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1865 illustration of Cinderella and her fairy godmother
.Fairy tale is an English language term for a type of short narrative corresponding to the German term Märchen, the Swedish saga, or the Italian fiaba.^ Bibliography of additional type 1430 tales (English and German).
  • Folktexts: A library of folktales, folklore, fairy tales, and mythology, page 1 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In English, we call them fairy tales.
  • Russian Fairy Tales, Part I: An Overview, by Helen Pilinovsky — Winter 2004 Journal of Mythic Arts, Endicott Studio 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.endicott-studio.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ilustrat Russian fairy tale English .
  • Blue Diamond - The Best on the Web for fairy tale. Products that are high-end, luxurious and pampering. 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.bluediamonddesign.com [Source type: Original source]

.Only a small number of the stories thus designated explicitly refer to fairies.^ Until the Grimm Brothers in Germany made a project of collecting the folk stories of their country, fairy tales existed only in the memories of local storytellers.
  • Fairy Tale Motifs 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students may work collaboratively on a small skit for a particularly story, or students might sketch a new fairy tale using the worksheet and then present it dramatically to the class.
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only can students work on stories they can't tell publicly, but they can get an author's view of how fairy-tale symbols work - potentially a more effective learning experience than any number of lectures on fairy-tale style and interpretation.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part II 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: General]

.Nonetheless, the stories may be distinguished from other folk narratives such as legends and traditions (which generally involve belief in the veracity of the events described)[1] and explicitly moral tales, including beast fables.^ Beauty and the Beast , illustration by Warwick Goble Any comparison of fairy tales quickly discovers that many fairy tales have features in common with each other.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Third in a series of three, it also includes notes about the origins of each folk tale, what other sources each can be found in, and other versions of the story.
  • Reading Corner--Nonfiction--Folk & Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.carr.org [Source type: General]

^ Other authors may have specific motives, such as multicultural or feminist reevaluations of predominantly Eurocentric masculine-dominated fairy tales, implying critique of older narratives.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fairy tales typically feature such folkloric characters as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants or gnomes, and usually magic or enchantments.^ Bernhard is a fairy tale character ...
  • Fairy-Tale Paintings and Art at Artist Rising 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.artistrising.com [Source type: General]
  • Fairy-Tale Paintings and Art at Artist Rising 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.artistrising.com [Source type: General]
  • Fairy-Tale Paintings and Art at Artist Rising 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.artistrising.com [Source type: General]

^ Fairy tales are magical.
  • Fairy Tales as Children Stories 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC infohost.nmt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ What is the magic that makes fairy tales?
  • Fairy Tales Abstracts 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Often the story will involve a far-fetched sequence of events.^ Colloquially, a "fairy tale" or " fairy story " can also mean any far-fetched story.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A fairy tale or fairy story is a fictional story that may feature folkloric characters (such as fairies , talking animals ) and enchantments , often involving a far-fetched sequence of events.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A definition that is useful for young students is "Fairy tales are very old stories of magical events often passed down by word of mouth."
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In less technical contexts, the term is also used to describe something blessed with unusual happiness, as in "fairy tale ending" (a happy ending)[2] or "fairy tale romance" (though not all fairy tales end happily).^ In modern-day parlance, the term is also used to describe something blessed with princesses, as in "fairy tale ending" (a happy ending ) [1] or "fairy tale romance", though not all fairy tales end happily.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Through them we retain the ability to believe in Fairy tales and Happy Endings.
  • MySpace - Fairy Tales & Pixie Dust - 35 - Male - CAMERON, North Carolina - myspace.com/fairytalesnpixiedust 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fairy tales all use extremes.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part I 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: Original source]

.Colloquially, a "fairy tale" or "fairy story" can also mean any far-fetched story.^ Colloquially, a "fairy tale" or " fairy story " can also mean any far-fetched story.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ten fairy tale story starters.

^ Find costumes inspired by classic stories, fairy tales, nursery rhymes, and folklore right here, then get out there and make your own storybook tale.
  • Fairy Tale Adult Costumes 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.starcostumes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In cultures where demons and witches are perceived as real, fairy tales may merge into legends, where the narrative is perceived both by teller and hearers as being grounded in historical truth.^ In cultures in which figures such as witches are perceived as real, and the teller and hearer of a tale see it as having historical actuality, fairy tales may merge into legendary narratives .
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children understand that fairy tales are not real.
  • Fairy Tales as Children Stories 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC infohost.nmt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Fairy tales and folktales differ from culture to culture.
  • Famous Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.intime.uni.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, unlike legends and epics, they usually do not contain more than superficial references to religion and actual places, people, and events; they take place once upon a time rather than in actual times.^ 'Once upon a Time: Diamond Secret .
  • Children > Fairy Tales > Bestseller eBooks 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC ebooks.ebookmall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Struggling free, she once more attempted to take her customary place.

^ However, unlike legends and epics , they usually do not contain more than scholarly references to religion and actual places, persons, and events; they take place " once upon a time " rather than in actual times.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.Fairy tales are found in oral and in literary form.^ These are the literary fairy tales, or Kunstmärchen .
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The literary fairy tale came into popularity in France and Italy during the 17th century, where it was a kind of sophisticated parlor game for adults in aristocratic society.
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The nature of fairy tales, following the oral tradition, enhances the child's ability to visualize a spoken narrative, as well as to remember the story as heard.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The history of the fairy tale is particularly difficult to trace, because only the literary forms can survive.^ History of fairy tales with emphasis on gender.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Explore the origins and history of fairy tales.
  • Fairy Tales Abstracts 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And each literary fairy tale draws on folk traditions, if only in parody.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Still, the evidence of literary works at least indicates that fairy tales have existed for thousands of years, although not perhaps recognized as a genre; the name "fairy tale" was first ascribed to them by Madame d'Aulnoy.^ Fairy tales › Ireland (24 works) .
  • Fairy tales | LibraryThing 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fairy tales › Great Britain (8 works) .
  • Fairy tales | LibraryThing 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fairy tales › France (17 works) .
  • Fairy tales | LibraryThing 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of today's fairy tales have evolved from centuries-old stories that have appeared, with variations, in multiple cultures around the world.^ Fairy tales have been an important part of cultures all over the world.
  • Fairy Tales as Children Stories 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC infohost.nmt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Various fairy tales .

^ Ten fairy tale story starters.

[4] .Fairy tales, and works derived from fairy tales, are still written today.^ Fairy tales › Ireland (24 works) .
  • Fairy tales | LibraryThing 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fairy tales › Great Britain (8 works) .
  • Fairy tales | LibraryThing 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fairy tales › France (17 works) .
  • Fairy tales | LibraryThing 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The older fairy tales were intended for an audience of adults as well as children, but they were associated with children as early as the writings of the précieuses; the Brothers Grimm titled their collection Children's and Household Tales, and the link with children has only grown stronger with time.^ The adaptation of fairy tales for children continues.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A collection of Grimms' fairy tales.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Fairy tales were not originally for children.
  • Folk tale versus Fairy Tale? - A to Z Teacher Stuff Forums 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC forums.atozteacherstuff.com [Source type: General]

.Folklorists have classified fairy tales in various ways.^ Various fairy tales .

^ Folklorists have classified fairy tales in various ways.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similarly there are various variants of magic/fantastic means of navigation and searching both in fairy tales, and in a fantasy.
  • Magic Fairy Tales as Source for Interface Metaphors 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.hceye.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among the most notable are the Aarne-Thompson classification system and the morphological analysis of Vladimir Propp.^ Among the most notable are the Aarne-Thompson classification system and the morphological analysis of Vladimir Propp .
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless, to select works for his analysis, Propp used all Russian folktales classified as a folk lore Aarne-Thompson 300-749—in a cataloguing system that made such a distinction—to gain a clear set of tales.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two of the most influential classifications are those of Antti Aarne , as revised by Stith Thompson into the Aarne-Thompson classification system, and Vladimir Propp 's Morphology of the Folk Tale .
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other folklorists have interpreted the tales' significance, but no school has been definitively established for the meaning of the tales.^ It's much easier to create a fairy tale from a personal story with someone else present, even if the other person has no experience as a coach.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part II 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: General]

^ Everyone who hears or reads enough traditional fairy tales has a good idea of which ones are fairy tales and which ones aren't, but folklorists have argued for decades about a precise definition.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part I 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the other responses to the survey better serve to narrow the meaning of fairy tales.
  • Fairy Tales as Children Stories 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC infohost.nmt.edu [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Definition

.Although the fairy tale is a distinct genre within the larger category of folktale, the definition that marks a work as a fairy tale is a source of considerable dispute.^ Fairy tales › Ireland (24 works) .
  • Fairy tales | LibraryThing 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fairy tales › Great Britain (8 works) .
  • Fairy tales | LibraryThing 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fairy tales › France (17 works) .
  • Fairy tales | LibraryThing 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .While it would seem obvious that the presence of fairies or other magical beings would be a necessary component of a fairy tale, it has been suggested that the term arose simply from translation of the French phrase conte de fées, first used in the collection of Madame D'Aulnoy in 1697.[6] Common parlance conflates fairy tales with beast fables and other folktales, and scholars differ on the degree to which the presence of fairies and/or similarly mythical beings (e.g., elves, goblins, trolls, giants) should be taken as a differentiator.^ Fairy tales are magical.
  • Fairy Tales as Children Stories 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC infohost.nmt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Fairy Glade and other Enchanting Tales .
  • Children > Fairy Tales > Bestseller eBooks 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC ebooks.ebookmall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is partly because of the history of the English term "fairy tale" which derives from the French phrase conte de fées , and was first used in the collection of Madame D'Aulnoy in 1697.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Vladimir Propp, in his Morphology of the Folktale, criticized the common distinction between "fairy tales" and "animal tales" on the grounds that many tales contained both fantastic elements and animals.^ Fairy tales and folktales differ from culture to culture.
  • Famous Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.intime.uni.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fairy tales--History and criticism.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Fairy tales and folktales may be communicated in many different forms.
  • Famous Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.intime.uni.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .Nevertheless, to select works for his analysis, Propp used all Russian folktales classified as a folk lore Aarne-Thompson 300-749—in a cataloguing system that made such a distinction—to gain a clear set of tales.^ Among the most notable are the Aarne-Thompson classification system and the morphological analysis of Vladimir Propp .
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fairy tales all use extremes.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part I 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nevertheless, to select works for his analysis, Propp used all Russian folktales classified as a folk lore Aarne-Thompson 300-749—in a cataloguing system that made such a distinction—to gain a clear set of tales.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .His own analysis identified fairy tales by their plot elements, but that in itself has been criticized, as the analysis does not lend itself easily to tales that do not involve a quest, and furthermore, the same plot elements are found in non-fairy tale works.^ Fairy tales › Ireland (24 works) .
  • Fairy tales | LibraryThing 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fairy tales › Great Britain (8 works) .
  • Fairy tales | LibraryThing 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fairy tales › France (17 works) .
  • Fairy tales | LibraryThing 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]
Were I asked, what is a fairytale? I should reply, Read Undine: that is a fairytale ... of all fairytales .I know, I think Undine the most beautiful.^ Think of urban legends: In most cases nobody knows for sure who first told the story, or what the original version of the story was.
  • Original versions of classic fairy tales | Digital Bits Skeptic 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.dbskeptic.com [Source type: General]

^ I don’t think we’ve analyzed this enough from a psychological standpoint yet to know what is the most morally beneficial.
  • Original versions of classic fairy tales | Digital Bits Skeptic 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.dbskeptic.com [Source type: General]

^ Most people think they know what happens to this young unfortunate girl.
  • fairy tales : SFFaudio 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sffaudio.com [Source type: General]

(George MacDonald, The Fantastic Imagination)
.As Stith Thompson points out, talking animals and the presence of magic seem to be more common to the fairy tale than fairies themselves.^ Do we not have more in common than that?
  • Keli Goff: How the Clinton-Obama Fairy Tale Turned Into a Nightmare 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ So - I want more fairy tales… .
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Fairy tales are magical.
  • Fairy Tales as Children Stories 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC infohost.nmt.edu [Source type: Original source]

[10] .However, the mere presence of animals that talk does not make a tale a fairy tale, especially when the animal is clearly a mask on a human face, as in fables.^ However, the mere presence of animals that talk does not make a tale a fairy tale, especially when the animal is clearly a mask on a human face, as in fables .
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many fairy tales may have talking animals.
  • Fairy Tales as Children Stories 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC infohost.nmt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ To others, fairy tales were stories with talking animals or fairies or magic.
  • Fairy Tales as Children Stories 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC infohost.nmt.edu [Source type: Original source]

[11]
.In his essay "On Fairy-Stories", J. R. R. Tolkien agreed with the exclusion of "fairies" from the definition, defining fairy tales as stories about the adventures of men in Faërie, the land of fairies, fairytale princes and princesses, dwarves, elves, and not only other magical species but many other marvels.^ Fairy tales are magical.
  • Fairy Tales as Children Stories 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC infohost.nmt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The fairy-tale princess story has had many incarnations, from R-rated Pretty Woman to the G-rated Princess Diaries .
  • USATODAY.com - Cooking up fairy tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.usatoday.com [Source type: General]

^ Fairy Glade and other Enchanting Tales .
  • Children > Fairy Tales > Bestseller eBooks 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC ebooks.ebookmall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .However, the same essay excludes tales that are often considered fairy tales, citing as an example The Monkey's Heart, which Andrew Lang included in The Lilac Fairy Book.^ Among the chap-books many tales not fairy tales were included.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Books on analyzing fairy tales .
  • New Fairytales Online by Rosemary Lake 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC rosemarylake.com [Source type: General]

^ Some fairy tale books "cheat" by NOT including the word "retold."
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]
.Steven Swann Jones identified the presence of magic as the feature by which fairy tales can be distinguished from other sorts of folktales.^ Fairy tales are magical.
  • Fairy Tales as Children Stories 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC infohost.nmt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Discuss other fairy tales.

^ To others, fairy tales were stories with talking animals or fairies or magic.
  • Fairy Tales as Children Stories 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC infohost.nmt.edu [Source type: Original source]

[13] Davidson and Chaudri identify "transformation" as the key feature of the genre.[14] .From a psychological point of view, Jean Chiriac argued for the necessity of the fantastic in these narratives.^ Discuss the differences and then talk about the different points of view of these two stories.

[15]
.Some folklorists prefer to use the German term Märchen or "wonder tale"[14] to refer to the genre, a practice given weight by the definition of Thompson in his 1977 edition of The Folktale: "a tale of some length involving a succession of motifs or episodes.^ Some folklorists prefer to use the German term Märchen to refer to the genre, a practice given weight by the definition of Thompson in his 1977 edition of The Folktale : "a tale of some length involving a succession of motifs or episodes.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The more precise German term is "Marchen," which is the word folklorists use.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part I 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In modern-day parlance, the term is also used to describe something blessed with princesses, as in "fairy tale ending" (a happy ending ) [1] or "fairy tale romance", though not all fairy tales end happily.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It moves in an unreal world without definite locality or definite creatures and is filled with the marvelous.^ It moves in an unreal world without definite locality or definite creatures and is filled with the marvelous.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In this never-never land, humble heroes kill adversaries, succeed to kingdoms and marry princesses."[16] The characters and motifs of fairy tales are simple and archetypal: princesses and goose-girls; youngest sons and gallant princes; ogres, giants, dragons, and trolls; wicked stepmothers and false heroes; fairy godmothers and other magical helpers, often talking horses, or foxes, or birds; glass mountains; and prohibitions and breaking of prohibitions.[17]
.In terms of aesthetic values, Italo Calvino cited the fairy tale as a prime example of "quickness" in literature, because of the economy and concision of the tales.^ The R-value is a modern fairy tale.
  • Chapter Four: The "R" Fairy Tale; The Myth of Insulation Values | Monolithic 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.monolithic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italo Calvino cited the fairy tale as a prime example of "quickness" in literature, because of the economy and concision of the tales.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Development of the Fairy tale in Literature .
  • Russian Fairy Tales, Part I: An Overview, by Helen Pilinovsky — Winter 2004 Journal of Mythic Arts, Endicott Studio 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.endicott-studio.com [Source type: Original source]

[18]

History of the genre

.Originally, stories we would now call fairy tales were not marked out as a separate genre.^ With the fairy tale strictly so called– i.e.
  • Indian Fairy Tales - Notes and References (by Joseph Jacobs) 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.authorama.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ten fairy tale story starters.

^ Fantasy genre; fairy tale.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

.The German term "Märchen" literally translates as "tale"—not any specific type of tale.^ Bibliography of additional type 1430 tales (English and German).
  • Folktexts: A library of folktales, folklore, fairy tales, and mythology, page 1 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This site also includes links to texts of the Grimms' tales, both in the original German and in English translation.
  • Folktexts: A library of folktales, folklore, fairy tales, and mythology, page 1 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grimm's tales were first translated by Edgar Taylor in 1832 - 1826 as GERMAN POPULAR STORIES. Taylor died in 1839.
  • grimm - grimms fairy tales - cruikshank - AbeBooks 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.abebooks.com [Source type: General]

.The genre was first marked out by writers of the Renaissance, stabilized through the works of many subsequent writers, and emerged as an unquestioned genre in the works of the Brothers Grimm.^ The prince and his new princess live happily as after we find out at the end when the Grimm Brothers of fairy tale fame speak with the couple’s descendant.
  • Top 5 Romantic Fairy Tale Movies 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC geeksofdoom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I’ve always been drawn to the story for both the pictorial inspiration evoked through the Grimm Brothers’ narrative and also for the multitudinous symbolism layered throughout the story.
  • The Fairy Tale Tarot by Lisa Hunt - Journal 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC thefairytaletarot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In writing down the oral tales, writers such as Perrault and the Grimm Brothers reinforced the hierarchy of class and race.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19] .In this evolution, the name was coined when the précieuses took up writing literary stories; Madame d'Aulnoy invented the term conte de fée, or fairy tale.^ Be able to respond to the fairy tale as a story and help it blossom on its own terms.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part II 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: General]

^ Fairy Tale Pop up Book .

^ Moral Tales, by Madame de Beaumont.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
.Before the definition of the genre of fantasy, many works that would now be classified as fantasy were termed "fairy tales", including Tolkien's The Hobbit, George Orwell's Animal Farm, and L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.^ Fairy tales › Ireland (24 works) .
  • Fairy tales | LibraryThing 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fairy tales › Great Britain (8 works) .
  • Fairy tales | LibraryThing 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fairy tales › France (17 works) .
  • Fairy tales | LibraryThing 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] .Indeed, Tolkien's "On Fairy-Stories" includes discussions of world-building and is considered a vital part of fantasy criticism.^ And if fairy tales are to be considered all stories with morals, this again includes too wide a range of stories for this discussion.
  • Fairy Tales as Children Stories 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC infohost.nmt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This analysis has been criticized for ignoring tone, mood, characters and, indeed, anything that differentiates one fairy tale from another.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Funny Fairy Tale: Silly Sticker Story by Dover Includes a brief story with blank spaces in the text indicating the part of speech — noun, verb, adjective — needed to complete each sentence.

.Although fantasy, particularly the sub-genre of fairytale fantasy, draws heavily on fairy tale motifs,[22] the genres are now regarded as distinct.^ Fantasy genre; fairy tale.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Genre: Fairy tales.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ The Chinese Fairy Book by Frederick H. Martens, Richard Wilhelm, George W. Hood These 73 fairy tales have a distinctive Far Eastern glow about them.

Folk and literary

A picture by Gustave Doré of Mother Goose reading written (literary) fairy tales
.The fairy tale, told orally, is a sub-class of the folktale.^ A picture of Mother Goose by Gustave Doré : reading written (literary) fairy tales The fairy tale, told orally, is a sub-class of the folktale .
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fairy tales and folktales differ from culture to culture.
  • Famous Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.intime.uni.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For my initiating activity I tried to incorporate something that would be useful for all the fairy tales and folktales we would be reading.
  • Famous Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.intime.uni.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many writers have written in the form of the fairy tale.^ Many times the question, "What is a fairy tale?"
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many writers have written in the form of the fairy tale.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beauty and the Beast , illustration by Warwick Goble Any comparison of fairy tales quickly discovers that many fairy tales have features in common with each other.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These are the literary fairy tales, or Kunstmärchen.^ These are the literary fairy tales, or Kunstmärchen .
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The literary fairy tale came into popularity in France and Italy during the 17th century, where it was a kind of sophisticated parlor game for adults in aristocratic society.
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the students have internalized the motif structure they are able to write their own original literary fairy tales using the traditional motifs.
  • Fairy Tale Motifs 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .The oldest forms, from Panchatantra to the Pentamerone, show considerable reworking from the oral form.^ The oldest forms, from Panchatantra to the Pentamerone , show considerable reworking from the oral form.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet the stories printed under the Grimm name have been considerably reworked to fit the written form.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .The Brothers Grimm were among the first to try to preserve the features of oral tales.^ Until the Grimm Brothers in Germany made a project of collecting the folk stories of their country, fairy tales existed only in the memories of local storytellers.
  • Fairy Tale Motifs 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More recent translations of some of the most significant tales are available in Jack Zipes' The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm .
  • SurLaLune Fairy Tales: History of Fairy Tales: The Quest for the Earliest Fairy Tales by Heidi Anne Heiner 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.surlalunefairytales.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Death of the Seven Dwarfs , a folk legend from Switzerland with an ending quite different from that of the familiar fairy tale "Snow-White and the Seven Dwarfs" by the Grimm brothers.
  • Folktexts: A library of folktales, folklore, fairy tales, and mythology, page 1 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Yet the stories printed under the Grimm name have been considerably reworked to fit the written form.^ Yet the stories printed under the Grimm name have been considerably reworked to fit the written form.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His stories fit the fashion of the time, yet contain a few marked difference from those of the female salonnières .
  • Les Contes des Fées: The Literary Fairy Tales of France 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.endicott-studio.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The oldest forms, from Panchatantra to the Pentamerone , show considerable reworking from the oral form.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]
.Literary fairy tales and oral fairy tales freely exchanged plots, motifs, and elements with one another and with the tales of foreign lands.^ Fairy tale plot elements might include: .
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Non-fairy tale plot elements might include: .
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Literary fairy tales and oral fairy tales freely exchanged plots, motifs, and elements with each other and with the tales of foreign lands.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25] .Many 18th-century folklorists attempted to recover the "pure" folktale, uncontaminated by literary versions.^ Many 18th century folklorists attempted to recover the "pure" folktale, uncontaminated by literary versions.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet while oral fairy tales likely existed for thousands of years prior to the literary forms, there is no pure folktale.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still, folklorists have found these forms from every culture over many centuries.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Yet while oral fairy tales likely existed for thousands of years before the literary forms, there is no pure folktale.^ There are 30 fairy tales .
  • andersen - fairy tales - blackie - AbeBooks 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.abebooks.com [Source type: General]

^ No more fairy tales!
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet while oral fairy tales likely existed for thousands of years prior to the literary forms, there is no pure folktale.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.And each literary fairy tale draws on folk traditions, if only in parody.^ Different twists to traditional fairy tales.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And each literary fairy tale draws on folk traditions, if only in parody.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are the literary fairy tales, or Kunstmärchen .
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .This makes it impossible to trace forms of transmission of a fairy tale.^ Each group will choose one fairy tale, either a classic or one they have written, and make puppets to perform the tale for their classmates.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Luthi's brilliant idea is that what makes a fairy tale a fairy tale is its style - an overall, distinctive literary style - which may, of course, include a preference for certain kinds of content and certain elements of form, but is separate from them.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part I 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Use this form to record people's favorite fairy tales.

.Oral story-tellers have been known to read literary fairy tales to increase their own stock of stories and treatments.^ Be able to respond to the fairy tale as a story and help it blossom on its own terms.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part II 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: General]

^ Ten fairy tale story starters.

^ Oral story-tellers have been known to read literary fairy tales to increase their own stock of stories and treatments.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27]

History

Ivan Bilibin's illustration of the Russian fairy tale about Vasilisa the Beautiful
.The oral tradition of the fairy tale came long before the written page.^ Different twists to traditional fairy tales.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do you know what fairy tale it came from?"

^ The literary fairy tale came into popularity in France and Italy during the 17th century, where it was a kind of sophisticated parlor game for adults in aristocratic society.
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tales were told or enacted dramatically, rather than written down, and handed down from generation to generation.^ This site was the best because it was the only one I could find that centered around feminist fairy tales specifically, rather than feminist authors in general.  -J Ostrow...
  • New Fairytales Online by Rosemary Lake 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC rosemarylake.com [Source type: General]

^ Soon afterwards there came a second; she had in her hand a fire-coloured veil, with which she rather decorated than concealed the fair Lily's head.
  • The Fairy Tale of the Green Snake and the Beautiful Lily 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC wn.rsarchive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Characters in fairy tales are stereotypes rather than fully developed persons.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Because of this, the history of their development is necessarily obscure.[28] .The oldest known written fairy tales stem from ancient Egypt, c.^ Each group will choose one fairy tale, either a classic or one they have written, and make puppets to perform the tale for their classmates.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also known as The Grimms' Fairy Tales , this is the most influential of all folklore collections and one of the most beloved books of all time.
  • Folktexts: A library of folktales, folklore, fairy tales, and mythology, page 1 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Beauty and the Beast" is a rather popular and therefore likely well known fairy tale, so hopefully is not necessary to reprint it in its entirety here.
  • Fairy Tales as Children Stories 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC infohost.nmt.edu [Source type: Original source]

1300 BC (ex. .The Tale of Two Brothers),[29] and fairy tales appear, now and again, in written literature throughout literate cultures, as in The Golden Ass, which includes Cupid and Psyche (Roman, 100–200 AD),[30] or the Panchatantra (India 3rd century BCE),[30] but it is unknown to what extent these reflect the actual folk tales even of their own time.^ There are 30 fairy tales .
  • andersen - fairy tales - blackie - AbeBooks 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.abebooks.com [Source type: General]

^ At this time we will read the story Cupid and Psyche .
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We will look at the story of Cupid and Psyche from ancient Greek and Roman times.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The stylistic evidence indicates that these, and many later collections, reworked folk tales into literary forms.^ The literary fairy tale came into popularity in France and Italy during the 17th century, where it was a kind of sophisticated parlor game for adults in aristocratic society.
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until the Grimm Brothers in Germany made a project of collecting the folk stories of their country, fairy tales existed only in the memories of local storytellers.
  • Fairy Tale Motifs 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These ideas (partly close to Voodoo magic) one may find in a number of folk and literary fairy tales.Let’s pay attention that folk fairy tales are governed by rigorous logic of a plot development and a choice of characters.
  • Magic Fairy Tales as Source for Interface Metaphors 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.hceye.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .What they do show is that the fairy tale has ancient roots, older than the Arabian Nights collection of magical tales (compiled circa 1500 AD),[30] such as Vikram and the Vampire, and Bel and the Dragon.^ A collection of Grimms' fairy tales.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ There are 30 fairy tales .
  • andersen - fairy tales - blackie - AbeBooks 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.abebooks.com [Source type: General]

^ The above are the main collections of fairy tales in England.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Besides such collections and individual tales, in China, Taoist philosophers such as Liezi and Zhuangzi recounted fairy tales in their philosophical works.^ Fairy tales › Ireland (24 works) .
  • Fairy tales | LibraryThing 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fairy tales › Great Britain (8 works) .
  • Fairy tales | LibraryThing 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fairy tales › France (17 works) .
  • Fairy tales | LibraryThing 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] .In the broader definition of the genre, the first famous Western fairy tales are those of Aesop (6th century BC) in ancient Greece.^ In Waldorf Schools, fairy tales are used in the first grade as a central part of the curriculum.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first activity deals with your favorite Fairy Tale character and the second activity deals with your favorite Fairy Tale.

^ The fairy tales that we in Western society are familiar with have basically been frozen in time.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Allusions to fairy tales appear plentifully in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene, and the plays of William Shakespeare.^ One universally agreed-on factor is that the nature of a tale does not depend on whether fairies appear in it.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Play the tape and set-up the fairy tale pop-up book, four fairy .

^ The coach can make the direct suggestion of a common symbol from fairy tales, such as - in Karen's session - becoming a king or queen as a symbol for "being your own person."
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part II 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: General]

[32] .King Lear can be considered a literary variant of fairy tales such as Water and Salt and Cap O' Rushes.^ Various fairy tales .

^ These are the literary fairy tales, or Kunstmärchen .
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The literary fairy tale came into popularity in France and Italy during the 17th century, where it was a kind of sophisticated parlor game for adults in aristocratic society.
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33] .The tale itself resurfaced in Western literature in the 16th and 17th centuries, with The Facetious Nights of Straparola by Giovanni Francesco Straparola (Italy, 1550 and 1553),[30] which contains many fairy tales in its inset tales, and the Neapolitan tales of Giambattista Basile (Naples, 1634–6),[30] which are all fairy tales.^ There are 30 fairy tales .
  • andersen - fairy tales - blackie - AbeBooks 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.abebooks.com [Source type: General]

^ Fairy tales all use extremes.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part I 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In a fairy tale all things are possible.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34] .Carlo Gozzi made use of many fairy tale motifs among his Commedia dell'Arte scenarios,[35] including among them one based on The Love For Three Oranges (1761).^ Among the chap-books many tales not fairy tales were included.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fairy tales all use extremes.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part I 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many times the question, "What is a fairy tale?"
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36] .Simultaneously, Pu Songling, in China, included many fairy tales in his collection, Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio (published posthumously, 1766).^ Among the chap-books many tales not fairy tales were included.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A collection of Grimms' fairy tales.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Ten fairy tale story starters.

[31] .The fairy tale itself became popular among the précieuses of upper-class France (1690–1710),[30] and among the tales told in that time were the ones of La Fontaine and the Contes of Charles Perrault (1697), who fixed the forms of Sleeping Beauty and Cinderella.^ The article is titled "Tales of Sleeping Beauties."
  • SurLaLune Fairy Tales: Annotated Fairy Tales, Fairy Tale Books and Illustrations 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.surlalunefairytales.com [Source type: General]

^ But I sleep with only one at a time.
  • Fiction from Robert Olen Butler 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC webdelsol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beauty is one example of a strong woman character in fairy tales.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37] .Although Straparola's, Basile's and Perrault's collections contain the oldest known forms of various fairy tales, on the stylistic evidence, all the writers rewrote the tales for literary effect.^ A collection of Grimms' fairy tales.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Fairy tales all use extremes.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part I 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The above are the main collections of fairy tales in England.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38]
.The first collectors to attempt to preserve not only the plot and characters of the tale, but also the style in which they were told, were the Brothers Grimm, collecting German fairy tales; ironically, this meant although their first edition (1812 & 1815)[30] remains a treasure for folklorists, they rewrote the tales in later editions to make them more acceptable, which ensured their sales and the later popularity of their work.^ So - I want more fairy tales… .
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In America the publication of fairy tales was at first a reprinting of English editions.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Brothers Grimm were among the first to try to preserve the features of oral tales.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]
.Such literary forms did not merely draw from the folktale, but also influenced folktales in turn.^ The method of giving individual names to the animals such as Reynard, Bruin, and Tibert, was current among the Folk before a literary form was given to Reynard.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet while oral fairy tales likely existed for thousands of years prior to the literary forms, there is no pure folktale.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the literary tales were influenced by, and in turn, influenced the oral tales.
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Brothers Grimm rejected several tales for their collection, though told orally to them by Germans, because the tales derived from Perrault, and they concluded they were thereby French and not German tales; an oral version of Bluebeard was thus rejected, and the tale of Briar Rose, clearly related to Perrault's Sleeping Beauty, was included only because Jacob Grimm convinced his brother that the figure of Brynhild proved that the sleeping princess was authentically German folklore.^ They need their beauty sleep.

^ A collection of Grimms' fairy tales.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ The article is titled "Tales of Sleeping Beauties."
  • SurLaLune Fairy Tales: Annotated Fairy Tales, Fairy Tale Books and Illustrations 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.surlalunefairytales.com [Source type: General]

[40]
.This consideration of whether to keep Sleeping Beauty reflected a belief common among folklorists of the 19th century: that the folk tradition preserved fairy tales in forms from pre-history except when "contaminated" by such literary forms, leading people to tell inauthentic tales.^ History of fairy tales with emphasis on gender.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use this form to record people's favorite fairy tales.

^ We will look at the history of the fairy tale, beginning with the oral folk tales.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41] .The rural, illiterate, and uneducated peasants, if suitably isolated, were the folk and would tell pure folk tales.^ Celtic tales are unusual in that they have been collected while the custom of story-telling is yet flourishing among the Folk.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The irony is that the aristocracy took their stories about behavior from the peasants' traditional folk tales.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perrault modified the folk tales, editing out much of their cruelty and crassness since this would have been too shocking for his aristocratic audience.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42] .Sometimes they regarded fairy tales as a form of fossil, the remnants of a once-perfect tale.^ Sometimes, especially in children's literature, fairy tales are retold with a twist simply for comic effect, such as The Stinky Cheese Man by Jon Scieszka .
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each group will choose one fairy tale, either a classic or one they have written, and make puppets to perform the tale for their classmates.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Subject: feminism & fairy tales Stacey, Regarding feminist analysis of fairy tales, try Madonna Kolbenschlag, KISS SLEEPING BEAUTY GOODBYE (Harper & Row, 1988[?
  • Feminist Interpretation of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC userpages.umbc.edu [Source type: General]

[43] .However, further research has concluded that fairy tales never had a fixed form, and regardless of literary influence, the tellers constantly altered them for their own purposes.^ Plan your own fairy tale.

^ These are the literary fairy tales, or Kunstmärchen .
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The literary fairy tale came into popularity in France and Italy during the 17th century, where it was a kind of sophisticated parlor game for adults in aristocratic society.
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44]
.The work of the Brothers Grimm influenced other collectors, both inspiring them to collect tales and leading them to similarly believe, in a spirit of romantic nationalism, that the fairy tales of a country were particularly representative of it, to the neglect of cross-cultural influence.^ A collection of Grimms' fairy tales.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ AM picklemonster I have a copy of the Grimm's Fairy tales.
  • The Gruesome Origins of 5 Popular Fairy Tales | Cracked.com 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The above are the main collections of fairy tales in England.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among those influenced were the Russian Alexander Afanasyev (first published in 1866),[30] the Norwegians Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe (first published in 1845),[30] the Romanian Petre Ispirescu (first published in 1874), the English Joseph Jacobs (first published in 1890),[30] and Jeremiah Curtin, an American who collected Irish tales (first published in 1890).^ A classic animal bridegroom tale from the Norwegian collection of Asbjørnsen and Moe.
  • Folktexts: A library of folktales, folklore, fairy tales, and mythology, page 1 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A folktale from Norway, collected in the mid nineteenth century by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe.
  • Folktexts: A library of folktales, folklore, fairy tales, and mythology, page 1 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm collected their stories not from peasants living in the countryside, but from urban middle class women who had heard them from their servants or nurse maids.
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45] .Ethnographers collected fairy tales over the world, finding similar tales in Africa, the Americas, and Australia; Andrew Lang was able to draw on not only the written tales of Europe and Asia, but those collected by ethnographers, to fill his "coloured" fairy books series.^ Books on analyzing fairy tales .
  • New Fairytales Online by Rosemary Lake 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC rosemarylake.com [Source type: General]

^ A collection of Grimms' fairy tales.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ The above are the main collections of fairy tales in England.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46] .They also encouraged other collectors of fairy tales, as when Yei Theodora Ozaki created a collection, Japanese Fairy Tales (1908), after encouragement from Lang.^ Fairy Glade and other Enchanting Tales .
  • Children > Fairy Tales > Bestseller eBooks 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC ebooks.ebookmall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A collection of Grimms' fairy tales.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ The above are the main collections of fairy tales in England.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47] .Simultaneously, writers such as Hans Christian Andersen and George MacDonald continued the tradition of literary fairy tales.^ The adaptation of fairy tales for children continues.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Different twists to traditional fairy tales.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ George MacDonald has answered: "Undine is a fairy tale."
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Andersen's work sometimes drew on old folktales, but more often deployed fairytale motifs and plots in new tales.^ Others have used the conventions of fairy tales to create new stories with sentiments more relevant to contemporary life, as in Labyrinth [51] and the films of Michel Ocelot .
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fairy tales with very similar plots, characters, and motifs are found spread across many different cultures.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Jatakas are probably the oldest collection of such tales in literature, and the greater part of the rest are demonstrably more than a thousand years old.
  • Indian Fairy Tales - Notes and References (by Joseph Jacobs) 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.authorama.com [Source type: Original source]

[48] .MacDonald incorporated fairytale motifs both in new literary fairy tales, such as The Light Princess, and in works of the genre that would become fantasy, as in The Princess and the Goblin or Lilith.^ These are the literary fairy tales, or Kunstmärchen .
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The literary fairy tale came into popularity in France and Italy during the 17th century, where it was a kind of sophisticated parlor game for adults in aristocratic society.
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In modern-day parlance, the term is also used to describe something blessed with princesses, as in "fairy tale ending" (a happy ending ) [1] or "fairy tale romance", though not all fairy tales end happily.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49]

Cross-cultural transmission

.Two theories of origins have attempted to explain the common elements in fairy tales found spread over continents.^ Original versions of classic fairy tales .
  • Original versions of classic fairy tales | Digital Bits Skeptic 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.dbskeptic.com [Source type: General]

^ Two theories of origins have attempted to explain the common elements in fairy tales found spread over continents.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beauty and the Beast , illustration by Warwick Goble Any comparison of fairy tales quickly discovers that many fairy tales have features in common with each other.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One is that a single point of origin generated any given tale, which then spread over the centuries; the other is that such fairy tales stem from common human experience and therefore can appear separately in many different origins.^ Fairy tales and folktales may be communicated in many different forms.
  • Famous Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.intime.uni.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Different twists to traditional fairy tales.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Original versions of classic fairy tales .
  • Original versions of classic fairy tales | Digital Bits Skeptic 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.dbskeptic.com [Source type: General]

[50]
.Fairy tales with very similar plots, characters, and motifs are found spread across many different cultures.^ Different twists to traditional fairy tales.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many times the question, "What is a fairy tale?"
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fairy tales the characters live happily ever after.

.Many researchers hold this to be caused by the spread of such tales, as people repeat tales they have heard in foreign lands, although the oral nature makes it impossible to trace the route except by inference.^ It also doesn’t explain natural disasters and such phenomenon, not caused by people.
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Each group will choose one fairy tale, either a classic or one they have written, and make puppets to perform the tale for their classmates.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fairy tales are in my opinion very useful to people, they open our soles, our minds, so we may listen f.ex.
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

[51] .Folklorists have attempted to determine the origin by internal evidence, which can not always be clear; Joseph Jacobs, comparing the Scottish tale The Ridere of Riddles with the version collected by the Brothers Grimm, The Riddle, noted that in The Ridere of Riddles one hero ends up polygamously married, which might point to an ancient custom, but in The Riddle, the simpler riddle might argue greater antiquity.^ The version by the Brothers Grimm I detailed does seem to be the original, version 1 story”– .
  • Original versions of classic fairy tales | Digital Bits Skeptic 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.dbskeptic.com [Source type: General]

^ A collection of Grimms' fairy tales.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Original versions of classic fairy tales .
  • Original versions of classic fairy tales | Digital Bits Skeptic 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.dbskeptic.com [Source type: General]

[52]
.Folklorists of the "Finnish" (or historical-geographical) school attempted to place fairy tales to their origin, with inconclusive results.^ Original versions of classic fairy tales .
  • Original versions of classic fairy tales | Digital Bits Skeptic 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.dbskeptic.com [Source type: General]

^ After the students have internalized the motif structure they are able to write their own original literary fairy tales using the traditional motifs.
  • Fairy Tale Motifs 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The origin of fairy tales is a question which has kept many very able scholars busy and which has not yet been settled to the satisfaction of many.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53] .Sometimes influence, especially within a limited area and time, is clearer, as when considering the influence of Perrault's tales on those collected by the Brothers Grimm.^ A collection of Grimms' fairy tales.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Book of Perrault's collection of fairy tales.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes influence, especially within a limited area and time, is clearer, as when considering the influence of Perrault's tales on those collected by the Brothers Grimm.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Little Briar-Rose appears to stem from Perrault's Sleeping Beauty, as the Grimms' tale appears to be the only independent German variant.^ The article is titled "Tales of Sleeping Beauties."
  • SurLaLune Fairy Tales: Annotated Fairy Tales, Fairy Tale Books and Illustrations 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.surlalunefairytales.com [Source type: General]

^ Little Briar-Rose appears to stem from Perrault's Sleeping Beauty , as the Grimms' tale appears to be the only independent German variant.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Grimms noted that the evolution of the tale was from a strongly marked, even ugly, but highly expressive form of its earlier stages, to that which possessed external beauty of mold.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54] .Similarly, the close agreement between the opening of Grimms' version of Little Red Riding Hood and Perrault's tale points to an influence—although Grimms' version adds a different ending (perhaps derived from The Wolf and the Seven Young Kids).^ I will read "Little Red Riding Hood" in several versions.
  • Famous Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.intime.uni.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I will read "Lon Po Po," a Chinese version of "Little Red Riding Hood," and we will discuss the differences and similarities between the stories.
  • Famous Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.intime.uni.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Have the students use a different fairy tale, such as Red Riding Hood .
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55]
.Fairy tales also tend to take on the color of their location, through the choice of motifs, the style in which they are told, and the depiction of character and local color.^ Fairy tales also tend to take on the color of their location, through the choice of motifs, the style in which they are told, and the depiction of character and local color.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Four volumes of choice fairy tales.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fairy tales the characters live happily ever after.

[56]

Association with children

.Originally, adults were the audience of a fairy tale just as often as children.^ The adaptation of fairy tales for children continues.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Original versions of classic fairy tales .
  • Original versions of classic fairy tales | Digital Bits Skeptic 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.dbskeptic.com [Source type: General]

^ Originally, adults were the audience of a fairy tale just as often as children.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57] .Literary fairy tales appeared in works intended for adults, but in the 19th and 20th centuries the fairy tale became associated with children's literature.^ The adaptation of fairy tales for children continues.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Originally, adults were the audience of a fairy tale just as often as children.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Literary fairy tales appeared in works intended for adults, but in the 19th and 20th centuries the fairy tale came to be associated with children's literature .
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cutlery for children. Detail showing fairy-tale scenes: Snow White, Little Red Riding Hood, Hansel and Gretel.
.The précieuses, including Madame d'Aulnoy, intended their works for adults, but regarded their source as the tales that servants, or other women of lower class, would tell to children.^ The précieuses , including Madame d'Aulnoy , intended their works for adults, but regarded their source as the tales that servants, or other women of lower class, would tell to children.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Third in a series of three, it also includes notes about the origins of each folk tale, what other sources each can be found in, and other versions of the story.
  • Reading Corner--Nonfiction--Folk & Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.carr.org [Source type: General]

^ In fact, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm collected their stories not from peasants living in the countryside, but from urban middle class women who had heard them from their servants or nurse maids.
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58] .Indeed, a novel of that time, depicting a countess's suitor offering to tell such a tale, has the countess exclaim that she loves fairy tales as if she were still a child.^ Many times the question, "What is a fairy tale?"
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Re-telling Fairy Tales .
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In creating their own ending they will be responsible for gender roles in keeping with the original time period of the fairy tale.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[59] .Among the late précieuses, Jeanne-Marie Le Prince de Beaumont redacted a version of Beauty and the Beast for children, and it is her tale that is best known today.^ Moral Tales, by Madame de Beaumont.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the version of Beauty and the Beast that is best known today was created as a literary tale by Mme.
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among the late précieuses, Jeanne-Marie Le Prince de Beaumont redacted a version of Beauty and the Beast for children, and it is her tale that is best known today.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[60] .The Brothers Grimm titled their collection Children's and Household Tales and rewrote their tales after complaints that they were not suitable for children.^ A collection of Grimms' fairy tales.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ The Brothers Grimm titled their collection Children's and Household Tales and rewrote their tales after complaints that they were not suitable for children.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An introduction to the famous Grimm brothers, the source of their stories and their motivations for collecting them, and a reflection on the stories' resonance today are all presented in this reading comprehension.

[61]
.In the modern era, fairy tales were altered so that they could be read to children.^ The adaptation of fairy tales for children continues.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The R-value is a modern fairy tale.
  • Chapter Four: The "R" Fairy Tale; The Myth of Insulation Values | Monolithic 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.monolithic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are important also as literary fairy tales and have not been equaled in modern times.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Brothers Grimm concentrated mostly on eliminating sexual references;[62] Rapunzel, in the first edition, revealed the prince's visits by asking why her clothing had grown tight, thus letting the witch deduce that she was pregnant, but in subsequent editions carelessly revealed that it was easier to pull up the prince than the witch.^ The Brothers Grimm concentrated mostly on eliminating sexual references; [32] Rapunzel , in the first edition, revealed the prince's visits by asking why her clothing had grown tight, thus letting the witch deduce that she was pregnant, but in subsequent editions carelessly revealed that it was easier to pull up the prince than the witch.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The witch was unaware of the prince's visits until Rapunzel asks the witch why she was so much heavier climbing up her hair than the prince.

^ When the prince comes to visit, he climbs up Rapunzel's hair, but the witch is at the other end.

[63] .On the other hand, in many respects, violence – particularly when punishing villains – was increased.^ On the other hand, in many respects, violence – particularly when punishing villains – was increased.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64] .Other, later, revisions cut out violence; J. R. R. Tolkien noted that The Juniper Tree often had its cannibalistic stew cut out in a version intended for children.^ Placing these stories in their historical context, I think we find tales not originally intended for children, that often reflect the values and fears of the times of their origins.
  • Original versions of classic fairy tales | Digital Bits Skeptic 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.dbskeptic.com [Source type: General]

^ So he eats her too, but in the later versions of the tale, the wolf loses out when sick grandma and the girl are cut out of the wolf by a hunter, who replaces the pair with stones, which kills the wolf.
  • Cinematical Seven: The Horror of Fairy Tales - Cinematical 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.cinematical.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His bones are buried at a juniper tree that a bird flies out of, collecting materials from a goldsmith, shoemaker, and miller.
  • Cinematical Seven: The Horror of Fairy Tales - Cinematical 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.cinematical.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65] .The moralizing strain in the Victorian era altered the classical tales to teach lessons, as when George Cruikshank rewrote Cinderella in 1854 to contain temperance themes.^ Finally, if we were teaching the unit, we would add at least one more variation on the Cinderella theme; a captivating little tale named "Atalanta," written by Betty Miles.
  • Famous Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.intime.uni.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grimms' Fairy Tales (Puffin Classics) (ISBN: 0140366962 / 0-14-036696-2 ) Jacob Grimm; Brothers Grimm; Illustrator-George Cruikshank Bookseller: ExtremelyReliable (Richmond, TX, U.S.A.) Bookseller Rating: Quantity Available: 1 Book Description: Puffin, 1996.
  • grimm - grimms fairy tales - cruikshank - AbeBooks 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.abebooks.com [Source type: General]

His acquaintance Charles Dickens protested, "In an utilitarian age, of all other times, it is a matter of grave importance that fairy tales should be respected."[66][67]
.Psychoanalysts such as Bruno Bettelheim, who regarded the cruelty of older fairy tales as indicative of psychological conflicts, strongly criticized this expurgation, because it weakened their usefulness to both children and adults as ways of symbolically resolving issues.^ Fairy tales--History and criticism.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ The literary fairy tale came into popularity in France and Italy during the 17th century, where it was a kind of sophisticated parlor game for adults in aristocratic society.
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Exactly in the same way, Perrault’s tales have ousted the older English folk-tales, and it is with the utmost difficulty that one can get true English fairy tales because Red Riding Hood , Cinderella , Blue Beard , Puss in Boots and the rest, have survived in the struggle for existence among English folk-tales.
  • Indian Fairy Tales - Notes and References (by Joseph Jacobs) 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.authorama.com [Source type: Original source]

[68]
.The adaptation of fairy tales for children continues.^ CHILDREN STORY: A collection of fairy tales by Hans Christian Andersen retold by E. Jean Roberton from the original English version by Caroline Peachey.
  • andersen - fairy tales - blackie - AbeBooks 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.abebooks.com [Source type: General]

^ Inu-yasha : a Feudal Fairy Tale / story and art by Rumiko Takahashi ; English adaptation by Gerard Jones.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ This is what makes fairy tales an important part in shaping our children's attitudes about male/female roles and responsibilities.
  • Disrupting Fairy Tales and Unsettling Students 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www2.widener.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Walt Disney's influential Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was largely (although certainly not solely) intended for the children's market.^ "Snow White lived with the Seven Dwarfs.

^ Death of the Seven Dwarfs , a folk legend from Switzerland with an ending quite different from that of the familiar fairy tale "Snow-White and the Seven Dwarfs" by the Grimm brothers.
  • Folktexts: A library of folktales, folklore, fairy tales, and mythology, page 1 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ John White of Barrhaven, Ottawa, created the huge snow structure over five days in December for his two children, Clara, 3, and Charlie, 2, The Ottawa Citizen reports.
  • fairy tale - Articles and Posts from ParentDish 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.parentdish.com [Source type: General]

[69] .The anime Magical Princess Minky Momo draws on the fairy tale Momotarō.^ I've been reading fairy tales for as long as I can remember, with many of my early drawings reflecting my interest in these fantastic stories.
  • The Fairy Tale Tarot by Lisa Hunt - Journal 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC thefairytaletarot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And when I see pictures of the universe - the stares and galaxes f.es., it is not strange for me to imagine the magic wand from some fairy tales, and is it not an enlighten way - to create?
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The ideas for the art flowed quickly onto the blank pages, filling several drawing journals with castles, princesses, ogres, landscapes, tricksters and all manner of fairy tale intrigue.
  • The Fairy Tale Tarot by Lisa Hunt - Journal 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC thefairytaletarot.com [Source type: Original source]

[70] .Jack Zipes has spent many years working to make the older traditional tales accessible to modern readers and their children.^ This tale, which does not exactly fit into the traditional Cinderella mode, adds a modern twist that second graders would notice and enjoy.
  • Famous Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.intime.uni.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Counting the ancient with the modern, India has probably some 600 to 700 folk-tales printed and translated in accessible form.
  • Indian Fairy Tales - Notes and References (by Joseph Jacobs) 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.authorama.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many versions of traditional fairy tales divided into chapters each with introductions and opinions.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[71]
.In Waldorf schools, fairy tales are used in the first grade as a central part of the curriculum.^ Fairy tales all use extremes.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part I 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Waldorf Schools, fairy tales are used in the first grade as a central part of the curriculum.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Teacher workbook for use with fairy tales.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rudolf Steiner's work on human development claims that at age six to seven, the mind of a child is best taught through storytelling.^ Rudolf Steiner's work on human development shows that at age six to seven, the mind of a child is best taught through storytelling .
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This might also be the point where you'll want to develop a working vocabulary for describing the books, depending on the age and sophistication of the students.
  • Folk and Fairy Tales, Tongue-in-Cheek Versions: Featured Subject 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.carolhurst.com [Source type: General]

.The archetypes and magical nature of fairy tales appeals strongly to children of these ages.^ The archetypes and magical nature of fairy tales appeals strongly to children of these ages.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The adaptation of fairy tales for children continues.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are the literary fairy tales, or Kunstmärchen .
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The nature of fairy tales, following the oral tradition, enhances the child's ability to visualize a spoken narrative, as well as to remember the story as heard.^ Different twists to traditional fairy tales.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ten fairy tale story starters.

^ The nature of fairy tales, following the oral tradition, enhances the child's ability to visualize a spoken narrative, as well as to remember the story as heard.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fairy tales can be seen from a constructionist perspective.^ I think we need a little humility about the level of elevation of our own perspective, which will in its time come to be seen as another kind of fairy tale.
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

.In “The Domain of Style” from Analyzing Prose, Richard Lanham suggests, “how we say something determines what we say.” Fairy tales impact children’s interpretations of communication and about life; they communicate to children about love, life, miracles, and happy endings.^ The adaptation of fairy tales for children continues.
  • Fairy tale - FolkNation 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC folknation.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About fairy tales.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Collection of fairy tales and articles about them.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Richard Lanham states about communication, “We perceive the world actively and recreatively; we don’t just register a world already ‘out there.’ To perceive the world is also to compose it, to make sense of it.”[72] A child’s mind is young and impressionable; what they see and hear at a young age can affect the way they view life.^ Young as he was, he had already developed masculine views on the reliability of the female mind.
  • Fairy Tale 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They both radiated and transmitted a personal kindness and inspired enthusiasm about life that is unique to individuals who are spiritually awakened.
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It’ll all end up back as a problem of consciousness, but seeing the exact way this plays out in the world of matter and people is important.
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

.Parents try to give and teach their children as much as they can, but there is no guidebook on how to raise children.^ They were away to teach children...
  • The Gruesome Origins of 5 Popular Fairy Tales | Cracked.com 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It [Cinderella] is not there to teach children values.
  • Disrupting Fairy Tales and Unsettling Students 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www2.widener.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parents are supposed to read these stories, or children can read them on their own when they're old enough.

.Parents can look to fairy tales to show their children a different perspective on love, relationships, and happiness.^ Different twists to traditional fairy tales.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fairy tales and folktales differ from culture to culture.
  • Famous Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.intime.uni.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Retains all the emotion and humor of the original fairy tales: the heroes are courageous, the villains are horrible, and the children are tasty.
  • Fairy Tales, Folk Tales, Legends and Myths at Embracing the Child 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.embracingthechild.org [Source type: General]

.In an essay in Communication as…: Perspectives on Theory, John Durham Peters states, “Parents spend thousands of kisses, commands, dollars and diapers, never quite knowing what works and doesn’t work to produce a human being.^ Once a human being has known their true nature, the SELF, the same SELF that we all are, that everything is, they will never be the same again, and they will have much to share with the rest of humanity.
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Emily is an imperturbable little girl who knows her fairly tales and discovers, in the first story, that kissing a frog really does turn him into a prince; the only trouble is, he doesn't like being a prince and greatly prefers his frog state.
  • Folk and Fairy Tales, Tongue-in-Cheek Versions: Featured Subject 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.carolhurst.com [Source type: General]

^ The genuine illumination, without fracture, simultaneously is at inner to the human being, and out too, at individual’s perspective and level, and at collective’s perspective and level.
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

So much happens in the first two years of life — when a child is hardly capable of dialogue in any sense, and is learning quite precisely, what interaction is. .Feeding, holding, and changing an infant are hardly dialogic practices, but they are immensely communicative.^ They have at times accused me of being “too worldly” and asked whether I really thought a “spiritual” person should be so engaged in the political dialog and in efforts to change the government.
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Individuals realizing the power they hold to make change and the responsibility that goes with it.
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

.If dialogue is defined as the sharing of being and time, rather than the conjoint effort at mutual understanding, then of course such practices are dialogic, but the asymmetrical nature of the interaction — helpless and unabashed love exchanged for care and sustenance — makes dissemination an apter model.”[73] As a child we try to block out and forget the horrors of growing up so that we won’t have to experience that feeling again.^ Once a human being has known their true nature, the SELF, the same SELF that we all are, that everything is, they will never be the same again, and they will have much to share with the rest of humanity.
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Greedy developers stripped swaths of natural habitats and plopped down row after row of cookie-cutter ostentation, symbols of power and position rather than furnishing responsible housing for a growing populous.
  • The Fairy Tale Tarot by Lisa Hunt - Journal 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC thefairytaletarot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I’m still trying to figure that out—growing up, kids thought I was crazy but they also thought, “Wow, you’re a really good artist.” So early on, I simply accepted who I was and kept doing the art.
  • The Fairy Tale Tarot by Lisa Hunt - Journal 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC thefairytaletarot.com [Source type: Original source]

“Forgetting is a part of learning. Revelation is relatively rare. .Indeed, most of what we experience in any context doesn’t even register in consciousness: the present moment provides enough sensation to exhaust a lifetime of analysis.”[73] Fairy tales will be referenced in a child’s life for years to come.^ Death comes as Godmother in this fairy tale.

^ Also, coming in the next few weeks, more fun reads using fairy tale themes: .
  • SurLaLune Fairy Tales: Annotated Fairy Tales, Fairy Tale Books and Illustrations 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.surlalunefairytales.com [Source type: General]

^ Yet, he, too, denounces his own analysis by saying that fairy tales are not meant to be picked apart and scrutinized.
  • Disrupting Fairy Tales and Unsettling Students 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www2.widener.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Children will look to fairy tales to show how they understand and what they want to gain from life.^ Each group will choose one fairy tale, either a classic or one they have written, and make puppets to perform the tale for their classmates.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In creating their own ending they will be responsible for gender roles in keeping with the original time period of the fairy tale.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Retains all the emotion and humor of the original fairy tales: the heroes are courageous, the villains are horrible, and the children are tasty.
  • Fairy Tales, Folk Tales, Legends and Myths at Embracing the Child 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.embracingthechild.org [Source type: General]

.Fairy tales communicate to each person in a different way; it is up to us to express what a fairy tale communicates to us and express our understandings.^ Fairy tales and folktales may be communicated in many different forms.
  • Famous Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.intime.uni.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Different twists to traditional fairy tales.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We can have our fairy tales which inspire us and our innermost truths.
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

.The constructionist view is about understanding communication through different meanings and interpretations.^ (The students will understand what point of view means after reading "The True Story of the three Little Pigs."
  • Famous Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.intime.uni.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fairy tales also have many versions and interpretations.^ Original versions of classic fairy tales .
  • Original versions of classic fairy tales | Digital Bits Skeptic 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.dbskeptic.com [Source type: General]

^ Many times the question, "What is a fairy tale?"
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The origin of fairy tales is a question which has kept many very able scholars busy and which has not yet been settled to the satisfaction of many.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contemporary tales

Literary

John Bauer's illustration of trolls and a princess from a collection of Swedish fairy tales
.In contemporary literature, many authors have used the form of fairy tales for various reasons, such as examining the human condition from the simple framework a fairytale provides.^ Use this form to record people's favorite fairy tales.

^ Fairy tales and folktales may be communicated in many different forms.
  • Famous Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.intime.uni.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fairy tales all use extremes.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part I 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: Original source]

[74] Some authors seek to recreate a sense of the fantastic in a contemporary discourse.[75] .Some writers use fairy tale forms for modern issues;[76] this can include using the psychological dramas implicit in the story, as when Robin McKinley retold Donkeyskin as the novel Deerskin, with emphasis on the abusive treatment the father of the tale dealt to his daughter.^ The R-value is a modern fairy tale.
  • Chapter Four: The "R" Fairy Tale; The Myth of Insulation Values | Monolithic 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.monolithic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ History of fairy tales with emphasis on gender.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use this form to record people's favorite fairy tales.

[77] .Sometimes, especially in children's literature, fairy tales are retold with a twist simply for comic effect, such as The Stinky Cheese Man by Jon Scieszka and The ASBO Fairy Tales by Chris Pilbeam.^ Vocabulary from Jon Scieszka's popular take on a fairy tale classic.

^ Different twists to traditional fairy tales.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Modern twist on the fairy tale.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A common comic motif is a world where all the fairy tales take place, and the characters are aware of their role in the story,[78] such as in the film series Shrek.^ But no fairy-tale character has such ambivalence.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part I 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fairy tales all use extremes.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part I 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ten fairy tale story starters.

.Other authors may have specific motives, such as multicultural or feminist reevaluations of predominantly Eurocentric masculine-dominated fairy tales, implying critique of older narratives.^ Contemporary feminist fairy tales.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Snow White: An opportunity to explore a large number of resources on traditional fairy tales and more specifically "Snow White."

^ Fairy tales are in my opinion very useful to people, they open our soles, our minds, so we may listen f.ex.
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

[79] The figure of the damsel in distress has been particularly attacked by many feminist critics. .Examples of narrative reversal rejecting this figure include The Paperbag Princess by Robert Munsch, a picture book aimed at children in which a princess rescues a prince, and Angela Carter's The Bloody Chamber, which retells a number of fairy tales from a female point of view.^ Book of Perrault's collection of fairy tales.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Word Wall: Fairy Tales (pictures) .

^ Most of the competition, however falls into one of two categories: anthologies of fairy tales, and illustrated, individual books of fairy tales.

.One interesting use of the genre occurred in a military technology journal named Defense AT&L, which published an article as a fairytale titled Optimizing Bi-Modal Signal/Noise Ratios.^ If you want to be notified when the new article is available , then you can use one of the “Subscribe” methods at the top right of this page - Email alerts will send you an email every time a new article is published.
  • Original versions of classic fairy tales | Digital Bits Skeptic 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.dbskeptic.com [Source type: General]

Written by Maj. .Dan Ward (USAF), the story uses a fairy named Garble to represent breakdowns in communication between operators and technology developers.^ These functions are representative of a fairy tale and the students will use some combination of these when writing their own stories.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When you tell a story using Condensed Fairy Tales you can make it as frightening, or benign as you want.

^ Use these coloring pages, illustrating scenes from the fairy tale "The Three Wishes", to practice story sequencing.

[80] Ward's article was heavily influenced by George MacDonald.
.Other notable figures who have employed fairy tales include Oscar Wilde, A. S. Byatt, Jane Yolen, Terri Windling, Donald Barthelme, Robert Coover, Margaret Atwood, Kate Bernheimer, Espido Freire, Tanith Lee, James Thurber, Robin McKinley, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Kelly Link, Bruce Holland Rogers, Donna Jo Napoli, Cameron Dokey, Robert Bly, Gail Carson Levine, Annette Marie Hyder, Jasper Fforde and many others.^ The origin of fairy tales is a question which has kept many very able scholars busy and which has not yet been settled to the satisfaction of many.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I've been reading fairy tales for as long as I can remember, with many of my early drawings reflecting my interest in these fantastic stories.
  • The Fairy Tale Tarot by Lisa Hunt - Journal 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC thefairytaletarot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fairy Tales and Legends of Many Nations, by Charles B. Burkhardt.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It may be hard to lay down the rule between fairy tales and fantasies that use fairy tale motifs, or even whole plots, but the distinction is commonly made, even within the works of a single author: George MacDonald's Lilith and Phantastes are regarded as fantasies, while his "The Light Princess", "The Golden Key", and "The Wise Woman" are commonly called fairy tales.^ Fairy tales all use extremes.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part I 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fantasy genre; fairy tale.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ In using fairy tales I hope to be able to hold the students' interest.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most notable distinction is that fairytale fantasies, like other fantasies, make use of novelistic writing conventions of prose, characterization, or setting.^ Scorned by some of the animals, he is aided by three others, a pig, a turtle and an iguana, as the rooster attempts to make shortcake using The Little Red Hen's recipe.
  • Folk and Fairy Tales, Tongue-in-Cheek Versions: Featured Subject 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.carolhurst.com [Source type: General]

^ Reading is usually the area of concern for my students and by using a type of story that most will have some familiarity with, I feel they will have success with this unit, both in reading and writing.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But others just have one or two images that attract me - now I have a better idea of why, and a way to make use of those images.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part I 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: Original source]

[81]

Film

.Fairy tales have been enacted dramatically; records exist of this in commedia dell'arte,[82] and later in pantomime.^ Use this form to record people's favorite fairy tales.

^ Inu-yasha : a Feudal Fairy Tale / story and art by Rumiko Takahashi ; English adaptation by Gerard Jones.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ It seems like although the original fairy tales may be just as scary as Gremlins to little kids, the morals might be actually beneficial later in life.
  • Original versions of classic fairy tales | Digital Bits Skeptic 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.dbskeptic.com [Source type: General]

[83] .The advent of cinema has meant that such stories could be presented in a more plausible manner, with the use of special effects and animation; the Disney movie Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs in 1937 was a ground-breaking film for fairy tales and, indeed, fantasy in general.^ Condensed Fairy Tales is meant to be unintimidating.

^ So - I want more fairy tales… .
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Fairy tales all use extremes.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part I 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: Original source]

[69] .Disney's influence helped establish this genre as a children's genre, and has been blamed for simplification of fairy tales ending in situations where everything goes right, as opposed to the pain and suffering — and sometimes unhappy endings — of many folk fairy tales.^ Two of Everything: A Chinese folk tale .
  • Fairy Tales, Folk Tales, Legends and Myths at Embracing the Child 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.embracingthechild.org [Source type: General]

^ Fantasy genre; fairy tale.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Everything in a fairy tale is also precise.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part I 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: Original source]

[77]
.Many filmed fairy tales have been made primarily for children, from Disney's later works to Aleksandr Rou's retelling of Vasilissa the Beautiful, the first Soviet film to use Russian folk tales in a big-budget feature.^ Fairy tales all use extremes.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part I 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many times the question, "What is a fairy tale?"
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Teacher workbook for use with fairy tales.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[84] .Others have used the conventions of fairy tales to create new stories with sentiments more relevant to contemporary life, as in Labyrinth,[85] My Neighbor Totoro, the films of Michel Ocelot,[86] and Happily N'Ever After.^ So - I want more fairy tales… .
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Fairy Glade and other Enchanting Tales .
  • Children > Fairy Tales > Bestseller eBooks 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC ebooks.ebookmall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fairy tales all use extremes.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part I 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: Original source]

.Other works have retold familiar fairy tales in a darker, more horrific or psychological variant aimed primarily at adults.^ So - I want more fairy tales… .
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No more fairy tales!
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Snow White: An opportunity to explore a large number of resources on traditional fairy tales and more specifically "Snow White."

.Notable examples are Jean Cocteau's Beauty and the Beast[87] and The Company of Wolves, based on an Angela Carter's retelling of Little Red Riding Hood.^ Book: Little Red Riding Hood (elementary) .

^ It's great which version of Little Red Riding Hood is your favorite.
  • The Gruesome Origins of 5 Popular Fairy Tales | Cracked.com 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Little Red Riding hood and her grandmother tumble out.
  • Original versions of classic fairy tales | Digital Bits Skeptic 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.dbskeptic.com [Source type: General]

[88] .Likewise, Princess Mononoke[89] and Pan's Labyrinth[90] create new stories in this genre from fairy tale and folklore motifs.^ Ten fairy tale story starters.

^ Fantasy genre; fairy tale.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Genre: Fairy tales.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

.In comics and animated TV series, The Sandman, Revolutionary Girl Utena, Princess Tutu, Fables and MÄR all make use of standard fairy tale elements to various extents but are more accurately categorised as fairytale fantasy due to the definite locations and characters which a longer narrative requires.^ So - I want more fairy tales… .
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Fairy tales all use extremes.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part I 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No more fairy tales!
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

.A more modern cinematic fairy tale would be Luchino Visconti’s Le Notti Bianche, starring Marcello Mastroianni before he became a superstar.^ So - I want more fairy tales… .
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Modern twist on the fairy tale.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The R-value is a modern fairy tale.
  • Chapter Four: The "R" Fairy Tale; The Myth of Insulation Values | Monolithic 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.monolithic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It involves many of the romantic conventions of fairy tales, yet it takes place in post-World War II Italy, and it ends realistically.^ In Italy the two great collections of the world of fairy tales have been mentioned.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many times the question, "What is a fairy tale?"
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The origin of fairy tales is a question which has kept many very able scholars busy and which has not yet been settled to the satisfaction of many.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Motifs

.Any comparison of fairy tales quickly discovers that many fairy tales have features in common with each other.^ Many times the question, "What is a fairy tale?"
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The theory of a common source in India will not answer entirely for the origin of tales because many similar tales have existed in non-Aryan countries.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The origin of fairy tales is a question which has kept many very able scholars busy and which has not yet been settled to the satisfaction of many.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Two of the most influential classifications are those of Antti Aarne, as revised by Stith Thompson into the Aarne-Thompson classification system, and Vladimir Propp's Morphology of the Folk Tale.^ Two of Everything: A Chinese folk tale .
  • Fairy Tales, Folk Tales, Legends and Myths at Embracing the Child 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.embracingthechild.org [Source type: General]

^ Most of the competition, however falls into one of two categories: anthologies of fairy tales, and illustrated, individual books of fairy tales.

^ Captain Temple increased the value of this collection by a remarkable analysis of all the incidents contained in the two hundred Indian folk-tales collected up to this date.
  • Indian Fairy Tales - Notes and References (by Joseph Jacobs) 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.authorama.com [Source type: Original source]

Aarne-Thompson

.This system groups fairy and folk tales according to their overall plot.^ Each group will choose one fairy tale, either a classic or one they have written, and make puppets to perform the tale for their classmates.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Included here are a chronological listing of Andersen's folk-like fairy tales, electronic texts of most stories, and links to additional information.
  • Folktexts: A library of folktales, folklore, fairy tales, and mythology, page 1 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately, there is no specific, targetable group of potential buyers for Condensed Fairy Tales as there would be for a book on, say, birdfeeding or golf.

.Common, identifying features are picked out to decide which tales are grouped together.^ The moral of this is, that India belongs to a group of peoples who have a common store of stories; India belongs to Europe for purposes of comparative folk-tales.
  • Indian Fairy Tales - Notes and References (by Joseph Jacobs) 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.authorama.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Theres nothing usual about what happens when favorite fairy tales are put together in a book, and the reader is asked to decide what happens next.
  • Fairy Tales, Folk Tales, Legends and Myths at Embracing the Child 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.embracingthechild.org [Source type: General]

Much therefore depends on what features are regarded as decisive.
.For instance, tales like Cinderella – in which a persecuted heroine, with the help of the fairy godmother or similar magical helper, attends an event (or three) in which she wins the love of a prince and is identified as his true bride – are classified as type 510, the persecuted heroine.^ Similar to type 766, The Magic Sleep .
  • Grimm Brothers' Children's and Household Tales (Grimms' FairyTales) 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Type 510, The Persecuted Heroine; followed by type 884, The Forsaken Fiancée .
  • Grimm Brothers' Children's and Household Tales (Grimms' FairyTales) 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Included here are a chronological listing of Andersen's folk-like fairy tales, electronic texts of most stories, and links to additional information.
  • Folktexts: A library of folktales, folklore, fairy tales, and mythology, page 1 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some such tales are The Wonderful Birch, Aschenputtel, Katie Woodencloak, The Story of Tam and Cam, Ye Xian, Cap O' Rushes, Catskin, Fair, Brown and Trembling, Finette Cendron, Allerleirauh, and Tattercoats.^ These functions are representative of a fairy tale and the students will use some combination of these when writing their own stories.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At some point, the tale develops its won life as a story, without reference to the personal experiences.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part I 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But Afro-American Folk Tales is a good reference book, and it preserves some important stories.

.Further analysis of the tales shows that in Cinderella, The Wonderful Birch, The Story of Tam and Cam, Ye Xian, and Aschenputtel, the heroine is persecuted by her stepmother and refused permission to go to the ball or other event, and in Fair, Brown and Trembling and Finette Cendron by her sisters and other female figures, and these are grouped as 510A; while in Cap O' Rushes, Catskin, and Allerleirauh, the heroine is driven from home by her father's persecutions, and must take work in a kitchen elsewhere, and these are grouped as 510B. But in Katie Woodencloak, she is driven from home by her stepmother's persecutions and must take service in a kitchen elsewhere, and in Tattercoats, she is refused permission to go to the ball by her grandfather.^ So, as you get to each group of stories, take the time to work out the tale from which they have sprung.
  • Folk and Fairy Tales, Tongue-in-Cheek Versions: Featured Subject 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.carolhurst.com [Source type: General]

^ We the people must take responsibility to create and maintain the change we want to see in our country, from the least of these to the greatest.
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Aarne-Thompson-Uther folktale type 510A and related stories of persecuted heroines.
  • Folktexts: A library of folktales, folklore, fairy tales, and mythology, page 1 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Given these features common with both types of 510, Katie Woodencloak is classified as 510A because the villain is the stepmother, and Tattercoats as 510B because the grandfather fills the father's role.^ My classes will study these roles both historically and in contemporary society.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I should also note that like much of Neil Gaiman’s adult fantasy, both of these stories feature explicit sexual scenes.
  • fairy tales : SFFaudio 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sffaudio.com [Source type: General]

This system has its weaknesses in the difficulty of having no way to classify subportions of a tale as motifs. .Rapunzel is type 310 (The Maiden in the Tower), but it opens with a child being demanded in return for stolen food, as does Puddocky; but Puddocky is not a Maiden in the Tower tale, while The Canary Prince, which opens with a jealous stepmother, is.^ The classic "Open Sesame" tale (type 676).
  • Folktexts: A library of folktales, folklore, fairy tales, and mythology, page 1 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once again at night the Virgin Mary appeared to her and said “Will you admit that you opened the forbidden door, I will return to you your child and release your tongue.

^ The witch punishes Rapunzel, and later the prince is hurt falling from the tower; but eventually the prince and Rapunzel live happily every after.

.It also lends itself to emphasis on the common elements, to the extent that the folklorist describes The Black Bull of Norroway as the same story as Beauty and the Beast.^ Animal bridegroom stories, such as both Beauty and the Beast and The Frog King , arise from matriarchal societies.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beauty and the Beast will allow us to examine the period of history in which the story was popularized.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This story has many of the same elements as the European fairy tales yet the tone is different.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This can be useful as a shorthand but can also erase the coloring and details of a story.^ Use these coloring pages, illustrating scenes from Little Red Riding Hood, to practice story sequencing.

^ Use these coloring pages, illustrating scenes from "Snow White", to practice story sequencing.

^ Use these coloring pages, illustrating scenes from Cinderella, to practice story sequencing.

[91]

Morphology

.Vladimir Propp specifically studied a collection of Russian fairy tales, but his analysis has been found useful for the tales of other countries.^ Fairy Glade and other Enchanting Tales .
  • Children > Fairy Tales > Bestseller eBooks 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC ebooks.ebookmall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A collection of Grimms' fairy tales.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Fairy tales all use extremes.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part I 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: Original source]

[92]
Father Frost acts as a donor in the Russian fairy tale Father Frost, testing the heroine before giving her riches.
.Having criticized Aarne-Thompson type analysis for ignoring what motifs did in stories, and because the motifs used were not clearly distinct,[93] he analyzed the tales for the function each character and action fulfilled and concluded that a tale was composed of thirty-one elements and eight character types.^ Aarne-Thompson-Uther Type Type titles not given resemble the tales' titles .
  • Grimm Brothers' Children's and Household Tales (Grimms' FairyTales) 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ But that is probably because it was one of my favorite stories to study.
  • The Fairy Tale Tarot by Lisa Hunt - Journal 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC thefairytaletarot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Her instructions further explained to the students that the assignment was meant to be a synthesis, so the students should refer to specific elements in more than one variant of the fairy tale.
  • Disrupting Fairy Tales and Unsettling Students 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www2.widener.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While the elements were not all required for all tales, when they appeared they did so in an invariant order — except that each individual element might be negated twice, so that it would appear three times, as when, in Brother and Sister, the brother resists drinking from enchanted streams twice, so that it is the third that enchants him.^ The third fellow did not appear.

^ But if they did, they would die.

^ Also known as The Grimms' Fairy Tales , this is the most influential of all folklore collections and one of the most beloved books of all time.
  • Folktexts: A library of folktales, folklore, fairy tales, and mythology, page 1 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[94]
.One such element is the donor who gives the hero magical assistance, often after testing him.^ Slaves had associated with Indian tribes such as the Cherokees, and had heard the story of the Rabbit who was so clever that no one could fool him.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two cats live happily by the sea until one of them meets a magic fish who grants his wishes.
  • Reading Corner--Nonfiction--Folk & Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.carr.org [Source type: General]

^ He very often tells a tale of him meating some self-proclaimed spiritual master who is a tad deluded.
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

[95] .In The Golden Bird, the talking fox tests the hero by warning him against entering an inn and, after he succeeds, helps him find the object of his quest; in The Boy Who Drew Cats, the priest advised the hero to stay in small places at night, which protects him from an evil spirit; in Cinderella, the fairy godmother gives Cinderella the dresses she needs to attend the ball, as their mothers' spirits do in Bawang Putih Bawang Merah and The Wonderful Birch; in The Fox Sister, a Buddhist monk gives the brothers magical bottles to protect against the fox spirit.^ The pentagram or “Drudenfuss” was a protection against evil spirits (Goethe’s Faust ).

^ Two cats live happily by the sea until one of them meets a magic fish who grants his wishes.
  • Reading Corner--Nonfiction--Folk & Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.carr.org [Source type: General]

^ The hero does not say, "Oh my gosh - who ever heard of a talking horse?"
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part I 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: Original source]

The roles can be more complicated.[96] .In The Red Ettin, the role is split into the mother – who offers the hero the whole of a journey cake with her curse or half with her blessing – and when he takes the half, a fairy who gives him advice; in Mr Simigdáli, the sun, the moon, and the stars all give the heroine a magical gift.^ Remarks .–Miss Frere observes that she has not altered the traditional mode of the Moon’s conveyance of dinner to her mother the Star, though it must, she fears, impair the value of the story as a moral lesson in the eyes of all instructors of youth.
  • Indian Fairy Tales - Notes and References (by Joseph Jacobs) 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.authorama.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Andrew, and all who have already added their life giving breath to your inspiring insights.
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I will take it with me, be its mother and care for it.” The woodcutter obeyed, fetched his child and gave it to the Virgin Mary, who took it with her to heaven.

.Characters who are not always the donor can act like the donor.^ Since she had always seemed to like him best of all the grandchildren, he’d been elected to come out and explain the situation to her, and get her signature on the act of donation.
  • The Last Fairy Tale — The Absent Willow Review 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC absentwillowreview.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A small cast of characters who would like to buy shoes from the shoemaker, if only he had something to offer.

[97] .In Kallo and the Goblins, the villain goblins also give the heroine gifts, because they are tricked; in Schippeitaro, the evil cats betray their secret to the hero, giving him the means to defeat them.^ They must have a hero or heroine, a villain, a task, something magical and an ending where everything is resolved somehow.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reason Obama has captivated the watching world is because he knows how to give a well written speech and is a gifted and skilled politician.
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is an encounter with both a villain and someone who gives the protagonist a magical gift or gifts.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other fairy tales, such as The Story of the Youth Who Went Forth to Learn What Fear Was, do not feature the donor.^ Ten fairy tale story starters.

^ I've been reading fairy tales for as long as I can remember, with many of my early drawings reflecting my interest in these fantastic stories.
  • The Fairy Tale Tarot by Lisa Hunt - Journal 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC thefairytaletarot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Included here are a chronological listing of Andersen's folk-like fairy tales, electronic texts of most stories, and links to additional information.
  • Folktexts: A library of folktales, folklore, fairy tales, and mythology, page 1 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Analogies have been drawn between this and the analysis of myths into the Hero's journey.[98]
.This analysis has been criticized for ignoring tone, mood, characters and, indeed, anything that differentiates one fairy tale from another.^ Beauty is one example of a strong woman character in fairy tales.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fairy tales--History and criticism.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Each group will choose one fairy tale, either a classic or one they have written, and make puppets to perform the tale for their classmates.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[99]

Interpretations

Many variants, especially those intended for children, have had morals attached. .Perrault concluded his versions with one, although not always completely moral: Cinderella concludes with the observation that her beauty and character would have been useless without her godmother, reflecting the importance of social connections, but could symbolize a spiritual meaning.^ They noted the absence of violence in the versions with which they were more familiar and listed obvious differences, such as the lack of a fairy godmother in the Grimms' version, the forgiveness Cinderella displays in Perrault's, the different names for Cinderella, and the cat characters in Basile's Italian version.
  • Disrupting Fairy Tales and Unsettling Students 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www2.widener.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Starting with a straight reading of six stories (available in one download on abcteach), the unit then addresses deeper meanings (What does Cinderella's shoe symbolize?

^ You could have started the piece without the spiritual people, just the concept of “no fairy tales”, and had the same effect.
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

[100]
.Many fairy tales have been interpreted for their (purported) significance.^ Many times the question, "What is a fairy tale?"
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The origin of fairy tales is a question which has kept many very able scholars busy and which has not yet been settled to the satisfaction of many.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I've been reading fairy tales for as long as I can remember, with many of my early drawings reflecting my interest in these fantastic stories.
  • The Fairy Tale Tarot by Lisa Hunt - Journal 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC thefairytaletarot.com [Source type: Original source]

.One mythological interpretation claimed that many fairy tales, including Hansel and Gretel, Sleeping Beauty, and The Frog King, all were solar myths; this mode of interpretation is rather less popular now.^ Among the chap-books many tales not fairy tales were included.
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fairy tales all use extremes.
  • Making Fairy Tales from Personal Stories - Part I 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.storydynamics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Beauty is one example of a strong woman character in fairy tales.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[101] Many have also been subjected to Freudian, Jungian, and other psychological analysis, but no mode of interpretation has ever established itself definitively.
.Specific analyses have often been criticized for lending great importance to motifs that are not, in fact, integral to the tale; this has often stemmed from treating one instance of a fairy tale as the definitive text, where the tale has been told and retold in many variations.^ Many times the question, "What is a fairy tale?"
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, it is one of my favorite pieces from the Fairy Tale Tarot.
  • The Fairy Tale Tarot by Lisa Hunt - Journal 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC thefairytaletarot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fairy tales--History and criticism.
  • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Fairy Tale" to "FAKK" 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

[102] .In variants of Bluebeard, the wife's curiosity is betrayed by a blood-stained key, by an egg's breaking, or by the singing of a rose she wore, without affecting the tale, but interpretations of specific variants have claimed that the precise object is integral to the tale.^ Her instructions further explained to the students that the assignment was meant to be a synthesis, so the students should refer to specific elements in more than one variant of the fairy tale.
  • Disrupting Fairy Tales and Unsettling Students 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www2.widener.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The illusion “fairy tales” is referred always to: or not agree that illumination is possible, or not agree that integral illumination is possible; or to hope that illumination over come without human being’s participation.
  • No More Fairy Tales - Andrew Cohen's Blog 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.andrewcohen.org [Source type: Original source]

[103]
Other folklorists have interpreted tales as historical documents. .Many German folklorists, believing the tales to have been preserved from ancient times, used Grimms' tales to explain ancient customs.^ Many times the question, "What is a fairy tale?"
  • A Study of Fairy Tales: Chapter IV. The History of Fairy Tales 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also known as The Grimms' Fairy Tales , this is the most influential of all folklore collections and one of the most beloved books of all time.
  • Folktexts: A library of folktales, folklore, fairy tales, and mythology, page 1 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have also found a similar tale from the ancient cultures of the Americas which we will use in our studies.
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[104] .Other folklorists have explained the figure of the wicked stepmother historically: many women did die in childbirth, their husbands remarried, and the new stepmothers competed with the children of the first marriage for resources.^ In the historical context, this tale was told to quiet the fears of young women who were given in arranged marriages, often to older men (Tatar 28).
  • Return to Fairy Tales Index Page 16 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[105]

Compilations

See also: Collections of fairy tales
Authors and works:
.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Thompson, Stith. Funk & Wagnalls Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology & Legend, 1972 s.v. "Fairy Tale"
  2. ^ Merriam-Webster definition of "fairy tale"
  3. ^ Catherine Orenstein, Little Red Riding Hood Uncloaked, p. 9. ISBN 0-465-04125-6
  4. ^ Gray, Richard. "Fairy tales have ancient origin." Telegraph.co.uk. 5 September 2009.
  5. ^ Heidi Anne Heiner, "What Is a Fairy Tale?"
  6. ^ a b Terri Windling, "Les Contes de Fées: The Literary Fairy Tales of France"
  7. ^ Vladimir Propp, Morphology of the Folk Tale, p. 5. ISBN 0-292-78376-0.
  8. ^ Propp, p. 19.
  9. ^ Steven Swann Jones, The Fairy Tale: The Magic Mirror of Imagination, Twayne Publishers, New York, 1995, p. 15. ISBN 0-8057-0950-9.
  10. ^ Stith Thompson, The Folktale, p 55, University of California Press, Berkeley Los Angeles London, 1977
  11. ^ a b J. R. R. Tolkien, "On Fairy-Stories" , The Tolkien Reader, p. 15.
  12. ^ Tolkien, pp. 10–11.
  13. ^ The Fairy Tale: The Magic Mirror of the Imagination. Routledge, 2002, p. 8.
  14. ^ a b A companion to the fairy tale. By Hilda Ellis Davidson, Anna Chaudhri. Boydell & Brewer 2006. p. 39.
  15. ^ http://www.freudfile.org/psychoanalysis/fairy_tales.html
  16. ^ Stith Thompson, The Folktale, 1977 (Thompson: 8).
  17. ^ A. S. Byatt, "Introduction" p. xviii, Maria Tatar, ed. The Annotated Brothers Grimm, ISBN 0-393-05848-4.
  18. ^ Italo Calvino, Six Memoes for the Next Millennium, pp. 36–37. ISBN 0-674-81040-6.
  19. ^ Jack Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, pp. xi-xii, ISBN 0-393-97636-X.
  20. ^ Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p. 858.
  21. ^ Brian Attebery, The Fantasy Tradition in American Literature, p. 83, ISBN 0-253-35665-2.
  22. ^ Philip Martin, The Writer's Guide of Fantasy Literature: From Dragon's Liar to Hero's Quest, pp. 38–42, ISBN 0-871116-195-8.
  23. ^ a b Swann Jones, p. 35.
  24. ^ Brian Attebery, The Fantasy Tradition in American Literature, p. 5, ISBN 0-253-35665-2.
  25. ^ Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p. xii.
  26. ^ Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p. 846.
  27. ^ Linda Degh, "What Did the Grimm Brothers Give To and Take From the Folk?" p. 73, James M. McGlathery, ed., The Brothers Grimm and Folktale, The Three Bears.ISBN 0-252-01549-5.
  28. ^ Jack Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, p. 2. ISBN 0-415-92151-1.
  29. ^ John Grant and John Clute, The Encyclopedia of Fantasy, "Fairytale," p. 331. ISBN 0-312-19869-8.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Heidi Anne Heiner, "Fairy Tale Timeline"
  31. ^ a b Moss Roberts, "Introduction", p. xviii, Chinese Fairy Tales & Fantasies. ISBN 0-394-73994-9.
  32. ^ Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, p. 11.
  33. ^ Soula Mitakidou and Anthony L. Manna, with Melpomeni Kanatsouli, Folktales from Greece: A Treasury of Delights, p. 100, Libraries Unlimited, Greenwood Village CO, 2002, ISBN 1-56308-908-4.
  34. ^ Swann Jones, p. 38.
  35. ^ Terri Windling, White as Ricotta, Red as Wine: The Magic Lore of Italy"
  36. ^ Italo Calvino, Italian Folktales, p. 738. ISBN 0-15-645489-0.
  37. ^ Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, pp. 38–42.
  38. ^ Swann Jones, pp. 38–39.
  39. ^ Swann Jones, p. 40.
  40. ^ G. Ronald Murphy, The Owl, The Raven, and the Dove: The Religious Meaning of the Grimms' Magic Fairy Tales, ISBN 0195151690.
  41. ^ Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, p. 77.
  42. ^ Degh, pp. 66–67.
  43. ^ Iona and Peter Opie, The Classic Fairy Tales p. 17. ISBN 0-19-211550-6.
  44. ^ Jane Yolen, p. 22, Touch Magic. ISBN 0-87483-591-7.
  45. ^ Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p. 846.
  46. ^ Andrew Lang, The Brown Fairy Book, "Preface"
  47. ^ Yei Theodora Ozaki, Japanese Fairy Tales, "Preface"
  48. ^ Grant and Clute, "Hans Christian Andersen," pp. 26–27.
  49. ^ Grant and Clute, "George MacDonald," p. 604.
  50. ^ Orenstein, pp. 77–78.
  51. ^ Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p. 845.
  52. ^ Joseph Jacobs, More Celtic Fairy Tales. London: David Nutt, 1894, "Notes and References"
  53. ^ Calvino, Italian Folktales, p. xx.
  54. ^ Harry Velten, "The Influences of Charles Perrault's Contes de ma Mère L'oie on German Folklore", p. 962, Jack Zipes, ed., The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm.
  55. ^ Velten, pp. 966–67.
  56. ^ Calvino, Italian Folktales, p. xxi.
  57. ^ Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, p. 1.
  58. ^ Lewis Seifert, "The Marvelous in Context: The Place of the Contes de Fées in Late Seventeenth Century France", Jack Zipes, ed., The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p. 913.
  59. ^ Seifert, p. 915.
  60. ^ Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, p. 47.
  61. ^ Maria Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p. 19, ISBN 0-691-06722-8.
  62. ^ Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p. 20.
  63. ^ Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p. 32.
  64. ^ Byatt, pp. xlii-xliv.
  65. ^ Tolkien, p. 31.
  66. ^ K. M. Briggs, The Fairies in English Tradition and Literature, pp. 181–182, University of Chicago Press, London, 1967.
  67. ^ http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/dickens/pva/pva239.html
  68. ^ Jack Zipes, The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World, p. 48, ISBN 0-312-29380-1.
  69. ^ a b Grant and Clute, "Cinema", p. 196.
  70. ^ Patrick Drazen, Anime Explosion!: The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation, pp. 43–44, ISBN 1-880656-72-8.
  71. ^ wolf, Eric James The Art of Storytelling Show Interview Jack Zipes – Are Fairy tales still useful to Children?
  72. ^ Lanham, Analyzing Prose, p. 3.
  73. ^ a b Peters, Communication as...: Perspectives on Theory, p. 216.
  74. ^ Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition and so on!, pp. 24–25.
  75. ^ Grant and Clute, "Fairytale," p. 333.
  76. ^ Martin, p. 41.
  77. ^ a b Helen Pilinovsky, "Donkeyskin, Deerskin, Allerleirauh: The Reality of the Fairy Tale"
  78. ^ Briggs, p. 195.
  79. ^ Zipes, The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World, pp. 251–52.
  80. ^ D. Ward, Optimizing Bi-Modal Signal to Noise Ratios: A Fairy TalePDF (304 KiB), Defense AT&L, Sept/Oct 2005.
  81. ^ Diana Waggoner, The Hills of Faraway: A Guide to Fantasy, pp. 22–23, 0-689-10846-X.
  82. ^ Grant and Clute, "Commedia Dell'Arte", p. 219.
  83. ^ Grant and Clute, "Commedia Dell'Arte", p. 745.
  84. ^ James Graham, "Baba Yaga in Film"
  85. ^ Richard Scheib, Review of Labyrinth
  86. ^ Drazen, p. 264.
  87. ^ Terri Windling, "Beauty and the Beast"
  88. ^ Terri Windling, "The Path of Needles or Pins: Little Red Riding Hood"
  89. ^ Drazen, p. 38.
  90. ^ Spelling, Ian (2006-12-25). "Guillermo del Toro and Ivana Baquero escape from a civil war into the fairytale land of Pan's Labyrinth". Science Fiction Weekly. http://www.scifi.com/sfw/interviews/sfw14471.html. Retrieved 2007-07-14. 
  91. ^ Tolkien, p. 18.
  92. ^ Propp, Morphology of the Folk Tale.
  93. ^ Propp, pp. 8–9.
  94. ^ Propp, p. 74.
  95. ^ Propp, p. 39.
  96. ^ Propp, pp. 81–82.
  97. ^ Propp, pp. 80–81.
  98. ^ Christopher Vogler, The Writer's Journey: Mythic Structure for Writers, 2nd edition, p. 30, ISBN 0-941188-70-1.
  99. ^ Vladimir Propp's Theories
  100. ^ Maria Tatar, The Annotated Classic Fairy Tales, p. 43. ISBN 0-393-05163-3.
  101. ^ Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p. 52.
  102. ^ Alan Dundes, "Interpreting Little Red Riding Hood Psychoanalytically", pp. 18–19, James M. McGlathery, ed., The Brothers Grimm and Folktale, ISBN 0-252-01549-5.
  103. ^ Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p. 46.
  104. ^ Zipes, The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World, p. 48.
  105. ^ Marina Warner, From the Beast to the Blonde: On Fairy Tales And Their Tellers, p. 213. ISBN 0-374-15901-7.

References

External links


Simple English

File:Dä
1865 picture of Tom Thumb and the Giant

Fairy tale is an English language expression for a kind of short story. It has the same meaning as the French expression conte de fée, the German word Märchen, the Italian fiaba, the Polish baśń or the Swedish saga. These stories are not all directly about fairies,[1] but they are different from legends and traditions (which usually say that the stories are true)[2] and directly moral stories. There are usually fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants or gnomes in fairy tales, and usually magic.

Fairy tales can also mean unusual happiness (for example, the expression "fairy tale ending", meaning a happy ending, even though not all fairy tales have a happy ending).[3] Also, "fairy tale" can simply mean any unbelievable story.

Where demons and witches are seen as real, fairy tales can sometimes be similar to legends, where the story is claimed to be historically true. However, differently from legends and epics, they usually do not specifically mention religion and actual places, people, and events. They also do not say exactly when it happened. Instead, they say that the story happened "once upon a time".[4]

Fairy tales are found in oral form (passed on from mouth to mouth) and in literary form (written down). Fairy tales' histories are hard to find. This is because only written fairy tales can be passed on for a long time. Still, literary works show that there has been fairy tales for thousands of years. Many fairy tales today have are based on very old stories that have appeared, though in different ways, in many different cultures around the world.[5] Fairy tales, and works based on from fairy tales, are still written today.

At first, fairy tales were for both adults and children, but now children are mostly connected with fairy tales. Examples of traditional old fairy tales are Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood and "The Three Little Pigs". There can also be new fairy tales written by an author, like The Little Mermaid or Pinocchio. New fairy tales were for example written by Hans Christian Andersen, James Thurber and Oscar Wilde.

Contents

Meaning

People do not agree what a fairy tale exactly is.[6] Some argue that a story with fairies or other magical beings in the story would make it a fairy tale. However, others have suggested that the expression began when the French expression conte de fées was being translated (it was first used by Madame D'Aulnoy in 1697).[7] Vladimir Propp criticized the difference between "fairy tales" and "animal tales" in his book Morphology of the Folktale.[8] He said that many stories had both fantastic qualities and animals.[8] He suggested that fairy tales could be recognized by their story, but this has been criticized, because the same stories can be found in stories that are not fairy tales.[9]

In fact, people such as Stith Thompson point out that there are often more talking animals and magic in fairy tales than fairies.[10] However, just because there is a talking animal in a story does not mean that the story is a fairy tale.[11]

Steven Swann Jones said that fairy tales were different from other sorts of folktales because of magic.[12] Davidson and Chaudri say that "transformation (changing)" is the most important part of a fairy tale.[13]

Some like to use the German expression Märchen or "wonder tale"[13] instead of fairy tale. For example, in his 1977 edition of The Folktale, Thompson said that fairy tales were "a tale of some length involving a succession of motifs or episodes. It moves in an unreal world without definite locality or definite creatures and is filled with the marvelous. In this never-never land, humble heroes kill adversaries (enemies), succeed to kingdoms and marry princesses."[14] The characters and motifs of fairy tales are simple: princesses and girls taking care of geese; youngest sons and brave princes; ogres, giants, dragons, and trolls; wicked stepmothers and false heroes; fairy godmothers and other magic helpers, often talking horses, or foxes, or birds; rules, and people breaking rules.[15]

History

[[File:|thumb|200px|left|Ivan Bilibin's picture of the Russian fairy tale about Vasilisa the Beautiful]] Fairy tales were passed down by speaking of it from person to person before writing was developed. Stories were told or acted out dramatically. Because of this, the history of fairy tales is not very clear.[16] The oldest written fairy tales we know are from ancient Egypt, around 1300 BC.[17] There are sometimes fairy tales in written literature in different cultures, such as The Golden Ass, which includes Cupid and Psyche (Roman, 100–200 AD).[18] They show that fairy tales were told from very long ago.

Notes

  1. "fairy tale -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia". britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/200491/fairy-tale. Retrieved 20 July 2010. 
  2. Thompson, Stith. Funk & Wagnalls Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology & Legend, 1972 s.v. "Fairy Tale"
  3. Merriam-Webster definition of "fairy tale"
  4. Catherine Orenstein, Little Red Riding Hood Uncloaked, p. 9. ISBN 0-465-04125-6
  5. Gray, Richard. "Fairy tales have ancient origin." Telegraph.co.uk. 5 September 2009.
  6. Heidi Anne Heiner, "What Is a Fairy Tale?"
  7. "Les Contes des Fées: The Literary Fairy Tales of France". endicott-studio.com. http://www.endicott-studio.com/rdrm/forconte.html. Retrieved 18 July 2010. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Vladimir Propp, Morphology of the Folk Tale, p. 5. ISBN 0-292-78376-0.
  9. Steven Swann Jones, The Fairy Tale: The Magic Mirror of Imagination, Twayne Publishers, New York, 1995, p. 15. ISBN 0-8057-0950-9.
  10. Stith Thompson, The Folktale, p. 55, University of California Press, Berkeley Los Angeles London, 1977
  11. J. R. R. Tolkien, "On Fairy-Stories" , The Tolkien Reader, p. 15.
  12. The Fairy Tale: The Magic Mirror of the Imagination. Routledge, 2002, p. 8.
  13. 13.0 13.1 A companion to the fairy tale. By Hilda Ellis Davidson, Anna Chaudhri. Boydell & Brewer 2006. p. 39.
  14. Stith Thompson, The Folktale, 1977 (Thompson: 8).
  15. A. S. Byatt, "Introduction" p. xviii, Maria Tatar, ed. The Annotated Brothers Grimm, ISBN 0-393-05848-4.
  16. Jack Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, p. 2. ISBN 0-415-92151-1.
  17. John Grant and John Clute, The Encyclopedia of Fantasy, "Fairytale," p. 331. ISBN 0-312-19869-8.
  18. Heidi Anne Heiner, "Fairy Tale Timeline"

References

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 25, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Fairy tale, which are similar to those in the above article.








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