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M249 FN MINIMI DA-SC-85-11586 c1.jpg
An early M249 version of the Minimi
Type Light machine gun
Place of origin  Belgium
Service history
Used by See Users
Production history
Designer Ernest Vervier
Designed 1974
Manufacturer FN Herstal
Produced 1982–present
Variants See Variants
Weight Standard model: 6.85 kg (15.1 lb)
Minimi Para: 6.56 kg (14.5 lb)
Vehicle model: 5.32 kg (11.7 lb)
Minimi 7.62: 8.17 kg (18.0 lb) fixed stock
Minimi 7.62: 8.4 kg (19 lb) telescopic metal stock
Length Standard model: 1,040 mm (40.9 in)
Minimi Para: 914 mm (36.0 in) stock extended / 766 mm (30.2 in) stock collapsed
Vehicle model: 793 mm (31.2 in) no buttstock
Minimi 7.62: 1,015 mm (40.0 in) fixed stock
Minimi 7.62: 1,000 mm (39.4 in) stock extended / 865 mm (34.1 in) stock collapsed[1]
Barrel length Standard model: 465 mm (18.3 in)
Minimi Para: 349 mm (13.7 in)
Minimi 7.62: 502 mm (19.8 in)
Width 110 mm (4.3 in)
Minimi 7.62: 128 mm (5.0 in)

Cartridge 5.56x45mm NATO
Minimi 7.62: 7.62x51mm NATO
Action Gas-operated, rotating bolt
Rate of fire 700–1,150 rounds/min
Minimi 7.62: 680-800 rounds/min
Muzzle velocity Standard model: 925 m/s (3,035 ft/s)
Minimi Para: 866 m/s (2,841.2 ft/s)
Effective range 300–1,000 m sight adjustments
Feed system 100-round M27 disintegrating-link belt, 30-round STANAG magazine
Sights Rear aperture, front post

The Minimi (short for French: Mini Mitrailleuse; "mini machine gun") is a Belgian 5.56mm light machine gun developed by Fabrique Nationale (FN) in Herstal by Ernest Vervier. First introduced in 1974, it has entered service with the armed forces of several countries. The weapon is currently manufactured at the FN facility in Herstal as well as being licence-built in Australia, Greece and the USA by FN Manufacturing LLC.

The Minimi is a light machine gun firing from an open bolt. The weapon is primarily chambered for 5.56x45mm NATO, though a 7.62x51mm NATO variant exists. It is an air-cooled weapon, capable of fully automatic fire only. It can be belt fed or fired from a magazine.

The Minimi is configured in several variants, the 'standard' model as a platoon or squad support weapon, the 'Para' version for paratroopers and the 'vehicle' model as secondary armament for fighting vehicles.


Design details

Operating mechanism

The Minimi uses a gas-actuated long-stroke piston system. The barrel is locked with a rotary bolt, equipped with two massive locking lugs, forced into battery by a helical camming guide in the bolt carrier. Upon firing, the piston is forced to the rear by expanding propellant gases bled through a port in the barrel near the muzzle end. The piston rod acts against the bolt carrier, which begins its rearward motion guided on two rails welded to the receiver walls, while the bolt itself remains locked. This sequence provides a slight delay that ensures chamber pressure has dropped to a safe level by the time a cam in the bolt carrier rotates and unlocks the bolt, increasing extraction reliability as the empty cartridge casing has had the time to cool down and contract, exerting less friction against the chamber walls.

The Minimi fires from an open bolt, which reduces the danger of a round cooking off after extended periods of continuous fire, since a cartridge is only momentarily introduced into the chamber prior to ignition, and the movement of the bolt and bolt carrier forces air through the chamber and barrel after each shot, ventilating the barrel and removing heat. Gas escaping the gas cylinder is directed upward, avoiding kicking up dust and debris that would reveal the shooter's position.


The Minimi has a manually adjustable gas valve with two positions, normal and adverse. The adverse setting increases the cyclic rate of fire from 700–850 rounds per minute to 950–1,150 rounds per minute and is used only in extreme environmental conditions or when heavy fouling is present in the weapon's gas tube. The spring extractor is located inside the bolt, while the tilting lever ejector is contained inside the receiver housing. Spent casings are removed through a port located at the bottom of the right side of the receiver, protected from debris with a spring-loaded dust cover. The Minimi is striker-fired and the bolt carrier functions as the striker mechanism.

The Minimi has a push-button type manual safety installed in the trigger housing, above the pistol grip. In the "weapon safe" position, it disables the sear mechanism; pushing the button to the right side exposes a red-colored rim on the left side of the firearm and indicates the weapon is ready to fire. The black polymer pistol grip was initially copied directly from the FAL and FNC rifles, currently a modified grip with lateral grooves is used, installed at a smaller angle to the receiver.

The Minimi Para with a telescopic sight, spare barrel and ammunition pouches.

The Minimi features a welded receiver made from stamped steel. Both the standard and Para variants are equipped with a fixed, folding bipod mounted to the gas tube and stowed under the handguard. The bipod can be adjusted in height and each leg has three height settings. The bipod also offers a 15° range of rotation to either side. With the bipod fully extended, the bore axis is elevated to a height of 465 mm (18.3 in). The Minimi can also be fired from the Belgian FN360° tripod or the American M122 mount using an M60 pintle. The vehicle-mounted Minimi is fitted with an electrically-powered trigger that enables it to be fired remotely from within an armored fighting vehicle.

The standard light machine gun version has a 465 mm (18.3 in) barrel and a skeletonized aluminum stock with a folding wire shoulder strap. The shortened Para model has a 349 mm (13.7 in) barrel and a collapsible metal stock, while the vehicle-mounted model has a 465 mm (18.3 in) barrel but does not have a stock or iron sights. All models can alternatively be fitted with a fixed synthetic stock, the same used on the M249, which contains a hydraulic buffer that contributes to stabilizing the rate of fire and reducing recoil forces.[2]


Lifting the feed tray cover reveals the rotary bolt locking mechanism.

The weapon is fed from the left-hand side by disintegrating-link M27 ammunition belts (a miniaturized version of the 7.62mm M13 belt), from either an unsupported loose belt, enclosed in a polymer ammunition box with a 200-round capacity attached to the base of the receiver, or from detachable STANAG magazines, used in other NATO 5.56mm assault rifles such as the M16 and FNC. Magazine feeding is used only as an auxiliary measure, when belted ammunition has been exhausted. The ammunition belt is introduced into the feed tray, magazines are seated inside the magazine port at a 45° angle, located beneath the feed tray port. When a belt is placed in the feed tray it covers the magazine port. Likewise, a magazine inserted into the magazine well will prevent the simultaneous insertion of a belt. The magazine port, when not in use, is closed with an L-shaped hinged flap equipped with a tooth, which engages a corresponding opening in the magazine and serves as a magazine release. This feature was developed by FN's Maurice V. Bourlet and allows the Minimi to transition instantaneously from belt feed to magazine feed without any modification.[3]

The pawl-type feeding mechanism is modeled on the system used in the MAG general purpose machine gun, which borrows from the World War II-era MG 42. The belt is moved in two stages during both the forward and rearward movement of the reciprocating bolt carrier, which provides for a smooth and continuous feeding cycle. The feeding mechanism top cover features a device that indicates the presence of a cartridge in the feed path.


The barrels used in the Minimi have an increased heat capacity for sustained fire, feature a chrome-lined rifled bore (six right-hand grooves) and are manufactured in two versions: with a 178 mm (1:7 in) twist rate used to stabilize the heavier Belgian 5.56×45mm SS109 projectile, or a 305 mm (1:12 in) twist for use with American M193 ammunition. The barrels have a quick-change capability; a lever is provided on the left side of the weapon that releases the barrel from its trunnion. A carrying handle is also fixed to the barrel and assists in the barrel change process. A trained soldier can perform a barrel change and ready the weapon for aimed fire in 6–7 seconds. Early versions of the Minimi had a flash suppressor with side ports as seen on the FNC, CAL and FAL rifles; new production guns have a shorter, cone-shaped slotted flash suppressor.


Both the standard and Para models come with a rear sight, adjustable for windage and elevation, that provides a peep aperture for ranges from 300 to 1000 m in 100 m increments. The hooded front sight is installed in a post on the gas block and is also adjustable for elevation and windage. Early models of the Minimi had the rear sight mounted forward of the feed cover and the front post secured to the barrel, closer to the muzzle end. An adapter can also be used that allows the use of standard NATO night and day sights.


Standard equipment supplied with the Minimi consists of three ammunition boxes, a cleaning kit stored inside the forearm, lubricant bottle, sling and blank-firing adaptor.


A U.S. Marine fires the PIP-upgraded M249 SAW.

The M249 version of the Minimi was adopted by the US military in 1982; since 1984, production for the US military is carried out entirely in the US by a local subsidiary, FN Manufacturing LLC in South Carolina.

As part of the US military's M249 Product Improvement Program (PIP), the M249 was updated with: a new synthetic stock and modified buffer assembly, a single-position gas regulator, a “birdcage” type flash hider/compensator from the M16A2, a polymer barrel heat guard, and a folding carry handle. As a result, the weapon’s weight increased to 7.47 kg (16.5 lb). Many of the PIP upgrades were later incorporated by FN for the Minimi.

A lightweight variant of the Para with a Picatinny top cover rail adapter is known as the Minimi Special Purpose Weapon (SPW). It had the magazine feed port removed to further reduce weight, and a railed MIL-STD-1913 handguard was used that enables the use of standard tactical accessories.

Another variant of the SPW requested by the US Special Operations Forces is the Mk 46 Mod 0 that incorporates a lightweight fluted barrel but lacks the magazine feed system, vehicle mounting lugs and carry handle. A railed forearm ensures modularity and mission-adaptability permitting the use of flashlights, vertical grips, and infrared laser designators. An improved variant known as the Mk 46 Mod 1 with an improved forward rail and lightweight titanium bipod has been adopted by the United States Navy.

The Minimi prototype was originally designed in 7.62x51mm NATO, and later redesigned around the 5.56mm cartridge. When the USSOCOM issued the requirements for the Mk 48 Mod 0, the original plans for the Minimi were retrieved and used to develop this new model. As a result of favorable reviews of the Mk 48 Mod 0 and increasing demand for a more powerful variant of the Minimi, FN Herstal introduced the Minimi 7.62, available in several different configurations. Apart from the different caliber, the Minimi 7.62 incorporates a non-adjustable, self-regulating gas system and a hydraulic recoil buffer in the buttstock assembly. The Minimi 7.62 also has a different sight setup calibrated for the larger cartridge. The rear sight is adjustable from 100 to 1,000 m by 100 m increments. The sight can also be corrected for windage. A variant of the Minimi 7.62 equipped with a railed Picatinny handguard is the Minimi 7.62 TR.

Copies of the Minimi have been produced in China, called the XY 5.56 x 45, produced in 5.56x45mm NATO.[4] It is meant for export.[4]


Canadian soldiers training with the C9A1. The C9A1 is a Belgian-made Minimi Standard equipped with a 3.4x C79 optical sight.
A Minimi Para gunner of the French Army.
A British soldier from the Queen's Dragoon Guards fires the L108A1 version of the Minimi support weapon.
An Australian soldier with the F89A1 version of the Minimi. This particular gun is fitted with a blank-firing adaptor for simulated firing.
A Swedish Army soldier with a Ksp 90B leads a CV9040C vehicle out of a simulated forward deployed location at the National Training Center in Fort Irwin, California, during exercise Bold Quest.


  1. ^ MINIMI 7.62 Standard Sliding Butt
  2. ^ "The MINIMI 5.56 can be fitted with a hydraulic buffer for stabilized rate of fire and reduced recoil forces. The design of the buttstock contributes to easy, comfortable and accurate firing."—MINIMI 5.56 Standard,
  3. ^ Supply device for a portable firearm Patent number: 4112817, Google patents.
  4. ^ a b Popenker, Maxim & Williams, Anthony G., page 41.
  5. ^
  6. ^ a b c d e Miller, David (2001). The Illustrated Directory of 20th Century Guns. Salamander Books Ltd. ISBN 1-84065-245-4.
  7. ^ The Canadian Army - Equipment
  8. ^ Canadian Forces - Visual Guide - GPMG Canadian American Strategic Review website
  9. ^ Jane's Sentinel Security Assessment - Southeast Asia. Issue 20 – 2007. Coulsdon: Jane's Information Group. pp. 146 and 152. 
  10. ^ Terre - MINIMI
  11. ^ Hellenic Defense Systems
  12. ^
  13. ^ Exhibition of Equipments. Retrieved on July 29, 2008.
  14. ^
  15. ^ "Unofficial Pistols Page, Equipment". - Unofficial Website of Unité Spéciale, Officially Endorsed. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
  16. ^ "L'Unite d'Intervention de la Police Luxembourgeoise" (in French). RAIDS Magazine. March 2006. Retrieved 2009-09-23. 
  17. ^ Lasterra, Juan Pablo (2004). "UPS Unidad Especial de la Policia Luxembourguesa" (in Spanish). ARMAS Magazine. Retrieved 2009-09-23. 
  18. ^ Thompson, Leroy (December 2008). "Malaysian Special Forces". Special Weapons. Retrieved 2009-11-29. 
  19. ^
  20. ^ New Zealand Army official site
  21. ^ Daniel Watters. "The 5.56 X 45mm: 2002-2003". Retrieved 2009-03-25. 
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^ Lätt kulspruta 90. Retrieved on October 6, 2008. (Swedish)
  25. ^ General Purpose Machine Guns of Sweden. Retrieved on October 9, 2008.
  26. ^


  • Popenker, Maxim & Williams, Anthony G. (2008). Machine Gun. The Development of the Machine Gun from the Nineteenth Century to the Present Day. London: Crowood Press. ISBN 978-1847970305. 

External links

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