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Roundabouts (or carousels) are traditional attractions, often seen at fairs. This one was photographed at the famous Nottingham Goose Fair, England, in 1983

A fair is a gathering of people to display or trade produce or other goods, to parade or display animals and often to enjoy associated carnival or funfair entertainment. Activities at fairs vary widely. Some are important showcases for businessmen in agricultural, pastoral or horticultural districts because they present opportunities to display and demonstrate the latest machinery on the market.

Fairs are also known by many different names around the world, such as agricultural show, carnival, fete or fête, county fair or state fair, festival, market and show. Flea markets are sometimes incorporated into a fair.

Contents

Fayre

Fayre is an archaic spelling of fair, used mostly from the 15th to the 17th century. This spelling is now confusingly used for both fair and fare, the latter in the sense of 'food and drink'. In itself, the word means a gathering of stalls and amusements for public entertainment. The alternate spelling is an old-fashioned affectation and is used in order to remind revellers and participants of medieval fayres and markets.

Fairgrounds

Fairs go long into the night, and attract people with lights

The fair is an ancient tradition, and many communities have long had dedicated fairgrounds; others hold them in a variety of public places, including streets and town squares, or even in large private gardens. Fairs are often held in conjunction with a significant event, such as the anniversary of a local historical event, a seasonal event such as harvest time, or with a holiday such as Christmas.

History

Fair in Amsterdam

In Roman times, fairs were holidays on which there was an intermission of labour and pleadings. In later centuries, on any special Christian religious occasion (particularly the anniversary dedication of a church), tradesmen would bring and sell their wares, even in the churchyards. Such fairs then continued annually, usually on the feast day of the patron saint to whom the church was dedicated. This custom was kept up until the reign of Henry VI, by which time there were a great many fairs kept on these patronal festivals, for example at Westminster on St. Peter's day, at Smithfield on St. Bartholomew's (the famous Bartholomew Fair, celebrated in Ben Jonson's play of the same name) and at Durham on St. Cuthbert's day. The Kumbh Mela, held every twelve years, at Allahabad, Haridwar, Nashik and Ujjain is one of the largest fairs in India, where over 60 million people gathered in January 2001, making it the largest gathering anywhere in the world.[1][2][3] In the United States, fairs draw in as many as 150 million people each summer.[4] One example of the American county fair being featured in a famous piece of literature is in E. B. White's Charlotte's Web.[4] Children's competitions at an American fair range from breeding small animals to robotics, while the organization 4-H has become a traditional association.[4]

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Pie-powder courts

See Court of Piepowders

Because of the great numbers of people attracted by fairs they were often the scenes of riots and disturbances, so the privilege of holding a fair was granted by royal charter. At first they were only allowed in towns and places of strength, or where there was some bishop, sheriff or governor who could keep order. In time, various benefits became attached to certain fairs, such as granting people the protection of a holiday, and allowing them freedom from arrests in certain circumstances. The officials were authorised to do justice to those that came to their fair; eventually even the smallest fair would have had a court to adjudicate on offences and disputes arising within the fairground, which was called a pye powder court (from Old French pied pouldre, literally "dusty feet", meaning an itinerant trader), or pedes pulverizati.

Free fairs

CapitalEX. Edmonton Alberta

Some fairs were free; others charged tolls and impositions. At free fairs, traders, whether natives of the kingdom or foreigners, were allowed to enter the kingdom, and were under royal protection while travelling to and returning from the fair. The traders, their agents, and their goods were exempt from all duties and impositions, tolls and servitudes; merchants going to or coming from the fair could not be arrested, or have their goods stopped.

Such fairs (especially those of the Mediterranean region and some inland regions, particularly Germany), were extremely important in the commerce of Europe. The most famous were those of:

See also

References

  1. ^ Millions bathe at Hindu festival BBC News, January 3, 2007.
  2. ^ Kumbh Mela pictured from space - probably the largest human gathering in history BBC News, January 26, 2001.
  3. ^ Kumbh Mela: the largest pilgrimage - Pictures: Kumbh Mela by Karoki Lewis The Times, March 22, 2008.
  4. ^ a b c Von Drehle, David (2007-07-23). Photographs by Greg Miller. "A new Day at the Fair". Time 170 (4): 50. ISSN 0040-781X.  

External links


File:Goose Fair
Roundabouts (or carousels) are traditional attractions, often seen at fairs. This one was photographed at the famous Nottingham Goose Fair, England, in 1983

A fair (sometimes fayre) is a gathering of people to display or trade produce or other goods, to parade or display animals and often to enjoy associated carnival or funfair entertainment. Activities at fairs vary widely. Some are important showcases for businessmen in agricultural, pastoral or horticultural districts because they present opportunities to display and demonstrate the latest machinery on the market.

Fairs are also known by many different names around the world, such as agricultural show, carnival, fete or fête, county fair, exhibition or state fair, festival, market and show. Flea markets and auto shows are sometimes incorporated into a fair.

Contents

Fayre

Fayre is an archaic spelling of fair, used mostly from the 15th to the 17th century. This spelling is now confusingly used for both fair and fare, the latter in the sense of 'food and drink'. In itself, the word means a gathering of stalls and amusements for public entertainment. The alternate spelling is an old-fashioned affectation and is used in order to remind revellers and participants of medieval fayres and markets.

Fairgrounds

File:Long exposure at the
Fairs go long into the night, and attract people with lights

The fair is an ancient tradition, and many communities have long had dedicated fairgrounds; others hold them in a variety of public places, including streets and town squares, or even in large private gardens. Fairs are often held in conjunction with a significant event, such as the anniversary of a local historical event, a seasonal event such as harvest time, or with a holiday such as Christmas.

History

[[File:|thumb|Fair in Amsterdam]] In Roman times, fairs were holidays on which there was an intermission of labour and pleadings. In later centuries, on any special Christian religious occasion (particularly the anniversary dedication of a church), tradesmen would bring and sell their wares, even in the churchyards. Such fairs then continued annually, usually on the feast day of the patron saint to whom the church was dedicated. This custom was kept up until the reign of Henry VI, by which time there were a great many fairs kept on these patronal festivals, for example at Westminster on St. Peter's day, at Smithfield on St. Bartholomew's (the famous Bartholomew Fair, celebrated in Ben Jonson's play of the same name) and at Durham on St. Cuthbert's day. The Kumbh Mela, held every twelve years, at Allahabad, Haridwar, Nashik and Ujjain is one of the largest fairs in India, where over 60 million people gathered in January 2001, making it the largest gathering anywhere in the world.[1][2][3] In the United States, fairs draw in as many as 150 million people each summer.[4] One example of the American county fair being featured in a famous piece of literature is in E. B. White's Charlotte's Web.[4] Children's competitions at an American fair range from breeding small animals to robotics, while the organization 4-H has become a traditional association.[4]

Pie-powder courts

Because of the great numbers of people attracted by fairs they were often the scenes of riots and disturbances, so the privilege of holding a fair was granted by royal charter. At first they were only allowed in towns and places of strength, or where there was some bishop, sheriff or governor who could keep order. In time, various benefits became attached to certain fairs, such as granting people the protection of a holiday, and allowing them freedom from arrests in certain circumstances. The officials were authorised to do justice to those that came to their fair; eventually even the smallest fair would have had a court to adjudicate on offences and disputes arising within the fairground, which was called a pye powder court (from Old French pied pouldre, literally "dusty feet", meaning an itinerant trader), or pedes pulverizati.

Free fairs

[[File:|thumb|CapitalEX. Edmonton Alberta]] Some fairs were free; others charged tolls and impositions. At free fairs, traders, whether natives of the kingdom or foreigners, were allowed to enter the kingdom, and were under royal protection while travelling to and returning from the fair. The traders, their agents, and their goods were exempt from all duties and impositions, tolls and servitudes; merchants going to or coming from the fair could not be arrested, or have their goods stopped.

Such fairs (especially those of the Mediterranean region and some inland regions, particularly Germany), were extremely important in the commerce of Europe. The most famous were those of:

See also

References

  1. ^ Millions bathe at Hindu festival BBC News, January 3, 2007.
  2. ^ Kumbh Mela pictured from space - probably the largest human gathering in history BBC News, January 26, 2001.
  3. ^ Kumbh Mela: the largest pilgrimage - Pictures: Kumbh Mela by Karoki Lewis The Times, March 22, 2008.
  4. ^ a b c Von Drehle, David (2007-07-23). Photographs by Greg Miller. [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "A new Day at the Fair"]. Time 170 (4): 50. ISSN 0040-781X. 

External links


1911 encyclopedia

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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
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Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Wikipedia

Contents

English

Most common English words: bad « forward « remember « #519: fair » blood » copyright » late

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

Old English fæġer, from Proto-Germanic *fagroz. Cognate with Swedish fager.

Adjective

fair (comparative fairer, superlative fairest)

  1. (literary or archaic) Beautiful, of a pleasing appearance, with a pure and fresh quality.
    Monday's child is fair of face.
  2. Unblemished and innocent; clean and pure.
    one's fair name
  3. Light in color, pale, particularly as regards skin tone but also refers to blond hair.
    She had fair hair and blue eyes.
  4. Just, equitable.
    He must be given a fair trial.
  5. Adequate, reasonable, or decent.
    The patient was in a fair condition after some treatment.
  6. (baseball) Between the baselines.
Synonyms
Derived terms
Translations

Noun

Singular
fair

Plural
fairs

fair (plural fairs)

  1. Something which is fair (in various senses of the adjective).
    When will we learn to distinguish between the fair and the foul?
  2. (obsolete) A woman, a member of the ‘fair sex’; also as a collective singular, women.
    • 1744, Georg Friedrich Händel, Hercules, act 2, scene 8
      Love and Hymen, hand in hand,
      Come, restore the nuptial band!
      And sincere delights prepare
      To crown the hero and the fair.
    • 1749, Henry Fielding, Tom Jones, Folio Society 1973, p. 39:
      In enjoying, therefore, such place of rendezvous, the British fair ought to esteem themselves more happy than any of their foreign sisters [...].

Verb

Infinitive
to fair

Third person singular
fairs

Simple past
faired

Past participle
faired

Present participle
fairing

to fair (third-person singular simple present fairs, present participle fairing, simple past and past participle faired)

  1. to construct or design a structure whose primary function is to produce a smooth outline and reduce air drag.

Etymology 2

From Old French feire, from Latin fēriae.

Noun

Singular
fair

Plural
fairs

fair (plural fairs)

  1. A community gathering to celebrate and exhibit local achievements.
  2. An event for public entertainment and trade, a market.
  3. An event for professionals in a trade to learn of new products and do business.
Translations
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Verb

Infinitive
to fair

Third person singular
fairs

Simple past
faired

Past participle
faired

Present participle
fairing

to fair (third-person singular simple present fairs, present participle fairing, simple past and past participle faired)

  1. To smoothen or even a surface (especially a connection or junction on a surface).
  2. To bring into perfect alignment (especially about rivet holes when connecting structural members).
  3. (obsolete) To make fair.
Derived terms
Translations

German

Adjective

fair

  1. just, equitable, adequate, honest, in good spirit
    ein faires Spiel
    Es ist nur fair, auch wenn alle gleich schlecht behandelt werden.

Antonyms

Synonyms

Derived terms

  • Fairness, alternative Fairneß
  • fair spielen, fair play, Fairplay
  • fair-use-Doktrin

Irish

Pronunciation

  • IPA: [fˠaɾʲ]

Verb

fair

  1. to watch

Inflection

Mutation

Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Eclipsis
fair fhair bhfair
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

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