterization of human protease-activated receptor 4.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95 (12): 6642–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.12.6642. PMID 9618465.  
  • Kahn ML, Zheng YW, Huang W, et al. (1998). "A dual thrombin receptor system for platelet activation.". Nature 394 (6694): 690–4. doi:10.1038/29325. PMID 9716134.  
  • Kahn ML, Hammes SR, Botka C, Coughlin SR (1998). "Gene and locus structure and chromosomal localization of the protease-activated receptor gene family.". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (36): 23290–6. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.36.23290. PMID 9722561.  
  • Kahn ML, Nakanishi-Matsui M, Shapiro MJ, et al. (1999). "Protease-activated receptors 1 and 4 mediate activation of human platelets by thrombin.". J. Clin. Invest. 103 (6): 879–87. doi:10.1172/JCI6042. PMID 10079109.  
  • Andersen H, Greenberg DL, Fujikawa K, et al. (1999). "Protease-activated receptor 1 is the primary mediator of thrombin-stimulated platelet procoagulant activity.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (20): 11189–93. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.20.11189. PMID 10500152.  
  • Sambrano GR, Huang W, Faruqi T, et al. (2000). "Cathepsin G activates protease-activated receptor-4 in human platelets.". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (10): 6819–23. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.10.6819. PMID 10702240.  
  • Nakanishi-Matsui M, Zheng YW, Sulciner DJ, et al. (2000). "PAR3 is a cofactor for PAR4 activation by thrombin.". Nature 404 (6778): 609–13. doi:10.1038/35007085. PMID 10766244.  
  • Miike S, McWilliam AS, Kita H (2002). "Trypsin induces activation and inflammatory mediator release from human eosinophils through protease-activated receptor-2.". J. Immunol. 167 (11): 6615–22. PMID 11714832.  
  • Asokananthan N, Graham PT, Fink J, et al. (2002). "Activation of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1, PAR-2, and PAR-4 stimulates IL-6, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 release from human respiratory epithelial cells.". J. Immunol. 168 (7): 3577–85. PMID 11907122.  
  • Henriksen RA, Hanks VK (2002). "PAR-4 agonist AYPGKF stimulates thromboxane production by human platelets.". Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 22 (5): 861–6. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.0000014742.56572.25. PMID 12006403.  
  • Covic L, Singh C, Smith H, Kuliopulos A (2003). "Role of the PAR4 thrombin receptor in stabilizing platelet-platelet aggregates as revealed by a patient with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome.". Thromb. Haemost. 87 (4): 722–7. PMID 12008957.  
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMID 12477932.  
  • Owen WG (2003). "PAR-3 is a low-affinity substrate, high affinity effector of thrombin.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 305 (1): 166–8. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(03)00732-0. PMID 12732212.  
  • Adam F, Verbeuren TJ, Fauchère JL, et al. (2003). "Thrombin-induced platelet PAR4 activation: role of glycoprotein Ib and ADP.". J. Thromb. Haemost. 1 (4): 798–804. doi:10.1046/j.1538-7836.2003.00138.x. PMID 12871418.  
  • Wu CC, Hwang TL, Liao CH, et al. (2004). "The role of PAR4 in thrombin-induced thromboxane production in human platelets.". Thromb. Haemost. 90 (2): 299–308. doi:10.1267/THRO03020299. PMID 12888878.  
  • Kawai T, Akira S, Reed JC (2003). "ZIP kinase triggers apoptosis from nuclear PML oncogenic domains.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 23 (17): 6174–86. doi:10.1128/MCB.23.17.6174-6186.2003. PMID 12917339.  
  • Jacques SL, Kuliopulos A (2004). "Protease-activated receptor-4 uses dual prolines and an anionic retention motif for thrombin recognition and cleavage.". Biochem. J. 376 (Pt 3): 733–40. doi:10.1042/BJ20030954. PMID 13678420.  
  • Han Y, Nurden A, Combrié R, Pasquet JM (2004). "Redistribution of glycoprotein Ib within platelets in response to protease-activated receptors 1 and 4: roles of cytoskeleton and calcium.". J. Thromb. Haemost. 1 (10): 2206–15. doi:10.1046/j.1538-7836.2003.00436.x. PMID 14521606.  

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.



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