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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Monogamy is the state of having only one sexual partner at any one time. The word monogamy comes from the Greek word monos "μονός", which means one or alone, and the Greek word gamos "γάμος", which means marriage or union. In many cases, the word "monogamy" is used to specifically refer to marital monogamy.[1]

  • Social monogamy refers to two persons/creatures who live together, have sex with each other, and cooperate in acquiring basic resources such as food, clothes, and money.
  • Sexual monogamy refers to two persons/creatures who remain sexually exclusive with each other and have no outside sex partners.
  • Genetic monogamy refers to two partners that only have offspring with each other.
  • Marital monogamy refers to marriages of only two people.

Contents

Varieties of monogamy

Recent discoveries have led biologists to talk about the three varieties of monogamy: social monogamy, sexual monogamy, and genetic monogamy. The distinction between these three are important to the modern understanding of monogamy.

Monogamous pairs of animals are not always sexually exclusive. Many animals that form pairs to mate and raise offspring regularly engage in sexual activities with partners other than their primary mate. This is called extra-pair copulation. [2 ] [3] [4 ] [5 ] [6] [7] [8 ] [9] [10] [11 ] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16 ] Sometimes these extra-pair sexual activities lead to offspring. Genetic tests frequently show that some of the offspring raised by a monogamous pair come from the female mating with an extra-pair male partner. [4 ] [5 ] [17] [18 ] These discoveries have led biologists to adopt new ways of talking about monogamy:

"Social monogamy refers to a male and female's social living arrangement (e.g., shared use of a territory, behaviour indicative of a social pair, and/or proximity between a male and female) without inferring any sexual interactions or reproductive patterns. In humans, social monogamy equals monogamous marriage. Sexual monogamy is defined as an exclusive sexual relationship between a female and a male based on observations of sexual interactions. Finally, the term genetic monogamy is used when DNA analyses can confirm that a female-male pair reproduce exclusively with each other. A combination of terms indicates examples where levels of relationships coincide, e.g., sociosexual and sociogenetic monogamy describe corresponding social and sexual, and social and genetic monogamous relationships, respectively." (Reichard, 2003, page 4) [19]

Whatever makes a pair of animals socially monogamous does not necessarily make them sexually or genetically monogamous. Social monogamy, sexual monogamy, and genetic monogamy can occur in different combinations.

When applying these terms to people, it's important to remember that social monogamy does not always involve marriage. A married couple is almost always a socially monogamous couple. But couples who choose to cohabit without getting married can also be socially monogamous.

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Serial monogamy

Serial monogamy is characterized by a series of long- or short-term, exclusive sexual relationships entered into consecutively over the lifespan.[20] This does not refer to a fourth variety of monogamy in regards to the three main types, but is a type of monogamy that can describe any of the three varieties.

In common usage referring to humans, the two partners need not be married, but may be involved in a sexually monogamous relationship. This behavior is sometimes referred to as a form of, [21] or replacement for, [22] polygamy.

In animal sexuality, serial monogamy often means that an animal will have a different, but exclusive, breeding partner each mating season. Generally, any animals that do not mate with one partner for life can be considered serially monogamous, including those who find a second mate only upon the death of the first.

Western culture

Within Western culture, several academics have put forth the position that serial monogamy is considered more fundamental than "full" monogamy.[23][24]

Break Up

Serial monogamy has always been closely linked to divorce practices. Whenever procedures for obtaining divorce have been simple and easy, serial monogamy has been found.[25] As divorce has continued to become more accessible, more individuals have availed themselves of it, and many go on to remarry.[26] It has been suggested, however, that high mortality rates in centuries past accomplished much the same result as divorce, enabling remarriage (of one spouse) and thus serial monogamy.[27][28][29]

Animals

Mating system

Monogamy is one of several mating systems observed in animals. The amount of social monogamy in animals varies across taxa, with over 90 percent of birds engaging in social monogamy but only 7 percent of mammals engaging in social monogamy. With birds the locomotion method has meant that the sharing of genetic material with non-local sources is far less difficult, and reproduction is far more successful when both the male and the female contribute food resources to the offspring. The incidence of sexual monogamy appears quite rare in other parts of the animal kingdom. It is becoming clear that even animals that are socially monogamous engage in extra-pair copulations.[1]

Evolution in animals

Socially monogamous species are scattered throughout the animal kingdom: A few insects, a few fish, a large number of birds, and a few mammals are socially monogamous. There is even a parasitic worm, Schistosoma mansoni, that in its female male pairings in the human body is monogamous.[30] The diversity of these species with social monogamy suggests that it is not inherited from a common ancestor but instead evolved independently in many different species.

Psychology of monogamy

Incidence of monogamy in humans

A large majority of human beings around the world enter socially monogamous relationships at some point in their lives. The amount of sexual monogamy varies across cultures. Genetic monogamy also varies across cultures but is generally high overall.

Incidence of social monogamy

The United Nations World Fertility Report of 2003 reports that 89% percent of all people get married before age forty-nine. [31] The percent of women and men who marry before age forty-nine drops to nearly 50% in some nations and reaches 100% in other nations. [32]

Not all marriages are socially monogamous. Anthropological studies have reported that 80-85% of societies allow polygamous marriage. [33] [34] [35] Yet, most of the men in societies that allow polygamy do not obtain sufficient wealth or status to have multiple wives, so the majority of marriages in these societies involve one husband and one wife. Murdock has estimated that 80% of marriages in societies that allow polygamy involve only one husband and one wife. [35] White has analyzed the distribution of husbands by number of wives in societies that allow polygamy (see Table 1 in White, 1988, pages 535-539). [36] His analysis also supports the claim that around 80% of marriages in these societies involve only one husband and one wife. In fact, so many marriages are socially monogamous that Murdock had years earlier stated:

"An impartial observer employing the criterion of numerical preponderance, consequently, would be compelled to characterize nearly every known human society as monogamous, despite the preference for and frequency of polygyny in the overwhelming majority.” (Murdock, 1949, pages 27-28) [37]

Incidence of sexual monogamy

The incidence of sexual monogamy can be roughly estimated as the percentage of married people who do not engage in extramarital sex. Several studies have looked at the percentage of people who engage in extramarital sex. These studies have shown that extramarital sex varies across cultures and across genders.

The Standard Cross-Cultural Sample describes the amount of extramarital sex by men and women in over 50 pre-industrial cultures. [38] [39] The amount of extramarital sex by men is described as "universal" in 6 cultures, "moderate" in 29 cultures, "occasional" in 6 cultures, and "uncommon" in 10 cultures. The amount of extramarital sex by women is described as "universal" in 6 cultures, "moderate" in 23 cultures, "occasional" in 9 cultures, and "uncommon" in 15 cultures. These findings support the claim that the amount of extramarital sex differs across cultures and across genders.

Recent surveys conducted in non-Western nations have also found cultural and gender differences in extramarital sex. A study of sexual behavior in Thailand, Tanzania and Côte d'Ivoire suggests about 16-34% of men engage in extramarital sex while a much smaller (unreported) percentage of women engage in extramarital sex. [40] Studies in Nigeria have found around 47-53% of men and to 18-36% of women engage in extramarital sex. [41] [42 ] A 1999 survey of married and cohabiting couples in Zimbabwe reports that 38% of men and 13% of women engaged in extra-couple sexual relationships within the last 12 months. [43 ]

Nowhere has extramarital sex been examined more frequently than in the United States. Many surveys asking about extramarital sex in the United States have relied on convenience samples. A convenience sample means surveys are given to whomever happens to be easily available (e.g., volunteer college students or volunteer magazine readers). Convenience samples do not accurately reflect the population of the United States as a whole, which can cause serious biases in survey results. It should not be surprising, therefore, that surveys of extramarital sex in the United States have produced widely differing results. These studies report that about 12-26% of married women and 15-43% of married men engage in extramarital sex. [44] [45 ] [46] The only way to get scientifically reliable estimates of extramarital sex is to use nationally representative samples. Three studies have used nationally representative samples. These studies have found that about 10-15% of women and 20-25% of men engage in extramarital sex. [47] [48] [49]

A majority of married people remain sexually monogamous during their marriages. The number of married partners who engage in extramarital sex never exceeds 50 percent in studies using large or nationally representative samples. Yet, the incidence of sexual monogamy varies across cultures. People in some cultures are more sexually monogamous than people in other cultures. Women also appear to be more sexually monogamous than men.

Incidence of genetic monogamy

The incidence of genetic monogamy may be estimated from rates of extrapair paternity. Unfortunately, rates of extrapair paternity have not been extensively studied in people. Many reports of extrapair paternity are little more than quotes based on hearsay, anecdotes, and unpublished findings. [50 ] Simmons, Firman, Rhodes, and Peters reviewed 11 published studies of extra-pair paternity from various locations in the United States, France, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Mexico, and the Yanomamo Indians in South America. [51] The rates of exptrapair paternity ranged from 0.03% to 11.8% although most of the locations had low percentages of extrapair paternity. The median rate of extrapair paternity was 1.8%. A separate review of 17 studies by Bellis, Hughes, Hughes, and Ashton found slightly higher rates of extrapair paternity. [52] The rates varied from 0.8% to 30% in these studies, with a median rate of 3.7% extrapair paternity. A range of 1.8% to 3.7% extrapair paternity implies a range of 96% to 98% genetic monogamy. Although the incidence of genetic monogamy may vary from 70% to 99% in different cultures or social environments, a large percentage of couples remain genetically monogamous during their relationships. A review paper surveying 67 other studies of nonpaternity reporting rates of nonpaternity in different societies ranging from 0.4% to over 50% was recently published by Kermyt G. Anderson.[53]

Pedigree errors are a well-known source of error in medical studies. When attempts are made to try to study medical afflictions and their genetic components, it becomes very important to understand nonpaternity rates and pedigree errors. There are numerous software packages and procedures that exist for correcting research data for pedigree errors.[54][55][56]

Value of monogamy

Some cultures value monogamy as an ideal form of family organization. However, many cultures prefer other forms of family organization. Anthropological data suggests a majority of societies prefer polygamous marriage as a cultural ideal.[33] [34] [35] There are multiple forms of nonmonogamy that are used to organize families, as well multiple forms of monogamy such as marriage, cohabitation and extended families.

People disagree strongly about the value of monogamy and monogamy has been criticized and supported. Two common criticisms of monogamy are that socially monogamous marriage oppresses women and that lifelong sexual monogamy is unnatural and unrealistic. Supporters of monogamy have argued that a society that supports monogamous marriage can promote women's equality and that sexual monogamy facilitates intimate and lasting relationships.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/monogamy
  2. ^ Ågren, G., Zhou, Q. & Zhong, W. (1989). Ecology and social behaviour of Mongolian gerbils Meriones unguiculatus, at Xilfudjeudeyjxidiuhot, Inner Mongolia, China. Animal Behaviour, 37, 11-27.
  3. ^ Barash, D.P. (1981). Mate guarding and gallivanting by male hoary marmots (Marmota caligata). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 9, 187-193.
  4. ^ a b Birkhead, T.R. & Møller, A.P. (1995). Extra-pair copulations and extra-pair paternity in birds. Animal Behaviour, 49, 843-848.
  5. ^ a b Birkhead, T.R. & Møller, A.P. (1996). Monogamy and sperm competition in birds. In J. M. Black (Ed.), Partnerships in Birds: The Study of Monogamy (pp. 323-343). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  6. ^ Foltz, D.W. (1981). Genetic evidence for long-term monogamy in a small rodent, Peromyscus polionotus. American Naturalist, 117, 665-675.
  7. ^ Gursky, S.L. (2000). Sociality in the spectral tarsier, Tarsius spectrum. American Journal of Primatology, 51, 89-101.
  8. ^ Hasselquist, D. S. & Sherman, P.W. (2001). Social mating systems and extrapair fertilizations in passerine birds. Behavioral Ecology, 12, 457-66.
  9. ^ Hubrecht, R.C. (1985). Home range size and use and territorial behavior in the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus jacchus, at the Tapacura Field Station, Recife, Brazil. International Journal of Primatology, 6, 533-550.
  10. ^ Mason, W.A. (1966). Social organization of the South American monkey, Callicebus moloch: a preliminary report. Tulane Studies in Zoology, 13, 23-28.
  11. ^ McKinney, F., Derrickson, S.R., & Mineau, P. (1983). Forced copulation in waterfowl. Behaviour, 86, 250-294.
  12. ^ Reichard, U. (1995). Extra-pair Copulations in a Monogamous Gibbon (Hylobates lar). Ethology, 100, 99-112.
  13. ^ Reichard, U.H. (2002). Monogamy—A variable relationship. Max Planck Research, 3, 62-67.
  14. ^ Richardson, P.R.K. (1987). Aardwolf mating system: overt cuckoldry in an apparently monogamous mammal. South African Journal of Science, 83, 405-412.
  15. ^ Welsh, D. & Sedinger, J.S. (1990). Extra-Pair copulations in Black Brant. The Condor, 92, 242-244.
  16. ^ Westneat, D.F. & Stewart, I.R.K. (2003). Extra-pair paternity in birds: causes, correlates, and conflict. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 34, 365-396.
  17. ^ Owens, I.P.F. & Hartley, I.R. (1998). Sexual dimorphism in birds: why are there so many different forms of dimorphism? Proceedings of the Royal Society, France, B265, 397–407.
  18. ^ Solomon, N.G., Keane, B., Knoch, L.R., & Hogan, P.J. (2004). Multiple paternity in socially monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 82, 1667-1671.
  19. ^ Reichard, U.H. (2003). Monogamy: Past and present. In U.H. Reichard and C. Boesch (Eds.), Monogamy: Mating strategies and partnerships in birds, humans, and other mammals (pp.3-25).Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  20. ^ Definition by Health24's sex glossarys.
  21. ^ Mary Amir Ali, Ph.D. refers to the practice as serial polygamy
  22. ^ Serial Monogamy, Serial Polygamy, or Worse? suggests that some rich men only practice serial monogamy because polygamy is illegal.
  23. ^ Serena Petrella (Department of Sociology, Carleton University, Canada) declares serial monogamy a "norm" in her article Only with You – Maybe – If You Make Me Happy: A Genealogy of Serial Monogamy as Governance and Self- Governance.
  24. ^ Feminism and The Moral Animal states: "We do not actually live in a society built on monogamy, but on serial monogamy."
  25. ^ It is said to have been "rife" in ancient Rome Alternative Forms of Marriage Serial Monogamy at Trivia-Library.com.
  26. ^ In Canada, 46% of divorcées will remarry according to Till death do us part? The risk of first and second marriage dissolution by Warren Clark and Susan Crompton.
  27. ^ Robert L. Griswold, Family and Divorce in California, 1850-1890: Victorian illusions and everyday realities. State University of New York Press, Albany, N.Y., 1983. Pp. 7-8.
  28. ^ Noreen Goldman, "Changes in Widowhood and Divorce and Expected Durations of Marriage" Demography 21(3):297-307 (1984).
  29. ^ Timothy J. Owston, Divorce. 2nd edition, April, 2006
  30. ^ Beltran S, Boissier J. (2008).Schistosome monogamy: who, how, and why? Trends Parasitol. Sep;24(9):386-91. Epub 2008 Jul 31. PMID 18674968
  31. ^ United Nations (2004). World Fertility Report: 2003. Retrieved April 26, 2006 from http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/worldfertility/World_Fertility_Report.htm .
  32. ^ United Nations (2000). World Marriage Patterns 2000. Retrieved April 26, 2006 from http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/worldmarriage/worldmarriagepatterns2000.pdf .
  33. ^ a b Murdock, G.P. (1967). Ethnographic Atlas. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  34. ^ a b White, D.R. & Veit, C. (1999). White-Veit EthnoAtlas. Retrieved April 28, 2006 from http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/ethnoatlas/nindex.html.
  35. ^ a b c Murdock, G. P. (1981). Atlas of World Cultures. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  36. ^ White, D.R. (1988). Rethinking polygyny: Co-wives, codes, and cultural systems. Current Anthropology, 29, 572.
  37. ^ Murdock, G.P. (1949). Social Structure. New York: Free Press.
  38. ^ Divale, W. (2000). Pre-Coded Variables for the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample, Volume I and II. Jamaica, NY: York College, CUNY. Distributed by World Cultures at http://worldcultures.org/SCCS1.pdf. See Variable 170 and Variable 171.
  39. ^ Murdock, G.P., & White, D.R. (1969). Standard cross-cultural sample. Ethnology, 8, 329-369.
  40. ^ O’Connor, M.L. (2001). Men who have many sexual partners before marriage are more likely to engage in extramarital intercourse. International Family Planning Perspectives, 27, 48-49.
  41. ^ Isiugo-Abanihe, U.C. (1994). Extramarital relations and perceptions of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. Health Transition Review, 4, 111-125
  42. ^ Ladebo, O.J., & Tanimowo, A.G. (2002). Extension personnel's sexual behaviour and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS in South-Western Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health, 6, 51-59.
  43. ^ National AIDS Council, Ministry of Health and Child Welfare, The MEASURE Project, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC/Zimbabwe). AIDS in Africa During the Nineties: Zimbabwe. A review and analysis of survey and research results. Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2002.
  44. ^ Hunt, M. (1974). Sexual behavior in the 1970s. Chicago: Playboy Press.
  45. ^ Blumstein, P., & Schwartz, P. (1983). American Couples: Money, Work, Sex. New York, NY: William Morrow and Company.
  46. ^ Janus, S.S. & Janus, C.L. (1993). The Janus Report on Sexual Behavior. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  47. ^ Clements, M. (1994, August 7). Sex in America today: A new national survey reveals how our attitudes are changing. Parade Magazine, 4-6.
  48. ^ Laumann, E. O., Gagnon, J. H., Michael, R. T, & Michaels, S. (1994). The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  49. ^ Wiederman, M. W. (1997). Extramarital sex: Prevalence and correlates in a national survey. Journal of Sex Research, 34, 167-174.
  50. ^ Macintyre, S. & Sooman, A. (1991). Non-paternity and prenatal genetic screening. Lancet, 338, 869-871.
  51. ^ Simmons, L.W., Firman, R.E.C., Rhodes, G., & Peters, M. (2004). Human sperm competition: testis size, sperm production and rates of extrapair copulations. Animal Behaviour, 68, 297-302.
  52. ^ Bellis, M.A., Hughes, K., Hughes, S., & Ashton, J.R. (2005). Measuring paternal discrepancy and its public health consequences. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 59, 749-754
  53. ^ How Well Does Paternity Confidence Match Actual Paternity? Evidence from Worldwide Nonpaternity Rates, Kermyt G. Anderson, Current Anthropology 48(3): 511-518. 2006.
  54. ^ Enhanced Pedigree Error Detection, Lei Suna, Kenneth Wildera, Mary Sara McPeeka, Human Heredity 2002;54:99-110 (DOI: 10.1159/000067666)
  55. ^ PedCheck: a program for identification of genotype incompatibilities in linkage analysis, J R O'Connell and D E Weeks, Am J Hum Genet. 1998 July; 63(1): 259–266.
  56. ^ Evaluating pedigree data. I. The estimation of pedigree error in the presence of marker mistyping, Lathrop GM, Hooper AB, Huntsman JW, Ward RH, Am J Hum Genet, Vol. 35, No. 2. (March 1983), pp. 241-262.
  • Korotayev, Andrey (2004). World Religions and Social Evolution of the Old World Oikumene Civilizations: A Cross-cultural Perspective (First Edition ed.). Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 0-7734-6310-0.  

Further reading

  • Barash, David P., and Lipton, Judith Eve. The Myth of Monogamy: Fidelity and Infidelity in Animals and People. New York: W. H. Freeman and Co./Henry Hold and Co., 2001. ISBN 0805071369.
  • Kleiman, Devra G. "Monogamy in Mammals". The Quarterly Review of Biology, 52.1 (March 1977): 39–69. Accessed 21 July 2008.
  • Lehrman, Sally. "The Virtues of Promiscuity". July 22, 2002. AlterNet. Accessed 21 July 2008. On studies showing social and genetic benefits of promiscuity.
  • Reichard, Ulrich H., and Christophe Boesch (eds.). Monogamy: Mating Strategies and Partnerships in Birds, Humans and Other Mammals. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 0521819733, ISBN 0521525772.

External links


Redirecting to Monogamy


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Fidelity article)

From Wikiquote

Fidelity, or faithfulness, is a notion that, at its most abstract level, implies a truthful connection to a source or sources. Its original meaning dealt with loyalty and attentiveness to one's duty to a lord or a king, in a broader sense than the related concept of fealty. Both derive from the Latin word fidēlis (A III adjective), meaning "faithful or loyal".

Sourced

  • This was her finest role and the hardest one to play. Choosing between heaven and a ridiculous fidelity, preferring oneself to eternity or losing oneself in God is the age-old tragedy in which each must play his part.
  • The joker in the deck of lesbian fidelity is female vanity: no woman of fifty is going to undress in front of a woman of twenty no matter how much she might lust for her.
  • There is something in the unselfish and self-sacrificing love of a brute, which goes directly to the heart of him who has had frequent occasion to test the paltry friendship and gossamer fidelity of mere Man.
  • Histories are more full of Examples of the Fidelity of dogs than of Friends.

Dictionary of Burning Words of Brilliant Writers (1895)

Reported in Josiah Hotchkiss Gilbert, Dictionary of Burning Words of Brilliant Writers (1895).

  • Never do what you cannot ask Christ to bless; and never go into any place or any pursuit in which you cannot ask Christ Jesus to go with you.
  • Be but faithful, that is all;
    Go right on, and close behind thee
    There shall follow still and find thee
    Help, sure help.
  • Only be steadfast, never waver,
    Nor seek earth's favor,
    But rest;
    Thou knowest what God wills must be
    For all His creatures — so for thee —
    The best.
    • Paul Fleming, p. 248.
  • Oh! it irradiates all our days with lofty beauty, and it makes them all hallowed and divine, when we feel that not the apparent greatness, not the prominence nor noise with which it is done, nor the external consequences which flow from it, but the motive from which it flowed, determines the worth of our deed in God's eyes. Faithfulness is faithfulness, on whatsoever scale it be set forth.
  • Let it be ours to be self-reliant amidst hosts of the vacillating — real in a generation of triflers — true amongst a multitude of shams; when tempted to swerve from principle, sturdy as an oak in its maintenance; when solicited by the enticement of sinners, firm as a rock in our denial.
  • If, after an absolute consecration to Him, and a conviction in conscience that He requires something of us, we hesitate, delay, lose courage, dilute what He would have us do, indulge fear for our comfort or safety, desire to shield ourselves from suffering and obloquy, or seek to find some excuse for not performing a difficult or painful duty, we are truly guilty in His sight.
  • Oh! it irradiates all our days with lofty beauty, and it makes them all hallowed and divine, when we feel that not the apparent greatness, not the prominence nor noise with which it is done, nor the external consequences which flow from it, but the motive from which it flowed, determines the worth of our deed in God's eyes. Faithfulness is faithfulness, on whatsoever scale it be set forth.
  • Only be steadfast, never waver,
    Nor seek earth's favor,
    But rest;
    Thou knowest what God wills must be
    For all His creatures — so for thee —
    The best.
    • Paul Fleming, p. 249.
  • If, after an absolute consecration to Him, and a conviction in conscience that He requires something of us, we hesitate, delay, lose courage, dilute what He would have us do, indulge fear for our comfort or safety, desire to shield ourselves from suffering and obloquy, or seek to find some excuse for not performing a difficult or painful duty, we are truly guilty in His sight.
  • Believing on Christ, learning of Christ, following Christ, — this is what it is to be a Christian. You must believe on Him that you may learn of Him. You must learn of Him that you may follow Him. But believing is nothing, and learning is less than nothing, if they do not result in faithful following.
  • The secret of all our dryness, the root of all our weakness, our want of fruit and progress, our dearth and desolation, is, that we do not follow Christ. First, we do not believe that He has any particular care of us, or personal interest in our lives, and then, falling away at that point from His lead, we drop into ourselves, to do a few casual works of duty, in which neither we nor others are greatly blessed.
  • There are two paths in which the Christian follows Christ in this world, — paths which are always parallel, and which often merge into one, — the path of integrity, and the path of benevolence. In doing right and in doing good the Christian is a follower of Christ.
  • It sweetens every bit of work to think that I am doing it in humble, far-off, yet real imitation of Jesus.
  • Get into sympathy with Jesus. Seek His presence, seek His help. And walking through the world in His company, you will be as balm in the bleakest weather, a benediction in the wildest scene.
    • James Hamilton, p. 250.
  • God never gave a man a thing to do concerning which it were irreverent to ponder how the Son of God would have done it.
  • It is a good thing to follow Jesus with our eyes open. That is walking both by sight and faith. But it is better to follow Jesus blindly than not to follow at all.
    • Henry Clay Trumbull, p. 251.
  • If washed in Jesus' blood,
    Then bear His likeness too,
    And as you onward press
    Ask, "What would Jesus do?"
  • Precious Saviour! glorious Forerunner! oh, give us grace to follow Thee; and whenever tempted to relax our efforts, or loiter on our journey, or complain of the way, may we remember that Thou hast traveled every step of the way before us, and art now waiting to welcome us into Thy presence and glory.
  • When the fight thickens the captain says, "Steady, boys;" and it is their steadiness which pulls the soldiers through. Fitful soldiers are rarely useful ones. That is our great need to-day, steady Christians — men and women you can count on. Many Christians are like intermittent springs. They flow to-day — to-morrow you cannot get a thimbleful of religious activity out of the dried channel of their lives.
    • Francis Wayland, p. 248.
  • When the fight thickens the captain says, " Steady, boys;" and it is their steadiness which pulls the soldiers through. Fitful soldiers are rarely useful ones. That is our great need to-day, steady Christians — men and women you can count on. Many Christians are like intermittent springs. They flow to-day — to-morrow you cannot get a thimbleful of religious activity out of the dried channel of their lives.
    • Francis Wayland, p. 249.

External links

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