Fairey Aviation Company: Wikis

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Fairey Aviation Company Limited
Fate ceased aircraft manufacture
Successor WFEL Limited, Spectris
Founded 1915
Defunct 1960 (aircraft manufacturing)
Headquarters Hayes, Heaton Chapel, Ringway
Key people Charles Richard Fairey Marc Lobelle
Industry aviation, engineering
Products Swordfish,
Delta 2,
Medium Girder Bridge

The Fairey Aviation Company Limited was a British aircraft manufacturer of the first half of the 20th century based in Hayes in Greater London and Heaton Chapel and RAF Ringway in Greater Manchester. Notable for the design of a number of important military aircraft, including the Fairey III family, the Swordfish, Firefly, and Gannet, it had a strong presence in the supply of naval aircraft, and also built bombers for the RAF.

After the Second World War the company diversified into mechanical engineering and boat-building. The aircraft manufacturing arm was taken over by Westland Aircraft in 1960. Following a series of mergers and takeovers, the principal successor businesses to the company now trade as WFEL Ltd (formerly Williams Fairey Engineering Limited) manufacturing portable bridges, Spectris plc and as FBM Babcock Marine Ltd

Contents

History

Founded in 1915 by Charles Richard Fairey (later Sir Richard Fairey) on his departure from Short Brothers, the company first built under licence or as subcontractor aircraft designed by other manufacturers[1]. The first aircraft designed and built by the Fairey Aviation specifically for use on an aircraft carrier was the Fairey Campania a patrol seaplane that first flew in February 1917. In the third report of the Royal Commission on Awards to Inventors, reported in Flight magazine of January 15, 1925, aviation figure prominently, C. R. Fairey and the Fairey Aviation Co., Ltd., was awarded £4,000 for work on the Hamble Baby seaplane. Fairey subsequently designed many aircraft types and, after World War II, missiles.

The Propeller Division (Fairey-Reed Airscrews) was located at the Hayes factory and used designs based on the patents of Mr Sylvanus Albert Reed. C.R. Fairey first encountered Reed’s products in the mid-1920s when investigating the possibilities of the Curtiss D-12 engine. The Curtiss company also manufactured propellers designed by Reed. Another example of utilising the talents of independent designers was the use of flaps, designed by Robert Talbot Youngman[2] (Fairey-Youngman Flaps) which gave many of the Fairey aircraft and those of other manufacturers incredible manoeuvrability.[citation needed]

Aircraft production was initially based at Hayes (Middlesex), and for some years at Hamble (Hampshire). Their most famous Hayes-built aircraft during the late 1930s and World War 2 was the Swordfish. The protoype Fairey Rotodyne vertical takeoff airliner was built at Hayes and assembled at White Waltham in 1957.[3] After merger, helicopters such as the Westland Wasp were built at Hayes in the 1960s.[4]

Receipt of large UK military contracts in the mid 1930s necessitated acquisition of a large factory in Heaton Chapel Stockport in 1935 that had been used as the National Aircraft Factory No. 2 during World War I. Flight test facilities were built at Manchester's Ringway Airport, the first phase opening in June 1937. A few Hendon monoplane bombers built at Stockport were flown from Manchester's Barton Aerodrome in 1936.[5] Quantity production of Battle light bombers at Stockport/Ringway commenced in mid 1937. Large numbers of Fulmar fighters and Barracuda dive-bombers followed during WWII. Fairey's also built 498 Bristol Beaufighter aircraft and over 660 Handley Page Halifax bombers in their northern facilities. Postwar, Firefly and Gannet naval aircraft were supplemented by sub-contracts from de Havilland for Vampire and Venom jet fighters. Aircraft production and modification at Stockport and Ringway ceased in 1960.[6]

On 13 March 1959 Flight reported that Fairey Aviation Ltd was to be reorganised following a proposal to concentrate aircraft and allied manufacturing activities in the United Kingdom into a new wholly owned subsidiary called the Fairey Aviation Co. Ltd. The Board felt that the change, taking effect on April 1, 1959, would enable the Rotodyne and other aircraft work to be handled by a concern concentrating on aviation. It is proposed to change the company's name to the Fairey Co. Ltd., and to concentrate general engineering activities in the Stockport Aviation Co. Ltd., whose name would become Fairey Engineering Ltd. Under these changes, the Fairey Co. would become a holding company, with control of policy and finance throughout the group.

The government in the late 1950s was determined to see the UK's aero industry "rationalised". The Ministry of Defence saw the future of helicopters as being best met by a single manufacturer.[7] The merger of Fairey's aviation interests with Westland Aircraft took place in early 1960 shortly after Westland had acquired the Saunders-Roe group and the helicopter division of the Bristol Aeroplane Company.[8] Westland Aircraft and the Fairey Company announced that they had reached agreement for the sale by Fairey to Westland of the issued share capital of Fairey Aviation, which operated all Fairey's UK aviation interests. Fairey received 2,000,000 Westland shares of 5s each and a cash payment of approximately £1.4m. In return Westland bought all Fairey’s aircraft manufacturing business (including the Gannet AEW.3) and Fairey's 10% investment in the Aircraft Manufacturing Company (Airco) and workforce employed on manufacture of the outer wings of the Airco D.H.121. (later to be the HS 121 Trident). The sale did not include Fairey Air Surveys or the works at Heston, Middx, which was home to the weapon division, who had a contract for research into advanced anti-tank missile systems. Fairey's remaining net worth was approximately £9.5m.

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The collapse of the Fairey Group

In 1977 the Fairey Group went into receivership and was effectively nationalised by the Government. Fairey went into liquidation when it introduced a Britten-Norman Islander production line into its subsidiary company, Avions Fairey and overproduced the plane and subsequently faced redundancy payments of about £16 million in Belgium. The companies involved were as follows:-

  • Fairey Hydraulics Ltd, Heston, Hydraulic power controls and filters for aircraft; - Sold in 1999 to a management buyout, name changed to Claverham Ltd, bought in 2001 by Hamilton Standard.
  • Fairey Engineering Ltd, Stockport, General and nuclear engineering;
  • Fairey Nuclear Ltd, Heston, Nuclear components and light engineering;see also Dungeness nuclear power station
  • Fairey Industrial Products Ltd, Heston, Management company;
  • Fairey Filtration Ltd, Heston, Industrial filters;
  • Fairey Winches Ltd, Tavistock, Vehicle overdrives, winches and hubs;
  • Jerguson Tress Gauge and Valve Co Ltd, Newcastle, Liquid Level indicators;
  • The Tress Engineering Co Ltd, Newcastle, Petrochemical valves;
  • Fairey Marine Holdings Ltd, Hamble, Management company;
  • Fairey Marine (East Cowes) Ltd, East Cowes, Ship and boat building;
  • Fairey Exhibitions Ltd, Hamble, Exhibition stand contractors;
  • Fairey Marine Ltd, Hamble, Boat building and repair;
  • Fairey Yacht Harbours Ltd, Hamble, Boat handling, berthing and storage;
  • Fairey Surveys Ltd, Maidenhead, Aerial and geophysical survey and mapping;
  • Fairey Surveys (Scotland) Ltd, Livingston, Aerial and geophysical survey and mapping;
  • Fairey Developments Ltd, Heston, Management company:

The Fairey Britten-Norman Aircraft Company was taken over by Pilatus then a subsidiary of the Oerlikon group in Switzerland.

The rescue action was taken by the Government under section 8 of the Industry Act 1972 acquiring from the official receiver of the Fairey Company Ltd the entire share capital for £201,163,000. The companies were managed by the National Enterprise Board (NEB). In 1980 The Fairey Group was purchased by Doulton & Company Limited (part of S Pearson & Son) from the NEB. At time, Pearson's interests in manufacturing were concentrated in the Doulton fine china business. The engineering interests were strengthened in 1980 by the acquisition of the high technology businesses of Fairey, and their merging with Pearson's other engineering interests in 1982. However, these businesses were disposed of in 1986 as part of Pearson wishing to concentrate on core activities; acquired by Williams Holdings they became Williams Fairey Engineering Ltd. Other parts of the combined Fairey - Doulton group saw a management buy-out from Pearson, listing on the London Stock Exchange in 1988. During the 1990s this company concentrated on expanding its electronics business, acquiring a number of companies and disposing of the electrical insulator and hydraulic actuator businesses. In 1997, the company acquired Burnfield, of which Malvern Instruments was the most significant company. Servomex plc was acquired in 1999. In July 2000, the acquisition of the four instrumentation and controls businesses of Spectris AG of Germany for £171m was the largest ever made by the company and marked an important strategic addition to the company’s instrumentation and controls business. The reshaping of the group was marked with the change of name from Fairey Group to Spectris plc in May 2001.

Subsidiary companies

Avions Fairey

On 27 August 1931, Avions Fairey SA was founded. Fairey aircraft had impressed the Belgian authorities and a subsidiary, Avions Fairey was established to produce Fairey aircraft in Belgium[9] The company staff left Belgium ahead of the German invasion of the Low Countries and returned after the war to build aircraft under license for the Belgian Air Force. With Fairey's financial troubles in the later 1970s, the Belgian government bought Avions Fairey to preserve its involvement in the Belgian F-16 project. See also Tipsy Nipper

Fairey Aviation of Canada

Formed in 1948 the Fairey Aviation Company of Canada Limited and grew from a 6-man operation to a major enterprise employing around a thousand people. In March 1949, the company undertook repair and overhaul work for the Royal Canadian Navy on the Supermarine Seafire and the Fairey Firefly and later the Hawker Sea Fury and also undertook modification work on the Grumman Avenger. The Avro Lancaster conversion programme created the need for plant expansion. The Lancaster was followed in service by the Lockheed Neptune and again the company undertook a share of the repair overhaul and service of these aircraft. The company was engaged in the modification and overhaul of the McDonnell Banshee. Fairey of Canada also developed a component and instrument design and manufacturing organisation. The company began manufacture of Hydro Booster Units which control flight surfaces hydraulically rather than manually. Other flight controls were designed and manufactured for the Avro CF-100. The Canadair Argus used Fairey-designed hydraulic actuators. The company also produced the "Bear Trap" helicopter /ship handling system for the Royal Canadian Navy. In the early 1960s the company undertook the conversion of the Martin Mars flying boats to water-bearing firefighters. Drawing on the parent company's expertise in the design of hydraulic equipment led to local manufacturer of the Fairey Microfilter, which had applications in industries beyond aviation. Yet another: Fairey designed and manufactured component was the Safety Ohmmeter. This instrument had many applications in missiles, mining, quarrying and similar fields. The company was appointed agent for RFD Inflatable Marine Survival Equipment. This agency included sales, service inspection and repair of inflatable liferafts. The West Coast Branch of the Fairey Aviation Company of Canada Limited was formed in 1955 at Sidney, Vancouver Island. The plant was located at Patricia Bay Airport. This facility handled mainly repair, overhaul and modification of military and civil aircraft including the conversion of ex-military Avenger aircraft to commercial cropdusting roles. Additionally, the company diversified into designing and manufacturing items of hospital equipment.

Following the failure of the UK parent, Fairey Canada was acquired by IMP Group International.

Fairey Aviation Company of Australasia Pty. Ltd.

Fairey Australasia The Australian branch of Fairey Aviation was formed in 1948 as Fairey-Clyde Aviation Co Pty. Ltd., a joint venture with Clyde Engineering and incorporated the aircraft division of CEC. The name was changed in November 1951. Based in Bankstown, Sydney, the factory overhauled aircraft for the Royal Australian Air Force and Royal Australian Navy, converted RAN Firefly AS.5s to Trainer Mark 5 standard. The Special Projects Division built the Jindivik, Meteor, and Canberra drones at Woomera missile test range.Fairey Australasia was the first company to be established at the Weapons Research Establishment (WRE). This was in 1949 when the firm was involved in supporting research trials of the scale model of the Fairey vertical-take-off aircraft. Shortly afterwards the company expanded to manufacture the RTV.l research rockets that were fired in Australia. From this developed a design and production factory that specialised in the manufacture of airborne and ground equipment for target aircraft and missile fields including the Tonic towed target, which can be carried and streamed by a Jindivik 3A. In 1957 a prototype of WRETAR (WRE Target Aircraft Recorder) was designed and developed as a target camera manufactured by Fairey – 192 cameras were made in the initial production run[10]. In 1988 this company was merged into AWA Defence Industries of Australia.

Aerial Survey

Fairey Air Surveys Douglas DC-3 at Fairey's 1938 hangar at Manchester during servicing in 1975

Fairey Air Surveys, Ltd., was initially headquartered at 24 Bruton Street, London W.1. and later at Reform Rd., Maidenhead, with companies across the world. The aircraft (C-47’s) and technical offices were based at White Waltham, Berks, along with a special research laboratory. Here the company undertook the design and development of anti-vibration isolators which were incorporated into camera mountings. Both mapping and geophysical work was undertaken. The UK based aircraft were sent out to work all over the world. The company undertook aerial surveys for local authorities within the UK and for many overseas Governments. Maps were also published under the Fairey-Falcon imprint. Over the years the companies names were changed to reflect Fairey ownership and operated into the late 1970’s, later becoming Clyde Surveying Services Ltd. Subsidiary companies were as follows:— Fairey Surveys (Scotland) Ltd, Livingston, Aerial and geophysical survey and mapping. Aero Surveys Ltd., Vancouver International Airport, Canada. This company was equipped to handle processing and mapping. Aircraft include two Ansons and one P-38. Operated in partnership with Fairchild Aerial Surveys,Inc.[11] Air Survey Company of India (Private), Ltd., Dum Dum Airport, Calcutta. This branch was fully equipped for processing and mapping. Aircraft include a DC-3 and three DH Rapides (known in 1946 as the Indian Air Survey & Transport LTD.). Air Survey Company of Pakistan, Ltd., Dunolly Road, Karachi, 2. This was an office only and no aircraft or ground equipment were permanently based there. Air Survey Company of Rhodesia, Ltd., Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia. Fully equipped for processing and mapping. An Anson or a Dove from the U.K. fleet was available for operations. Other companies were located in Nigeria and Zambia. And the Republic of Ireland.[12]

Engineering

Heaton Chapel

The Fairey factory at Heaton Chapel, Stockport can trace its roots back to when Crossley Bros. Ltd having had by the end of 1916 supplied large numbers of tenders and aero engines to the Royal Flying Corps acquired premises at High Lane, Heaton Chapel to expand production. In 1917, foolowing the Governments decision to build three National Aircraft Factories was taken, Crossley Motors Ltd was formed to manage National Aircraft Factory No.2 as it was known. The Factory continued to produce aircraft until November 1918. After the First World War the site switched to vehicle production. The factory was taken over by Willys-Knight and Overland Motors for the manufacture of cars and commercial vehicles and retained by them until 30 November 1934 when it was acquired by Fairey. In 1935 the Fairey company received a substantial order for Hendon night bombers and established production lines at the Heaton Chapel factory. The production facilities at Heaton Chapel were incorporated as the Stockport Aviation Company Limited on 11 February 1936 and the Company took a site at Ringway (now Manchester Airport), where test flights were carried out.

After the end of aircraft production the Heaton Chapel works became Fairey Engineering Ltd and began production of medium and heavy engineering including portable bridges for military and emergency services use, notably the Medium Girder Bridge. Its bridges are in service with the British Army, U.S. Army and many other NATO forces. Fairey Engineering Ltd also made Nuclear Reactor cores and fuelling machines for Dungeness B and Trawsfynydd.

The company became Williams Fairey Engineering in 1986, and was then taken over by Kidde part of the American giant United Technologies Corporation. in 2000, and became now known as WFEL Ltd. In 2006 the Manchester Evening News reported that private equity investors Dunedin Capital Partners backed a management buyout of WFEL, From UTC which employs 160 people at its factory on Crossley Road, Heaton Chapel.

Land Rover hubs and overdrives

A Fairey mechanical overdrive, as fitted to an early Range Rover.

In the post-war period, from the late 1950s onwards, Fairey acquired Mayflower Automotive Products, including their factory in Tavistock, Devon and with it the designs of its products, including winch and free-wheeling front hubs for Land Rover vehicles. By the 1970s Fairey was manufacturing a wide range of winches covering mechanical, hydraulic and electric drive and capstan/drum configurations. Fairey winches formed the bulk of the manufacturer-approved winch options for Land Rover throughout the 1970s and early 1980s.

In 1975 Fairey designed and manufactured a mechanical overdrive unit for Land Rovers. Vehicles fitted with the unit carried a badge on the rear saying 'Overdrive by Fairey', with the Fairey logo (see above).

This branch of products effectively ceased in the early 1980s when new product development at Land Rover and a trend for manufacturers to build accessories in-house forced Fairey to drop out of the sector. The American company Superwinch bought the Tavistock works and continued making Fairey-designed winches for a few years. The site is now Superwinch's European base and manufacturing facility. Fairey-designed hydraulic winches are still in production, but the large majority of manufacture is of Superwinch-designed electric drum winches. The Fairey Overdrive is still in production in America.

Aircraft

Fairey aircraft

Year of first flight in brackets

Projects

Fairey FC1

The Air Ministry placed an order with the Fairey Aviation Company for fourteen commercial aircraft, known as the FC1 following the issuing of specification 15/38. Fairey responded to the proposal with the design for the FC1 trans-atlantic airliner. A mockup and wind tunnel tests were begun before the project was cancelled. In 1938 an order was placed for fourteen monoplanes seating 30 people in a pressurised cabin, with a nosewheel undercarriage, and retractable Youngman flaps. Still-air range would have been 1,700 miles. Charles Fairey is said to have spent at least ₤1 million (at today’s prices) out of his own pocket on the project. This project was cancelled on the outbreak of war in 1939.

The then Secretary of State for Air when asked in the House of Commons, questions regarding the journey from London to Singapore made by Imperial Airways, if there were any modern aircraft being constructed for Imperial Airways by which might reduce the journey time replied; "It is intended to speed up progressively the time-table of the Empire Service by an extension of night flying and also, in due course, by the construction of aircraft, prototype production orders for which have already been placed for 14 aircraft being constructed by Fairey's, for completion in 1941 or 1942, to be used on this and other routes."[citation needed]

The gross weight was to be 42,000 lb. and the machine a low-wing, all-metal stressed skin monoplane with retracting tricycle undercarriage and four Bristol Taurus engines of 1,000 h.p. each. The fuselage was designed for supercharging at altitude. The FC 1 represented a great advancement in design. Provisional details of the Fairey FC 1 were as follows: —

  • Span 105 ft.
  • Length 82 ft.
  • Wing area 1,300 sq. ft.
  • Wing loading .. .. 32.5 lb./sq. ft.
  • Inside cabin length .. 32 ft.
  • Inside cabin width .. 10 ft.
  • All-up weight .. .. 42,0001b.
  • Pay-load (500 miles) .. 9,500 lb.
  • Payload (1,700 miles).. 4,5001b.
  • Range (50 per cent. power) 1,700 miles
  • Max. speed (13,000 ft.) 275 m.p.h.
  • Cruising speed (60 per cent, power) .. .. 225 m.p.h.

Subcontract built aircraft

Number built in brackets

Aircraft engines

Fairey imported 50 Curtiss built D-12 engines in 1926, renaming them the Fairey Felix.[14]

Missiles

Fairey's interest in missile production had been kept separate from the Fairey Aviation Co Ltd and its subsequent absorption into the Westland Group in 1960. Production was therefore invested in Fairey Engineering Ltd but by 1962 this had been transformed into a 50/50 joint venture with the British Aircraft Corporation (Holdings) Ltd known as BAC (AT) LTD, with offices at I00 Pall Mall, Lcndon SWI. and a share capital of £100. This was separate to the BAC Guided Weapons division

  • Fairey Stooge

In April, 1947 Fairey released details of its first guided missile. It was an anti-aircraft weapon designed for use in the Pacific theatre of war but not completed in time for use by the British Army (who originally ordered it) or for the Royal Navy. The Ministry of Supply requested that the work be completed, and the Stooge was the outcome. It had a length of 7 ft 5.5in, a span of 6 ft l0in, diameter of 17in, incidence of 3 deg, and a weight of 738 lb, with a warhead. Propulsion was by four 75 lb-thrust solid-fuel main rockets, but initially four additional booster rockets (1.6 sec burning time and total thrust of 5,600 lb) accelerated the Stooge off its 10 ft launching ramp. Unlike later designs, the Stooge was intended for high subsonic speeds—and limited ranges. The Stooge consisted of two-stage propulsion, an autopilot, radio control equipment with additional ground unit, and a warhead. The Stooge required a launching ramp and transport. The missile was extensively tested at Woomera.

Fairey Marine

Fairey marine Ltd was begun in the late 1940s by Sir Richard Fairey and Fairey Aviation's Managing Director, Mr. Chichester-Smith. Both were avid sailing enthusiasts. Utilising techniques developed in the aircraft industry during WWII both men decided that they should produce sailing dinghies and so recruited Charles Currey to help run the company when he came out of the Navy. In the following years, thousands of dinghies were produced by Fairey Marine including the Firefly, Albacore, Falcon, Swordfish, Jollyboat, Flying Fifteen, 505 and International 14's along with the much smaller Dinky and Duckling. Later on in the 1950s they produced the larger sailing cruisers, the Atalanta (named after Sir Richard's wife), Titania, Fulmar and the 27 foot Fisherman motor sailer (based on the Fairey Lifeboat hull) along with the 15 Cinderella (outboard runabout) and the 16'6" Faun (outboard powered family cruiser. In the 1960s Fairey designed and built a range of wooden-hulled speedboats and motor launches designed by Alan Burnand. These became well-known in boating circles for their speed, stability and good rough-water handling. Types such as the Dagger and Spearfish were used as police launches and as pinnaces by the Royal Navy. In the early 1970s Fairey switched to glass reinforced plastic hulls of the same design. The range was expanded to include cabin cruiser types (such as the Swordfish) which could still put in an impressive turn of speed and won several cruiser-class long distances races, such as the London-Monte Carlo race. Early in 1946 Uffa Fox was asked by Chichester-Smith, in conjunction with Stewart Morris, to design a one-off twelve foot dinghy. About this time Charles Curry, former Olympic yachtsman, joined Fairey to develop the marine section at Hamble. It was easy named after the famous Fairey aircraft. Today, Swordsman Marine builds motorboats based on Fairey designs. These include 30-foot speedboats based on the Spearfish, using the same hull with a modified cabin and modern engine and controls, and larger cabin cruisers based on a modified version of the Dagger design. Fairey Marine absorbed the East Cowes firm of Groves and Gutteridge Ltd., established since 1899. One of the main products of the Company has been lifeboats for the Royal National Lifeboat Institution. Fairey Marine was already in trouble when the main Fairey company went into receivership. The work force and the management did not want to be taken over by Trafalgar House or Rank International because they expected that those companies would shut the firm and adapt the site for use as a marina. The workforce wanted to stay in boat building and were keen that the NEB should take them over. FBM Babcock Marine was developed from Fairey Marine. Since then the company has developed and expanded its range of products as well as acquiring a number of other companies including Cheverton Workboats, Brooke Marine and Fairey Marinteknik, before emerging as FBM Marine in 1988. In March 2000, FBM Marine was acquired by Babcock International Group PLC, a major UK based support services, facilities management and engineering company specialising in the support of defence forces worldwide, and renamed FBM Babcock Marine Ltd.

Fairey Band

In 1937, workers at the Fairey aviation plant formed a brass band. For some sixty years the band was associated with the company and its successors, although the Fairey Band has now had to turn to external sources for financial backing. Throughout its history though the band has retained its identity with the company under guises as the Fairey Aviation Works Band, Williams Fairey Band and later Fairey (FP Music) Band. The band has recently returned to roots, rebranding as just The Fairey Band. The Fairey Band has won many national and international titles throughout its proud history.

References

Notes

  1. ^ E.g. in 1915 Fairey built 12 Short Admiralty Type 827 seaplanes under subcontract from Short Brothers (see Barnes and James, p.104)
  2. ^ In 1934 Mr. R. T. Youngman succeeded Mr. Hollis Williams as head of the technical department
  3. ^ Helicopter Museum
  4. ^ Fleet Air Arm Museum
  5. ^ Scholefield, 2004, p. 227
  6. ^ Scholefield, 1998, p. 35-39
  7. ^ Which was not the sole factor for a merger; there are other factors that brevity requires not be discussed here. See Uttley, Matthew R. H. (2001). Westland and the British Helicopter Industry, 1945-1960: Licensed Production vs. Indigenous Innovation. Routledge. pp. 183. ISBN 0-714-651-94X. 
  8. ^ Uttley (2001), p. 183, has the merger dates as 14th July 1959 (Saunders-Roe), 23rd March 1960 (Bristol), and 2nd May 1960 (Fairey).
  9. ^ Avions Fairey Gosselies
  10. ^ The Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) is part of Australia's Department of Defence.
  11. ^ Sherman Fairchild
  12. ^ http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1937/1937%20-%201304.html
  13. ^ Description of the early years of Fairey Aviation (Smithsonian)
  14. ^ Lumsden 2003, p.148.
  15. ^ Report on the P-24 by Experimental Engineering Section of the Power Plant Laboratory at Wright Field USA
  16. ^ US report on engineering considerations
  17. ^ US report on dual propeller

Bibliography

  • Barnes C.H. & James D.N. Shorts Aircraft since 1900. London (1989): Putnam. pp. 560. ISBN 0-85177-819-4. 
  • Lumsden, Alec. British Piston Engines and their Aircraft. Marlborough, Wiltshire: Airlife Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1-85310-294-6.
  • Scholefield, R.A, Manchester Airport, Sutton Publishing, Stroud, 1998, ISBN 0-7509-1954-X
  • Scholefield, R.A. Manchester's Early Airfields, an extended article in Moving Manchester, Lancashire & Cheshire Antiquarian Society, Manchester, 2004, ISSN 0950-4699
  • Taylor, H.A, Fairey Aircraft since 1915. London: Putnam & Company Ltd., 1974. ISBN 0-370-00065-X.

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