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From Familypedia

.A family name, or surname, is the part of a person's name that indicates to what family he or she belongs.^ SURNAMES: What is the meaning of a persons last name?
  • SURNAMES GUIDE | � Genealogy � Surnames � Family Names � Meaning Of Surnames 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC www.surnameguide.com [Source type: General]

^ A family name , or surname , is the part of a person's name that indicates to what family he or she belongs.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A family name or last name is a type of surname and part of a person's name indicating the family to which the person belongs.

Contents

.
In (English)-, Dutch-, German- and (French)-speaking countries, people often have two or more given names (first and middle), and the family name goes at the end, which is why it is sometimes called a last name.
^ German family name etymology .
  • Bambooweb: German family name etymology 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - DE Deutschland, l'Allemagne, Germany - Namen, Noms, Names 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.wortherkunft.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Basionym validated by a diagnosis in French; family name validated by a diagnosis in English and a reference to the basionym.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In English and French-speaking countries, many have shortened their name by removing the ending (for example Charles Aznavour ).
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(Occasionally it is inaccurately called "second name", which can be confused with the middle name.^ (Occasionally it is inaccurately called "second name", which can be confused with the middle name).
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Occasionally a surname is called the "second name", which can be confused with a middle name .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The name has occasionally been confused with Ferris (see Ferris).
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

)
.In Spain, people have one or more given names (that acts as a single name) and two family names (one from the father and one from the mother, in that order).^ Name Order Japanese names consist of a family name, followed by a given name.
  • Japanorama: Japanese Names     22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.japanorama.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Each person has two family names: the first is the second family name of the mother; the second is the second family name of the father.
  • Bambooweb: Surname 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Spain , people have one or more given names (that acts as a single name) and two family names (one from the father and one from the mother, in that order).
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Italy, people may have one or more given name, but there is not the concept of Middle name.^ There are people who know a dozen names or more.
  • Last Names in Spain - RussellBeattie.com 17 September 2009 10:58 UTC www.russellbeattie.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Spanish , people have one or more given names and two family names, one from the father and one from the mother.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Italy , people may have one or more given names, no middle name, and a family name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In most documents the family name is listed first.^ Most frequent combinations of first names and family names by sex .
  • :: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia - Database of first names and family names :: 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.stat.si [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alphabetic list of family group names .

^ First-family-to-be gets code names .
  • First-family-to-be gets code names - chicagotribune.com 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.chicagotribune.com [Source type: News]

.For example, Rossi Mario or Neri Elisabetta.^ For example, Rossi Mario or Neri Elisabetta .
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The word surname is "name" prefixed by the French word sur (meaning "on"), which derives from Latin super ("over").^ Irish Last Names Irish Names Irish Family Crest Irish Surnames Origin Of Family Names Irish Clans Irish Surname Meanings Ulster Ancestry Irish Fam...
  • Excite - Video Search: Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC msxml.excite.com [Source type: General]

^ Girl Name Popular Name Boy Name Name Mean Meaning of Name Search A surname is a name added to a given name and is part of a personal name.
  • Surname | ChaCha Answers 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC www.chacha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free Dictionary of Surname Origins & Last Name Meanings .

.In the past it was sometimes spelled sirname or sirename (suggesting that it meant "man's name" or "father's name") due to the linguistic phenomenon of folk etymology.^ In the past it was sometimes spelled sirname or sirename (suggesting that it meant "man's name" or "father's name") due to fake etymology .
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In past centuries the spelling of names was not fixed.

^ I have spelled each man’s name the way that I think he spelled it.
  • FITZMAURICE: Our Family Name 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.fitzmaurice.info [Source type: Original source]

.In some cultures, a woman's family name changes upon marriage.^ What are some examples of a cultural naming taboo?
  • How were Roman family names formed historically? | Smart QandA: Answers and facts you can trust, verified with Encyclopedia.com 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC qanda.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of family names varies among cultures.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some cultures, a woman's family name traditionally changes upon marriage, although few countries mandate such a change.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When this takes place, her original family name (before any marriages), typically her father's family name, is known as her maiden name.^ Name Origination for the Armstrong family .

^ When this takes place, her original family name (before any marriages), typically her father's family name is known as her maiden name .
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Origins of the Family Name Earliest origins of the family names .
  • SHELVOCK ONS - Origins of the Family Name 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC creativegraces.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such a woman usually adopts her husband's family name; any children as a result of the union also take this family name.^ If a woman's family name is not given, she is usually identified by her relationship to a man.
  • Personal Names of the Aristocracy in the Roman Empire During the Later Byzantine Era - Introduction 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC heraldry.sca.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usually, such family names are derived from nicknames .
  • Bambooweb: German family name etymology 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In many cultures a woman adopts her husband's family name when they are married.

.This is merely traditional, however — few countries mandate such a change, and many permit children to have a different family name.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the country has very strict rules on family names.

^ Other countries permit wives to have a different name, but provide incentives for changing.
  • Bambooweb: Surname 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In any case, since most countries allow name changes, a man can also take his wife's last name upon marriage.^ Taking your fiance's last name .
  • surname@Everything2.com 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most people with that last name were far...
  • Surname | ChaCha Answers 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC www.chacha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still other countries allow for a man to take the wife's name.
  • Bambooweb: Surname 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In modern times, particularly in English-speaking countries, there are other options.^ English-speaking countries .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Top ] English- and French-speaking countries .
  • Bambooweb: Surname 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ English- and French-speaking countries .
  • Family name - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some people choose to take a so-called "double-barrelled name" upon marriage, combining both family names, joined by a hyphen.^ What happens if two people with double-barrelled names get married?

^ Double-barrelled names are very .

^ Name - The family name of some person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

.Other people choose to create a new name, as a combination of letters of previous surnames, or without connection to their previous surnames.^ Other people choose to create a new name, as a combination of letters of previous surnames, or without connection to their previous surnames, although these practices are not common unless one desires or needs to create a pseudonym .
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Create a new name?
  • Same-sex Marriage and Last Names - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 17 September 2009 10:58 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Those are qualities a lot of modern parents say they’re going for in a baby name but rarely achieve, mostly because people want other people not only to like, but admire, the name they choose.
  • How the Palin Family Chooses Those Names - The Daily Beast 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.thedailybeast.com [Source type: General]

.The use of family names is not universal among all cultures.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of family names is widespread in cultures around the world.
  • About: Family name 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC dbpedia2.openlinksw.com:8895 [Source type: Reference]
  • Ancestry – find out who you are » Blog Archive » Family names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC 212.124.202.134 [Source type: General]

^ A family name; in western cultures the “ last name ” .
  • surname 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC www.docbook.org [Source type: Reference]

.In particular, Icelanders, Tibetans and Javanese often do not use a family name — well-known people lacking a family name include Suharto and Sukarno (see Indonesian names).^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The name is also well known in Co.
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In particular, Iceland ers, Tibetan s, Burmese , and Javanese often do not use a family name — well-known people lacking a family name include U Thant (Burmese), Suharto and Sukarno (see Indonesian names ).
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also, many royal families do not use family names.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of family names varies among cultures.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many family names come from occupations.
  • The Meaning of Your Family Name | Quazen 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC quazen.com [Source type: General]

.In many cultures, both Eastern and Western, few families had surnames prior to the period 15th-19th century.^ What was the tradition for bridal surnames in western culture?
  • How were Roman family names formed historically? | Smart QandA: Answers and facts you can trust, verified with Encyclopedia.com 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC qanda.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many cultures, both Eastern and Western, few families had surnames prior to the period 15th-19th century.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They would not significantly reappear again in Eastern Roman society until the 10th century, apparently influenced by the familial affilations of the Armenian military aristocracy.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During these times, often only aristocratic families had family names.^ These names often indicated the place of residence of the family.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During these times, often only aristocratic families had family names.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These may or may not indicate a family name.
  • Surname - Memory Alpha, the Star Trek Wiki 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC memory-alpha.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 19th century, Francis Galton published a statistical study of the extinction of family names.^ In the 19th century, Francis Galton published a statistical study of the extinction of family names.
  • Bambooweb: Surname 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the late centuries of the empire, name dropping had taken on strong significance, and the panoply of family names one might carry could be staggering.
  • Personal Names of the Aristocracy in the Roman Empire During the Later Byzantine Era - Introduction 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC heraldry.sca.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ KIMBERLEY : English surname derived from the name of a South African town first brought to the public's notice by the Boer War in the 19th century.
  • 20000-NAMES.COM: Surnames, Family Names, Page 4 of 6 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.20000-names.com [Source type: Original source]

(See Galton-Watson process for an account of some of the mathematics.)

English-speaking countries

Supposedly, all surnames of English origin fall into just four types:
  • Occupations (e.g. .Smith, Baker, Archer)
  • Personal characteristics (e.g.^ Most surnames of British origin fall into six types: * Occupations (e.g., Smith , Archer , Baker , Fisher , Miller , Tanner , Thatcher ) * Personal characteristics (e.g., Short , Brown , Whitehead ) * Geographical features (e.g.
    • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Giovanni Fabbri , "John the Smith"), personal characteristic (e.g.
    • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Smith , Baker, Archer) Personal characteristics (e.g.
    • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Short, Brown, Goodman, Whitehead)
  • Places & geographical features (e.g.^ Most surnames of British origin fall into six types: * Occupations (e.g., Smith , Archer , Baker , Fisher , Miller , Tanner , Thatcher ) * Personal characteristics (e.g., Short , Brown , Whitehead ) * Geographical features (e.g.
    • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Personal characteristics (e.g., Short, deaf, beautiful) Geographical features (e.g., Hill, River, cave, Wood, Fields etc.
    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Personal characteristics (e.g., Short , deaf , beautiful ) Geographical features (e.g., Hill , River , cave , Wood , Fields etc.
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Scott, Hill, Rivers, Windsor)
  • Ancestry, often based on a first name (e.g.^ Dutch surnames in Belgium tend to resemble first names more often than in the Netherlands, e.g.
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Even in the West, however, family names are often presented first in many written contexts.
    • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Flemish family names often resemble first names.
    • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Richardson, James) or — if we include surnames of Scottish origin — clan (e.g.^ Scottish Surnames Black, George F. The Surnames of Scotland: Their Origin, Meaning, and History.
    • Last Name Origins Meaning 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC www.last-names.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Each name will have separate fields which include: the meaning of the surname; the linguistic origin, the geographical origin and the distribution.
    • AHRC funds largest ever study of UK family names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ahrc.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Learn the meaning and origin of the last name Richardson, plus find genealogy and family trees for the Richardson surname.
    • Surname Meaning | Surname Origin - Find the Meaning of Your Surname 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC genealogy.about.com [Source type: General]

    Macdonald).
.These surname types describe respectively the occupation, personal characteristics, location/origin, and ancestry (typically father's name) of the distant ancestor to whom the surname was first applied.^ Patronymics and Ancestry, where the father's name or an ancestor's given name is used in its original form or in a derived form (e.g.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These surname types describe respectively the occupation, personal characteristics, location/origin, and ancestry (typically father's name) of the distant ancestor to whom the surname was first applied.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In cases of disagreement the father's name applies [ 1 ].
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of course, the original meaning of the name may no longer be obvious in modern English (e.g.^ Of course, the original meaning of the name may no longer be obvious in modern English (e.g.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sands , Hill , Rivers , Wood , Field ) * Place names (e.g., Jack from London might be called Jack London ) * For those descended from land-owners, the name of their holdings, manor or estate * Patronymics and Ancestry, often from a male's given name (e.g., Richardson , James ) or from a clan name (for those of Scottish origin, e.g., MacDonald , Forbes ) The original meaning of the name may no longer be obvious in modern English (e.g., the surname Cooper meant barrel maker and the name Tillotson is a matronymic from a diminutive for Matilda ).
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course, that convention has been challenged by women who retain their original last names, as well as the equitable hyphenated lot.
  • Same-sex Marriage and Last Names - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 17 September 2009 10:58 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.Cooper = barrel maker).^ Cooper = barrel maker).
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A cooper was a maker and/or fixer of vessels such as buckets and barrels.
  • 20000-NAMES.COM: Surnames, Family Names, Page 3 of 6 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.20000-names.com [Source type: Original source]

.Arguably there is also a much smaller fifth category of names relating to religion, though some of these are also occupations (e.g.^ Some of these names are nice.
  • Name Nerds! family names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.namenerds.com [Source type: General]

^ A much smaller category of names relates to religion, though some of this category are also occupations.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arguably there is also a much smaller fifth category of names relating to religion, though some of these are also occupations (e.g.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bishop). .The names Bishop, Priest or Abbot usually mean that the ancestor worked for a Bishop, Priest or Abbot.^ The names Bishop, Priest or Abbot usually mean that the ancestor worked for a Bishop, Priest or Abbot.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The names Bishop, Priest, or Abbot, for example, usually indicate that an ancestor worked for a bishop, a priest, or an abbot, respectively.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The names Bishop , Priest , or Abbot , for example, usually indicate that an ancestor worked for a bishop, a priest, or an abbot, respectively.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Americas, the family names of many African-Americans have their origins in slavery.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Name Origination for the Armstrong family .

^ Norman family names of Viking origin .
  • The Vikings in Normandy: Norman family names of Viking origin 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.viking.no [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of them were given the surnames of their owners.^ Many of them were given the surnames of their owners.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many freed serfs were given surnames after those of their former owners.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of them came to bear the surnames of their former owners.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many freed slaves created their own family names themselves, or adopted the name of their former master.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Create your own "family names": List .
  • Amazon.com: family names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Create your own "irish family names": List .
  • Amazon.com: irish family names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.Others, such as Muhammad Ali and Malcolm X, changed their name rather than live with one thought to have been given by a slave owner.^ Others, such as Muhammad Ali and Malcolm X , changed their name rather than live with one given to their ancestors by a slave owner.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Others, such as Muhammad Ali and Malcolm X , changed their name rather than live with one they believed had been given to their ancestors by a slave owner.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Never thought a name change could evoke such vitriol!!
  • Communications Family Credit Union changes name to Wildfire Credit Union | Saginaw News - - MLive.com 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.mlive.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has long been the custom for women to give up their family name (called the birth name or maiden name) upon marriage, and to use their husband's last name in its place.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Last names carry on family names and their meaning.
  • Top 50 Baby Names By Last Names 17 September 2009 10:58 UTC www.giftscrolls4u.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For females, use maiden name (last name before marriage) .
  • Free Family Tree resources at FamilyTree.com 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC familytree.com [Source type: General]

.In recent years, more women have chosen to keep their birth name when they are married.^ In recent years, more women have chosen to keep their birth name when they are married.
  • Bambooweb: Surname 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Spain, married women keep their two family names intact.
  • Bambooweb: Surname 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do they keep their last names as is?
  • Same-sex Marriage and Last Names - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 17 September 2009 10:58 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.Still, even in families where the wife has kept her birth name, parents often choose to give their children their father's family name.^ Parents have a list of approved children’s names to choose from.

^ What was their wife's family name?
  • Research tips- Information on how to research family names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.footefamily.org [Source type: General]

^ Names from my father's immediate family (my grandparents, their children, parents, siblings): .
  • Reference: Spanish Naming Conventions, Family Names, Given Names, Common Names, Nicknames - Tarver-Gen: Tarver Family Research & Allied Families (Genealogy) 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.tarver-genealogy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In America, women traditionally became Mrs. [Husband's name] upon marriage, though recently they are more often referred to as Mrs. [First name] [Husband's surname].
.It is extremely rare for men in Western countries to take the name of their wives; this was chiefly done in the Middle Ages, when a man from a low-born family was marrying an only daughter from a higher-status family, and was thus designated to carry on his wife's family name.^ Last names carry on family names and their meaning.
  • Top 50 Baby Names By Last Names 17 September 2009 10:58 UTC www.giftscrolls4u.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Family name and crest design .
  • Family Name History Plaque - Wind & Weather 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.windandweather.com [Source type: General]

^ In the Middle Ages, when a man from a lower status family married an only daughter from a higher status family, he would take the wife's family name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 18th and 19th centuries in Britain, bequests were sometimes made contingent upon a man changing (or hyphenating) his name, so that the name of the legator continued.^ In the 18th and 19th centuries in Britain, bequests were sometimes made contingent upon a man changing (or hyphenating) his name, so that the name of the legator continued.
  • Bambooweb: Surname 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family name - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ KIMBERLEY : English surname derived from the name of a South African town first brought to the public's notice by the Boer War in the 19th century.
  • 20000-NAMES.COM: Surnames, Family Names, Page 4 of 6 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.20000-names.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, if a name was substantially changed or shortened after arrival in United States, an attempt should be made to find out the original name before searching early records.
  • Soundex Sorts Out Family Names 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.genealogytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, some men now choose to take their wives' names rather than the reverse, or a married couple may choose a new last name rather than that of either the husband or the wife.^ A married couple may also choose a new last name rather that that of either the husband or the wife.
  • Family name - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are some restrictions on what you may choose as your new name.
  • Name Changes FAQ - Divorce & Family Law Center 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC family.findlaw.com [Source type: General]

^ Now for some of my family names .
  • Top 25 Irish Last Names and Their Meanings 17 September 2009 10:58 UTC www.the-irish-path.com [Source type: General]

.As an alternative, the husband and wife may adopt a double-barrelled name.^ As an alternative, the husband and wife may adopt a double-barrelled name .
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As an alternative, both the husband and wife may adopt a double-barrelled name .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Double-barrelled names are very .

.For instance, when John Smith and Mary Jones marry each other, they become known as John Smith-Jones and Mary Smith-Jones.^ So, when John Smith marries Mary Jones, she is still Mrs. Smith , but she can also refer to herself as Mary Jones Smith .
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance, when John Smith and Mary Jones marry each other, they may become known as John Smith-Jones and Mary Smith-Jones.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance, when John Smith and Mary Jones marry each other, they become known as John Smith-Jones and Mary Smith-Jones .
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, many couples dislike this option, because it can make for very long names (like Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby), especially if either person already has a double-barreled surname.^ Double-barrelled names are very common in Germany.

^ However, many couples dislike this option, because it can make for very long names (like Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby ), especially if either person already has a double surname.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What names do you like and dislike and why?

.The wife may also opt to make her maiden name her middle name.^ The wife may also opt to make her maiden name her middle name.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His middle name is my maiden name.

^ This may make it an occupational name.
  • SURNAME ORIGINS AND/OR MEANINGS, KOLOMEA RESEARCH GROUP SURNAMES OF INTEREST 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org [Source type: Reference]

So, when John Smith marries Mary Jones, she is still Mrs. Smith, but she can also refer to herself as Mary Jones Smith.
.In some jurisdictions, it used to be the case that the woman's legal name changed automatically upon marriage.^ In some jurisdictions, it used to be the case that the woman's legal name changed automatically upon marriage.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some jurisdictions, a woman's legal name used to change automatically upon marriage.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How to legally change your name.
  • Name Changes FAQ - Divorce & Family Law Center 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC family.findlaw.com [Source type: General]

.This is no longer true — although women may easily change to their married name, it is no longer a default option.^ Although women may now easily choose to change to their married name, that change is no longer the default.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is no longer the case in most jurisdictions; now, women may easily change to their married name, though it is no longer automatic.
  • Bambooweb: Surname 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family name - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although women may now easily choose to change to their married name , that change is no longer the default.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some jurisdictions, civil rights lawsuits were used to change the law so that men could also easily change their married names.^ In some places, civil rights lawsuits or constitutional amendments changed the law so that men could also easily change their married names (e.g., in British Columbia and California ).
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some places, civil rights lawsuits or constitutional amendments were used to change the law so that men could also easily change their married names, e.g.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some places, civil rights lawsuits or constitutional amendments changed the law so that men could also easily change their married names (e.g., in British Columbia and California).
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Frequently, women in academia who have previously published articles in academic journals under their maiden name often do not change their surname after marriage, in order to ensure that they continue to receive credit for their past and future work.^ Place names were often taken as a surname.
  • Last Name Origins Meaning 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC www.last-names.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women in academia who have previously published articles in academic journals under their maiden name often do not change their surname after marriage, in order to ensure that they continue to receive credit for their past and future work.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finnish women usually change their surname when they get married.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This practice is also common among female physicians, attorneys and other professionals, where continuity is important.^ This practice is also common among female physicians, attorneys and other professionals, where continuity is important.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This practice is also common among female physicians, attorneys, and other professionals, as well as celebrities for whom continuity is important.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Learn about this practice and other clues found in Spanish surnames, plus the meaning and origin of common Spanish surnames.
  • Surname Meaning | Surname Origin - Find the Meaning of Your Surname 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC genealogy.about.com [Source type: General]

French-speaking countries

.French-speaking countries have many similarities to English-speaking ones in the way family names are used.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Basionym validated by a diagnosis in French; family name validated by a diagnosis in English and a reference to the basionym.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In English and French-speaking countries, many have shortened their name by removing the ending (for example Charles Aznavour ).
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, in France and the Canadian province of Quebec, name change upon marriage is no longer automatic.^ In civil law jurisdictions such as France or Quebec , name change upon marriage is no longer recognized.
  • Bambooweb: Surname 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family name - Wikinfo 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some jurisdictions, a woman's legal name used to change automatically upon marriage.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In France and the Canadian province of Quebec , name change upon marriage is no longer automatic.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Those who wish to change their name upon marriage must follow the same legal procedure as would be used under any other circumstance.^ A name change on legal documents is not necessary.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A name change on legal documents is not a must.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some jurisdictions, it used to be the case that the woman's legal name changed automatically upon marriage.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In France, until January 1, 2005, children were required by law to take the surname of their father.^ Children inherit their surnames from their father.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In France, until January 1, 2005, children were required by law to take the surname of their father.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Mongolia it is customary for children to take the first name of their father as their surname.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From this date, article 311-21 of the French Civil code permits parents to give their children either the name of their father, mother, or a hyphenation of both - although no more than two names can be hyphenated.^ From this date, article 311-21 of the French Civil code permits parents to give their children either the name of their father, mother, or a hyphenation of both - although no more than two names can be hyphenated.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Spanish , people have one or more given names and two family names, one from the father and one from the mother.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because both names are my father's names.

.In cases of disagreement the father's name applies [1].^ In cases of disagreement the father's name applies [ 1 ].
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In cases of disagreement the father's name applies [1] .
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In cases of disagreement the father's name applies [2].
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This brought France into line with a 1978 declaration by the Council of Europe requiring member governments to take measures to adopt equality of rights in the transmission of family names, a measure that was echoed by the United Nations in 1979.^ This brought France into line with a 1978 declaration by the Council of Europe requiring member governments to take measures to adopt equality of rights in the transmission of family names, a measure that was echoed by the United Nations in 1979.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1999-2002 Raymond McLewin joined up with Linda and Malcolm McLewin from the United Kingdom and Cathy McLewin from Toronto to delve into the history of our family name.
  • McLewin Family Name Research | mclewin.com 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC mclewin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some families had no fixed surname until after their arrival in America, and in other cases emigrants from continental Europe or their descendants have translated or otherwise modified their names.
  • The Origins of Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Similar measures were adopted by Germany (1976), Sweden (1982), Denmark (1983) and Spain (in 1999).^ Similar measures were adopted by Germany (1976), Sweden (1982), Denmark (1983) and Spain (1999).
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Furthermore, in French Canada, up until the late 1960s, children of Catholic origin were given three names at birth (usually not hyphenated): the first, Marie or Joseph, usually indicated the gender of the child.^ Furthermore, in French Canada , up until the late 1960s, children of Catholic origin were given three names at birth (usually not hyphenated): the first, Marie or Joseph, usually indicated the gender of the child.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chinese names are given with Last Names first.
  • Origin of Chinese Names (Last Names or Surnames, 中國百家姓氏來源 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.yutopian.com [Source type: General]

^ Children are given the father's exact first name as their surname.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The second was usually the name of the godfather or godmother, while the third and last given name was the name used in everyday situations.^ In speech, the use of given name first, family name last is standard.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second was usually the name of the godfather or godmother, while the third and last given name was the name used in everyday situations.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usually, family names are written after any given name in most uses.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, a child prenamed Joseph Bruno Jean on their birth or baptismal certificate would indicate the baby to be a boy, the godfather's first name to be Bruno and that the child would be called Jean (and not Joseph) for all intents and purposes of everyday life.^ The name Enric is a baby boy name.
  • Study table about Italian Male Names and their English equivalents 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC momma-maloy.netfirms.com [Source type: General]

^ What would baby’s name be?
  • LDS.org - Family Chapter Detail - A Name and a Blessing 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.lds.org [Source type: General]

^ She would be happy to hear her name be called, too.
  • SPIRIT 105.3 FM - Seattle's Family-Friendly Radio Station - Morning Show 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.spirit1053.com [Source type: General]

.This naming convention was in the most part dropped following the Quiet Revolution (late 1960s), and is now seen much more rarely.^ This naming convention was in the most part dropped following the Quiet Revolution (late 1960s), and is now seen much more rarely.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most immigrants changed their names themselves to be more American: Anglicizing the spelling, choosing an English equivalent or picking a new name entirely.
  • Identify Hungarian Names and Villages - Family Tree Magazine 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.familytreemagazine.com [Source type: General]

^ Following the King of Pop’s passing, the name Jackson jumped three spots and is now the third most popular boy name of 2009.
  • Emma, Aiden are top baby names of the decade - Parenting & Family 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC today.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: General]

Ireland

For more details on this topic, see Irish name.
.Many surnames in Ireland of Gaelic origin derive from either father's or ancestor's names; nicknames; or descriptive names.^ Origins of Surnames Surnames are generally derived from one of four sources: the name of the person's father (patronymic), the person's locality, the person's occupation, or a descriptive nickname for the person.
  • Last Name Origins Meaning 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC www.last-names.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many surnames in Ireland of Gaelic origin derive from ancestor's names; nicknames ; or descriptive names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patronymics and Ancestry, where the father's name or an ancestor's given name is used in its original form or in a derived form (e.g.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the first group can be placed surnames such as Mac Murrough, Maguire, MacDermott, MacCarthy (all derived from father's names) or O'Brian, O'Neill, O'Donnell, O'Toole (ancestral names).^ Place names were often taken as a surname.
  • Last Name Origins Meaning 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC www.last-names.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the first group can be placed surnames such as McMurrough and McCarthy , derived from father's names, or O'Brien and O'Toole , derived from ancestral names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the first group can be placed surnames such as McMurrough and McCarthy , derived from father's names, or O'Brien and O'Grady , derived from ancestral names.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gaelic surnames derived from nicknames include Docherty (from "dortach", hurtful), Garvery ("garbh", rough or nasty), Manton ("mantach", toothless), Duffy ("dubh", black, as in black hair), Bane ("ban", white, as in white hair), Finn ("fionn", fair, as in fair or blonde hair), Kennedy ("cennidie", ugly head).^ ERISKINE : Scottish surname, derived from Eriskyne , a contracted form of the old Gaelic phrase air an sgian , meaning "upon the knife."
  • 20000-NAMES.COM: Surnames, Family Names, Page 3 of 6 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.20000-names.com [Source type: Original source]

^ LESLIE : Scottish surname, derived from the place name Lesslyn in Aberdeenshire which got its name from Gaelic leas cuilinn , meaning "garden of hollies."
  • 20000-NAMES.COM: Surnames, Family Names, Page 4 of 6 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.20000-names.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Origins of Surnames Surnames are generally derived from one of four sources: the name of the person's father (patronymic), the person's locality, the person's occupation, or a descriptive nickname for the person.
  • Last Name Origins Meaning 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC www.last-names.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Descriptive Gaelic surnames include Carr ("gearr", short or small), Joyce/Seoige (from the Welsh word, "sais", meaning Saxon or English), Kearney ("ceithearnach", footsolider), Brehony ("mac an Brehon", son of the judge), Ward ("mac an Bhaird", son of the bard).^ HUNTER : English occupational surname, meaning "hunter."
  • 20000-NAMES.COM: Surnames, Family Names, Page 4 of 6 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.20000-names.com [Source type: Original source]

^ DARBY : English surname, possibly a corruption of Derby , a shire of England, so called from doire , meaning "a forest abounding in deer."
  • 20000-NAMES.COM: Surnames, Family Names, Page 3 of 6 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.20000-names.com [Source type: Original source]

^ JARVIS : English surname, derived from Middle English Gervase , meaning "spear servant."
  • 20000-NAMES.COM: Surnames, Family Names, Page 4 of 6 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.20000-names.com [Source type: Original source]

.In contrast to England, very few Gaelic surnames are derived from place names.^ In contrast to England , very few Gaelic surnames are derived from place names or venerated people/objects.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Place names were often taken as a surname.
  • Last Name Origins Meaning 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC www.last-names.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In contrast to England, very few Gaelic surnames are derived from place names or venerated people/objects.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among those that included in this small group, several can be shown to be bastardizations of Gaelic personal names or surnames.^ Among those that are included in this small group, several can be shown to be bastardizations of Gaelic personal names or surnames.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among those that included in this small group, several can be shown to be bastardizations of Gaelic personal names or surnames.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among those that are included in this small group, several can be shown to be bastardization s of Gaelic personal names or surnames.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In areas where certain family names are extremely common, extra names are added that sometimes follow this archaic pattern.^ Below are the most common family names.
  • Korean name: Encyclopedia II - Korean name - Family names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: General]

^ This Lytle added fame to family name .
  • This Lytle added fame to family name on The Murfreesboro Post 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.murfreesboropost.com [Source type: General]

^ The origin of family names is area-dependent.
  • Bambooweb: Surname 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Ireland, for example, where "Murphy" is an exceedingly common name, particular Murphy families or extended families are nicknamed, so that Denis Murphy's family were called "The Weavers" and Denis himself was called Denis "The Weaver" Murphy.^ In Ireland , for example, where Murphy is an exceedingly common name, particular Murphy families or extended families are nicknamed, so that Denis Murphy 's family were called The Weavers and Denis himself was called Denis "The Weaver" Murphy .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Ireland, for example, where Murphy is an exceedingly common name, particular Murphy families or extended families are nicknamed, so that Denis Murphy's family were called The Weavers and Denis himself was called Denis "The Weaver" Murphy.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Ireland , for example, where "Murphy" is an exceedingly common name, particular Murphy families or extended families are nicknamed, so that Denis Murphy 's family were called "The Weavers" and Denis himself was called Denis "The Weaver" Murphy.
  • Bambooweb: Surname 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

see also: O'Hay
For much the same reason, nicknames (the Fada Burkes, i.e. the long/tall Burkes), father's names (John Morrissey Ned) or mother's maiden name (Kennedy becoming Kennedy-Lydon) can become colloquial or legal surnames. .The Irish family of de Courcy Ireland became so-named to distinguish them from their cousins who moved to France in the 17th and 18th centuries.^ Products Tagged irish family names Are Also Tagged .
  • Amazon.com: irish family names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ A community about irish family names.

^ Hawkesbury in the 17th and 18th century.

.In addition to all this, Irish speaking areas still follow the old tradition of naming themselves after their father, grandfather, great-grandfather and so on.^ All of the following are ancestral names for us.
  • Surnames - Table of Contents 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC www.martygrant.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition to all this, Irish speaking areas still follow the old tradition of naming themselves after their father, grandfather, great-grandfather and so on.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My father died when I was 6 months old, and my grandfather shortly thereafter.
  • Cassidy Family Name Variations, including Cassity and Casada, Their Origin and Family History 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.cassidyclan.org [Source type: General]

.Examples include: Mike Bartly Pat Reilly (i.e, Mike son of Bartholomew son of Pat Reilly), John Michel John Oge Pat Breanach (John son of Michael son of young John son of Pat Breanach), Tom Paddy-Joe Seoige (Tom son of Paddy-Joe Seoige), Mary Bartly Mike Walsh (Mary daughter of Bartly son of Mike Walsh), and so on.^ Zeus, for example was also referred to as Cronides ("son of Cronus") and the daughters of Pleione are the Pleiades.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, when a man called Karl has a daughter called Anna and a son called Magnus, their names will be Anna Karlsdóttir ("daughter of Karl") and Magnus Karlsson ("son of Karl").
  • Bambooweb: Surname 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their eldest son, John, married Mary Miller and they were the parents of five children (Catherine, David, Elizabeth, John Jr. Phillip).
  • An Everhart Family Saga 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC everhartfamily.com [Source type: General]

.Sometimes, the female line of the family is used, depending on how well the parent is known in the area the person resides eg.^ Sometimes, the female line of the family is used, depending on how well the parent is known in the area the person resides eg.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes, the female line of the family is used, depending on how well the parent is known in the area the person resides, e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The origin of family names is area-dependent.
  • Bambooweb: Surname 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Paddy Mary John (Paddy son of Mary daughter of John).^ Paddy Mary John (Paddy son of Mary daughter of John).
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I give unto Jane the daughter of John Vingo my son my best chest.
  • Vingoe Family Web Site 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC vingoe.name [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examples include: Mike Bartly Pat Reilly (i.e, Mike son of Bartholomew son of Pat Reilly), John Michel John Oge Pat Breanach (John son of Michael son of young John son of Pat Breanach), Tom Paddy-Joe Seoige (Tom son of Paddy-Joe Seoige), Mary Bartly Mike Walsh (Mary daughter of Bartly son of Mike Walsh), and so on.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even in English-speaking areas, especially in rural districts, something of this tradition continues.^ Even in English-speaking areas, especially in rural districts, something of this tradition continues.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A similar tradition continues even in English-speaking areas, especially in rural districts.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hutterite children who grow up in the colonies learn and speak first Hutterite German before learning English in the public school, the standard language of the surrounding areas.
  • German Language | Credit Shakedown 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.creditshakedown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • German language - WikiTest , the free encyclopedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.encyklopedia.duu.pl [Source type: Reference]
  • German language - Information Overload Unit MARK 3 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC overload.ath.cx [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fummo.com - German language 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.fummo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • German Language 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC carsguide.110mb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Irish surname prefixes

.
  • Mac or Mc: Mac is Irish for son and is sometimes shortened to Mc. Examples: MacCarthy or McDonnell.
  • Mac Gilla: Son of the devotee of a saint, or, more properly, son of a man whose name was the likes of Gilla Padraigh, Gilla Christ, (Mac) Gilla Bridge, and so on.^ Mac Giolla: Son of the devotee of a saint, or, more properly, son of a man whose name was the likes of Giolla Pádraig, (Mac) Giolla Bhrighde, and so on.
    • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Mac Giolla : Irish for "son of the devotee of a saint", or "son of a man whose name was perhaps Giolla Pádraig or (Mac) Giolla Bhrighde ".
    • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Mac (usually shortened to Mc ): Mac is Irish for son.
    • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    An equivalent would be the use of St. George and St. John as forenames in England in the 18th and 19th century.
  • Mael: In Pagan times this was expressed as Mug, as in the case of Mug Nuada. .The literal expression of this is "slave of Nuada". Slave should be seen in the same sense as "devotee". In the Christian era the word Mael was used in its place for given names such as Mael Bridget, Mael Padraig, Mael Sechlainn, Mael Martain, and so on.^ In the Christian era the word Mael was used in its place for given names such as Mael Bridget , Mael Padraig , Mael Lagan , Mael Sechlainn , and Mael Martain .
    • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the Christian era the word Mael was used in its place for given names such as Mael Bridget, Mael Padraig, Mael Sechlainn, Mael Martain, and so on.
    • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The literal expression of this is "slave of Nuada".
    • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In later times, some of these given names evolved into surnames (O Mael Sechlainn, Mac Mael Martain, etc.^ Some of these names are nice.
    • Name Nerds! family names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.namenerds.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In later times, some of these given names evolved into surnames (Ó Máel Sechlainn, Mac Mael Martain, etc.
    • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Given name - The given name of some person.
    • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

    ).
  • .
  • Fitz: Fitz is a Norman-French word derived from the Latin word, filius, meaning son of.^ Fitz : a Norman-French word derived from the Latin word filius ("son").
    • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Fitz: a Norman-French word derived from the Latin word filius ("son").
    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ MÉRAUD : French surname, derived from the word emeraude , meaning "emerald."
    • 20000-NAMES.COM: Surnames, Family Names, Page 4 of 6 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.20000-names.com [Source type: Original source]

    .It was used as a patronymic by thousands of men in the early Norman period in Ireland (fitz Stephen, fitz Richard, fitz Robert, fitz William) and only on some occasions did it become used as an actual surname, the most famous example being the FitzGerald Earls of Kildare.^ Stephen , fitz Richard , fitz Robert , fitz William ) and only on some occasions did it become used as an actual surname, the most famous example being the FitzGerald Earls of Kildare .
    • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It was used in patronymic s by thousands of men in the early Norman period in Ireland (e.g.
    • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ P Patronyms -The most common form of surname.
    • SURNAME ORIGINS AND/OR MEANINGS, KOLOMEA RESEARCH GROUP SURNAMES OF INTEREST 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org [Source type: Reference]

    .Yet well into the 17th and 18th century it was used in certain areas dominated by the Old English of Ireland in its original form, as a patronymic.^ Yet well into the 17th and 18th century it was used in certain areas dominated by the Old English of Ireland in its original form, as a patronymic .
    • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Yet well into the 17th and 18th century it was used in certain areas dominated by the Old English of Ireland in its original form, as a patronymic.
    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hawkesbury in the 17th and 18th century.

    .The Tribes of Galway were especially good at conserving this form, with examples such as John fitz John Bodkin, Michael Lynch fitz Arthur, and so on, being used even as late as the early 1800s.^ The Tribes of Galway were especially good at conserving this form, with examples such as John fitz John Bodkin, Michael Lynch fitz Arthur, and so on, being used even as late as the early 1800's.
    • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Tribes of Galway were especially good at conserving this form, with examples such as John fitz John Bodkin and Michael Lynch fitz Arthur , used even as late as the early 1800's.
    • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Tribes of Galway were especially good at conserving this form, with examples such as John fitz John Bodkin and Michael Lynch fitz Arthur, used even as late as the early 1800s.
    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Despite claims to the contrary, the use of Fitz in a surname does not, and never did, denote illegitimacy.^ Despite claims to the contrary, the use of Fitz in a surname never denoted illegitimacy.
    • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Despite claims to the contrary, the use of Fitz in a surname does not, and never did, denote illegitimacy.
    • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Stephen , fitz Richard , fitz Robert , fitz William ) and only on some occasions did it become used as an actual surname, the most famous example being the FitzGerald Earls of Kildare .
    • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This misunderstanding may have originated because the illegitimate sons of English kings traditionally bore the surname Fitzroy (i.e., "son of the king."^ This misunderstanding may have originated because a number of illegitimate members of the British royal family were given such surnames: some of the illegitimate children of King Charles II were named FitzCharles or FitzRoy ("son of the King"); those of King James II were named FitzJames; those of Prince William, Duke of Clarence and St Andrews (later King William IV) were named FitzClarence.
    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This misunderstanding may have originated because a number of illegitimate members of the British royal family were given such surnames: some of the illegitimate children of King Charles II were named FitzCharles or FitzRoy ("son of the King"); those of King James II were named FitzJames ; those of Prince William, Duke of Clarence and St Andrews (later King William IV) were named FitzClarence .
    • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ DEXTER : English surname, originally denoting a female "dyer," but by the time it became a personal name it had already become strongly associated with Latin dexter "auspicious, right-handed," and was usually chosen as a forename because of this.
    • 20000-NAMES.COM: Surnames, Family Names, Page 3 of 6 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.20000-names.com [Source type: Original source]

    )
  • .
  • O: Originally 'hua', meaning grandson, or descendant of, a given person.^ Personal characteristics have given origin to another class of surnames, descriptive of mental or bodily peculiarities.
    • Surname Origins Essay by William Arthur. Free Family Name Dictionary with Genealogy Resources by Ancestor Search 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.searchforancestors.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And it’s a truly original name with genuine personal meaning.
    • How the Palin Family Chooses Those Names - The Daily Beast 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.thedailybeast.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In Old Irish as 'ua', meaning grandson, or descendant, of a given person.
    • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .For example, the ancestor of the O'Brien clan, Brian Boru (937-1014) was known in his lifetime as Brian mac Lorcan mac Cennedie, i.e., Brian the son of Lorcan the son of Cennedie.^ E.g., the ancestor of the O'Brien clan, Brian Boru (937-1014) was known in his lifetime as Brian mac Cennéide mac Lorcán ("Brian, the son of Cennéide, the son of Lorcán ").
    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ E.g., the ancestor of the O'Brien clan, Brian Boru (937-1014) was known in his lifetime as Brian mac Cennéide mac Lorcán ("Brian, the son of Cennéide , the son of Lorcán ").
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For example, the ancestor of the O'Brien clan , Brian Boru (937-1014) was known in his lifetime as Brian mac Lorcán mac Cennéide, i.e., Brian the son of Lorcán the son of Cennéide.
    • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Not till the time of his grandsons and great-grandsons was the name O'Brien used as a surname, used to denote descent from an illustrious ancestor.^ Not until the time of his grandsons and great-grandsons was the name O'Brien used as a surname, used to denote descent from an illustrious ancestor .
    • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Not till the time of his grandsons and great-grandsons was the name O'Brien used as a surname, used to denote descent from an illustrious ancestor .
    • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Not until the time of his grandsons and great-grandsons was the name O'Brien used as a surname, used to denote descent from an illustrious ancestor.
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It has for some two hundred years being written as O', but in recent years the apostrophe is being dropped, bringing it into line with early medieval forms.^ It has for some three hundred years been written as O', but in recent years the apostrophe is often dropped, bringing it into line with early medieval forms.
    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It has for some three hundred years been written as O ' , but in recent years the apostrophe is often dropped, bringing it into line with early medieval forms.
    • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It has for some three hundred years been written as O' , but in recent years the apostrophe is often dropped, bringing it into line with early medieval forms.
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Where the English version of a name is written, the O is unaccented and is separated from the family name by an apostrophe, as in O'Dea.^ In addition many Parsi, Bohra and Gujarati families have used English trade names as last names since the 18th and 19th centuries (Contractor, Engineer, Builder).
    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In addition many Parsi , Bohra and Gujarati families have used English trade names as last names since the 18th and 19th centuries (Contractor, Engineer, Builder).
    • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Beware, the automatic translator reverses scientific names : please use the English version to save this list.
    • Killi-Data online - Family-group names 2006 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.killi-data.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Where the Irish version of a name is written, the Ó is accented and is separated from the family name by a space (no apostrophe), as in Ó Deághaidh.
  • Uí: Originally used not as part of a surname but to denote related members of a dynasty or kin-group, all descended from a particular person, i.e., the Uí Néill, the Uí Censellagh.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
    • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Surnames, Family Names [ Suggest a Name for this page ] .
    • 20000-NAMES.COM: Surnames, Family Names, Page 3 of 6 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.20000-names.com [Source type: Original source]
    • 20000-NAMES.COM: Surnames, Family Names, Page 4 of 6 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.20000-names.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Uí : This is the plural of Ó and is used in reference to a kin-group or clan, e.g.
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Nowadays sometimes used in place of O. Pronounced as (U)ee.
  • Ní: From the Irish word for daughter, íníon, and compressed into Ní.^ Ní: This is used for women instead of O before a surname and comes a shortened form of the Irish word for a daughter, e.g.
    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the Christian era the word Mael was used in its place for given names such as Mael Bridget , Mael Padraig , Mael Lagan , Mael Sechlainn , and Mael Martain .
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the Christian era the word Mael was used in its place for given names such as Mael Bridget, Mael Padraig, Mael Sechlainn, Mael Martain, and so on.
    • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Pronounced as nee.
  • Bean: Wife.^ Bean : "Wife", pronounced as ban .
    • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Bean: "Wife", pronounced /bæn?/.
    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Bean : "Wife", pronounced .
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Pronounced as baan.

Italy

.Italian names are mostly derived from Latin, but since Italy has been often ruled by foreigners, many surnames are of Spanish, French, German, Norman or Swiss origin.^ Markus which is related to Marcus, a name of Latin origin borrowed from German.
  • SURNAME ORIGINS AND/OR MEANINGS, KOLOMEA RESEARCH GROUP SURNAMES OF INTEREST 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The name Enric comes from the Italian origin..
  • Study table about Italian Male Names and their English equivalents 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC momma-maloy.netfirms.com [Source type: General]

^ Fitz : a Norman-French word derived from the Latin word filius ("son").
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Beginning in the 14th century, it became necessary to add a second name to distinguish between individuals with the same surname.^ Beginning in the 14th century, it became necessary to add a second name to distinguish between individuals with the same surname.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surnames were adopted in order to legally distinguish two individuals with the same given name.
  • Last Name Origins Meaning 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC www.last-names.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And as late as the beginning of the nineteenth century a similar decree compelled Jews in Germany and Austria to add a German surname to the single names which they had previously used.
  • THE  NAME  AND  FAMILY 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.hawkshome.net [Source type: Original source]

.Italian surnames are especially easy to recognize because most end in a vowel and many of them have been derived from descriptive nicknames.^ Italian surnames are generally easy to recognize because most end in a vowel, like nearly all words in standard Italian, and many of them have been derived from descriptive nicknames.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italian surnames are generally easy to recognize because most end in a vowel, like nearly all words in standard Italian , and many of them have been derived from descriptive nicknames.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italian surnames are especially easy to recognize because most end in a vowel—like nearly all words in Standard Italian —and many of them have been derived from descriptive nicknames.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Italian surnames developed from four major sources:
Patronymic Surnames: These last names are based on a parent’s name, usually the father (Francesco di Marco i.e. Francis, son of Mark)
Occupational Surnames: These surnames are based on the person’s job or trade (Giovanni Fabbri i.e. John the Smith)
Descriptive Surnames: Derived from a unique quality of the individual, these surnames often developed from nicknames or pet names (Dario Forte i.e. Darius the Strong)
Geographical Surnames: These surnames are based on a person’s geographic origin, (Elisabetta Romano i.e. Elisabeth from Rome)
.Few family names are still in the original Latin, and usually they indicate very old families (or those with pretensions to antiquity.^ Few family names are still in the original Latin, and usually they indicate from or with pretensions to antiquity, e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are not awarded to a "family name" as a whole.
  • Top 25 Irish Last Names and Their Meanings 17 September 2009 10:58 UTC www.the-irish-path.com [Source type: General]

^ Family Names and their origins .
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) .For example de Judicibus or de Laurentis.^ For example de Judicibus or de Laurentis .
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the family was noble, the de has lowercase d, otherwise it is uppercase.^ If the family was noble, the de has lowercase d , otherwise it is uppercase.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is usually used as a ratio of lowercase to uppercase heights as a means to compare font families.
  • Fonts 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ As such, the name is called prenume (French prénom ), while the family name is called nume or, when otherwise ambiguous, nume de familie ("family name").
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Funny Names: for jest ( forggie equus

Spain and Hispanic areas

For more details on this topic, see Iberian naming customs.
.In medieval times, a patronymic system similar to the one still used in Iceland emerged.^ In medieval times, a patronymic system similar to the one still used in Iceland emerged.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The letter f does not appear in Gaelic until after A.D.600, so a c séimhithe was, and is still, used in the medieval Gaelic version of the name - Lachtna - and the -na ending is, again, a bit of the Latin natus.
  • Loftus Family Registry - Name Origin 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.loftusweb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The use of Smith as an occupational surname dates back to Anglo-Saxon times, when inherited surnames were still unknown: Ecceard Smith of County Durham was recorded in 975 .
  • Smith (surname) - Familypedia 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, Álvaro son of Rodrigo would be named Álvaro Rodríguez.^ For example, Álvaro son of Rodrigo would be named Álvaro Rodríguez.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His son, Juan , would not be named Juan Rodríguez , but Juan Álvarez .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His son Juan would not be named Juan Rodríguez, but Juan Álvarez.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His son Juan would not be named Juan Rodríguez, but Juan Álvarez.^ His son, Juan , would not be named Juan Rodríguez , but Juan Álvarez .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, Álvaro son of Rodrigo would be named Álvaro Rodríguez.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, Álvaro, the son of Rodrigo would be named Álvaro Rodríguez.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over time many of these patronymics became family names and are some of the most common names in the Spanish-speaking world.^ Over time many of these patronymics became family names and are some of the most common names in the Spanish-speaking world.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The family name of some person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

.Other sources of surnames are personal appearance or habit: Delgado (thin), Moreno (dark); occupations: Molina (miller), Guerrero (warrior); geographic location or ethnicity: Alemán (German).^ Clicking on any of them will take you to a comprehensive set of pages with data about my line as well as other lines with the same surname in the same geographical area.
  • Surnames - Table of Contents 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC www.martygrant.com [Source type: General]

^ Other sources of surnames are personal appearance or habit: Delgado (thin), Moreno (dark); occupations: Molinero (miller), Guerrero (warrior); geographic location or ethnicity: Alemán (German).
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many surnames have originated in soubriquets, epithets of contempt, and ridicule, and nicknames, imposed for personal peculiarities, habits, and qualities, or from incidents or accidents which happened to the original bearers.
  • Surname Origins Essay by William Arthur. Free Family Name Dictionary with Genealogy Resources by Ancestor Search 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.searchforancestors.com [Source type: Original source]

.In Spain and in some countries of Hispanic culture (former Spanish colonies), each person has two family names (although in some situations only the first is used): the first is the first (paternal) family name of the father; the second is the first family name of the mother; Depending on the country, these may or may not be linked by the conjunction "y" (and) or "de" (of).^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tamil: Sri Lankan Tamils usually use two names, the first representing their father's name and the second representing their own.
  • Maldives Royal Family Official Website: Majid's Pages- Sri Lankan Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.maldivesroyalfamily.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During these times, often only aristocratic families had family names.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, in many south-American countries people has now adopted the "English" way, thus having a single family name
.At present day in Spain, women upon marrying keep their two family names intact.^ At present day in Spain, women upon marrying keep their two family names intact.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nic: This is used for women instead of Mac, but only if this is their maiden name, never their married name.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In English-, Dutch-, German-, French- and Scandinavian-speaking countries, people often have two or more given names, and the family name goes at the end.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In certain situations she may be addressed as if her maternal surname were substituted with her husbands paternal surname often linked with "de". Thus, Ana García Díaz, upon marrying Juan Guerrero Macías, could also be called Ana García de Guerrero, but this custom, that comes from medieval times, is decaying, and has no legal validity.^ This custom, begun in medieval times, is decaying and only has legal validity in Ecuador and Peru .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, Ana García Díaz, upon marrying Juan Guerrero Macías, could also be called Ana García de Guerrero, but this custom, that comes from medieval times, is decaying and has no legal validity (except in Ecuador).
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In certain rare situations, especially the nobility, she may be addressed as if her maternal surname had been replaced with her husband's paternal surname often linked with de.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(It remains the law, however, in Ecuador.) .In this country a couple can choose the order of the family name for their children: they can keep the traditional way, as explained — Guerrero Garcia in the example — which is what most people do, or invert the order, putting first the mother first family name and afterwards the father's — García Guerrero.^ FAMILY NAMES: Make a poster about the traditional family names in your country.

^ For example the name Yuhjijad Befinsioan indicates that the person's father's first name is Befinsioan .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children are given the father's exact first name as their surname.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This decision must be maintained for all the children.^ Such inversion, if chosen, must be maintained for all the children.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After that, they must decide on one family name for all their future children, by pretty much the same rules.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All these numbers are mostly for my own enjoyment, but they also help me make informed decisions about what names I want to use for our children.

Portugal and Brazil

.The Portuguese position is the reverse of the Spanish one.^ The Portuguese position is the reverse of the Spanish one.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Portuguese naming customs, the main surname (the one used in alphasorting, indexing, abbreviations, and greetings), appears last (reverse the order of Spanish surnames).
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The vast majority of Filipinos follow a naming system which is the reverse of the Spanish one.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each person has at least two family names: the first is the maternal family name; the second is the paternal family name.^ Each person has at least two family names: the first is the maternal family name; the second is the paternal family name.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His first name and second middle are names I liked.
  • Family name? pro or con?? - Adoption.com Forums 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC forums.adoption.com [Source type: General]

^ The family gives the child its first name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A person can have up to six names (two first names and four surnames — he or she may have two names from the mother and two from the father).^ For example the name Yuhjijad Befinsioan indicates that the person's father's first name is Befinsioan .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A person can have up to six names (two first names and four surnames — he or she may have two names from the mother and two from the father).
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children are given the father's exact first name as their surname.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Brazil the rule is the same except that it is now very common for a person to have only one family name: the paternal family name.^ However, the country has very strict rules on family names.

^ From Ulster - only one family.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Name - The family name of some person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

.In the ancient ages the patronymicum was commonly used — surnames like Gonçalves (son of Gonçalo), Fernandes (son of Fernando), Nunes (son of Nuno) and many more are used today as usual family names.^ I like family names, but H never did.

^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surnames, Family Names [ Suggest a Name for this page ] .
  • 20000-NAMES.COM: Surnames, Family Names, Page 3 of 6 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.20000-names.com [Source type: Original source]
  • 20000-NAMES.COM: Surnames, Family Names, Page 4 of 6 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.20000-names.com [Source type: Original source]

.Brazilians usually do not call people by their family names, even in formal situations.^ Brazilians usually do not call people by their family names, even in formal situations.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brazilians usually call people only by their given names, omitting family names, even in many formal situations (as in the press referring to authorities, i.e.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In particular, Icelanders , Tibetans and Javanese often do not use a family name — well-known people lacking a family name include Suharto and Sukarno (see Indonesian names ).
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.First names are almost always used.^ First names are almost always used.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, many people with Chinese names have non-Chinese first names which are commonly used.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tamil: Sri Lankan Tamils usually use two names, the first representing their father's name and the second representing their own.
  • Maldives Royal Family Official Website: Majid's Pages- Sri Lankan Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.maldivesroyalfamily.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Philippines

.Until the middle of the 19th century, there was no standardization of surnames in the Philippines.^ Until the middle of the 19th century, there was no standardization of surnames in the Philippines .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until there is a definite, there will be NO BaconLube™.
  • Family Name Fail « FAIL Blog: Epic Fail Pictures and Videos of Owned, Pwnd and Fail Moments 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC failblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until the middle of the 19th century, there was no standardization of surnames in the Philippines.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There were native Filipinos without surnames, others whose surnames deliberately did not match that of their families, as well as those who took certain surnames simply because they had a certain prestige, usually ones dealing with the Roman Catholic religion, such as de los Santos and de la Cruz.^ Those who were adopted by a szlachta family usually changed the name to that of the family.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were native Filipinos without surnames, others whose surnames deliberately did not match that of their families, as well as those who took certain surnames simply because they had a certain prestige, usually ones dealing with the Roman Catholic religion, such as de los Santos and de la Cruz .
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are also Filipinos, particularly those from rural tribes, who have no surnames at all.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1849, the Spanish governor Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa decreed an end to these arbitrary practices, the result of which was the Catálogo Alfabético de Apellidos (Alphabetic Catalog of Surnames).^ Feminine forms of these surnames have the ending -a : .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1849, Governor-general Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa decreed an end to these arbitrary practices, the result of which was the Catálogo Alfabético de Apellidos ("Alphabetic Catalog of Surnames").
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1849, the Spanish governor Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa decreed an end to these arbitrary practices, the result of which was the Catálogo Alfabético de Apellidos ("Alphabetic Catalog of Surnames").
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The book contained many words coming from Spanish and the Philippine languages such as Tagalog.^ The book contained many words coming from Spanish and the Philippine languages such as Tagalog .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The book contained many words coming from Spanish and the Philippine languages such as Tagalog.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the English language are also many words taken from German without any letter changed, e.g.: .
  • German language 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC etymology.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The actual application of this decree varied from municipality to municipality.^ The actual application of this decree varied from municipality to municipality.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some municipalities received only surnames starting with a particular letter.^ Some municipalities received only surnames starting with a particular letter.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mexico, Honduras, Colombia, Peru, Chile, Venezuela), most people have two surnames, although in some situations only the first is used.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ México, Honduras, Colombia, Peru, Chile, Venezuela), most people have two surnames, although in some situations only the first is used.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, the majority of residents of the island of Banton in Romblon province have surnames starting with F such as Fabicon, Fallarme, Fadrilan, Ferran, etc.^ For example, the majority of residents of the island of Banton in the province of Romblon have surnames starting with F such as Fabicon, Fallarme, Fadrilan, and Ferran.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the majority of residents of the island of Banton in Romblon province have surnames starting with F such as Fabicon , Fallarme , Fadrilan , and Ferran .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A large number of Rajput converts to islam have retained their surnames such as Chauhan ,Rathore, Parmar etc.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This means that although there are perhaps a majority of Filipinos with Spanish surnames, this does not necessarily imply Spanish ancestry.^ This means that although there are perhaps a majority of Filipinos with Spanish surnames, such a surname does not imply Spanish ancestry.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, although there perhaps a majority of Filipinos have Spanish surnames, such a surname does not always imply Spanish ancestry.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, although there perhaps a majority of Filipinos have Spanish surnames, such a surname does not imply Spanish ancestry.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are other sources for surnames.^ There are other sources for surnames.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since Mark has also been an Askenazic surname in Eastern Europe, where English influence is out of the question, there must be at least one other explanation.
  • SURNAME ORIGINS AND/OR MEANINGS, KOLOMEA RESEARCH GROUP SURNAMES OF INTEREST 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Other sources of surnames are personal appearance or habit, e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, in Muslim-dominated areas of the southern Philippines, surnames are usually of Arabic origin such as Hassan and Haradji.^ For example, in Muslim-dominated areas of the southern Philippines, surnames are usually of Arabic origin such as Hassan and Haradji.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, surnames among Filipino Muslims are largely Arabic-based, and include such surnames as Hassan and Haradji.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Muslim-dominated areas of the southern Philippines, adoption of surnames was influenced by connections to that religion, its holy places, and prophets.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many Filipinos also have Chinese surnames which yield clues as to when their Chinese ancestor immigrated to the Philippines.^ Many Filipinos also have Chinese-derived surnames, which in some cases could yield clues to Chinese ancestry.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many Filipinos also have Chinese derived surnames, which in some cases could yield clues to Chinese ancestry.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many Filipinos also have Chinese surnames which yield clues as to when their Chinese ancestor immigrated to the Philippines.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, a surname like Cojuangco, which was Hispanicized, suggests an 18th-century immigration while a surname like Lim suggests a relatively recent one.^ A hispanicized Chinese surname like Cojuangco suggests an 18th-century immigration while a Chinese surname like Lim suggests a relatively recent immigration.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, a surname like Cojuangco, which was Hispanicized, suggests an 18th-century immigration while a surname like Lim suggests a relatively recent one.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was used to having a unique surname before I married, and one I liked.
  • What Japanese family names do you find cool ? - Japan Forum 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some Chinese last names like Tiu-Laurel are composed of the immigrant Chinese ancestor's surname as well as the name of that ancestor's godparent.^ Some Chinese surnames like Tiu-Laurel are composed of the immigrant Chinese ancestor's surname as well as the name of that ancestor's godparent.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chinese names are given with Last Names first.
  • Origin of Chinese Names (Last Names or Surnames, 中國百家姓氏來源 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.yutopian.com [Source type: General]

^ I like my last name.
  • What Japanese family names do you find cool ? - Japan Forum 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are also Filipinos, particularly those from rural tribes, who have no surnames at all.^ There are also Filipinos, particularly those from rural tribes, who have no surnames at all.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are also Filipinos who to this day have no surnames at all, particularly if from rural tribes.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were native Filipinos without surnames, others whose surnames deliberately did not match that of their families, as well as those who took certain surnames simply because they had a certain prestige, usually ones dealing with the Roman Catholic religion, such as de los Santos and de la Cruz .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The vast majority of Filipinos follow a naming system which is the reverse of the Spanish one.^ The Portuguese position is the reverse of the Spanish one.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The vast majority of Filipinos follow a naming system which is the reverse of the Spanish one.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Greek and Roman women and slaves regularly bore but one name, followed, if necessary, by that of the person (father, husband, master, etc.

.Children take the mother's surname as their middle name, followed by their father's as their surname; for example, a son of Juan de la Cruz and Maria Agbayani would be David Agbayani de la Cruz.^ The convention is to write the first name followed by middle names and surname.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His son, Juan , would not be named Juan Rodríguez , but Juan Álvarez .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children inherit their surnames from their father.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Women take the surnames of their husband upon marriage, drop their middle name and use their father's surname as a middle name; so upon her marriage to David de la Cruz, Laura Yuchengco Macaraeg's full name would become Laura Macaraeg de la Cruz.^ Italian women don't switch their surname to that of their husband upon marriage.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Japan, women surrender their surnames upon marriage, and use the surnames of their husbands.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children take the mother's surname as their middle name , followed by their father's as their surname; for example, a son of Juan de la Cruz and his wife Maria Agbayani may be David Agbayani de la Cruz .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Iceland

For more details on Naming conventions of Iceland, see Icelandic name.
In Iceland, most people have no family name; a person's last name is a patronymic, i.e. a modified form of the father's first name or, sometimes, the mother's. For example, when a man called Karl has a daughter called Anna and a son called Magnús, their names will be Anna Karlsdóttir ("daughter of Karl") and Magnús Karlsson ("son of Karl").

Scandinavia

.In Scandinavia family names often, but certainly not always, originate from a patronymic.^ Family Names and their origins .
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Scandinavia family names often, but certainly not always, originate from a patronymic.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In China, according to legend, family names originate with Emperor Fu Xi in 2852 BC. [1] His administration standardized the naming system in order to facilitate the census .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Sweden, the patronymic ending is -sson, e.g.^ In Sweden, the patronymic ending is -sson, e.g.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Sweden , the patronymic ending is - sson , e.g.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Sweden, the patronymic ending is - sson , e.g.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Karlsson ("Karl's son").^ For example, when a man called Karl has a daughter called Anna and a son called Magnús , their names will be Anna Karlsdóttir ("daughter of Karl") and Magnús Karlsson ("son of Karl").
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, when a man called Karl has a daughter called Anna and a son called Magnús, their names will be Anna Karlsdóttir ("daughter of Karl") and Magnús Karlsson ("son of Karl").
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Karlsson ("Karl's son").
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Denmark and Norway, the corresponding ending is -sen, as in Karlsen.^ In Denmark and Norway , the corresponding ending is - sen , as in Karlsen .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Denmark and Norway, the corresponding ending is -sen, as in Karlsen.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Names ending with dotter/datter (daughter), such as Olofsdotter, are rare but occurring, and only applies to females.^ Names ending with dotter/datter (daughter), such as Olofsdotter , are rare but occurring, and only apply to females.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Names ending with dotter/datter (daughter), such as Olofsdotter, are rare but occurring, and only apply to females.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Names ending with dotter/datter (daughter), such as Olofsdotter , are rare but occurring, and only applies to females.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Today, the patronymic names are passed on similarly to family names in other Western countries, and a person's father doesn't have to be called Karl if he or she has the surname Karlsson.^ A family name, surname, or last name is the part of a person's name that indicates to what family he or she belongs.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A family name , surname , or last name is the part of a person's name that indicates to what family he or she belongs.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A full Russian name consists of personal (given) name, patronymic, and family name (surname).
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Before the 19th century there was the same system in Scandinavia as in Iceland today.^ Before the 19th century there was the same system in Scandinavia as in Iceland today.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the first known instance of a woman keeping her birth name, Lucy Stone in the 19th century, there has been a general increase in the rate of women keeping their original name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until the middle of the 19th century, there was no standardization of surnames in the Philippines.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Noble families, however, as a rule adopted a family name, which could refer to a presumed or real forefather (e.g.^ However, the country has very strict rules on family names.

^ Noble families, however, as a rule adopted a family name, which could refer to a presumed or real forefather (e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the country has very (7) ____ rules on family names.

.Earl Birger Magnusson Folkunge) or to the family's coat of arms (e.g.^ Earl Birger Magnusson Folkunge) or to the family's coat of arms (e.g.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Earl Birger Magnusson Folkunge ) or to the family's coat of arms (e.g.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Earl Birger Magnusson Folkung e ) or to the family's coat of arms (e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.King Gustav Eriksson Vasa).^ King Gustav Eriksson Vasa ).
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ King Gustav Eriksson Vasa).
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In many surviving family noble names, such as Cederqvist ("cedar-twig") or Stiernhielm ("star-helmet"), the spelling is obsolete, but as names remains unchanged.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many variations in the spelling of names.

^ In many surviving family noble names, such as Cederqvist ("cedar-twig") or Stiernhielm ("star-helmet"), the spelling is obsolete, but since it applies to a name, remains unchanged.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Later on, people from the Scandinavian middle classes, particularly artisans and town dwellers, adopted names in a similar fashion to that of the nobility.^ Later on, people from the Scandinavian middle classes, particularly artisans and town dwellers, adopted names in a similar fashion to that of the nobility.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a surname was the name of a common thing, the name of a place, a first name, or simply they were old fashioned, then they often added a de (of), which is similar to the German von or the Dutch van .
  • Reference: Spanish Naming Conventions, Family Names, Given Names, Common Names, Nicknames - Tarver-Gen: Tarver Family Research & Allied Families (Genealogy) 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.tarver-genealogy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In English-, Dutch-, German-, French- and Scandinavian-speaking countries, people often have two or more given names, and the family name goes at the end.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Family names such as the Swedish Bergman, Holmberg, Lindgren, Sandström and Åkerlund were quite frequent and remain common today.^ Family names such as the Swedish Bergman , Holmberg , Lindgren , Sandström and Åkerlund were quite frequent and remain common today.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Family names such as the Swedish Bergman , Holmberg , Lindgren , Sandström and à kerlund were quite frequent and remain common today.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Family names such as the Swedish Bergman, Holmberg, Lindgren, Sandström and Åkerlund were quite frequent and remain common today.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The same is true for similar Norwegian and Danish names.^ The same is true for similar Norwegian and Danish names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These names often indicated the place of residence of the family.^ These names often indicated the place of residence of the family.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During these times, often only aristocratic families had family names.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Family names indicating Turkish heritage include Mughal, Mirza, Baig or Beg, Pasha , and Barlas .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For this reason, Denmark has a very high incidence of names derived from those of farms, as signified by the suffix -gaard -- the modern spelling is gård, but as in Sweden, archaic spelling persists in surnames.^ For this reason, Denmark and Norway have a very high incidence of names derived from those of farms, many signified by the suffixes like -bø, -stuen, -løkken or even more predominantly -gaard -- the modern spelling is gård in Danish and has changed to gard in Norwegian, but as in Sweden, archaic spelling persists in surnames.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For this reason, Denmark and Norway have a very high incidence of names derived from those of farms, many signified by the suffix - gaard -- the modern spelling is gård in Danish and has changed to gard in Norwegian, but as in Sweden, archaic spelling persists in surnames.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For this reason, Denmark and Norway have a very high incidence of names derived from those of farms, many signified by the suffixes like -bø , -stuen , -løkken or even more predominantly - gaard -- the modern spelling is gård in Danish and has changed to gard in Norwegian, but as in Sweden, archaic spelling persists in surnames.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most well-known example of this kind of surname is probably Kierkegaard (original meaning: the farm located by the Church or also churchyard (although this is unlikely in the context) which, with kierke, actually includes two archaic spellings), but many others could be cited.^ Many such Dutch surnames originated from referrals to cities and other geographical locations.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One speculation if that is the actual meaning, then it could derive from two sources.
  • SURNAME ORIGINS AND/OR MEANINGS, KOLOMEA RESEARCH GROUP SURNAMES OF INTEREST 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The most well-known example of this kind of surname is probably Kierkegaard (original meaning: the farm located by the Church or also churchyard [although this is unlikely in the context] which, with kierke , actually includes two archaic spellings), but many others could be cited.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It should also be noted that, since the names in question are derived from the original owners' domiciles, the possession of this kind of name is no longer an indicator of affinity with others who bear it.^ It should also be noted that, since the names in question are derived from the original owners' domiciles, the possession of this kind of name is no longer an indicator of affinity with others who bear it.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We have two other sisters whos names are 1.
  • A Family Runs Through It: Weird Baby Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.pkmeco.com [Source type: General]

^ Place names or names derived from places of ancestral origin (Marwari, Gawaskar, Mangeshkar, Kapoor, Karnad).
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Netherlands

.Many Dutch names start with a prefix like "van" (meaning of/from), "de"/"het"/"'t" (the), "der" (of the), "van de" (of the/from the), "in het" (in the).^ It’s also good if the name means something nice, not something like “crazy eyed wild child’!

^ The word surname is name prefix ed by the French word sur (meaning "on"), which derives from Latin super ("over").
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I personnally like "Nobunaga" (because of the strenght it inspire), and "Omata"...because it's my wife's name, and because of its meaning (小俣 - for the one who understand ) .
  • What Japanese family names do you find cool ? - Japan Forum 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Examples are "'t Hooft" (the head), "de Groot" (the great), "van Rijn" (from Rhine).^ Examples are "'t Hooft" (the head), "de Groot" (the great), "van Rijn" (from Rhine).
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examples are De Groot ("the great"), Van Weert ("of the city Weert").
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These prefixes are not spelled with a capital when used in combination with the first name, for example, Piet de Groot.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These prefixes are not spelled with a capital when used in combination with the first name, for example, Piet de Groot.^ First names are almost always used.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These prefixes are not spelled with a capital when used in combination with the first name, for example, Piet de Groot.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some differences exist: for example, Belgian Dutch names (Flemish names) commonly have prefixes as mentioned in the paragraph on The Netherlands only the rule of thumb is here that the prefixes always start with a capital, and are often written connected to the main word.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

When written without first name, a capital is used, e.g., Mr. Van Rijn. .In name directories, the prefixes are always ignored for sorting.^ In Spanish indexes of surnames, it is important to note that the prefixes in such names as de la Torre may be ignored in alphabetization.
  • Reference: Spanish Naming Conventions, Family Names, Given Names, Common Names, Nicknames - Tarver-Gen: Tarver Family Research & Allied Families (Genealogy) 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.tarver-genealogy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Belgium

.Since Belgium has three official languages — Dutch, French and German — Belgian names are essentially what you could find in the neigbouring countries: The Netherlands, France and Germany.^ Since Belgium has three official languages — Dutch, French and German — Belgian names are similar to those in the neighbouring countries: the Netherlands, France and Germany.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since Belgium has three official languages — Dutch, French and German — Belgian names are more or less what you could come across in the neighbouring countries: the Netherlands, France and Germany.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Names for German in other languages .
  • German language - Information Overload Unit MARK 3 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC overload.ath.cx [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • German language 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC etymology.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some differences exist; for example, Belgian Dutch names (Flemish names) commonly have prefixes as mentioned in the paragraph on The Netherlands, but the rule of thumb is that the prefixes always start with a capital, and are often connected to the main word.^ Some differences exist: for example, Belgian Dutch names (Flemish names) commonly have prefixes as mentioned in the paragraph on The Netherlands only the rule of thumb is here that the prefixes always start with a capital, and are often written connected to the main word.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some differences exist: for example, Dutch names commonly have prefixes as mentioned above , except that these usually start with a capital letter, and are often written connected to the main word.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some differences exist between names in Belgium and in neighbouring countries: for example, Dutch names commonly have prefixes as mentioned above, except that these usually start with a capital letter, and are often written connected to the main word.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore "de Bakker" or "van der Steen" is probably Dutch while "De Bakker" and "Vandersteen" are Belgian, although "De Backer" would be more common (old names = old spelling).^ Therefore "de Bakker" or "van der Steen" is probably Dutch while "De Bakker" and "Vandersteen" are Belgian.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, de Bakker and van der Steen are probably Dutch while De Bakker and Vandersteen are Belgian.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although "De Backer" would be a more common name (old names = old spelling).
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The top ten Flemish names are Peeters, Janssens, Maes, Jacobs, Willems, Mertens, Claes, Wouters, Goossens, and De Smet.^ Top ten of Walloonian (French Belgian) names are: Dubois, Lambert, Martin, Dupont, Dumont, Leclercq, Simon, Laurent, Lejeune, Renard.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most common Dutch surnames in Belgium are Peeters, Janssens, Maes, Jacobs, Willems, Mertens, Claes, Wouters, Goossens, and De Smet.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Top ten of Flemish names are Peeters, Janssens, Maes, Jacobs, Willems, Mertens, Claes, Wouters, Goossens, De Smet.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Flemish family names often resemble first names.^ Flemish family names often resemble first names.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The family gives the child its first name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flemish surnames often resemble first names, e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

e.g., the top ten names are similar to the .Belgian first names related to them: Peter, Jan, Jacob, Willem, Maarten, Klaas, Wouter.^ Belgian first names related to them: Peter, Jan, Jacob, Willem, Maarten, Klaas, Wouter.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This way persons named Jan Nieczuja and Krzysztof Nieczuja-Machocki might be related.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, persons named Jan Nieczuja and Krzysztof Nieczuja-Machocki might be related.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The trailing "s" reportedly once meant "son of", so "Willems" would be "Willem's son".
.Furthermore, much ancient spelling remains visible in many names, e.g.^ Furthermore older or historically different regional spelling remains visible in many names, e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore a lot of ancient spelling still remains visible in a lot of names, e.g.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many surviving family noble names, such as Cederqvist ("cedar-twig") or Stiernhielm ("star-helmet"), the spelling is obsolete, but since it applies to a name, remains unchanged.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

usage of "c" instead of "k" and "ae" instead of "aa" (Claes<->Klaas). .The top ten Walloonian (French Belgian) names are: Dubois, Lambert, Martin, Dupont, Dumont, Leclercq, Simon, Laurent, Lejeune, Renard.^ Top ten of Walloonian (French Belgian) names are: Dubois, Lambert, Martin, Dupont, Dumont, Leclercq, Simon, Laurent, Lejeune, Renard.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Top ten of Flemish names are Peeters, Janssens, Maes, Jacobs, Willems, Mertens, Claes, Wouters, Goossens, De Smet.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most common Walloonian surnames are Dubois , Lambert , Martin , Dupont , Dumont , Leclercq , Simon , Laurent , Lejeune , and Renard .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

India and Indonesia

{{details|Indian family name]] and [[Indonesian names}}
.Similar patronymic customs exist in some parts of India and Indonesia.^ Some parts of Sri Lanka , Thailand , Myanmar , and Indonesia have similar patronymic customs as that of India.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similar patronymic customs exist in some parts of India and Indonesia .
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some parts of Sri Lanka, Thailand, Myanmar, and Indonesia have similar patronymic customs as that of India.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, many Indians (from India) living in English-speaking countries give up on this tradition because many English speakers so consistently misunderstand the custom; therefore many Indian fathers simply follow the English-speaking custom to pass on their last name instead of their first.^ English-speaking countries .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, many Chinese people who live in English-speaking countries have an English first name which is commonly used and a Chinese name which is used as a middle name, e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chinese names are given with Last Names first.
  • Origin of Chinese Names (Last Names or Surnames, 中國百家姓氏來源 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.yutopian.com [Source type: General]

.The patronymic system is mostly followed in southern regions of India, while those in the rest of the country still have a surname or a family name as their last name.^ A family name, surname, or last name is the part of a person's name that indicates to what family he or she belongs.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The patronymic system is mostly followed in southern regions of India, while those in the rest of the country still have a surname or a family name as their last name.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A family name , surname , or last name is the part of a person's name that indicates to what family he or she belongs.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For religious reasons, Sikh males usually have the surname Singh (meaning "lion"), and Sikh females usually have the name Kaur ("princess").^ Female surnames, are most often in the genitive case of a male name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Etymology and Historical references According to the Dictionary of American Family Names, 'Chopra is a Hindu (Khatri) and Sikh name of unknown meaning.
  • A new tool for hospital/physician strategic alignment: the subsidiary physician corporation. - Free Online Library 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.thefreelibrary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • An integrated framework for developing e-business projects. - Free Online Library 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.thefreelibrary.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The word surname is name prefix ed by the French word sur (meaning "on"), which derives from Latin super ("over").
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ethiopia/Eritrea

.In most of Ethiopia and Eritrea, a patronymic custom exists.^ In most of Ethiopia and Eritrea , a patronymic custom exists.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The patronymic custom in most of Eritrea and Ethiopia gives children the father's exact first name as their surname.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similar patronymic customs exist in some parts of India and Indonesia .
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Children are given the father's exact first name as their surname.^ The patronymic custom in most of Eritrea and Ethiopia gives children the father's exact first name as their surname.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children inherit their surnames from their father.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Mongolia , it is customary for children to take the first name of their father as their surname (see patronymic ).
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Russia

.In Russia, names are typically written with both family name and patronymic, a modified version of the father's name.^ Double and triple middle names a la the British royals, using mother's maiden plus another, or honoring both grandmothers or fathers at the same time.
  • Nameberry: The hottest trends in 2010 baby names - Family - NewsObserver.com 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.newsobserver.com [Source type: General]

^ If the groom is the first born with an obligation to carry his own ancestor's name, a compromise may be reached in that the first male child carries the mother's family name while subsequent offspring carry the father's family name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The patronymic custom in most of Eritrea and Ethiopia gives children the father's exact first name as their surname.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, in the name "Lev Ivanovich Chekhov," "Chekhov" is the family name or surname whereas "Ivanovich" is the patronymic; we can infer that Lev's father was named "Ivan". The same is true in Ukraine, Belarus, Bulgaria and other places with east and south slavic population.^ Other family names indicating Turkish heritage include Mughal , Mirza , Baig or Beg , Pasha , and Barlas .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In older naming convention which was common in Serbia and Bosnia up until mid 19th century a persons name would consist of three distinct parts persons given name, patronymic derived from father's personal name and the family name, as seen in for example in the name of language reformer Vuk Stefanović Karadžić .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a surname was the name of a common thing, the name of a place, a first name, or simply they were old fashioned, then they often added a de (of), which is similar to the German von or the Dutch van .
  • Reference: Spanish Naming Conventions, Family Names, Given Names, Common Names, Nicknames - Tarver-Gen: Tarver Family Research & Allied Families (Genealogy) 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.tarver-genealogy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A different suffix is used for women's names.^ According to Karaka this is "an almost complete list of names of Parsi men and women in general use at present.
  • Avesta names; Old Persian names; Parsi names; Irani Zoroastrian names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.avesta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Old documents show that Karavas initially used these names sans the 'ge ' suffix.
  • Karava of Sri Lanka - Karava family names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC karava.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Also, women are allowed to retain their maiden name or use both their her and her husband's surname, separated by a dash.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Where a son whose father's name is Ivan will be called Ivanovich, a daughter will be called Ivanovna.^ My Grandfather name was Henry Wardle he died when he was I think 54 years old.He left behind 5 sons and 4 daughters.

^ The old Normans prefixed Fitz, a son, the same as Fils in French, and Filius in Latin, to the name of the father as a patronymic, as Fitz William, the son of William, the -same as Williamson.
  • Surname Origins Essay by William Arthur. Free Family Name Dictionary with Genealogy Resources by Ancestor Search 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.searchforancestors.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A daughter, named Refugia, likewise, would have been called Refugia Benavides-Guzman Alfrido .
  • Reference: Spanish Naming Conventions, Family Names, Given Names, Common Names, Nicknames - Tarver-Gen: Tarver Family Research & Allied Families (Genealogy) 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.tarver-genealogy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Russia, in addition to the categories of last names in English — those based on occupation, place of origin, ancestry, or personal characteristics — there is a large category of "clerical" last names, given to seminary students and others who had to have a last name in order to get an education.^ Chinese names are given with Last Names first.
  • Origin of Chinese Names (Last Names or Surnames, 中國百家姓氏來源 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.yutopian.com [Source type: General]

^ Name - The last name of a person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Given name - The given name of some person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

.These were based on names of churches (e.g.^ Patronymic Surnames : These last names are based on a parent’s name, usually the father (Francesco di Marco i.e.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A considerable number of “artificial” names exists, for example, those given to seminary graduates; such names were based on Great Feasts of the Orthodox Church or Christian virtues.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Uspensky, Kazansky), student jargon, or even arbitrary Latin and Greek words (e.g. Gilyarov, from Latin hilarius). Many serfs were given last names after the last names of their landlords, for example a serf belonging to the Demidov noble family might be named "Demidovsky", which translates roughly as "belonging to Demidoff" or "one of Demidov's bunch".
.In Russia, family names endings are based upon the person's gender.^ Name - The family name of some person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The family name of some person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In English-, Dutch-, German-, French- and Scandinavian-speaking countries, people often have two or more given names, and the family name goes at the end.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example, wife of Ivanov became Ivanova. The same for endings:
  • "-ov" -> "-ova" (f.e., Fradkov -> Fradkova);
  • "-ev" -> "-eva" (f.e., Lebedev -> Lebedeva);
  • "-in" -> "-ina" (f.e., Putin -> Putina)
  • "-y" -> "-aya", "-oya", "-eya", "-iaya" (f.e., Bely (Белый) -> Belaya (Белая))
This is specific for almost all Cyrillic languages.

China, Hungary, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam

Chinese family name, Korean name#Family names, Japanese name, and Vietnamese name
.In Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Hungarian cultures, the family name is placed before the given names.^ For more details on this topic, see Chinese family name , Korean name#Family names , Japanese name , and Vietnamese name In Chinese , Japanese , Korean , Vietnamese , and Hungarian cultures, the family name is placed before the given names.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Chinese , Japan ese, Korean , Vietnam ese, and Hungarian cultures, the family name is placed before the given names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Chinese , Japanese, Korean, and Vietnam ese cultures, the family name is placed before the given names.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.So the terms "first name" and "last name" are potentially confusing and should be avoided, as they do not in this case denote the given and family names respectively.^ So the terms "first name" and "last name" are potentially confusing and should be avoided, as they do not in this case denote the given and family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So the terms "first name" and "last name" are potentially confusing and should be avoided, as they do not in this case denote the given and family names respectively.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only girls should be given family names.
  • Family name? pro or con?? - Adoption.com Forums 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC forums.adoption.com [Source type: General]

.Some Chinese add an English given name in front of their Chinese name, e.g.^ Some Chinese add an English given name in front of their Chinese name, e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some Chinese adopt a Western given name in front of their Chinese name, e.g.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some Chinese surnames like Tiu-Laurel are composed of the immigrant Chinese ancestor's surname as well as the name of that ancestor's godparent.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Martin LEE Chu-ming.^ Martin L EE Chu-ming .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Martin LEE Chu-ming or even as a nickname.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Martin L EE Chu-ming or even as a nickname.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, many Chinese Americans have an English first name which is commonly used and a Chinese name which is used as a middle name, e.g.^ In addition, many people with Chinese names have non-Chinese first names which are commonly used.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, many Chinese people who live in English-speaking countries have an English first name which is commonly used and a Chinese name which is used as a middle name, e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Martin Chu-ming Lee.^ Martin LEE Chu-ming or even as a nickname.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Martin Chu-ming Lee .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Martin L EE Chu-ming or even as a nickname.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chinese living in the US are willing to rearrange their names when written in English to avoid misunderstanding.^ Chinese living in the US are willing to rearrange their names when written in English to avoid misunderstanding.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chinese names used in Western countries may be rearranged when written to avoid misunderstanding, e.g.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chinese living in English-speaking countries may rearrange their names when written in English to avoid misunderstanding.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, no one in China would rearrange Mao Zedong into Zedong Mao in English writings.^ However, no one in China would rearrange Mao Zedong into Zedong Mao in English writings.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To claim however that Sarajevo and Vrhbosna are one and the same would be faulty, considering that the latter seems to have been destroyed well before the Ottomans occupied the region.
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you don't care how you're writing, no one will care WHAT you're attempting to get across.
  • Family names state in Bay Bridge crash suit � Public Record (www.HometownAnnapolis.com - The Capital) 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.hometownannapolis.com [Source type: General]

.Korean and Vietnamese names are generally stated in East Asian order (family name first) even when writing in English.^ Vietnamese names are generally stated in East Asian order (family name first) even when writing in English.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vietnamese and Korean names are generally stated in East Asian order (family name first) even when writing in English.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The family gives the child its first name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Names of contemporary Japanese individuals are usually written in Western order (given name first) while names of Japanese historical figures are usually written in East Asian order.^ Names of Hungarian individuals are stated in Western order when writing in English.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Names of contemporary Japanese individuals are usually written in Western order (given name first) while names of Japanese historical figures are usually written in East Asian order.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usually, family names are written after any given name in most uses.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Names of Hungarian individuals are stated in Western order when writing in English.^ Names of Hungarian individuals are stated in Western order when writing in English.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Names of Hungarian individuals appear in Western order in English writing.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, names of Hungarian individuals appear in Western order in English writing.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In English writings originating from non-English cultures (e.g.^ In English writings originating from non-English cultures (e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.English newspapers in China), the family name is often written with all capital letters to avoid being mistaken as a middle name: "Martin LEE Chu-ming" (this practice is common on the Internet), or in small capitals (except the first letter), as "Martin LEE Chu-ming" (this is more common in books) or AKUTAGAWA, Ryunosuke to make clear which one is the family name, particularly often in mass-media reporting international events like the Olympic Games.^ We tend to pick a first name we like and then look for a middle name that fits.

^ Such practice is particularly common in mass-media reporting international events like the Olympic Games .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The family gives the child its first name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The CIA World Factbook stated that "The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of [their] users who are faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions." On the contrary, the English Wikipedia follows a strict guideline on not to use all capital family names (the Esperanto Wikipedia, for example, often capitalizes family names regardless of the country of origin of the person who bears the name). .As a result, non-English names appearing in Wikipedia articles are ambiguous to most laymen.^ As a result, non-English names appearing in Wikipedia articles are ambiguous to most laymen.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anglicization of many surnames has been so thorough that bona-fide Irish names such as Crockwell and Harrington appear 100% English.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although given names appear before family names in most Romanian contexts, official documents invert the order, ostensibly for filing purposes.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example, Leslie Cheung Kwok Wing might be mistaken as Mr. Wing by readers unaware of Chinese naming conventions.
.Vietnamese family names present an added complication.^ Vietnamese family names present an added complication.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vietnamese names are generally stated in East Asian order (family name first) even when writing in English.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At present day in Spain, women upon marrying keep their two family names intact.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Like Chinese family names, they are placed at the beginning of a name, but unlike Chinese names, they are not usually the primary form of address.^ Like Chinese family names, they are placed at the beginning of a name, but unlike Chinese names, they are not usually the primary form of address.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A metathetic form of the family name Turnbull.
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first section of this Directory lists name, full address, occupation, and place of employment, for people from all walks of life in Jamaica.

.Rather, people will be referred to by their given name, usually accompanied by an honorific.^ Rather, people will be referred to by their given name, usually accompanied by an honorific.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second was usually the name of the godfather or godmother, while the third and last given name was the name used in everyday situations.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Others, such as Muhammad Ali and Malcolm X , changed their name rather than live with one given to their ancestors by a slave owner.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example, Phan Van Khai is properly addressed as "Mr. Khai", even though "Phan" is his family name. .This stands out against the pattern of most other East Asian naming conventions, and can confuse those used to dealing with (for example) Chinese names.^ This pattern contrasts with that of most other East Asian naming conventions.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This stands out against the pattern of most other East Asian naming conventions, and can confuse those used to dealing with (for example) Chinese names.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A considerable number of “artificial” names exists, for example, those given to seminary graduates; such names were based on major Orthodox holy days: .
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Japan, women surrender their surnames upon marriage, and use the surnames of their husbands.^ Italian women don't switch their surname to that of their husband upon marriage.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Japan, women surrender their surnames upon marriage, and use the surnames of their husbands.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In most cases, women surrender their surnames upon marriage, and use the surnames of their husbands.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, a convention that a man uses his wife's family name if the wife is an only child is sometimes observed.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of family names varies among cultures.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, a convention that a man uses his wife's family name if the wife is an only child is sometimes observed.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A similar tradition called ru zhui (入贅) is common among Chinese when the bride's family is wealthy and has no son but wants the heir to pass on their assets under the same family name.^ Chinese when the bride's family is wealthy and has no son but wants the heir to pass on their assets under the same family name.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A similar tradition called ru zhui (å ¥è´ ) is common among Chinese when the bride's family is wealthy and has no son but wants the heir to pass on their assets under the same family name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A similar tradition called ru zhui (??
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is worth noting that the Chinese character zhui (贅) carries a money radical (貝), which implies that this tradition was originally based on financial reasons.^ It is worth noting that the Chinese character zhui (贅) carries a money radical (貝), which implies that this tradition was originally based on financial reasons.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chinese character zhui (贅) carries a money radical (貝), which implies that this tradition was originally based on financial reasons.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chinese character zhui (è´ ) carries a money radical (貝), which implies that this tradition was originally based on financial reasons.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All their offspring will carry the mother's family name.^ All their offspring will carry the mother's family name.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All their offspring carry the mother's family name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the groom is the first born with an obligation to carry his own ancestor's name, a compromise may be reached in that the first male child carries the mother's family name while subsequent offspring carry the father's family name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Usually the groom or his family would not agree with such arrangement if he were the first born who has an obligation to carry his own ancestor's name.^ Usually the groom or his family would not agree with such arrangement if he were the first born who has an obligation to carry his own ancestor's name.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Abkhaz Families who has the family names such as above sources.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those who were adopted by a szlachta family usually changed the name to that of the family.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In such situation, a compromise may be reached in that the first male child would carry the mother's family name while the other offspring carry the father's family name.^ In such situation, a compromise may be reached in that the first male child would carry the mother's family name while the other offspring carry the father's family name.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The family gives the child its first name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All their offspring will carry the mother's family name.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The tradition is still in use in many Chinese communities outside of mainland China.^ The tradition is still in use in many Chinese communities outside of mainland China .
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tradition is still in use in many Chinese communities outside of mainland China , but largely disused in China because of social changes.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tradition is still in use in many Chinese communities outside of mainland China, but largely disused in China because of social changes from communism.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under Mao Zedong's communist rule, Chinese citizens had no personal assets to pass to their heirs therefore such traditions became unnecessary.^ Under Mao Zedong 's communist rule, Chinese citizens had no personal assets to pass to their heirs therefore such traditions became unnecessary.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A similar tradition called ru zhui (å ¥è´ ) is common among Chinese when the bride's family is wealthy and has no son but wants the heir to pass on their assets under the same family name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With Chinese economic reform , it is uncertain if such tradition returned to China.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With Chinese economic reform, it is uncertain if such tradition returned to China.^ With Chinese economic reform , it is uncertain if such tradition returned to China.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under Mao Zedong 's communist rule, Chinese citizens had no personal assets to pass to their heirs therefore such traditions became unnecessary.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to the economic reform in the past decade, accumulation and inheritance of personal wealth made a come back to the Chinese society.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Hong Kong, mainland China, Korea and Taiwan, women would keep their own surnames, while the family as a whole would be referred by the surnames of the husbands.^ In Hong Kong , mainland China, Korea, and Taiwan , women keep their own surnames, while the family as a whole is referred to by the surnames of the husbands.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Korean and Chinese cultures (including Hong Kong, Singapore , and non-aboriginal Taiwan ), women keep their own surnames, while the family as a whole is referred to by the surnames of the husbands.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Korean and Chinese cultures (including Hong Kong, Singapore, and non-aboriginal Taiwan), women keep their own surnames, while the family as a whole is referred to by the surnames of the husbands.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Hong Kong, some women would be known to the public with the surnames of their husbands preceding their own surnames, such as Anson Chan Fang On Sang.^ In Hong Kong, some women would be known to the public with the surnames of their husbands preceding their own surnames, such as Anson Chan Fang On Sang.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Hong Kong , mainland China, Korea and Taiwan , women would keep their own surnames, while the family as a whole would be referred by the surnames of the husbands.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anson is an English given name, On Sang is the given name in Chinese, Chan is the surname of Anson's husband, and Fang is her own surname.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Anson is an English given name, On Sang is the given name in Chinese, Chan is the surname of Anson's husband, and Fang is her own surname.^ Some Chinese add an English given name in front of their Chinese name, e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anson is an English given name, On Sang is the given name in Chinese, Chan is the surname of Anson's husband, and Fang is her own surname.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anglicization of many surnames has been so thorough that bona-fide Irish names such as Crockwell and Harrington appear 100% English.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A name change on legal documents is not a must.^ A name change on legal documents is not necessary.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A name change on legal documents is not a must.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An exception is the use of ß in legal documents and forms when capitalizing names.
  • German language - WikiTest , the free encyclopedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.encyklopedia.duu.pl [Source type: Reference]
  • Fummo.com - German language 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.fummo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Macau, some people have their names in Portuguese spelt with some Portuguese style, such as Carlos do Rosario Tchiang.^ In Macau , some people have their names in Portuguese spelt with some Portuguese style, such as Carlos do Rosario Tchiang .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Macau, some people have their names in Portuguese spelt with some Portuguese style, such as Carlos do Rosario Tchiang.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of the local people called him Desjarlais, while others pronounced his name Tozale or Dozale or Dojalais.
  • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chinese women in Canada, especially Hongkongers in Toronto, would preserve their maiden names before the surnames of their husbands when written in English, for instance Rosa Chan Leung, where Chan is the maiden name, and Leung is the surname of the husband.^ Chinese women in Canada , especially Hongkonger s in Toronto , would preserve their maiden name s before the surnames of their husbands when written in English, for instance Rosa Chan Leung, where Chan is the maiden name, and Leung is the surname of the husband.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chinese women in Canada, especially Hongkongers in Toronto, would preserve their maiden names before the surnames of their husbands when written in English, for instance Rosa Chan Leung, where Chan is the maiden name, and Leung is the surname of the husband.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chinese women in Canada , especially Hongkongers in Toronto , would preserve their maiden name s before the surnames of their husbands when written in English, for instance Rosa Chan Leung, where Chan is the maiden name, and Leung is the surname of the husband.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Chinese and Korean, surnames are predominantly monosyllabic (written with one character), though a small number of common disyllabic surnames exists (e.g.^ In Chinese and Korean , surnames are predominantly monosyllabic (written with one character ), though a small number of common disyllabic (or written with two characters) surnames exists (e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The common Korean surname Kim is also the common Chinese surname Jin, and written 金.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Chinese , [Vietnamese language|Vietnamese]], and Korean , surnames are predominantly monosyllabic (written with one character ), though a small number of common disyllabic (or written with two characters) surnames exists (e.g.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ouyang).

Romania

.In Romania family names traditionally have an English-like usage: a child inherits his father's family name, and a wife takes her husband's last name.^ The family gives the child its first name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Romania family names traditionally have an English-like usage: a child inherits his father's family name, and a wife takes her husband's last name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children usually inherit fathers family name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are however exceptions and social pressure to follow this tradition is not particularly strong in most families.^ There are however exceptions and social pressure to follow this tradition is not particularly strong in most families.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most common example of this was the early use of the rank of "section" at a time when there was little agreement as to the title of the rank below that of family or subfamily.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, there is no strong historical evidence that market exchange rates move in the direction implied by the PPP rate, at least not in the short- or medium-term.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Romanian names' etymologies are mixed.^ Romanian names' etymologies are mixed.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sometimes, family names denote some ancestor's occupation (for example Butnaru meaning 'barrel-maker'), sometimes a genitor's name (e.g.^ Name - The family name of some person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Sometimes, family names denote some ancestor's occupation (for example Butnaru meaning 'barrel-maker'), sometimes a genitor's name (e.g.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The family name of some person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

.Ionescu, son/doughter of Ion ).^ Ionescu, son/doughter of Ion ).
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are family names deriving from a woman's name to, traditionally originating from bastards (the father was not known) (e.g.^ Little is known about the origins of the name.
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Family Names and their origins .
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are family names deriving from a woman's name too, traditionally originating from bastards (the father was not known) (e.g.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Amariei, '[son or daughter]-of-Maria').^ Amariei, '[son or daughter]-of-Maria').
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Boutell was married to Miss Maria Wellington, of Massachusetts, who bore him three sons and one daughter.

.It should be noted that the first name/last name distinction is not clear in Romanian culture.^ It should be noted that the first name/last name distinction is not clear in Romanian culture.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Except for the first baby, we’ve only had to pick out one name each time because we’ve just used the other name we picked out for the last baby but didn’t use because of gender.

^ No matter what your name is last or first, people will always find a way to pick on you, if it not your name it will be how you look, or who you are friends with.
  • A Family Runs Through It: Weird Baby Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.pkmeco.com [Source type: General]

.While the ordering of given name first, family name second is always used in media, from literature to television, the opposite order is used in all official documents, ostensibly for filing purposes.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although given names appear before family names in most Romanian contexts, official documents invert the order, ostensibly for filing purposes.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First names are almost always used.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since bureaucracy is very pervasive in Romania, a Romanian will often instinctively start with his family name when introducing himself, especially in any 'official' context (this includes, for example, a student signing an occasional test paper in school).^ Since bureaucracy is very pervasive in Romania, a Romanian will often instinctively start with his family name when introducing himself, especially in any 'official' context (this includes, for example, a student signing an occasional test paper in school).
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Correspondingly, Romanians often introduce themselves with their family names first, especially in official contexts, e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In particular, Iceland ers, Tibetan s, Burmese , and Javanese often do not use a family name — well-known people lacking a family name include U Thant (Burmese), Suharto and Sukarno (see Indonesian names ).
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.You will not, however, hear someone refer to a poet or a politician this way.^ You will not, however, hear someone refer to a poet or a politician this way.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Romanian the words "nume de familie" (literally "family name") and "prenume" (for one's given name) are used instead of the first/second name convention.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The family gives the child its first name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Romanian the words "nume de familie" (literally "family name") and "prenume" (for one's given name) are used instead of the first/second name convention.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ashkenazi Jewish surnames

Under construction.

Noms de famille juive ashkénaze

En cours de construction.

Poland

For more details on this topic, see Polish surnames.
.In Poland and most of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth the surnames first appeared in late Middle Ages.^ Axelrod, Axelrad P Originally a first name appearing in the Middle Ages.
  • SURNAME ORIGINS AND/OR MEANINGS, KOLOMEA RESEARCH GROUP SURNAMES OF INTEREST 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Main articles: Polish surnames and Polish name In Poland and most of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, surnames first appeared during the late Middle Ages.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Poland and most of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth , surnames first appeared during the late Middle Ages.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Initially their purpose was to denote the differences between various people living in the same town or village and bearing the same name.^ They initially denoted the differences between various people living in the same town or village and bearing the same name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Initially their purpose was to denote the differences between various people living in the same town or village and bearing the same name.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ America is like a colorful cocktail of different peoples, so we are bound to find a cocktail of different names, and as our nation grows, so do the "odd" names.
  • A Family Runs Through It: Weird Baby Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.pkmeco.com [Source type: General]

.The conventions used were very similar to English family names: initially names were simple nouns denoting the occupation (Karczmarz - Innkeeper, Kowal - Blacksmith, Bednarczyk - Young Cooper), descent (patronymic names like Szczepaniak - Son of Szczepan, Józefski - Son of Józef or Kaźmirkiewicz - Son of Kazimierz) or a feature (Nowak - the new one, Biały - the pale one, Mazur the one from Masovia or Wielgus - the big one).^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French-speaking countries have many similarities to English-speaking ones in the way family names are used.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of family names varies among cultures.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the early 16th century geographical names became common, especially among the szlachta.^ In the early 16th century, geographical names became common, especially among the szlachta .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 16th and 17th century the name was common throughout the Lowlands of Scotland .
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the early 16th century, ( the Polish Renaissance), toponymic names became common, especially among the nobility .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Initially the surnames were in a form of Jan z Kolna (meaning John of Kolno), later most of the surnames were changed to adjective forms (Jakub Wiślicki - James of Wisła, Zbigniew Oleśnicki - Zbigniew of Oleśnica) with suffixes -ski, -cki and -dzki.^ Initially the surnames were in a form of Jan z Kolna (meaning John of Kolno ), later most of the surnames were changed to adjective forms (Jakub Wiślicki - James of Wisła , Zbigniew Oleśnicki - Zbigniew of Oleśnica ) with suffixes -ski, -cki and -dzki (feminine -ska, -cka and -dzka).
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later, most surnames were changed to adjective forms, e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of their surnames have suffixes which are found to varying degrees over the different nations.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Names formed this way are still adjectives grammatically, and therefore - as all Polish adjectives - change their form depending on gender.^ Names formed this way are adjectives grammatically, and therefore change their form depending on gender; for example, Jan Kowalski and Maria Kowalska collectively use the plural Kowalscy.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Names formed this way are adjectives grammatically, and therefore change their form depending on gender; for example, Jan Kowalski and Maria Kowalska collectively use the plural Kowalscy .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Names formed this way are still adjectives grammatically, and therefore - as all Polish adjectives - change their form depending on gender.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.So we have Mr Jan Kowalski and Ms Maria Kowalska (and Kowalscy in plural).^ So we have Mr Jan Kowalski and Ms Maria Kowalska (and Kowalscy in plural).
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Names formed this way are adjectives grammatically, and therefore change their form depending on gender; for example, Jan Kowalski and Maria Kowalska collectively use the plural Kowalscy.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Names formed this way are adjectives grammatically, and therefore change their form depending on gender; for example, Jan Kowalski and Maria Kowalska collectively use the plural Kowalscy .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As names with -ski/cki/dzki suffix became associated with noble origin, many people from lower classes successively changed their surnames to fit this pattern.^ A separate class of surnames derive from the names of noble clans .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Names with masculine suffixes -ski, -cki, and -dzki, and corresponding feminine suffixes -ska, -cka, and -dzka became associated with noble origin.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As names with -ski/cki/dzki (female -ski, -cka, -dzka) suffix became associated with noble origin, many people from lower classes successively changed their surnames to fit this pattern.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This produced large amounts of Kowalskis, Bednarskis, Kaczmarskis and so on.^ This produced many Kowalski s, Bednarski s, Kaczmarski s and so on.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This produced large amounts of Kowalski s, Bednarski s, Kaczmarski s and so on.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This produced many Kowalskis, Bednarskis, Kaczmarskis and so on.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Today most Polish speakers would not necessarily know about noble associations of -ski endings, but such names still "sound somehow better".
.A separate class of surnames is constituted by names derived of the names of szlachtas coats of arms.^ A separate class of surnames derive from the names of szlachta coats of arms .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A separate class of surnames derive from the names of noble clans .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A separate class of surnames derive from the names of noble clans.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These are used either as separate names or the first part of a double-barrelled name.^ First names are almost always used.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are used either as separate names or the first part of a double-barrelled name .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are used either as separate names or the first part of a double-barrelled name.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This way persons named Jan Nieczuja and Krzysztof Nieczuja-Machocki might be related.^ Thus, persons named Jan Nieczuja and Krzysztof Nieczuja-Machocki might be related.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Names formed this way are adjectives grammatically, and therefore change their form depending on gender; for example, Jan Kowalski and Maria Kowalska collectively use the plural Kowalscy .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So for example, a person's name might be Demesie Birhanu .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Similarly, after World War I and World War II many members of the underground organizations adopted their war-time pseudonyms as the first part of their surnames.^ Visited many parts of the world, spending some time in Australia.

^ Similarly, after World War I and World War II many members of the underground organizations adopted their war-time pseudonyms as the first part of their surnames.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similarly, after World War I and World War II, many members of Polish underground organizations adopted their war-time pseudonyms as the first part of their surnames.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This way Edward Rydz became the later Marshal of Poland Edward Śmigły-Rydz and Jan Nowak became Jan Nowak-Jeziorański.^ Edward Rydz thus became Marshal of Poland Edward Śmigły-Rydz and Jan Nowak became Jan Nowak-Jeziorański .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edward Rydz thus became Marshal of Poland Edward Śmigły-Rydz and Jan Nowak became Jan Nowak-Jeziorański .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edward Rydz thus became Marshal of Poland Edward ?mig?y-Rydz and Jan Nowak became Jan Nowak-Jeziora?ski.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

Look up Appendix:Names in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • List of most common surnames
  • Family name etymology, German family name etymology
  • Family name affixes
  • List of common Chinese surnames
  • List of Jewish surnames
  • List of Middle Eastern surnames
  • List of Eastern European surnames
  • List of Central Asian, Iranian, Caucasian and Tatar surnames
  • List of South Asian surnames
  • List of Southeast Asian surnames
  • List of Hispanic and Romance-speaking cultures surnames
  • List of Germanic-speaking cultures surnames
  • List of Swedish surnames
  • List of African surnames
  • Family history

External links

.This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).^ Free Info by Wikipedia ~ original content of this page is in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German Language .
  • German Language 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC carsguide.110mb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License .
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Be sure to scroll all the way down to the bottom of this page, to view its entire content.......
  • Acadian Genealogy Homepage; Acadian Family Names! 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.acadian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

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Facts about Family nameRDF feed

This article uses material from the "Family name" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

A family name is a name shared by people in the same family. Children have the same family name as one or both of their parents. When a women gets married, she may change her family name to be the same as her husband.

For example, Mary Brown married John Smith and she changed her name to Mary Smith. They had two children, David Smith and Kate Smith. Smith is the family name shared by the parents Mary and John, and their children David and Kate. But, if David Smith died without having any children, and Kate got married and changed her last name, then the last name would have gone from the male line, so it has died out.

Each culture has a different order for a person's family name and given name. In English, the family name is always at the end, so it is also called a last name.

A family name is also called a surname.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 13, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Family name, which are similar to those in the above article.








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