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Fibroblast growth factor 9 (glia-activating factor)

PDB rendering based on 1g82.
Available structures
1g82, 1ihk
Symbols FGF9; GAF; HBFG-9; MGC119914; MGC119915
External IDs OMIM600921 MGI104723 HomoloGene1523 GeneCards: FGF9 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE FGF9 206404 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 2254 14180
Ensembl ENSG00000102678 ENSMUSG00000021974
UniProt P31371 Q3TPG0
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_002010 NM_013518
RefSeq (protein) NP_002001 NP_038546
Location (UCSC) Chr 13:
21.14 - 21.18 Mb
Chr 14:
57.03 - 57.07 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Glia-activating factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGF9 gene.[1][2]

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This protein was isolated as a secreted factor that exhibits a growth-stimulating effect on cultured glial cells. In nervous system, this protein is produced mainly by neurons and may be important for glial cell development. Expression of the mouse homolog of this gene was found to be dependent on Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. Mice lacking the homolog gene displayed a male-to-female sex reversal phenotype, which suggested a role in testicular embryogenesis.[2]


FGF9 has been shown to interact with Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3.[3][4]


  1. ^ Miyamoto M, Naruo K, Seko C, Matsumoto S, Kondo T, Kurokawa T (Jul 1993). "Molecular cloning of a novel cytokine cDNA encoding the ninth member of the fibroblast growth factor family, which has a unique secretion property". Mol Cell Biol 13 (7): 4251–9. PMID 8321227.  
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: FGF9 fibroblast growth factor 9 (glia-activating factor)".  
  3. ^ Santos-Ocampo, S; Colvin J S, Chellaiah A, Ornitz D M (Jan. 1996). "Expression and biological activity of mouse fibroblast growth factor-9". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 271 (3): 1726–31. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 8576175.  
  4. ^ Chellaiah, A; Yuan W, Chellaiah M, Ornitz D M (Dec. 1999). "Mapping ligand binding domains in chimeric fibroblast growth factor receptor molecules. Multiple regions determine ligand binding specificity". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 274 (49): 34785–94. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 10574949.  

Further reading

  • Naruo K, Seko C, Kuroshima K, et al. (1993). "Novel secretory heparin-binding factors from human glioma cells (glia-activating factors) involved in glial cell growth. Purification and biological properties.". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (4): 2857–64. PMID 8428960.  
  • Mattei MG, Penault-Llorca F, Coulier F, Birnbaum D (1996). "The human FGF9 gene maps to chromosomal region 13q11-q12.". Genomics 29 (3): 811–2. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.9926. PMID 8575785.  
  • Santos-Ocampo S, Colvin JS, Chellaiah A, Ornitz DM (1996). "Expression and biological activity of mouse fibroblast growth factor-9.". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (3): 1726–31. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.3.1726. PMID 8576175.  
  • Ornitz DM, Xu J, Colvin JS, et al. (1996). "Receptor specificity of the fibroblast growth factor family.". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (25): 15292–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.25.15292. PMID 8663044.  
  • Nakamura S, Todo T, Haga S, et al. (1997). "Motor neurons in human and rat spinal cord synthesize fibroblast growth factor-9.". Neurosci. Lett. 221 (2-3): 181–4. doi:10.1016/S0304-3940(96)13312-7. PMID 9121694.  
  • Todo T, Kondo T, Nakamura S, et al. (1998). "Neuronal localization of fibroblast growth factor-9 immunoreactivity in human and rat brain.". Brain Res. 783 (2): 179–87. doi:10.1016/S0006-8993(97)01340-1. PMID 9507114.  
  • Giri D, Ropiquet F, Ittmann M (1999). "FGF9 is an autocrine and paracrine prostatic growth factor expressed by prostatic stromal cells.". J. Cell. Physiol. 180 (1): 53–60. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4652(199907)180:1<53::AID-JCP6>3.0.CO;2-P. PMID 10362017.  
  • Klein RD, Maliner-Jongewaard MS, Udayakumar TS, et al. (1999). "Promatrilysin expression is induced by fibroblast growth factors in the prostatic carcinoma cell line LNCaP but not in normal primary prostate epithelial cells.". Prostate 41 (4): 215–23. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0045(19991201)41:4<215::AID-PROS1>3.0.CO;2-V. PMID 10544294.  
  • Chellaiah A, Yuan W, Chellaiah M, Ornitz DM (2000). "Mapping ligand binding domains in chimeric fibroblast growth factor receptor molecules. Multiple regions determine ligand binding specificity.". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (49): 34785–94. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.49.34785. PMID 10574949.  
  • Plotnikov AN, Eliseenkova AV, Ibrahimi OA, et al. (2001). "Crystal structure of fibroblast growth factor 9 reveals regions implicated in dimerization and autoinhibition.". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (6): 4322–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M006502200. PMID 11060292.  
  • Hecht HJ, Adar R, Hofmann B, et al. (2001). "Structure of fibroblast growth factor 9 shows a symmetric dimer with unique receptor- and heparin-binding interfaces.". Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 57 (Pt 3): 378–84. doi:10.1107/S0907444900020813. PMID 11223514.  
  • Tsai SJ, Wu MH, Chen HM, et al. (2002). "Fibroblast growth factor-9 is an endometrial stromal growth factor.". Endocrinology 143 (7): 2715–21. doi:10.1210/en.143.7.2715. PMID 12072406.  
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMID 12477932.  
  • Alizadeh M, Miyamura N, Handa JT, Hjelmeland LM (2003). "Human RPE cells express the FGFR2IIIc and FGFR3IIIc splice variants and FGF9 as a potential high affinity ligand.". Exp. Eye Res. 76 (2): 249–56. doi:10.1016/S0014-4835(02)00252-X. PMID 12565813.  
  • Wing LY, Chuang PC, Wu MH, et al. (2003). "Expression and mitogenic effect of fibroblast growth factor-9 in human endometriotic implant is regulated by aberrant production of estrogen.". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88 (11): 5547–54. doi:10.1210/jc.2003-030597. PMID 14602803.  
  • Dunham A, Matthews LH, Burton J, et al. (2004). "The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 13.". Nature 428 (6982): 522–8. doi:10.1038/nature02379. PMID 15057823.  
  • Popovici C, Conchonaud F, Birnbaum D, Roubin R (2004). "Functional phylogeny relates LET-756 to fibroblast growth factor 9.". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (38): 40146–52. doi:10.1074/jbc.M405795200. PMID 15199049.  
  • Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).". Genome Res. 14 (10B): 2121–7. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. PMID 15489334.  
  • Fakhry A, Ratisoontorn C, Vedhachalam C, et al. (2005). "Effects of FGF-2/-9 in calvarial bone cell cultures: differentiation stage-dependent mitogenic effect, inverse regulation of BMP-2 and noggin, and enhancement of osteogenic potential.". Bone 36 (2): 254–66. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2004.10.003. PMID 15780951.  


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