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.The word fact can refer to verified information about past or present circumstances or events which are presented as objective reality.^ Disclaimer:The facts listed on this site are believed to be true, but we have not verified all of them, so some of the information may be incorrect.
  • The Most Amazing Facts on the Internet 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: General]

^ Encyclopedia .com provides students and teachers facts , information , and biographies from verified, citable sources, including: .
  • domino theory Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about domino theory 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • quantum theory Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about quantum theory 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In short, you will find some relevant information about alcohol facts and maybe even some alcohol statistics when you watch these videos.
  • Facts About Alcohol | Alcohol Facts | Alcohol Statistics | Alcohol Deaths 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.about-alcohol-facts.com [Source type: Academic]

In science, it means a provable concept.[1][2].

Contents

Etymology and usage

.The word fact derives from the Latin Factum, and was first used in English with the same meaning: "a thing done or performed", a use that is now obsolete.^ Words in English often have multiple meanings.
  • Is the theory of evolution just a theory? 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.religioustolerance.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The word cell is derived from the Latin word ' cellula ' which means small compartment.

^ They both mean the same thing.

[3] .The common usage of, "something that has really occurred or is the case", dates from the middle of the sixteenth century.^ As the above examples show, restricting "theory" to something "tested and is supported by evidence" flies in the face of centuries of usage.
  • What is a Theory? 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.uwgb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[4]
.Fact is sometimes used synonymously with truth or reality, as distinguishable from conclusions or opinions.^ In fact, it is my opinion, based on personal experience with reptiles and not on any formal research, that many reptiles use farts as a weapon.
  • Facts on Farts 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.heptune.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fact : Every serious scholar and government commission examining the relationship between marijuana use and crime has reached the same conclusion: marijuana does not cause crime.
  • Myths and Facts About Marijuana 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Since they have real life scientist to help them with facts they use in the script, I always end up learning something while watching the show.
  • The Big Bang Theory on TV.com 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.tv.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This use is found in such phrases Matter of fact,[5] and "... not history, nor fact, but imagination."
.Fact also indicates a matter under discussion deemed to be true or correct, such as to emphasize a point or prove a disputed issue; (e.g., "... the fact of the matter is ..."^ The first issue to consider is whether or not the defendant, Darunee Charnchoengsilpakul, is the person who made the statements under discussion.
  • FACT – Freedom Against Censorship Thailand 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC facthai.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That principle is equivalent to: for every proposition p which can be true, there exists a set of facts G whose members are represented by p such that every member of G necessitates p .
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Facts, then, are perhaps qualified to play the role of what makes judgements correct and propositions true.
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

).[6][7]
.Alternatively, fact may also indicate an allegation or stipulation of something that may or may not be a "true fact",[8] (e.g., "the author's facts are not trustworthy").^ Disclaimer:The facts listed on this site are believed to be true, but we have not verified all of them, so some of the information may be incorrect.
  • The Most Amazing Facts on the Internet 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: General]

^ Those who take these to be problems may endorse the following weaker principle: for every proposition p which can be true and every world w at which it is true, there is a fact which makes it true.
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May i point out that the name of this site is worthless facts, not trustworthy facts – purplearcher07 .

This alternate usage, although contested by some, has a long history in standard English.[9]
.Fact may also indicate findings derived through a process of evaluation, including review of testimony, direct observation, or otherwise; as distinguishable from matters of inference or speculation.^ Supervenience is a direct consequence of No Twins , but one may wish to leave open the possibility of distinct worlds containing the same facts.
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After you click the "Pay by FACTS" button, e-Cashier will lead you through the process of creating a FACTS agreement.
  • Payment Plan Options 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.kilgore.edu [Source type: General]

^ If polar bears survived the past interglacial, as late 2007 findings indicate, the present warming may be of little consequence.
  • Facts about Climate Change Science, truth from consensus and climate change skeptics 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.climatechangefacts.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] .This use is reflected in the terms "fact-find" and "fact-finder" (e.g., "set up a fact-finding commission").^ Fact : None of the medical tests currently used to detect brain damage in humans have found harm from marijuana, even from long term high-dose use.
  • Myths and Facts About Marijuana 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Using the facts of controlled demolition is not about being Richard Gage, but rather about using the most effective evidence for waking people up.
  • The Facts Speak For Themselves | 911Blogger.com 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.911blogger.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As sets are fundamental objects that can be used to define all other concepts in mathematics, they are not defined in terms of more fundamental concepts.
  • Set Theory (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 23 September 2009 3:49 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]
.Facts may be checked by reason, experiment, personal experience, or may be argued from authority.^ In fact, it is my opinion, based on personal experience with reptiles and not on any formal research, that many reptiles use farts as a weapon.
  • Facts on Farts 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.heptune.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Says: May 1st, 2007 at 9:27 am as far as why they are posted as fact, the definition of fact is a piece of information that can be checked for validity.
  • 50 Interesting Facts 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.hemmy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Roger Bacon wrote "If in other sciences we should arrive at certainty without doubt and truth without error, it behooves us to place the foundations of knowledge in mathematics."[12]

Fact in philosophy

.In philosophy, the concept fact is considered in epistemology and ontology.^ It is locutions of this second sort that philosophers have often employed in order to claim (or deny) that facts are part of the inventory of what there is, and play an important role in semantics, ontology, metaphysics, epistemology and the philosophy of mind.
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Questions of objectivity and truth are closely associated with questions of fact.^ Someone might hold that coherence with a set of beliefs is the test of truth but that truth consists in correspondence to objective facts.
  • The Coherence Theory of Truth (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He assumes, in a way that a coherent theorist can regard as question-begging, that the truth-maker of the sentence in question is an objective way the world is.
  • The Coherence Theory of Truth (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If, however, truth consists in correspondence to objective facts, coherence with a set of beliefs will not be a test of truth.
  • The Coherence Theory of Truth (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.A "fact" can be defined as something which is the case, that is, the state of affairs[13] reported by a true proposition.^ If a state of affairs obtains, then an obtaining state of affairs exists, a fact exists.
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A fact is just an obtaining state of affairs, .
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In any case, this is still true in the United States.
  • Classics in the History of Psychology -- A. H. Maslow (1943) A Theory of Human Motivation 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC psychclassics.yorku.ca [Source type: Original source]

[14][15]
.Facts may be understood as that which makes a true sentence true.^ Facts make propositions true.
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Disclaimer:The facts listed on this site are believed to be true, but we have not verified all of them, so some of the information may be incorrect.
  • The Most Amazing Facts on the Internet 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: General]

^ Those who take these to be problems may endorse the following weaker principle: for every proposition p which can be true and every world w at which it is true, there is a fact which makes it true.
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, the statement "Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system" is made true by the fact Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system.^ The proposition that Socrates is not a philosopher is made true, on his view, by the fact that the atomic facts which actually obtain are all the atomic facts there are—a totality fact.
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Factualist truthmaker maximalism says that every truth is made true by a fact.
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hottest planet in the solar system is Venus, with an estimated surface temperature of 864 F (462 C).

.Facts may also be understood as those things to which a true sentence refers.^ Disclaimer:The facts listed on this site are believed to be true, but we have not verified all of them, so some of the information may be incorrect.
  • The Most Amazing Facts on the Internet 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: General]

^ Those who take these to be problems may endorse the following weaker principle: for every proposition p which can be true and every world w at which it is true, there is a fact which makes it true.
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those who are reluctant to admit disjunctive, conjunctive, negative and totality facts may wish to adopt the following principle (weaker than P2): .
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The statement "Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system" is about the fact Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system.^ The hottest planet in the solar system is Venus, with an estimated surface temperature of 864 F (462 C).

[16]
.Misunderstanding of the difference between fact and theory sometimes leads to fallacy in rhetoric,[citation needed] in which one person will say his or her claim is factual whereas the opponent's claim is just theory.^ The theory doesn’t need to say just one thing.
  • CommunityWiki: Theory Building 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.communitywiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Decision theory can be viewed as a theory of one person games, or a game of a single player against nature.

^ Says: July 15th, 2007 at 2:46 pm One-third of your facts are LIES!!!
  • 50 Interesting Facts 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.hemmy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such statements indicate confusion as to the meanings of both words, suggesting the speaker believes that fact means "truth," and theory means "speculation."^ Unlike empirical theory, however, propositions in normative theory are not subject to empirical test as a means of establishing their truth or falsehood.
  • The IR Theory Knowledge Base 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.irtheory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the antievolutionists insist on exploiting the public's misunderstanding of words like theory and believe , then we shouldn't fight it.
  • Clive Thompson: Why Science Will Triumph Only When Theory Becomes Law 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: News]

^ Some of the power and meaning of game theory can be illustrated by assessing the statement "If we were all better people the world would be a better place."

Correspondence and the slingshot argument

.Some versions of the correspondence theory of truth hold that what makes a sentence true is that it corresponds to a fact.^ The coherence theory of truth has several versions.
  • The Coherence Theory of Truth (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A fact is just a true truth-bearer, .
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Facts make propositions true.
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .This theory presupposes the existence of an objective world.^ The correspondence theory, in contrast, states that the truth conditions of propositions are not (in general) propositions, but rather objective features of the world.
  • The Coherence Theory of Truth (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Slingshot argument claims to show that all true statements stand for the same thing - the truth value true.^ Accepting cell-structure as the basis of all vegetable tissues, he sought to show that the same is true of animal tissues.

^ One may wish to claim that there are such things as the fact that Socrates exists, the fact that Socrates exists and every number is a number, and the fact that singleton {Socrates} exists, and that all or some of these facts are distinct.
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The same thing can be said of all approaches to the prevention of alcohol problems (Moskowitz 1986) and to health education in general (Lorig & Laurin 1985).
  • Archived: Theories, Dominant Models, and the Need for Applied Research 23 September 2009 3:49 UTC www.ed.gov [Source type: Academic]

If this argument holds, and facts are taken to be what true statements stand for, then we reach the counter-intuitive conclusion that there is only one fact - "the truth".[18]

Compound facts

.Any non-trivial true statement about reality is necessarily an abstraction composed of a complex of objects and properties or relations.^ According to yet another view, facts are complexes made up of objects and properties and those complexes which are facts are less basic than their parts (Fine 1982) .
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A fact is just a sui generis type of entity in which objects exemplify properties or stand in relations.
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The assumption that facts contain objects, properties and relations as proper parts may be criticised (Lowe 1998, Vallicella 2002, Künne 2003).
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19] .For example, the fact described by the true statement "Paris is the capital city of France" implies that there is such a place as Paris, there is such a place as France, there are such things as capital cities, as well as that France has a government, that the government of France has the power to define its capital city, and that the French government has chosen Paris to be the capital, that there is such a thing as a "place" or a "government", etc..^ Suppose there is such a thing as the fact [being human; Socrates].
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those who take these to be problems may endorse the following weaker principle: for every proposition p which can be true and every world w at which it is true, there is a fact which makes it true.
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In such oppositions each term necessarily implies its opposite and there is no middle term" ( Daniel Chandler ).
  • Introduction to Modern Literary Theory 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.kristisiegel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The verifiable accuracy of all of these assertions, if facts themselves, may coincide to create the fact that Paris is the capital of France.^ Disclaimer:The facts listed on this site are believed to be true, but we have not verified all of them, so some of the information may be incorrect.
  • The Most Amazing Facts on the Internet 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: General]

^ Those who take these to be problems may endorse the following weaker principle: for every proposition p which can be true and every world w at which it is true, there is a fact which makes it true.
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jehovah....Why, though, are all these facts of history brought to our attention?
  • Facts Jehovah's Witnesses Don't Want You to Know 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.4jehovah.org [Source type: Original source]

.Difficulties arise, however, in attempting to identify the constituent parts of negative, modal, disjunctive, or moral facts.^ Those who are reluctant to admit disjunctive, conjunctive, negative and totality facts may wish to adopt the following principle (weaker than P2): .
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In turn, the existence of an operation of disjunction is ensured if Modal Criterion and B3 are accepted — in particular under the view of facts as sets of worlds; in that case, union is a disjunction operation.
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ G = df { x n : x ∈ H ∩ F # } (the negative image of G ); c G = df { H c : H ⊆ G , H ∈π( F )} (the conjunctive closure of G ); d G = df { H d : G ∩ H ≠ ∅, H ∈ P ( F )*}(the disjunctive closure of G); G is consistent iff for every fact x in F # , not both x ∈ G and x n ∈ G ; G is maximal iff ¬( x ∈ G ) implies x in F # and x n ∈ G .
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]

The fact-value distinction

Moral philosophers since David Hume have debated whether values are objective, and thus factual. .In A Treatise of Human Nature Hume pointed out there is no obvious way for a series of statements about what ought to be the case to be derived from a series of statements of what is the case.^ Moreover, the electrons are no longer thought of as being at a particular point in the orbit but rather as being spread out over the entire orbit.
  • quantum theory Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about quantum theory 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I’d also like to mention something I caought from the show that no one else has pointed out.
  • The Theory Behind Abc’s ‘Lost’ - Lost Review 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.lostreview.com [Source type: General]

^ As Richard Ryder points out (using the language of rights), “humans suffer if denied the right to vote, so this is important for humans but it is not so for other species.
  • A Theory of Ethics | Vegan Outreach 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.veganoutreach.org [Source type: Original source]

.Those who insist there is a logical gulf between facts and values, such that it is fallacious to attempt to derive values from facts, include G. E. Moore, who called attempting to do so the Naturalistic fallacy.^ Call such facts substantial facts , and that view Substantialism .
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those who take these to be problems may endorse the following weaker principle: for every proposition p which can be true and every world w at which it is true, there is a fact which makes it true.
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those folks who acquire the term "Wise Beyond Their Years" often have had to get there the hard way.

The factual-counterfactual distinction

Factuality — what has occurred — can also be contrasted with counterfactuality — what might have occurred, but did not. .A counterfactual conditional or subjunctive conditional is a conditional (or "if-then") statement indicating what would be the case if events had been other than they actually are.^ I would be grateful for indications of similar dictionaries in other languages, and indeed for any suggestions or corrections.
  • Some Dictionaries of Literary Theory and Related Areas 23 September 2009 3:49 UTC www.rci.rutgers.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The old method of investigation had been carried as far as it would go, and they applied the only other which remained, and made it familiar to the general mind.
  • The Cell Theory (1853) 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC aleph0.clarku.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, they live simpler lives than Americans.
  • WebMD News Watch: Health Care Reform: Myths vs. Facts 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

For example, "If Alexander had lived, his empire would have been greater than Rome". This is to be contrasted with an indicative conditional, which indicates what is (in fact) the case if its antecedent is (in fact) true — for example, "if you drink this, it will make you well".
.Such sentences are important to Modal logic, especially since the development of Possible world semantics.^ Agnew (1992:75) also noted that it is not a fully developed alternative to other theories, since it does not extend into the macrosocial world and does not take into account factors such as strain caused by non-social means.

^ They wish to formulate claims with modal content, they want to determine which entities there can or must be, and which are their properties across all (metaphysically) possible worlds .
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While factors such as intellect and mood may not be as important for a cow or a mouse, they are crucial for the development of healthy humans.
  • Cloning Fact Sheet 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.ornl.gov [Source type: Academic]

Fact in science

.Just as in philosophy, the scientific concept of fact is central to fundamental questions regarding the nature, methods, scope and validity of scientific reasoning.^ Thus, “we reach the conception of a mental state as a state of the person apt for producing certain ranges of behavior.” Armstrong’s answer to the remaining empirical question—what in fact is the intrinsic nature of these (mental) causes?—was that they are physical states of the central nervous system.
  • Identity Theory [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However Carnap did regard the identity as a linguistic recommendation rather than as asserting a question of fact.
  • The Identity Theory of Mind (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This paper examines the scientific basis for questioning the validity of macroevolutionary theories.
  • General Rebuttal to the Theory of Evolution 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.godandscience.org [Source type: Academic]

.In the most basic sense, a scientific fact is an objective and verifiable observation; in contrast with a hypothesis or theory, which is intended to explain or interpret facts.^ Is the theory of evolution a scientific theory or an established fact?
  • Is the theory of evolution just a theory? 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.religioustolerance.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Theories are structures of ideas that explain and interpret facts.
  • Stephen Jay Gould, "Evolution as Fact and Theory" 1994 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Now some may be happy with the view that the fact that Socrates exists is a truthmaker (in the usual sense) for the proposition that Socrates exists—and so with the view that the obtaining of the fact explains the truth of the proposition, but the view that the truth of that proposition is explained by the obtaining of the fact that the singleton exists is highly implausible.
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] .(For an example see Evolution as theory and fact.^ Is the theory of evolution a scientific theory or an established fact?
  • Is the theory of evolution just a theory? 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.religioustolerance.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most biologists believe that evolution is more than a theory; it is an established fact.
  • Is the theory of evolution just a theory? 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.religioustolerance.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The late Carl Sagan went so far as to write that " Evolution is a fact, not a theory, " in his printed book which accompanied the Cosmos television series.
  • Is the theory of evolution just a theory? 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.religioustolerance.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)
Various scholars have offered significant refinements to this basic formulation, some of which are detailed below. .Also, rigorous scientific use of the term "fact" is careful to distinguish: 1) states of affairs in the external world; from 2) assertions of fact that may be considered relevant in scientific analysis.^ If a state of affairs obtains, then an obtaining state of affairs exists, a fact exists.
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Suppose that facts are obtaining states of affairs.
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A fact is just an obtaining state of affairs, .
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term is used in both senses in the philosophy of science.^ The term transnational is used both to label the actor (for example, a transnational actor) or a pattern of behavior (for example, an international organisation that acts transnationally - operates across state borders).
  • The IR Theory Knowledge Base 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.irtheory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term has been used to describe both intentional communities that attempted to create an ideal society, and fictional societies portrayed in literature.
  • The Theory Behind Abc’s ‘Lost’ - Lost Review 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.lostreview.com [Source type: General]

[22]

Scholarly inquiry regarding scientific fact

.Scholars and clinical researchers in both the social and natural sciences have forwarded numerous questions and theories in clarifying the fundamental nature of scientific fact.^ Is the theory of evolution a scientific theory or an established fact?
  • Is the theory of evolution just a theory? 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.religioustolerance.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Social Science Research 23, 1994.
  • Facts on Fatherless Kids 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.photius.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If pursued to its logical conclusions, it would lead to not just a theory of social development, but a unifying theory of knowledge —which does not yet exist in any field of science or art.
  • Social Development Theory 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.icpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] Some pertinent issues raised by this inquiry include:
.
  • the process by which "established fact" becomes recognized and accepted as such;[24]
  • whether and to what extent "fact" and "theoretic explanation" can be considered truly independent and separable from one another;[25][26]
  • to what extent are "facts" influenced by the mere act of observation;[26] and
  • to what extent are factual conclusions influenced by history and consensus, rather than a strictly systematic methodology.^ Put another way, a universal view like that of the Original Position involves an “equal consideration of interests” of all those beings one could become.
    • A Theory of Ethics | Vegan Outreach 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.veganoutreach.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ She chose abortion, but not on Indiana's terms: rather than seek the consent of one parent, as state law required, she planned to have the procedure performed on a Saturday in Kentucky.
    • Abortion - Just Facts 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.justfacts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Discussing the macaque monkeys who chose to starve rather than inflict pain on another, Drs.
    • A Theory of Ethics | Vegan Outreach 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.veganoutreach.org [Source type: Original source]

    [27]
.Consistent with the theory of confirmation holism, some scholars assert "fact" to be necessarily "theory-laden" to some degree.^ Since the category of facts is a formal category, a semantic or ontological category, we then look in some detail at different formal theories of facts and their ilk.
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A theory is defined as a 'speculative idea,' 'a formulation of apparent relationships or underlying principles of certain observed phenomena which has been verified to some degree,' or popularly, 'a mere conjecture'.
  • Is the theory of evolution just a theory? 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.religioustolerance.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There’s no connection, and that’s been confirmed by some of bin Laden’s terrorist followers… What you’ve seen here is the manipulation of intelligence for political ends.
  • The Facts Speak For Themselves | 911Blogger.com 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.911blogger.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thomas Kuhn and others pointed out that knowing what facts to measure, and how to measure them, requires the use of some other theory (e.g., age of fossils is based on radiocarbon dating which is justified by reasoning that radioactive decay follows a Poisson process rather than a Bernoulli process).^ And the others (the sientist) know some tricks with it.
  • The Theory Behind Abc’s ‘Lost’ - Lost Review 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.lostreview.com [Source type: General]

^ As I pointed out in Fact #20, "Lt.
  • The Facts Speak For Themselves | 911Blogger.com 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.911blogger.com [Source type: Original source]

^ An important distinction between this subject and classical game theory (a branch of economics) is that game players are assumed to move in sequence rather than simultanously, so there is no point in randomization or other information-hiding strategies.
  • Combinatorial Game Theory 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.ics.uci.edu [Source type: General]

.Similarly, Percy Williams Bridgman is credited with the methodological position known as operationalism, which asserts that all observations are not only influenced, but necessarily defined by the means and assumptions used to measure them.^ To me that air sovereignty concept means that you have a role which, if you were postured only externally you defined out of the job ."
  • The Facts Speak For Themselves | 911Blogger.com 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.911blogger.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Coherentists can only, unless they are to compromise their position, define comprehensiveness in terms of the size of a system.
  • The Coherence Theory of Truth (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As sets are fundamental objects that can be used to define all other concepts in mathematics, they are not defined in terms of more fundamental concepts.
  • Set Theory (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 23 September 2009 3:49 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fact and the scientific method

.Apart from the fundamental inquiry in to the nature of scientific fact, there remain the practical and social considerations of how fact is investigated, established, and substantiated through the proper application of the scientific method.^ Is the theory of evolution a scientific theory or an established fact?
  • Is the theory of evolution just a theory? 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.religioustolerance.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perhaps there are facts but facts are not ontologically fundamental.
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Far from being something natural that was repressed, Foucault suggests, 'sex' is a complex idea produced by a range of social practices, investigations, talk, and writing - 'discourses' or 'discursive practices' for short - that come together in the nineteenth century.

[28] .Scientific facts are generally believed to be independent of the observer: no matter who performs a scientific experiment, all observers will agree on the outcome.^ Disclaimer:The facts listed on this site are believed to be true, but we have not verified all of them, so some of the information may be incorrect.
  • The Most Amazing Facts on the Internet 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: General]

^ No matter what she says about her innocence, they believe she knew all along and allowed him to molest.

^ Says: September 6th, 2007 at 12:47 am well…i not at all believe on the fact 37 coz nothings in the hand of humans!
  • 50 Interesting Facts 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.hemmy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] .In addition to these considerations, there are the social and institutional measures, such as peer review and accreditation, that are intended to promote factual accuracy (among other interests) in scientific study.^ It is such considerations as these that suggest the bold [p.
  • Classics in the History of Psychology -- A. H. Maslow (1943) A Theory of Human Motivation 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC psychclassics.yorku.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, if an increase in the perception of risk associated with the use of drugs is achieved, the extent to which peers and institutional policies reinforce these perceptions must be measured.
  • Archived: Theories, Dominant Models, and the Need for Applied Research 23 September 2009 3:49 UTC www.ed.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The bears are studied by the Others, they must have been brought there… Then the Others are one group only.
  • The Theory Behind Abc’s ‘Lost’ - Lost Review 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.lostreview.com [Source type: General]

[30]

Fact in history

.A common rhetorical cliché states, "History is written by the winners." This phrase suggests but does not examine the use of facts in the writing of history.^ In the State of California, it is against the law for anyone under 18 years of age to use a tanning machine without written consent from their parent or legal guardian.
  • Abortion - Just Facts 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.justfacts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fact: Marijuana does not cause people to use hard drugs.
  • Myths and Facts About Marijuana 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Common search terms used when finding this page were: Chuck Norris jokes, Chuck Norris Facts, jokes about Chuck Norris, Chuck Norris roundhouse kicks.
  • THE CHUCK NORRIS FACTS - TOP 100 CHUCK NORRIS JOKES 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC thechucknorrisfacts.com [Source type: Original source]

.E. H. Carr in his 1961 volume, What is History?, argues that the inherent biases from the gathering of facts makes the objective truth of any historical perspective idealistic and impossible.^ Someone might hold that coherence with a set of beliefs is the test of truth but that truth consists in correspondence to objective facts.
  • The Coherence Theory of Truth (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On another, incompatible view, facts are what make true propositions true, or more generally, account for their truth.
  • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since idealists do not recognize an ontological distinction between beliefs and what makes them true, distinguishing between versions of the coherence theory of truth adopted by idealists and an identity theory of truth can be difficult.
  • The Coherence Theory of Truth (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Facts are, "like fish in the Ocean," of which we may only happen to catch a few, only an indication of what is below the surface.^ Recovery has been extremely slow, and only in the last few years have there been signs that their numbers may be increasing.
  • Blue Whale | Cetacean Fact Sheet | American Cetacean Society 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.acsonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the oceans, major climate warming and cooling is a fact of life, whether it is over a few years as in an El Niño or over decades as in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation or the North Atlantic Oscillation.
  • Facts about Climate Change Science, truth from consensus and climate change skeptics 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.climatechangefacts.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only can the flame back up into your colon, but your clothing or other surroundings may catch on fire.
  • Facts on Farts 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.heptune.com [Source type: Original source]

.Even a dragnet cannot tell us for certain what it would be like to live below the Ocean's surface.^ If you would like to give a talk to the group, contact us to make arrangements.

^ I cannot prove she had anything but a spontaneous abortion," said Pless, who said he based his conclusions on "the percentages" of what would most likely to produce the results he observed.
  • Abortion - Just Facts 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.justfacts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Why would any sane person think they can be trusted to overhaul the system when they cannot even put minor reforms into place?"
  • WebMD News Watch: Health Care Reform: Myths vs. Facts 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

.Even if we do not discard any facts (or fish) presented, we will always miss the majority; the site of our fishing, the methods undertaken, the weather and even luck play a vital role in what we will catch.^ Our site makes every effort to present the true science of climate change.
  • Facts about Climate Change Science, truth from consensus and climate change skeptics 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.climatechangefacts.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fact that they often are pursued even at great cost to the individual's safety is an earnest of the partial character of our previous discussion.
  • Classics in the History of Psychology -- A. H. Maslow (1943) A Theory of Human Motivation 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC psychclassics.yorku.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The scientific method played a major role in convincing the medical fraternity to correct their beliefs by accepting a bacterial cause to ulcers.
  • Is the theory of evolution just a theory? 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.religioustolerance.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Additionally, the composition of history is inevitably made up by the compilation of many different bias of fact finding - all compounded over time.^ From a different vantage point, this may also help explain why so many people exhibit alcoholism and depression at the same time.
  • Facts About Alcohol | Alcohol Facts | Alcohol Statistics | Alcohol Deaths 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.about-alcohol-facts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This was the first time in modern history that a nation's laws applied equally to all citizens.

^ However, fate will still find a way to paralyze you once you catch up with the current time.
  • Lost: A Theory on Time Travel 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.timelooptheory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He concludes that for a historian to attempt a more objective method, one must accept that history can only aspire to a conversation of the present with the past - and that one's methods of fact gathering should be openly examined.^ The method involves cleaving and none of our test subjects got past one shot.
  • Saurfang facts - WoWWiki - Your guide to the World of Warcraft 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.wowwiki.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The idea is that each player gains when both cooperate, but if only one of them cooperates, the other one, who defects, will gain more.
  • The IR Theory Knowledge Base 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.irtheory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bears are studied by the Others, they must have been brought there… Then the Others are one group only.
  • The Theory Behind Abc’s ‘Lost’ - Lost Review 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.lostreview.com [Source type: General]

.As with science, historical truth and facts will therefore change over time and reflect only the present consensus (if that).^ Similar to reflections on water only in time.
  • michaelmTheory.com: When Photons Collide 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC michaelmtheory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Facts about Climate Change Science, truth from consensus and climate change skeptics .
  • Facts about Climate Change Science, truth from consensus and climate change skeptics 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.climatechangefacts.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cause of the temperature rise, and therefore the future course, is settled only within the consensus group of scientists.
  • Facts about Climate Change Science, truth from consensus and climate change skeptics 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.climatechangefacts.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fact in law

.In most common law jurisdictions,[31] the general concept and analysis of fact reflects fundamental principles of Jurisprudence, and is supported by several well-established standards.^ An analysis of the tree of life at its most basic level (kingdoms) indicates that organisms do not share common descent ( 38 ).
  • General Rebuttal to the Theory of Evolution 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.godandscience.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The challenge for development theorists is to discover in India’s recent experiences fundamental principles and processes that are common to these two distinctly different instances of rapid social advancement, as well as to other instances of development in other countries, periods, and fields of activity.
  • Social Development Theory 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.icpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Large institutions generally encompass well-established patterns.

[32][33] Matters of fact have various formal definitions under common law jurisdictions.
These include:
.
  • the determinations of the finder of fact after evaluating admissible evidence produced in a trial or hearing;[36]
  • a potential ground of reversible error forwarded on appeal in an appellate court;[37] and
  • any of various matters subject to investigation by official authority to establish whether a crime has been perpetrated, and to establish culpability.^ Herein, states are the only official 'subjects' or 'persons' of international law because they have the capacity to enter into legal relations and to have legal rights and duties.
    • The IR Theory Knowledge Base 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.irtheory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Daranee argued that the judge had no power to do so, and was obliged to forward her appeal to the Constitutional Court.
    • FACT – Freedom Against Censorship Thailand 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC facthai.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Investigations to date have not produced scientific evidence of any unusual phenomena involved in the disappearances.

    [38]

Legal pleadings

.A party to a civil suit generally must clearly state all relevant allegations of fact upon which a claim is based.^ The problem generated by examples such as these is that they appear to constitute violations of Leibniz’s Law, which states that if A is identical with B, then A and B must be indiscernible in the sense of having in common all of their (non-intensional) properties.
  • Identity Theory [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The 2008 Democratic Party Platform states that abortion should be generally legal, supports the Supreme Court ruling in Roe v.
  • Abortion - Just Facts 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.justfacts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to the fact that it is such a broad theory, it is not possible to test it all at once, and it must be broken down into its component parts (Agnew, 1992:75).

.The requisite level of precision and particularity of these allegations varies depending on the rules of civil procedure as well as the jurisdiction.^ An international regime is viewed as a set of implicit and explicit principles, norms, rules, and procedures around which actors' expectations converge in a particular issue-area.
  • The IR Theory Knowledge Base 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.irtheory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each of these levels of organization depends upon and interacts with the others.
  • Social Development Theory 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.icpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A. As to variations on the procedures or the rules, some of the procedures are entirely arbitrary, I admit.
  • PAINTING THEORY of Peter Hubbard 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.petehubbard.com [Source type: General]

.Parties who face uncertainties regarding the facts and circumstances attendant to their side in a dispute may sometimes invoke alternative pleading.^ In actual fact, most members of our society who are normal, are partially satisfied in all their basic needs and partially unsatisfied in all their basic needs at the same time.
  • Classics in the History of Psychology -- A. H. Maslow (1943) A Theory of Human Motivation 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC psychclassics.yorku.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Article: "The Facts on Partial-Birth Abortion; Both Sides Have Misled the Public."
  • Abortion - Just Facts 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.justfacts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39] .In this situation, a party may plead separate sets of facts that (when considered together) may be contradictory or mutually exclusive.^ Binary Opposition - "pairs of mutually-exclusive signifiers in a paradigm set representing categories which are logically opposed and which together define a complete universe of discourse (relevant ontological domain), e.g.
  • Introduction to Modern Literary Theory 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.kristisiegel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This (seemingly) logically-inconsistent presentation of facts may be necessary as a safeguard against contingencies (such as res judicata) that would otherwise preclude presenting a claim or defense that depends on a particular interpretation of the underlying facts.^ Such, in fact, are the so-called unicellular plants and animals–organisms which often exhibit no small complexity of external form; but present no internal histological differentiation.
  • The Cell Theory (1853) 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC aleph0.clarku.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It may be that Knowles was using ‘self-direction’ in a particular way here or needed to ask a further question - 'dependent or independent with respect to what?'
  • andragogy @ the informal education homepage 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.infed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I. INTRODUCTION In a previous paper ( 13 ) various propositions were presented which would have to be included in any theory of human motivation that could lay claim to being definitive.
  • Classics in the History of Psychology -- A. H. Maslow (1943) A Theory of Human Motivation 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC psychclassics.yorku.ca [Source type: Original source]

[40]

See also

References

  1. ^ Definition from WordNetweb.Princeton
  2. ^ "fact - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/fact. Retrieved 2008-10-15. 
  3. ^ "Fact". OED_2d_Ed_1989, (but note the conventional uses: after the fact and before the fact).
  4. ^ "Fact" (1a). OED_2d_Ed_1989 Joye Exp. Dan. xi. Z vij b, Let emprours and kinges know this godly kynges fact. 1545
  5. ^ "Fact" (4a) OED_2d_Ed_1989
  6. ^ "Fact" (6c). OED_2d_Ed_1989
  7. ^ (See also "Matter" (2,6). Compact_OED)
  8. ^ "Fact" (5). OED_2d_Ed_1989
  9. ^ According to the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, "Fact has a long history of usage in the sense 'allegation'" AHD_4th_Ed. The OED dates this use to 1729.
  10. ^ "Fact" (6a). OED_2d_Ed_1989
  11. ^ "Fact" (8). OED_2d_Ed_1989
  12. ^ Roger Bacon, translated by Robert Burke Opus Majus, Book I, Chapter 2.
  13. ^ See Wittgenstein, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Proposition 2: What is the case -- a fact -- is the existence of states of affairs.
  14. ^ "A fact is, traditionally, the worldly correlate of a true proposition, a state of affairs whose obtaining makes that proposition true". -- Fact in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy
  15. ^ "A fact, it might be said, is a state of affairs that is the case or obtains" -- Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. States of Affairs
  16. ^ Alex Oliver, Fact, in Craig, Edward (2005). Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Routledge, Oxford. ISBN 0415324955. 
  17. ^ Engel, Pascal (2002). Truth. McGill-Queen's Press- MQUP. ISBN 0773524622. 
  18. ^ The argument is presented in many places, but see for example Davidson, Truth and Meaning, in Davidson, Donald (1984). Truth and Interpretation. Clarendon Press, Oxford. ISBN 019824617x. 
  19. ^ "Facts possess internal structure, being complexes of objects and properties or relations" Oxford Companion to Philosophy
  20. ^ "Fact", in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, Ted Honderich, editor. (Oxford, 1995) ISBN 0-19-866132-0
  21. ^ Gower, Barry (1997). Scientific Method: A Historical and Philosophical Introduction. Routledge. ISBN 0415122821. 
  22. ^ Ravetz, Jerome Raymond (1996). Scientific Knowledge and Its Social Problems. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 1560008512. 
  23. ^ (Gower 1996)
  24. ^ (see e.g., Ravetz, p. 182 fn. 1)
  25. ^ Ravetz, p. 185
  26. ^ a b Gower, p. 138
  27. ^ Gower, p. 7
  28. ^ Ravetz p. 181 et. seq. (Chapter Six: "Facts and their evolution")
  29. ^ Cassell, Eric J. The Nature of Suffering and the Goals of Medicine Oxford University Press. Retrieved 16 May 2007.
  30. ^ (Ravetz 1996)
  31. ^ Ed. note: this section of the article emphasizes common law jurisprudence (as primarily represented in Anglo-American based legal tradition). Nevertheless, the principles described herein have analogous treatment in other legal systems (such as civil law systems) as well.
  32. ^ Estrich, Willis Albert (1952). American Jurisprudence: A Comprehensive Text Statement of American Case Law. Lawyers Co-operative Publishing Company. 
  33. ^ Elkouri, Frank (2003). How Arbitration Works. BNA Books. ISBN 157018335X. p. 305
  34. ^ Bishin, William R. (1972). Law Language and Ethics: An Introduction to Law and Legal Method. Foundation Press. Original from the University of Michigan Digitized March 24, 2006. p. 277
  35. ^ The Yale Law Journal: Volume 7. Yale Law Journal Co. 1898. 
  36. ^ Per Lord Shaw of Dunfermline, Clarke v. Edinburgh and District Tramways Co., 1919 S.C.(H.L.) 35, at p 36.
  37. ^ Merrill, John Houston (1895). The American and English Encyclopedia of Law. E. Thompson. Original from Harvard University Digitized April 26, 2007. 
  38. ^ Bennett, Wayne W. (2003). Criminal Investigation. Thomson Wadsworth. ISBN 0534615244. 
  39. ^ Roy W. McDonald, Alternative Pleading in the United States: I Columbia Law Review, Vol. 52, No. 4 (Apr., 1952), pp. 443-478
  40. ^ (McDonald 1952)

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Fact and theory article)

From Wikiquote

.The differences between fact and theory and between theory and practice are a common concern of scientists, engineers, and philosophers.^ In theory there shouldn't be any difference between theory and practice, but in practice there is.
  • Theory - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is the difference between a fact, a theory and a hypothesis?
  • What is the difference between a fact, a theory and a hypothesis? 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC phyun5.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Darwin continually emphasized the difference between his two great and separate accomplishments: establishing the fact of evolution, and proposing a theory - natural selection - to explain the mechanism of evolution.
  • Evolution is Not Just a Theory: home 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.notjustatheory.com [Source type: Original source]

.
  • Facts and theories are different things, not rungs in a hierarchy of increasing certainty.^ What is the difference between a fact, a theory and a hypothesis?
    • What is the difference between a fact, a theory and a hypothesis? 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC phyun5.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ And facts and theories are different things, not rungs in a hierarchy of increasing certainty.
    • Evolution is a Fact and a Theory 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Stephen Jay Gould, "Evolution as Fact and Theory" 1994 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Darwin continually emphasized the difference between his two great and separate accomplishments: establishing the fact of evolution, and proposing a theory - natural selection - to explain the mechanism of evolution.
    • Evolution is Not Just a Theory: home 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.notjustatheory.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Facts are the world's data.^ Facts are the world's data.
    • Evolution is a Fact and a Theory 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Stephen Jay Gould, "Evolution as Fact and Theory" 1994 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hypotheses associated with empirical theories are subject to test against real-world data or facts.
    • The IR Theory Knowledge Base 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.irtheory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Theories are structures of ideas that explain and interpret facts.^ Theories are structures of ideas that explain and interpret facts.
    • Evolution is a Fact and a Theory 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Stephen Jay Gould, "Evolution as Fact and Theory" 1994 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Darwin continually emphasized the difference between his two great and separate accomplishments: establishing the fact of evolution, and proposing a theory - natural selection - to explain the mechanism of evolution.
    • Evolution is Not Just a Theory: home 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.notjustatheory.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A clear distinction needs to be made between facts (things which can be observed and/or measured) and theories (explanations which correlate and interpret the facts.
    • Definition of Scientific Theory 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.fsteiger.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Facts do not go away while scientists debate rival theories for explaining them.^ Facts don't go away when scientists debate rival theories to explain them.
    • Evolution is a Fact and a Theory 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Facts do not go away when scientists debate rival theories to explain them.
    • Stephen Jay Gould, "Evolution as Fact and Theory" 1994 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Darwin continually emphasized the difference between his two great and separate accomplishments: establishing the fact of evolution, and proposing a theory - natural selection - to explain the mechanism of evolution.
    • Evolution is Not Just a Theory: home 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.notjustatheory.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Einstein's theory of gravitation replaced Newton's, but apples did not suspend themselves in mid-air pending the outcome.^ Einstein's theory of gravitation replaced Newton's in this century, but apples didn't suspend themselves in midair, pending the outcome.
    • Evolution is a Fact and a Theory 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Einstein's theory of gravitation replaced Newton's, but apples did not suspend themselves in mid-air, pending the outcome.
    • Stephen Jay Gould, "Evolution as Fact and Theory" 1994 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.stephenjaygould.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Actually, Newton's Theory of Gravity did a pretty good job, but Einstein's Theory of Relativity does a better job of explaining it.
    • Evolution is Not Just a Theory: home 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.notjustatheory.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Facts are meaningless.^ Evolution as Fact and Theory - Stephen Jay Gould 5 The Cobb County School Board required a sticker with the following text to be placed on all biology textbooks: This textbook contains material on evolution.
    • Evolution is Not Just a Theory: home 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.notjustatheory.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A "fact," as Stephen J. Gould pointed out ( see above ), means something that is so highly probable that it would be silly not to accept it.
    • Evolution is a Fact and a Theory 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The diversity of life and the variety of body designs has led Stephen Jay Gould to make the following statement: .
    • General Rebuttal to the Theory of Evolution 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.godandscience.org [Source type: Academic]

    .You could use facts to prove anything that's even remotely true!^ Abortion Facts - Information on abortion you can use .
    • Abortion Facts - Information on abortion you can use 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.abortionfacts.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The random fact will output within a so you can use css to style it however you like .

    ^ These usages may occasion qualms among critics who insist that facts can only be true, but the usages are often useful for emphasis.
    • Fact | Definition of Fact at Dictionary.com: 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Facts | Definition of Facts at Dictionary.com: 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Homer Simpson
  • In theory, there is no difference between theory and practice.^ In theory there shouldn't be any difference between theory and practice, but in practice there is.
    • Theory - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ What is the difference between a fact, a theory and a hypothesis?
    • What is the difference between a fact, a theory and a hypothesis? 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC phyun5.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There is no difference.

    But, in practice, there is.
  • Facts were never pleasing to him.^ Fact: Like a bat, dolphins use echolocation to navigate and hunt, bouncing high-pitched sounds off of objects, and listening for the echoes.
    • Dolphin Fun with facts and pictures 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC fohn.net [Source type: General]

    ^ His 20 years of aviation interest and all things nautical never got him near a plane or he never would not have made such an exaggeration to apply that to all aircraft.

    ^ Please refer to the Credits section to determine whether third-party restrictions on the use of content apply.
    • Game Theory — Open Yale Courses 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC oyc.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

    He acquired them with reluctance and got rid of them with relief. He was never on terms with them until he had stood them on their heads.
  • But facts are chiels that winna ding, and downa be disputed. .
  • There is no great harm in the theorist who makes up a new theory to fit a new event.^ There's no need for a traditional game console, because eMusic Theory's latest gaming technology enables you to use your own musical instrument as the new game controller.
    • eMusic Theory - Music Theory, Music Lessons, Online Music Theory 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.theory.com.au [Source type: General]

    ^ There is no difference of principle between factual statements and theories: both are varieties of models of reality which we use to make decisions.
    • Theories versus facts 23 September 2009 3:49 UTC pcp.lanl.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Many advocates of the Spiritualist Theory think that there is no harm in contacting the other realm because most spirits are basically benign and have important information to share.
    • Museum of Talking Boards: Automatism Versus Spiritualist Theories of Ouija 23 September 2009 3:49 UTC www.museumoftalkingboards.com [Source type: Original source]

    .But the theorist who starts with a false theory and then sees everything as making it come true is the most dangerous enemy of human reason.^ Most bats can see as well as humans.
    • Bat Facts 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.batworld.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To read more about the theory, please start with this article: Haidt & Graham (2007) [ request paper ], or see this New York Times article by Nicholas Wade.
    • Moral Foundations Theory Homepage 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC faculty.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Just about everything on theory and practice is in Bowditch's American Practical Navigator Online , but it's not an easy place to start.

  • "I should have more faith," he said; "I ought to know by this time that when a fact appears opposed to a long train of deductions it invariably proves to be capable of bearing some other interpretation."
  • It is a capital mistake to theorize before you have all the evidence. It biases the judgment.
  • It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. .Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts.^ The view that facts make propositions or other truth-bearers true is one theory among many of truthmaking.
    • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Fact #22 No one has been held accountable, and instead, people that don't deserve it, have been promoted.
    • The Facts Speak For Themselves | 911Blogger.com 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.911blogger.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A theory is defined by Webster as: The analysis of a set of facts in their relation to one another.
    • Mallory and Irvine The Final Chapter: Our Theory: EverestNews.com's theory of George Mallory and Sandy Irvine's last days on Everest  23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.everestnews2004.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Facts do not cease to exist because they are ignored.^ Albert Einstein (1879 - 1955) , (attributed) Facts do not cease to exist because they are ignored.
    • Facts Quotes - The Quotations Page 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.quotationspage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In other words, the organelles existed because they were stipulated to exist by the DNA, much like why all humans have hands or feet.
    • Symbiotic Theory 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC facstaff.gpc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This yields "fvccant [a fake Latin form] qsivvivys of BoB." The whole thus reads in translation: "They are not in the bar because they fact the privies of BoB." .
    • Fact - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • The fatal futility of Fact.^ Aldous Huxley (1894 - 1963) , "Proper Studies", 1927 Where facts are few, experts are many.
    • Facts Quotes - The Quotations Page 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.quotationspage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Talk to him of Jacob's ladder, and he would ask him the number of steps.
  • A myth is, of course, not a fairy story. .It is the presentation of facts belonging to one category in the idioms appropriate to another.^ One natural mereological principle is that the proper parts of the most basic kinds of whole belong to the same general ontological category to which their wholes belong.
    • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In fact, there is a correlation of Replacement of one nucleotide in a DNA sequence by another nucleotide or replacement of one amino acid in a protein by another amino acid.
    • General Rebuttal to the Theory of Evolution 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.godandscience.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A theory is defined by Webster as: The analysis of a set of facts in their relation to one another.
    • Mallory and Irvine The Final Chapter: Our Theory: EverestNews.com's theory of George Mallory and Sandy Irvine's last days on Everest  23 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.everestnews2004.com [Source type: Original source]

    To explode a myth is accordingly not to deny the facts but to re-allocate them. .
  • Matters of fact, which as Mr Budgell somewhere observes, are very stubborn things.^ Compare Gilbert Ryle in The Concept of Mind on the systematic elusiveness of ‘I’ (Ryle 1949, pp.
    • The Identity Theory of Mind (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The pressure is thought to be so intense that finite matter is actually squished into infinite density (a mathematical concept which truly boggles the mind).
    • Big Bang Theory 23 January 2010 19:45 UTC big-bang-theory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If you are to comprehend this mind-model, you must understand each dimension and also the very concept of dimensionality.
    • Theory of Cognitivity - Basis of Mind.Forth Robot AI and Mind.html Tutorial AI 23 September 2009 3:49 UTC mind.sourceforge.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Matthew Tindal, The Will of Matthew Tindal (1733)
  • The ink of the scholar is more holy than the blood of the martyr.^ It is also evident that Jellinek's work had more than a little impact on modern concepts such as "blood alcohol content," "blood alcohol level," and the entire alcohol testing movement.
    • Facts About Alcohol | Alcohol Facts | Alcohol Statistics | Alcohol Deaths 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.about-alcohol-facts.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The donor is then entered into the Donor Deferral Register, a national computerized database of more than 250,000 known individuals who are deferred from donating Blood.
    • Blood Facts - BloodBook, Blood Information for Life 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.bloodbook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ More than 38,000 blood donations are needed every day .
    • 50 Quick Facts | Give Life | American Red Cross 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC www.givelife2.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • said by Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) the last messenger of God

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

.
  • Fact in normal English means something whose existence is indisputable
  • Fact in Semantic MediaWiki is something appearing in the bottom section of a page, not visible in the edit box.^ Furthermore, it should be borne in mind that in ordinary English the expression “state of affairs” is not normally used to refer to something which obtains or fails to obtain.
    • Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Fact - Psychology Wiki Wikia Education Create a new wiki Log in Create an account Psychology Wiki Edit this page History Share this article Article Discussion .
    • Fact - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 11:15 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ But scientists can also use fact to mean something that has been tested or observed so many times that there is no longer a compelling reason to keep testing or looking for examples.

    It consists of a Property with a value, e.g. "Birth year 1850". It derives from something stated elsewhere on the wiki, even if it may turn out to be not factual and needing to be changed.

This article uses material from the "Fact" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

Simple English Wiktionary has the word meaning for:

A fact is something that is true or real, or something that can be shown to be true or real.

Contents

Facts as statements

A fact is something which is true. What is it that is correct? It is the sense of a statement or proposition. In principle, statements are either true or false. However, in practice, their truth value may not be known, and waits for appropriate evidence.

Examples of true statements

False statements

Opinions

A fact is not the same as an opinion. An opinion is perceived and assumed to be true, but lacks proof or evidence. The scientific method is a means by which an opinion may be tested. However, not all opinions are testable, so it may not be possible to know if they are true. An opinion that can not be tested is still an opinion until someone can find a way to test whether it is true or not.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 17, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on De facto, which are similar to those in the above article.








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