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.A family name (in Western contexts often referred to as a last name) is a type of surname and part of a person's name indicating the family to which the person belongs.^ A family name , or surname , is the part of a person's name that indicates to what family he or she belongs.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These names often indicated the place of residence of the family.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Name - The family name of some person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

.The use of family names is widespread in cultures around the world.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of family names varies among cultures.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, different cultures and tribes use family name as father's name or gradfather's name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each culture has its own rules as to how these names are applied and used.^ The use of family names varies among cultures.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of family names today is widespread in cultures around the world although each culture has its own rules as to how these names are applied and used.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ February 25th, 2009 1:35 pm ET How about the name "Recovery" or "Freedom" as both apply to our first family!!!
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Obama family chooses dog « - Blogs from CNN.com 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.In many cultures (notably Euro-American, Middle Eastern, and African) the family name is normally the last part of a person's name.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A family name, surname, or last name is the part of a person's name that indicates to what family he or she belongs.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Name - The last name of a person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

.In other cultures, the family name comes first.^ The use of family names varies among cultures.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The family gives the child its first name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the groom is the first born with an obligation to carry his own ancestor's name, a compromise may be reached in that the first male child carries the mother's family name while subsequent offspring carry the father's family name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The latter is often called the Eastern order because Europeans are most familiar with the examples of China, Korea, Japan and Vietnam.^ This order is often erroneously called the Eastern order because Europeans are most familiar with the examples of China , Vietnam , Japan and Korea.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This order is often erroneously called the Eastern order because Europeans are most familiar with the examples of China, Vietnam, Japan and Korea.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example in a subordinate clause introduced by the German word for "because" (weil) the verb quite often occupies the same order as in a main clause.
  • Ask A Word 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.askaword.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since family names are normally given last in European societies, the term last name is commonly used for family name.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because the family name is today generally given last in English-speaking societies, the term last name is commonly used for family name .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usually, family names are written after any given name in most uses.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In past history, family names were changed or replaced by non-family-name surnames under political pressure to avoid prosecution, such as the cases with Chinese Indonesians and Chinese Thais after migration there during the 20th century, or the Jews who fled to different European countries to avoid persecution from the Nazis during World War Two.^ Abkhaz Families who has the family names such as above sources.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those who were adopted by a szlachta family usually changed the name to that of the family.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are about 1,000,000 different family names in German.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Family names are most often used to refer to a stranger or in a formal setting, and are often used with a title or honorific such as Mr, Mrs, Ms, Miss, Dr, and so on.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usually, family names are written after any given name in most uses.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of family names varies among cultures.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Generally the given name, first name, forename, or personal name is the one used by friends, family, and other intimates to address an individual.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First names are almost always used.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usually, family names are written after any given name in most uses.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It may also be used by someone who is in some way senior to the person being addressed.^ Therefore Ostreger may refer to an occupational name of one who carries out of someplace or Ostreger like the name Auslander, may refer to someone who came from the East.
  • SURNAME ORIGINS AND/OR MEANINGS, KOLOMEA RESEARCH GROUP SURNAMES OF INTEREST 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Weiser G or O The name is a variant of the English name ise a nickname for a wise or learned person, or in some cases a nickname for someone suspected of being acquainted with the occult arts, from Middle English wise.
  • SURNAME ORIGINS AND/OR MEANINGS, KOLOMEA RESEARCH GROUP SURNAMES OF INTEREST 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org [Source type: Reference]

^ I have been searching for someone who may know more about the Wardle's of the 1700's.

This practice also differs between cultures, see T-V distinction.
.In this article, family name and surname both mean the patrilineal (literally, father-line) surname, handed down from or inherited from the father's line or patriline, unless explicitly stated otherwise.^ Children inherit their surnames from their father.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children usually inherit fathers family name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Etymology and Historical references According to the Dictionary of American Family Names, 'Chopra is a Hindu (Khatri) and Sikh name of unknown meaning.
  • An integrated framework for developing e-business projects. - Free Online Library 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.thefreelibrary.com [Source type: Reference]

.Thus, the term "maternal surname" means the patrilineal surname which one's mother inherited from either or both of her parents.^ The second surname is the maternal one, inherited from the mother's paternal surname.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The village of Munxar,Gozo is characterised by the majority of its population having one from two surnames, either Curmi or de Brincat.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This surname existed in Germany in the 17th Century and is a form of Wloch the Polish spelling meaning one from Italy ( Beider, 2004 ).
  • SURNAME ORIGINS AND/OR MEANINGS, KOLOMEA RESEARCH GROUP SURNAMES OF INTEREST 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org [Source type: Reference]

.In contrast, the "matrilineal surname" or "mother-line surname", handed down from or inherited from the mother's line, is treated in its own section of a totally separate article, to avoid complicating this large Family name article—see Matrilineality's Matrilineal surname section.^ Nov 2006) I am doing genealogical research on the following families (names appearing multiple times are different lines): .

^ In particular, Icelanders , Tibetans and Javanese often do not use a family name — well-known people lacking a family name include Suharto and Sukarno (see Indonesian names ).
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the groom is the first born with an obligation to carry his own ancestor's name, a compromise may be reached in that the first male child carries the mother's family name while subsequent offspring carry the father's family name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Research on individual names

.Onomastics is the study of proper names including family names.^ Names at the rank of family and below are subject to priority, whereas those above the rank of family (including, seemingly the rank of superfamily, currently a vague problem in the Code ) are not subject to the mandates of priority.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the 19th century, Francis Galton published a statistical study of the extinction of family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The matching information is restricted to the CSS font properties, including the family name.
  • Fonts 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.A one-name study is a collection of vital and other biographical data about all persons worldwide sharing a particular surname.^ Others, such as Muhammad Ali and Malcolm X , changed their name rather than live with one given to their ancestors by a slave owner.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Except for the first baby, we’ve only had to pick out one name each time because we’ve just used the other name we picked out for the last baby but didn’t use because of gender.

^ All other data is delayed at least 20 minutes.
  • Fund Family Name on Boston.com 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC finance.boston.com [Source type: News]

.The Guild of One-Name Studies is a major UK-based organization in this field.^ A considerable number of “artificial” names exists, for example, those given to seminary graduates; such names were based on major Orthodox holy days: .
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The vast majority of Filipinos follow a naming system which is the reverse of the Spanish one.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A considerable number of "artificial" names exists, for example, those given to seminary graduates; such names were based on major Orthodox holy days or Christian virtues.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

History

.The oldest use of family or surnames is unclear.^ The oldest use of family or surnames is unclear.
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  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some parts of Southern India, no formal Surname is used, because the family has decided to forgo its existing clan name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, upon the promulgation of the Family Code of 1987, Filipinos begin to adopt the American system of using their surnames.
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  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Surnames have arisen in cultures with large, concentrated populations where single names for individuals became insufficient to identify them clearly.^ Surnames have arisen in cultures with large, concentrated populations where a single names for individuals become insufficient to uniquely identify them.
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^ Further information: Chinese surname, Korean family name, Japanese name, and Vietnamese name In Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese cultures, the family name is placed before the given names.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In many cultures, the practice of using additional descriptive terms in identifying individuals has arisen.^ In many cultures the practice of using additional descriptive terms in identifying individuals arose.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition many Parsi, Bohra and Gujarati families have used English trade names as last names since the 18th and 19th centuries (Contractor, Engineer, Builder).
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition many Parsi , Bohra and Gujarati families have used English trade names as last names since the 18th and 19th centuries (Contractor, Engineer, Builder).
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These identifying terms or descriptors may indicate personal attributes, location of origin, occupation, parentage, patronage, adoption, or clan affiliation.^ These descriptors might indicate personal attributes, location of origin, parentage, or clan affiliation.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the 'unicode-range' descriptor indicates that a font contains some glyphs in the correct range, it may be examined by the UA to see if it has that particular one.
  • Fonts 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Person is an example of a type of thing (a " class "), while foaf:knows and foaf:name are examples of a relationship and an attribute of an foaf:Person ; in RDF we call these " properties ".
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

.Often these descriptors developed into fixed clan identifications which became family names in the sense that we know them today.^ These names often indicated the place of residence of the family.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Often these descriptors developed into fixed clan identifications which became family names in the sense that we know them today.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During these times, often only aristocratic families had family names.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In China, according to legend, family names started with Emperor Fu Xi in 2852 BCE.[1][2] His administration standardised the naming system in order to facilitate census-taking, and the use of census information.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
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  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In China, according to legend, family names originate with Emperor Fu Xi in 2852 BC. [1] His administration standardized the naming system in order to facilitate the census .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of family names varies among cultures.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For scientific documentation that matrilineal surnames existed in China before the Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BCE) and that "by the time of the Shang Dynasty they (Chinese surnames) had become patrilineal", see Matrilineality's China section.^ In Chinese and Korean , surnames are predominantly monosyllabic (written with one character ), though a small number of common disyllabic (or written with two characters) surnames exists (e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Chinese , [Vietnamese language|Vietnamese]], and Korean , surnames are predominantly monosyllabic (written with one character ), though a small number of common disyllabic (or written with two characters) surnames exists (e.g.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Chinese , Korean , and Vietnamese , surnames are predominantly monosyllabic (written with one character), though a small number of common disyllabic (or written with two characters) surnames exists (e.g.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Japan, family names were uncommon except among the aristocracy until the 19th century.^ In Japan family names were uncommon except in the aristocracy until the 19th century.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They would not significantly reappear again in Eastern Roman society until the 10th century, apparently influenced by the familial affilations of the Armenian military aristocracy.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition many Parsi, Bohra and Gujarati families have used English trade names as last names since the 18th and 19th centuries (Contractor, Engineer, Builder).
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Ancient Greece, during some periods, it became common to use one's place of origin as a part of a person's official identification.^ In Ancient Greece during some periods it became common to use place of origin as a part of their official identification.
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  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ De : "of the": a Norman-French habitational prefix used by some of the most common Irish surnames among which are De Búrca, De Brún, De Barra, De Cíosóg and de Faoite.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ De: "of the": a Norman-French habitational prefix used by some of the most common Irish surnames among which are De Búrca, De Brún, De Barra, De Cíosóg and de Faoite.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .At other times, clan names and patronymics ("son of") were also common.^ Over time many of these patronymics became family names and are some of the most common names in the Spanish-speaking world.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over time, many of these patronymics became family names and are some of the most common names in the Spanish-speaking world.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Except for the first baby, we’ve only had to pick out one name each time because we’ve just used the other name we picked out for the last baby but didn’t use because of gender.

.For example, Alexander the Great was known by the clan name Heracles and was, therefore, Heracleides (as a supposed descendant of Heracles) and by the dynastic name Karanos/Caranus, which referred to the founder of the dynasty to which he belonged.^ For example, Alexander the Great was known by the clan name Herakles (as a supposed descendant of Heracles) and the dynastic name Karanos/Caranus referring to the founder of the dynasty.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, Alexander the Great was known by the clan name Herakles (as a supposed descendant of Heracles ) and the dynastic name Karanos/Caranus referring to the founder of the dynasty.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One prominent example is name of royal dynasty of Karađorđević derived from name and nick name of its founder Kara (Turkish Black) Đorđe Petrović.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In none of these cases, though, were these names considered formal parts of the person's name, nor were they explicitly inherited in the manner which is common in many cultures today.^ At the beginning they were not strictly inherited in the way that family names are inherited in many cultures today.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In none of these cases, though, were these names considered formal parts of the person's name nor were they explicitly inherited in the manner which is common in many cultures today.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Family names such as the Swedish Bergman , Holmberg , Lindgren , Sandström and Åkerlund were quite frequent and remain common today.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Roman Empire, the bestowal and use of clan and family names waxed and waned with changes in the various subcultures of the realm.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of family names varies among cultures.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Roman Empire clan/family names became very standardized.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(See Roman naming conventions.) At the outset, they were not strictly inherited in the way that family names are inherited in many cultures today.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the beginning they were not strictly inherited in the way that family names are inherited in many cultures today.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of family names varies among cultures.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eventually, though, family names began to be used in a manner similar to most modern European societies.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usually, family names are written after any given name in most uses.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of family names varies among cultures.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the gradual influence of Greek/Christian culture throughout the Empire, the use of formal family names declined.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the gradual influence of Greek/ Christian culture throughout the Empire the use of formal family names declined.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the gradual influence of Greek/Christian culture throughout the Empire the use of formal family names declined.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] By the time of the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century, family names were uncommon in the Eastern Roman (i.e. Byzantine) Empire. .In Western Europe where Germanic culture dominated the aristocracy, family names were almost non-existent.^ The use of family names varies among cultures.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Western Europe where Germanic culture dominated the aristocracy, family names were almost non-existent.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In English-, Dutch-, German-, French- and Scandinavian-speaking countries, people often have two or more given names, and the family name goes at the end.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They would not significantly reappear again in Eastern Roman society until the 10th century, apparently influenced by the familial affiliations of the Armenian military aristocracy.^ They would not significantly reappear again in Eastern Roman society until the 10th century, apparently influenced by the familial affilations of the Armenian military aristocracy.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the time of the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century , family names were uncommon in the Eastern Roman (i.e.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The practice of using family names spread through the Eastern Roman Empire and gradually into Western Europe although it was not until the modern era that family names came to be explicitly inherited in the way that they are today.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .The practice of using family names spread through the Eastern Roman Empire and gradually into Western Europe although it was not until the modern era that family names came to be explicitly inherited in the way that they are today.^ By the time of the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century , family names were uncommon in the Eastern Roman (i.e.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The practice of using family names spread through the Eastern Roman Empire and gradually into Western Europe although it was not until the modern era that family names came to be explicitly inherited in the way that they are today.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the case of England, the most accepted theory of the origin of family names is to attribute their introduction to the Normans and the Domesday Book of 1086. As such, documents indicate that surnames were first adopted among the feudal nobility and gentry, and only slowly spread to the other parts of society.^ In this case, Demesie is the first name and Birhanu is the surname, and also the first name of the father.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In most documents the family name is listed first.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A family name , or surname , is the part of a person's name that indicates to what family he or she belongs.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of the early Norman nobility arriving in England during the Norman Conquest differentiated themselves by affixing 'de' (of) in front of the name of their village in France.^ De : "of the": a Norman-French habitational prefix used by some of the most common Irish surnames among which are De Búrca, De Brún, De Barra, De Cíosóg and de Faoite.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ De: "of the": a Norman-French habitational prefix used by some of the most common Irish surnames among which are De Búrca, De Brún, De Barra, De Cíosóg and de Faoite.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is said to have originated in the case of early emigrants from Ireland who thus acquired the Norman name of de Yrlande, some of their descendants returning eventually to this country.
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

This is what is known as a territorial surname, a consequence of feudal landownership. In medieval times in France, those distinguishing themselves by this manner indicated lordship, or ownership, of their village. .But some early Norman nobles in England chose to drop the French derivations and simply call themselves after the name of their new English holdings.^ De : "of the": a Norman-French habitational prefix used by some of the most common Irish surnames among which are De Búrca, De Brún, De Barra, De Cíosóg and de Faoite.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ De: "of the": a Norman-French habitational prefix used by some of the most common Irish surnames among which are De Búrca, De Brún, De Barra, De Cíosóg and de Faoite.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some Chinese add an English given name in front of their Chinese name, e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Modern era

.During the modern era, many cultures around the world adopted the practice of using family names, particularly for administrative reasons, especially during the imperialistic age of European expansion and particularly from the 17th to 19th centuries onward.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of family names varies among cultures.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many parts of the world, they did not appear in common use until the 17th to 19th centuries , and in some cultures they are not used today.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Notable examples include the Netherlands (1811), Japan (1870s), Thailand (1920), and Turkey (1934). .Nonetheless, their use is not universal: Icelanders, Tibetans, Burmese, and Javanese do not use family names.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of family names varies among cultures.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of family names is not universal throughout history.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

UN Convention, CEDAW

.In its 1979 "Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women," or CEDAW, the UN officially adopted the following provision: "States ...^ In some Indian states like Maharashtra , official documents list the family name first, followed by a comma and the given names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

shall ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women: .The same personal rights as husband and wife, including the right to choose a family name, a profession and an occupation."^ Romanian family names remain the same regardless of the sex of the person.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some immigrants have had difficulty naming their children, as they must choose from an approved list based on the family's household language.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The third is a list of "Housekeepers" who possessed slaves and stock, providing once again the Name and Profession and the same numbers as the first list.

[5] (Italics added.) .For a further description of and treatment of this Convention, see Matrilineality's Matrilineal surname section.^ The family names of Swedish-speaking Finns follow the Swedish conventions, see the section on Scandinavia.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Please see the section on generic font families for descriptions of these families.
  • Fonts 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

By language

English-speaking countries

.In Britain, hereditary surnames were adopted in the 13th and 14th centuries, initially by the aristocracy but eventually by everyone.^ In the British Isles, hereditary surnames were adopted in the 13th and 14th centuries, initially by the aristocracy but, eventually, by everyone.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In England, hereditary surnames were adopted in the 13th and 14th centuries, initially by the aristocracy but, eventually, by everyone.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the British Isles , hereditary surnames were adopted in the 13th and 14th centuries, initially by the aristocracy but, eventually, by everyone.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 1400, most English and Scottish people had acquired surnames, but many Scottish and Welsh people did not adopt surnames until the 17th century, or even later.^ By 1400, most English people and lowland Scots had acquired surnames, but many Irish, highland Scots and Welsh people did not adopt English-style surnames until the 17th century, or later.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1400, most English people and Scottish people had acquired surnames, but many Irish people , Highland Scots and Welsh people didn't adopt surnames until the 17th century, or later.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Jews of Galicia did not adopt surnames until 1785.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Henry VIII (1491–1547) ordered that marital births be recorded under the surname of the father.^ Guerrero García in the example above), but some invert the order, putting the mother's paternal surname first and the father's paternal surname last (e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most choose the traditional order (e.g., Guerrero García in the example above), but some invert the order, putting the mother's paternal surname first and the father's paternal surname last (e.g., García Guerrero from the example above).
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
Most surnames of British origin fall into seven types:
.
  • Occupations (e.g., Smith, Sawyer, "Fuller", Brewer, Clark, Cooper, Cook, Carpenter, Forrester, Head, Archer, Baker, Dyer, Walker, Woodman, Taylor, Turner, Knight, Weaver, Wright)
  • Personal characteristics (e.g., Short, Brown, Black, Whitehead, Long, Wood from Wod meaning wild in battle, Smith meaning a smiter - both these last being warrior attributes, hence their ancient popularity)
  • Geographical features (e.g., Bridge, Camp, Hill, Lake, Lee, Wood, Forest, Fields, Stone, Morley, HeadMiddle English for hed = given a person who lived at the head of a river or on a hilltop.^ Sands , Hill , Rivers , Wood , Field ) * Place names (e.g., Jack from London might be called Jack London ) * For those descended from land-owners, the name of their holdings, manor or estate * Patronymics and Ancestry, often from a male's given name (e.g., Richardson , James ) or from a clan name (for those of Scottish origin, e.g., MacDonald , Forbes ) The original meaning of the name may no longer be obvious in modern English (e.g., the surname Cooper meant barrel maker and the name Tillotson is a matronymic from a diminutive for Matilda ).
    • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The conventions were similar to those of English surnames, using occupations, patronymic descent, geographic origins, or personal characteristics.
    • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Because the family name is today generally given last in English-speaking societies, the term last name is commonly used for family name .
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    )
  • .
  • Place names (e.g., Washington, Everingham, Burton, London, Leighton, Hamilton, Sutton, Flint, Laughton)
  • For those descended from land-owners, the name of their holdings, manor or estate (the name Washington can also fall into this category, Old English components Hwæssa-inga-tūn "estate of the descendants of Wassa")
  • Patronymics, matronymics or ancestral, often from a person's given name (e.g., from male name: Richardson, Jones (Welsh for John), Williams, Thompson, Johnson) or female names Molson (from Moll for Mary), Madison (from Maud), Emmott (from Emma), Marriott (from Mary) or from a clan name (for those of Scottish origin, e.g., MacDonald, Forbes) with "Mac" Scottish Gaelic for son.
  • Patronal, from patronage (Hickman meaning Hick's man, where Hick is a pet form of the name Richard) or strong ties of religion Kilpatrick (follower of Patrick) or Kilbride (follower of Bridget).^ Sands , Hill , Rivers , Wood , Field ) * Place names (e.g., Jack from London might be called Jack London ) * For those descended from land-owners, the name of their holdings, manor or estate * Patronymics and Ancestry, often from a male's given name (e.g., Richardson , James ) or from a clan name (for those of Scottish origin, e.g., MacDonald , Forbes ) The original meaning of the name may no longer be obvious in modern English (e.g., the surname Cooper meant barrel maker and the name Tillotson is a matronymic from a diminutive for Matilda ).
    • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Geddes were an old Scottish family of territorial origin from the lands of Geddes in Nairnshire.
    • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The name in Gaelic was Mac Ardghail, from ardghal, meaning 'high valour'.
    • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

    .It might be worth noting that Kil may come from the Gaelic word 'Cill' which means Church.^ From the Irish Gaelic airchinneach, meaning 'hereditary steward of church lands'.
    • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is in Gaelic Coigligh, which may derive from the word coigeal, denoting a 'person with unkempt hair'.
    • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Beider, 2004 ) Laszynski O May be related to Polish word laszczycsie meaning wash or one who washes ( Hippocrene Books, 1993 ).
    • SURNAME ORIGINS AND/OR MEANINGS, KOLOMEA RESEARCH GROUP SURNAMES OF INTEREST 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org [Source type: Reference]

    This would certainly support the claim that the surname is tied to the religion. (Approximately 79 percent of white Americans have surnames that are of English, Irish, or Scottish derivation)
.The original meaning of the name may no longer be obvious in modern English (e.g., a Cooper is one who makes barrels, and the name Tillotson is a matronymic from a diminutive for Matilda).^ This may make it an occupational name.
  • SURNAME ORIGINS AND/OR MEANINGS, KOLOMEA RESEARCH GROUP SURNAMES OF INTEREST 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Sands , Hill , Rivers , Wood , Field ) * Place names (e.g., Jack from London might be called Jack London ) * For those descended from land-owners, the name of their holdings, manor or estate * Patronymics and Ancestry, often from a male's given name (e.g., Richardson , James ) or from a clan name (for those of Scottish origin, e.g., MacDonald , Forbes ) The original meaning of the name may no longer be obvious in modern English (e.g., the surname Cooper meant barrel maker and the name Tillotson is a matronymic from a diminutive for Matilda ).
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is said to have originated in the case of early emigrants from Ireland who thus acquired the Norman name of de Yrlande, some of their descendants returning eventually to this country.
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

.A much smaller category of names relates to religion, though some of this category are also occupations.^ A much smaller category of names relates to religion, though some of this category are also occupations.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arguably there is also a much smaller fifth category of names relating to religion, though some of these are also occupations (e.g.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also related to Turkish influence is prefix Hadži- found in some family names.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The names Bishop, Priest, or Abbot, for example, may indicate that an ancestor worked for a bishop, a priest, or an abbot, respectively, or possibly took such a role in a popular religious play (see pageant play).^ For example, a Jew may have had the name Weiss.
  • SURNAME ORIGINS AND/OR MEANINGS, KOLOMEA RESEARCH GROUP SURNAMES OF INTEREST 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The names Bishop, Priest, or Abbot, for example, usually indicate that an ancestor worked for a bishop, a priest, or an abbot, respectively.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The names Bishop , Priest , or Abbot , for example, usually indicate that an ancestor worked for a bishop, a priest, or an abbot, respectively.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Americas, the family names of many African-Americans have their origins in slavery (i.e. slave name).^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Americas, the family names of many African-Americans have their origins in slavery .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Americas, the family names of many African-Americans have their origins in slavery.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of them came to bear the surnames of their former owners.^ Many of them came to bear the surnames of their former owners.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many freed serfs were given surnames after those of their former owners.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many freed slaves either created family names themselves or adopted the name of their former master.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many freed slaves either created family names themselves or else adopted the name of their former master.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition many Parsi, Bohra and Gujarati families have used English trade names as last names since the 18th and 19th centuries (Contractor, Engineer, Builder).
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some descendents of slaves, such as Malcolm X changed their name rather than live with one they believed had been given to their ancestors by a slave owner.^ Others, such as Muhammad Ali and Malcolm X , changed their name rather than live with one they believed had been given to their ancestors by a slave owner.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Others, such as Muhammad Ali and Malcolm X, changed their name rather than live with one they believed had been given to their ancestors by a slave owner.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some places, civil rights lawsuits or constitutional amendments changed the law so that men could also easily change their married names (e.g., in British Columbia and California ).
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In England and cultures derived from there, there has long been a tradition for a woman to change her surname upon marriage from her birth name to her husband's last name.^ Italian women don't switch their surname to that of their husband upon marriage.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some jurisdictions, a woman's legal name used to change automatically upon marriage.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has long been the patriarchal tradition for women to change their surname upon marriage from their birth name (or maiden name) to their husband's last name.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the first known US instance of a woman keeping her birth name, Lucy Stone in 1855, there has been a general increase in the rate of women keeping their original name.^ Little is known about the origins of the name.
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From the first known instance of a woman keeping her birth name, Lucy Stone in the 19th century, there has been a general increase in the rate of women keeping their original name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN).
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This has gone through periods of flux, however, and the 1990s saw a decline in the percentage of name retention among women.^ This has gone through periods of flux, however, and the 1990s saw a decline in the percentage of name retention among women.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Going into the 2000s, however, the trend has been the other way, especially in the United States, where fewer women have been keeping their maiden name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the late 1960s through the early 1990s, a small but increasing percentage of women chose to keep their birth name, or a hyphenated form of it, when they married.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As of 2004, roughly 90% of American women automatically assumed their husband's surname upon getting married.^ As of 2004, roughly 90% of American women automatically assumed their husband's surname upon getting married.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As of 2004 , roughly 90% of American women automatically assumed their husband's surname upon getting married.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italian women don't switch their surname to that of their husband upon marriage.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .Even in families where the wife has kept her birth name, parents often choose to give their children their father's family name.^ Even in families where the wife has kept her birth name, parents often choose to give their children their father's family name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The family gives the child its first name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children usually inherit fathers family name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In America, married women are traditionally known as Mrs [Husband's full name] however in modern times are more commonly known as Mrs [Husband's last name].^ This has gone through periods of flux, however, and the 1990s saw a decline in the percentage of name retention among women.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In English-speaking countries, married women traditionally have been called Mrs. [Husband's full name], although this practice is now outdated and has been replaced by a title of Mrs. [Wife's first name] [Husband's surname].
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In English-speaking countries, married women traditionally have been called Mrs. [Husband's full name] , although this practice is now outdated and has been replaced by a title of Mrs. [Wife's first name] [Husband's surname] .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Middle Ages, when a man from a lower-status family married an only daughter from a higher-status family, he would often take the wife's family name.^ In the Middle Ages, when a man from a lower status family married an only daughter from a higher status family, he would take the wife's family name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Middle Ages , when a man from a lower status family married an only daughter from a higher status family, he would take the wife's family name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BABIN -- see T. Hbert & Wall of Names for link to immigrants of '85 -- was there only a female Acadian in LA by this name, Marie[-Louise], wife of Pierre GAUTREAUX? -- the other DUPLESSIS family in BRDR appears to be Spanish Creole .

.In the 18th and 19th centuries in Britain, bequests were sometimes made contingent upon a man's changing (or hyphenating) his name, so that the name of the testator continued.^ In the 18th and 19th centuries in Britain, bequests were sometimes made contingent upon a man changing (or hyphenating) his name, so that the name of the legator continued.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition many Parsi, Bohra and Gujarati families have used English trade names as last names since the 18th and 19th centuries (Contractor, Engineer, Builder).
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition many Parsi , Bohra and Gujarati families have used English trade names as last names since the 18th and 19th centuries (Contractor, Engineer, Builder).
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is rare but not unknown for an English-speaking man to take the name of his wife, whether for personal reasons or as a matter of tradition (such as among Canadian aboriginal groups, especially the matrilineal Haida and Kwakiutl); it is increasingly common in the United States, where a married couple may choose a new last name entirely.^ Name - The last name of a person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Although it is rare for English-speaking men to take the name of their wives, some men still choose to do so (such as among Canadian aboriginal groups) or, increasingly common in the United States, a married couple may choose a new last name entirely.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although it is rare for English-speaking men to take the name of their wives, some men still choose to do so (such as among Canadian aboriginal groups) or, very rarely, a married couple may choose a new last name entirely.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed] This has become more widely popular in Southern California since the election of Antonio Villaraigosa as Los Angeles mayor.[citation needed]
.As an alternative, both spouses may adopt a double-barrelled name.^ As an alternative, both the husband and wife may adopt a double-barrelled name .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As an alternative, both the husband and wife may adopt a double-barrelled name.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The last thing we know about this family is that both parents passed on in an auto accident, and my Grandfather was adopted under the family name Nicholson.

.For instance, when John Smith and Mary Jones marry each other, they may become known as John Smith-Jones and Mary Smith-Jones.^ For instance, when John Smith and Mary Jones marry each other, they may become known as John Smith-Jones and Mary Smith-Jones.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance, when John Smith and Mary Jones marry each other, they may become known as John Smith-Jones and Mary Smith-Jones .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mary Mills born 1737 in PA. Married John Hodson .

.However, some consider the extra length of the hyphenated names undesirable.^ However, some consider the extra length of the hyphenated names undesirable.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, some well-known Chinese names remain in the traditional order even in English literature, e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A spouse may also opt to use his or her birth name as a middle name.^ The name property, like all RDF properties with a range of rdfs:Literal, may be used with XMLLiteral datatyped values (multiple name s are acceptable whether they are in the same langauge or not).
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is also common to use a different surname after Singh in which case Singh or Kaur are used as middle names (Montek Singh Ahluwalia, Surinder Kaur Badal).
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other middle names or honorifics that are sometimes used as surnames include Kumar, Dev, Lal, and Chand.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An additional option, although rarely practiced, is the adoption of a last name derived from a portmanteau of the prior names, such as "Simones". Some couples keep their own last names but give their children hyphenated or combined surnames.^ Some MacColls may derive from this name.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

^ An additional option is when the spouses adopt a last name derived from an aesthetically pleasing combination of the prior names, such as "Simones".
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A family name such as Dahlgren is derived from "dahl" meaning valley and "gren" meaning branch; or similarly Upvall [5] meaning "upper-valley"; It depends on the Scandinavian country, language, and dialect.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some jurisdictions, a woman's legal name used to change automatically upon marriage.^ In some jurisdictions, a woman's legal name used to change automatically upon marriage.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A name change on legal documents is not necessary.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some places, civil rights lawsuits or constitutional amendments changed the law so that men could also easily change their married names (e.g., in British Columbia and California ).
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That change is no longer a requirement (except in South Africa), but women may still easily change to their husband's surname.^ Although women may now easily choose to change to their married name, that change is no longer the default.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although women may now easily choose to change to their married name , that change is no longer the default.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Hong Kong, some women would be known to the public with the surnames of their husbands preceding their own surnames, such as Anson Chan Fang On Sang.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Upon marriage, men in the United States can easily change their surname with the federal government, through the Social Security Administration, but may face difficulty on the state level in some states.^ In some places, civil rights lawsuits or constitutional amendments changed the law so that men could also easily change their married names (e.g., in British Columbia and California).
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although women may now easily choose to change to their married name, that change is no longer the default.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some places, civil rights lawsuits or constitutional amendments changed the law so that men could also easily change their married names (e.g., in British Columbia and California).^ In some places, civil rights lawsuits or constitutional amendments changed the law so that men could also easily change their married names (e.g., in British Columbia and California ).
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some places, civil rights lawsuits or constitutional amendments changed the law so that men could also easily change their married names (e.g., in British Columbia and California).
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some places, civil rights lawsuits or constitutional amendments changed the law so that men could also easily change their married names (e.g., in British Columbia ).
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .(Note: many Anglophone countries are also common-law countries.^ (Note: many Anglophone countries are also common-law countries.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Slavic countries are noted for having masculine and feminine versions for many (but not all) of their names.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)
.Many people choose to change their name when they marry, while others do not.^ Many women choose to change their name when they marry, while others don't.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ German name ) Changing one's family name for reasons other than marriage, divorce or adoption is only possible in Germany if the applicant can prove that they suffer extraordinarily due to their name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those are qualities a lot of modern parents say they’re going for in a baby name but rarely achieve, mostly because people want other people not only to like, but admire, the name they choose.
  • How the Palin Family Chooses Those Names - The Daily Beast 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.thedailybeast.com [Source type: General]

.There are many reasons why people maintain their surname.^ There are many reasons why women maintain their surname.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There have been many people cheated out :/of the number pills they should be given.
  • German Language 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC carsguide.110mb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consequently, there are many many things that we might want to say about people, not to mention these related objects (ie.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

.One is that dropped surnames disappear throughout generations, while the adopted surname survives.^ One is that the female surname disappears throughout generations, while the male surname survives.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By keeping their surname and passing that name down to the next generation, the female surname (and its heritage) may also survive.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another reason is that if a person's surname is well known due to their particular family's history, he or she may choose to keep his or her birth surname.^ Another reason is if the women's surname is well known due to their family heritage, she may choose to keep her surname.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In particular, Iceland ers, Tibetan s, Burmese , and Javanese often do not use a family name — well-known people lacking a family name include U Thant (Burmese), Suharto and Sukarno (see Indonesian names ).
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In particular, Icelanders, Tibetan s, Burmese, and Javanese often do not use a family name — well-known people lacking a family name include U Thant (Burmese), Suharto and Sukarno (see Indonesian names ), and Dilber (Uyghur, a Turkic language).
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Yet another is the identity crisis people may experience when giving up their surname.^ Yet another is the identity crisis women may experience when giving up their surname.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among the Bulgarians , another South Slavic people, the typical surname suffix is "-ov" (Ivanov, Kovachev), although other popular suffixes also exist.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A person can have up to six names (two first names and four surnames — he or she may have two names from the mother and two from the father).
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.People in academia, for example, who have previously published articles in academic journals under their birth name often do not change their surname after marriage, in order to ensure that they continue to receive credit for their past and future work.^ Women in academia who have previously published articles in academic journals under their maiden name often do not change their surname after marriage, in order to ensure that they continue to receive credit for their past and future work.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women in academia , for example, who have previously published articles in academic journals under their maiden name often don't change their surname after marriage, in order to ensure that they continue to receive credit for their past and future work.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Spain, after a new law approved on 1999, an adult can change the order of his/her surnames and the parents can also change the order of their children's surnames if they agree (if one of their children is at least 12 years old they need his/her agreement too).
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This practice is also common among physicians, attorneys, and other professionals, as well as celebrities for whom continuity is important.^ This practice is also common among female physicians, attorneys, and other professionals, as well as celebrities for whom continuity is important.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Iberian naming order, almost always coupled with the use of y , however, remains common practice in the Philippines, where it is used, among others, in keeping criminal records.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though the practice of women's maintaining their surname after marriage is increasing, it has not caught on in the general population and there is great peer pressure for women to change their names.^ There are many reasons why women maintain their surname.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though the practice of women maintaining their surname after marriage is increasing, it hasn't caught on in the general population.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, the last name changes with each generation.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Practices among same-sex married couples do not at this point follow any discernible pattern, with some choosing to share surnames, while others do not.^ Grammatically, Russian family names follow the same rules as other nouns or adjectives (names ending with -oy , -aya are grammatically adjectives), with exceptions: some names do not change in different cases and have the same form in both genders (for example, Sedykh , Lata ).
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bosniak Muslim names follow the same formation pattern but are usually derived from proper names of Islamic origin, often combining archaic Islamic or feudal Turkish titles i.e.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grammatically, Russian family names follow the same rules as other nouns or adjectives (names ending with -oy , -aya are grammatically adjectives), with exceptions: some names do not change in different cases and have the same form in both genders (for example, Sedykh ).
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In Southern United States gospel and folk music, families often perform together as groups. .When female artists in these genres marry, they usually adopt double-barrelled surnames if the husband comes from a noted musical family as well (e.g.^ Finnish women usually change their surname when they get married.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were native Filipinos without surnames, others whose surnames deliberately did not match that of their families, as well as those who took certain surnames simply because they had a certain prestige, usually ones dealing with the Roman Catholic religion, such as de los Santos and de la Cruz .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This family's status I have not yet determined, usually large Anglo ones that have married Acadians .

.Allison Durham Speer, Kelly Crabb Bowling), or simply continue to go by their birth names if the husband is not from such a family (e.g.^ Family names such as the Swedish Bergman , Holmberg , Lindgren , Sandström and Åkerlund were quite frequent and remain common today.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A family name such as "Dahlgren" is dervied from "dahl" meaning valley and "gren" meaning branch.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A family name such as Dahlgren is derived from "dahl" meaning valley and "gren" meaning branch; or similarly Upvall [5] meaning "upper-valley"; It depends on the Scandinavian country, language, and dialect.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Karen Peck, Libbi Perry, Janet Paschal).
.Spelling of names in past centuries is often assumed to be a deliberate choice by a family, but due to very low literacy rates, many families could not provide the spelling of their surname, and so the scribe, clerk, minister, or official would write down the name on the basis of how it was spoken, or how they heard it.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spelling of names in past centuries is often assumed to be a deliberate choice by a family, but due to very low literacy rates the reality is that many families could not provide the spelling of their surname, and so the scribe, clerk, minister, or official would write down the name on the basis of how it was spoken.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The name of a font family of choice.
  • Fonts 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.This results in a great many variations, some of which occurred when families moved to another country (e.g.^ This will be a great thing for the family and our country.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Obama family chooses dog « - Blogs from CNN.com 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ This results in many variations, some of which occurred when families moved to another country.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over time, many of these patronymics became family names and are some of the most common names in the Spanish-speaking world.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Wagner becoming Wagoner, or Whaley becoming Wheally). .With the increase in bureaucracy, officially-recorded spellings tended to become the standard for a given family.^ The officially-recorded spellings tended to become the standard for that family.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although given names appear before family names in most Romanian contexts, official documents invert the order, ostensibly for filing purposes.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The modern day spellings of names originated when families translated their surnames to English, with no standardization across the country.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Spanish-speaking countries

.In medieval times, a patronymic system similar to the one still used in Iceland emerged.^ In medieval times, a patronymic system similar to the one still used in Iceland emerged.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The letter f does not appear in Gaelic until after A.D.600, so a c séimhithe was, and is still, used in the medieval Gaelic version of the name - Lachtna - and the -na ending is, again, a bit of the Latin natus.
  • Loftus Family Registry - Name Origin 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.loftusweb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The use of Smith as an occupational surname dates back to Anglo-Saxon times, when inherited surnames were still unknown: Ecceard Smith of County Durham was recorded in 975 .
  • Smith (surname) - Familypedia 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, Álvaro, the son of Rodrigo would be named Álvaro Rodríguez.^ His son, Juan , would not be named Juan Rodríguez , but Juan Álvarez .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, Álvaro, the son of Rodrigo would be named Álvaro Rodríguez.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, Álvaro , the son of Rodrigo would be named Álvaro Rodríguez .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His son, Juan, would not be named Juan Rodríguez, but Juan Álvarez.^ His son, Juan , would not be named Juan Rodríguez , but Juan Álvarez .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His son, Juan , would not be named Juan Rodríguez , but Juan Álvarez .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, Álvaro, the son of Rodrigo would be named Álvaro Rodríguez.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over time, many of these patronymics became family names and are some of the most common names in the Spanish-speaking world.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over time, many of these patronymics became family names and are some of the most common names in the Spanish-speaking world.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Visited many parts of the world, spending some time in Australia.

.Other sources of surnames are personal appearance or habit, e.g.^ Other sources of surnames are personal appearance or habit, e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are other sources for surnames.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, the patronymic names are passed on similarly to family names in other Western countries, and a person's father doesn't have to be called Karl if he or she has the surname Karlsson.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Delgado ("thin") and Moreno ("tan"); occupations, e.g.^ Delgado ("thin") and Moreno ("dark"); occupations, e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Delgado ("thin") and Moreno ("tan"); occupations, e.g.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Molinero ("miller"), Rey ("King") and Guerrero ("warrior"); and geographic location or ethnicity, e.g.^ Molinero ("miller") and Guerrero ("warrior"); and geographic location or ethnicity, e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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Alemán ("German").
.However, nowadays in Spain and in many Spanish-speaking countries (former Spanish colonies, e.g.^ Spanish-speaking countries .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, nowadays in Spain and in many countries of Spanish speakers (former Spanish colonies, e.g.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In English and French-speaking countries, many have shortened their name by removing the ending (for example Charles Aznavour ).
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dominican Republic, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Colombia, Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Venezuela), most people have two family names, although in some situations only the first is used.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ México, Honduras, Colombia, Peru, Chile, Venezuela), most people have two surnames, although in some situations only the first is used.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The family gives the child its first name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first family name is the paternal one, inherited from the father's paternal family name.^ The first surname is the paternal one, inherited from the father's paternal surname.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ The family gives the child its first name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Children usually inherit fathers family name.
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.The second family name is the maternal one, inherited from the mother's paternal family name.^ The second surname is the maternal one, inherited from the mother's paternal surname.
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^ If the groom is the first born with an obligation to carry his own ancestor's name, a compromise may be reached in that the first male child carries the mother's family name while subsequent offspring carry the father's family name.
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  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My mother had one brother - Joe (nick name sonny) Wardle.

.(As an example, Mexican boxer Marco Antonio Barrera's full name is Marco Antonio Barrera Tapia, though Barrera is the only one used in general conversation.^ (As an example, Mexican boxer Marco Antonio Barrera 's full name is Marco Antonio Barrera Tapia , though Barrera is the only one used in general conversation.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (As an example, Mexican boxer Marco Antonio Barrera's full name is Marco Antonio Barrera Tapia, though Barrera is the only one used in general conversation.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Karaka this is "an almost complete list of names of Parsi men and women in general use at present.
  • Avesta names; Old Persian names; Parsi names; Irani Zoroastrian names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.avesta.org [Source type: Original source]

) .In Spain, a new law approved in 1999 allows an adult to change the order of his/her family names, and parents can also change the order of their children's family names if they agree (if one of their children is at least 12 years old they need his/her agreement too).^ They are the parents of one child.

^ They are the parents of four children.

^ In Spain, after a new law approved in 1999, an adult can change the order of his/her surnames and the parents can also change the order of their children's surnames if they agree (if one of their children is at least 12 years old they need his/her agreement too).
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]
.Depending on the country, the family names may or may not be linked by the conjunction y ("and"), i ("and", in Catalonia), de ("of"), del ("of the", when the following word is masculine) and de la ("of the", when the following word is feminine).^ William de Somerville was the first of the name in Scotland when he came in the train of King David 1 and received lands in Lanarkshire,where the family settled and remained.
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In English-, Dutch-, German-, French- and Scandinavian-speaking countries, people often have two or more given names, and the family name goes at the end.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DEntremont [Acadian in LA but only female] CSRC no; SWLR yesTRAHAN; SLR no ; BRDR no see T. Hebert & Wall of Names for link to immigrants of 85 .

.However, in many South American countries, people have now adopted the English-speaking custom of having a single family name (e.g., in Argentina).^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ English-speaking countries .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French-speaking countries have many similarities to English-speaking ones in the way family names are used.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sometimes a new father transmits his complete family name by creating a new one, combining his two family names, e.g., the paternal surname of the son of Javier (given name) Reyes (paternal family name) de la Barrera (maternal surname) may become the new paternal surname Reyes de la Barrera.^ Javier (given name) Reyes (paternal surname) de la Barrera (maternal surname) may become the new paternal surname Reyes de la Barrera .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second surname is the maternal one, inherited from the mother's paternal surname.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first surname is the paternal one, inherited from the father's paternal surname.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.De is also the nobiliary particle used with Spanish surnames.^ De : "of the": a Norman-French habitational prefix used by some of the most common Irish surnames among which are De Búrca, De Brún, De Barra, De Cíosóg and de Faoite.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Portuguese naming customs, the main surname (the one used in alphasorting, indexing, abbreviations, and greetings), appears last (reverse the order of Spanish surnames).
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Currently in Spain, women upon marrying keep their own two family names.^ At present day in Spain, women upon marrying keep their two family names intact.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ At present day in Spain , women upon marrying keep their two family names intact.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the groom is the first born with an obligation to carry his own ancestor's name, a compromise may be reached in that the first male child carries the mother's family name while subsequent offspring carry the father's family name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In certain rare situations, especially the nobility, she may be addressed as if her maternal surname had been replaced with her husband's paternal surname, often linked with de.^ In certain rare situations, especially the nobility, she may be addressed as if her maternal surname had been replaced with her husband's paternal surname often linked with de.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In certain rare situations, especially the nobility, she may be addressed as if her maternal surname had been replaced with her husband's paternal surname often linked with de .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second surname is the maternal one, inherited from the mother's paternal surname.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, a woman named Ana García Díaz, upon marrying Juan Guerrero Macías, could be called Ana García de Guerrero.^ For example, a woman named Ana García Díaz , upon marrying Juan Guerrero Macías , could be called Ana García de Guerrero .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, a woman named Ana García Díaz, upon marrying Juan Guerrero Macías, could be called Ana García de Guerrero.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, a woman named Ana García Díaz , upon marrying Juan Guerrero Macías , could be called Ana García de Guerrero .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This custom, begun in medieval times, is decaying and only has legal validity in Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Ecuador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Peru, Panama, and to a certain extent in Mexico, where its use is becoming minor through time.^ This custom, begun in medieval times, is decaying and only has legal validity in Ecuador and Peru .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This custom, begun in medieval times, is decaying and only has legal validity in Ecuador , Guatemala, Peru , and Panama .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 20th century, over 100,000 German political refugees and invited entrepreneurs settled in Latin America , in countries such as Costa Rica , Panama , Venezuela, and the Dominican Republic, to establish German-speaking enclaves, and reportedly there is a small German immigration to Puerto Rico .
  • German Language | Credit Shakedown 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.creditshakedown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • German language - WikiTest , the free encyclopedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.encyklopedia.duu.pl [Source type: Reference]

.In Mexico, women who got married kept their first family name followed by "de" and then the husband's last name.^ The family gives the child its first name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In speech, the use of given name first, family name last is standard.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition many Parsi, Bohra and Gujarati families have used English trade names as last names since the 18th and 19th centuries (Contractor, Engineer, Builder).
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example María Martínez López when married to Josué Vásquez Hernández would then be María Martínez de Vásquez; this usage is being discontinued and it's only used by elder women, or by adult females that knew that custom when they were little, also it's used to refer to a woman who one doesn't know her full name and use her husband's last name instead (like in the former example).^ Nic: This is used for women instead of Mac, but only if this is their maiden name, never their married name.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The woman may choose to use her husband's surname to be one of her middle names.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I know what I want, and my husband either doesn’t like it or wants to wait.

.In Peru and the Dominican Republic, women normally conserve all family names after getting married.^ Nic: This is used for women instead of Mac, but only if this is their maiden name, never their married name.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although women may now easily choose to change to their married name, that change is no longer the default.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As of 2004, roughly 90% of American women automatically assumed their husband's surname upon getting married.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, if Rosa María Pérez Martínez marries Juan Martín de la Cruz Gómez, she will be called Rosa María Pérez Martínez de la Cruz, and if the husband dies, she will be called Rosa María Pérez Martínez Vda.^ Married Martha de la Montaigne 6 known children.

^ Wife or child takes the given name of the husband or father (Usha married Satish, and may therefore be called Usha Satish or simply S. Usha).
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, a woman named Ana García Díaz , upon marrying Juan Guerrero Macías , could be called Ana García de Guerrero .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

de la Cruz
(Vda. is the abbreviation for Viuda, "widow" in Spanish). .In Ecuador, a couple can choose the order of their children's surnames.^ In Ecuador, a couple can choose the order of their children's surnames.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus a couple named Joseph Bouchard-Tremblay and Marie Dion-Roy could give to their children the surnames Bouchard, Tremblay, Dion, Roy, Bouchard-Tremblay, Dion-Roy, Bouchard-Dion, Bouchard-Roy, etc.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most choose the traditional order (e.g., Guerrero García in the example above), but some invert the order, putting the mother's paternal surname first and the father's paternal surname last (e.g., García Guerrero from the example above).
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most choose the traditional order (e.g., Guerrero García in the example above), but some invert the order, putting the mother's paternal surname first and the father's paternal surname last (e.g., García Guerrero from the example above).^ It is included in FOAF as an example of a property that takes certain constrained values, and to give some additional detail to the FOAF files of those who choose to include it.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Choose Your Family Name or Special Phrase/Slogan Here This feature is great if you don't order first names under your Stick Family!
  • FAMILY WINDOW STICKERS - PERSONALIZED FAMILY CAR DECALS - CUSTOM FAMILY AUTO DECALS - STICK FIGURE PEOPLE FAMILY DECAL STICKERS WITH NAMES - Family Window Clings - Custom Vinyl Decals - Rear Window Family Decals - 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.customlabels4u.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such inversion, if chosen, must be maintained for all the children.^ Such inversion, if chosen, must be maintained for all the children.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After that, they must decide on one family name for all their future children, by pretty much the same rules.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Argentina only one family name, the father's paternal family name, is commonly used and registered, as in English-speaking countries (the real reason why many Argentinians [but by no means all, a large proportion of them use two as per Spanish usage] use one last name is because a large proportion of the dominant class come from Italian ascent, and therefore follow the conventions of this country).^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because the family name is today generally given last in English-speaking societies, the term last name is commonly used for family name .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ English-speaking countries .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Women, however, do not change their family names upon marriage and continue to use their birth family names instead of their husband's family names.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some jurisdictions, a woman's legal name used to change automatically upon marriage.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has long been the patriarchal tradition for women to change their surname upon marriage from their birth name (or maiden name) to their husband's last name.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, some women do choose to use the old Spanish custom of adjoining "de" and her husband's paternal surname to her own name.^ The woman may choose to use her husband's surname to be one of her middle names.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However some celebrities retain their old name as a stage name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Karaka this is "an almost complete list of names of Parsi men and women in general use at present.
  • Avesta names; Old Persian names; Parsi names; Irani Zoroastrian names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.avesta.org [Source type: Original source]

.In Cuba and in Nicaragua, both men and women carry their two family names (first their father's, and second their mother's).^ The family gives the child its first name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Spanish , people have one or more given names and two family names, one from the father and one from the mother.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All their offspring carry the mother's family name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Both are equally important and are mandatory for any official document. .Married women never change their original family names for their husband's.^ Family Names and their origins .
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In China, according to legend, family names originate with Emperor Fu Xi in 2852 BC. [1] His administration standardized the naming system in order to facilitate the census .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some places, civil rights lawsuits or constitutional amendments changed the law so that men could also easily change their married names (e.g., in British Columbia and California ).
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even when they migrate to other countries where this is a common practice, many prefer to adhere to their heritage and keep their maiden name.^ People began treating the agrarian names as proper surnames, and this practice produced many surnames ending with -nen, e.g.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This practice is also common among female physicians, attorneys, and other professionals, as well as celebrities for whom continuity is important.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over time, many of these patronymics became family names and are some of the most common names in the Spanish-speaking world.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In villages in Catalonia, Galicia and Asturias in Cuba, people are often known by the name of their dwelling rather than by their surnames.^ In particular, Icelanders, Tibetan s, Burmese, and Javanese often do not use a family name — well-known people lacking a family name include U Thant (Burmese), Suharto and Sukarno (see Indonesian names ), and Dilber (Uyghur, a Turkic language).
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In particular, Icelanders, Tibetans, Burmese, and Javanese often do not use a family name — well-known people lacking a family name include U Thant (Burmese), Suharto and Sukarno (see Indonesian names), and Dilber (Uyghur, a Turkic language).
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People began treating the agrarian names as proper surnames, and this practice produced many surnames ending with -nen, e.g.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, Remei Pujol i Serra who lives at Ca l'Elvira would be referred to as "la Remei de Ca l'Elvira."^ Could be someone who deals in even stones for example paving stones or one who lives near even stones or a plain ( Smith, 1973 ).
  • SURNAME ORIGINS AND/OR MEANINGS, KOLOMEA RESEARCH GROUP SURNAMES OF INTEREST 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org [Source type: Reference]

^ I now live in Portland, Oregon, USA. I understand the name began with Sir Guilliame de Waredale, who was one of the knights who fought with William the Conquerer.

^ Probably referring to one who lived near a forest ( Beider, 2004 ).
  • SURNAME ORIGINS AND/OR MEANINGS, KOLOMEA RESEARCH GROUP SURNAMES OF INTEREST 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org [Source type: Reference]

French-speaking countries

France
Belgium
Canadian

German-speaking countries

.There are about 1,000,000[citation needed] different family names in German.^ German family name etymology .
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - DE Deutschland, l'Allemagne, Germany - Namen, Noms, Names 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.wortherkunft.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Wanyandie More about Family Names...
  • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are about 1,000,000 different family names in German.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.German family names most often derive from given names, geographical names, occupational designations, bodily attributes or even traits of character.^ Usually, family names are written after any given name in most uses.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ German family names most often derive from given names, occupational designations, bodily attributes or geographical names.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are also descriptive family names derived from occupations, nicknames, and events, e.g.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hyphenations notwithstanding, they mostly consist of a single word; in those rare cases where the family name is linked to the given names by particles such as von or zu, they usually indicate noble ancestry.^ An uncapitalised particle sometimes indicates nobility.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usually, family names are written after any given name in most uses.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hyphenations notwithstanding, they mostly consist of a single word; in those rare cases that the family name is linked to the given names by particles such as von or zu , they usually indicate noble ancestry .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Not all noble families used these names (see Riedesel), while some farm families, particularly in Westphalia, used the particle von or zu followed by their farm or former farm's name as a family name (see Meyer zu Erpen).^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of family names varies among cultures.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Name - The family name of some person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

.Family names in German-speaking countries are usually positioned last, after all given names.^ German-speaking countries .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Family names in German-speaking countries are usually positioned last, after all given names.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usually, family names are written after any given name in most uses.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are exceptions, however: In parts of Austria and the Alemannic-speaking areas, the family name is regularly put in front of the first given name.^ The family gives the child its first name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In speech, the use of given name first, family name last is standard.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are exceptions, however: In parts of Austria and the Alemannic-speaking areas, the family name is regularly put in front of the first given name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also in many - especially rural - parts of Germany, to emphasize family affiliation there is often an inversion in colloquial use, in which the family name becomes a possessive: Rüters Erich, for example, would be Erich of the Rüter family.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of family names varies among cultures.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also in many - especially rural - parts of Germany, to emphasize family affiliation there is often an inversion in colloquial use, in which the family name becomes a possessive: Rüters Erich, for example, would be Erich of the Rüter family.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Germany today, upon marriage, both partners can choose to keep their birth name or one of them can adopt a hyphenated name of their birth names (the latter case is forbidden for both partners and for the last names of children), or one of them can switch to their partner's name (if the partner keeps it).^ In Germany today, upon marriage both partners can choose to keep their birth name or one of them can adopt a hyphenated name of their birth names (the latter case is forbidden for both partners and for the last names of children), or one of them can switch to their partner's name (if the partner keeps it).
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ German name ) Changing one's family name for reasons other than marriage, divorce or adoption is only possible in Germany if the applicant can prove that they suffer extraordinarily due to their name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (German name) Changing one's family name for reasons other than marriage, divorce or adoption is only possible in Germany if the applicant can prove that they suffer extraordinarily due to their name.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After that, they must decide on one family name for all their future children, by pretty much the same rules.^ After that, they must decide on one family name for all their future children, by pretty much the same rules.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ German name ) Changing one's family name for reasons other than marriage, divorce or adoption is only possible in Germany if the applicant can prove that they suffer extraordinarily due to their name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of these children was named Jean Baptiste Berland.
  • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(German name)
Changing one's family name for reasons other than marriage, divorce or adoption is only possible in Germany if the applicant can prove that they suffer extraordinarily due to their name.
^ From Ulster - only one family.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

^ German name ) Changing one's family name for reasons other than marriage, divorce or adoption is only possible in Germany if the applicant can prove that they suffer extraordinarily due to their name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When they returned to Germany, the name was Germanized to Bloch ( Kaganoff, 1977 ).
  • SURNAME ORIGINS AND/OR MEANINGS, KOLOMEA RESEARCH GROUP SURNAMES OF INTEREST 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org [Source type: Reference]

Portuguese-speaking countries

.In the case of Portuguese naming customs, the main surname (the one used in alphasorting, indexing, abbreviations, and greetings), appears last.^ In the Portuguese naming customs, the main surname (the one used in alphasorting, indexing, abbreviations, and greetings), appears last (reverse the order of Spanish surnames).
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anglicization of many surnames has been so thorough that bona-fide Irish names such as Crockwell and Harrington appear 100% English.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The patronymic custom in most of Eritrea and Ethiopia gives children the father's exact first name as their surname.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each person usually has two family names: though the law specifies no order, the first one is usually the maternal family name, whereas the last one is commonly the paternal family name.^ A family name, surname, or last name is the part of a person's name that indicates to what family he or she belongs.
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^ Name - The last name of a person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A family name , surname , or last name is the part of a person's name that indicates to what family he or she belongs.
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.A person's full name has a minimum legal length of two names (one given name and one family name from either parent) and a maximum of six names (two first names and four surnames — he or she may have up to four surnames in any order desired picked up from the total of his/her parents and grandparents' surnames).^ A family name, surname, or last name is the part of a person's name that indicates to what family he or she belongs.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A person can have up to six names (two first names and four surnames — he or she may have two names from the mother and two from the father).
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  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A family name , surname , or last name is the part of a person's name that indicates to what family he or she belongs.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The use of any surname outside this lot, or of more than six names, is legally possible, but it requires some bureaucracy.^ More than likely a fanciful name.
  • SURNAME ORIGINS AND/OR MEANINGS, KOLOMEA RESEARCH GROUP SURNAMES OF INTEREST 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org [Source type: Reference]

^ De : "of the": a Norman-French habitational prefix used by some of the most common Irish surnames among which are De Búrca, De Brún, De Barra, De Cíosóg and de Faoite.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ De: "of the": a Norman-French habitational prefix used by some of the most common Irish surnames among which are De Búrca, De Brún, De Barra, De Cíosóg and de Faoite.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Parents or the person him/herself must explain the claims they have to bearing that surname (a family nickname, a lost and rare surname lost in past generations or any other reason one may find suitable).^ German name ) Changing one's family name for reasons other than marriage, divorce or adoption is only possible in Germany if the applicant can prove that they suffer extraordinarily due to their name.
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^ (German name) Changing one's family name for reasons other than marriage, divorce or adoption is only possible in Germany if the applicant can prove that they suffer extraordinarily due to their name.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some immigrants have had difficulty naming their children, as they must choose from an approved list based on the family's household language.
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.In ancient times a patronymic was commonly used — surnames like Gonçalves ("son of Gonçalo"), Fernandes ("son of Fernando"), Nunes ("son of Nuno"), Soares ("son of Soeiro"), Sanches ("son of Sancho"), Henriques ("son of Henrique") which along with many others are still in regular use as very prevalent family names.^ Hans and Hodges state that Mark is in many cases an Anglicization of several like-sounding Jewish surnames ( Hanks and Hodges, 1988 ).
  • SURNAME ORIGINS AND/OR MEANINGS, KOLOMEA RESEARCH GROUP SURNAMES OF INTEREST 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org [Source type: Reference]

^ By the time of the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century , family names were uncommon in the Eastern Roman (i.e.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, many people with Chinese names have non-Chinese first names which are commonly used.
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  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Medieval times, Portuguese nobility started to use one of their estates' name or the name of the town or villaged they ruled as their surname, just after their patronymic.^ In medieval times, a patronymic system similar to the one still used in Iceland emerged.
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  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The village of Munxar,Gozo is characterised by the majority of its population having one from two surnames, either Curmi or de Brincat.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In medieval times the office of porter was one of the most important in castle and monastery and came with lands and privileges.
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

.Soeiro Mendes da Maia bore a name "Soeiro", a patronymic "Mendes" ("son of Hermenegildo - shortened to Mendo") and the name of the town he ruled "Maia". He was often referred to in 12th century documents as "Soeiro Mendes, senhor da Maia", Soeiro Mendes, lord of Maia.^ Variations are regional, based on how the name was translated from the local language to English in the 18th, 19th or 20th centuries during British rule.
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^ This appellation appears as a Jewish name in the 17th century taken by descendants of two scholars from Swabian town of Wallerstein; Moses ha-Levi Heller and Aaron Heller.
  • SURNAME ORIGINS AND/OR MEANINGS, KOLOMEA RESEARCH GROUP SURNAMES OF INTEREST 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org [Source type: Reference]

^ At other times clan names and patronymic names ("son of") were also common.
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Nobelwomen also bore patronymics and surnames in the same manner and never bore their husband's surname. .First-born males bore their father's surname, other children bore either both or only one of them at their will.^ The first surname is the paternal one, inherited from the father's paternal surname.
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^ Children inherit their surnames from their father.
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^ If the groom is the first born with an obligation to carry his own ancestor's name, a compromise may be reached in that the first male child carries the mother's family name while subsequent offspring carry the father's family name.
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.Only during the Early Modern Age, lower-class males started to use at least one surname; married lower-class women usually took up their spouse's surname, since they rarely ever used one beforehand.^ Finnish women usually change their surname when they get married.
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^ Surnames from foreign countries from Middle Ages include German ones such as von Brockdorff, Engerer, Hyzler, French such as Depuis, and Greek such as Papagiorcopulou, Dacoutros.
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^ Surnames from foreign countries from Middle Ages include German ones such as von Brockdorff , Engerer , Hyzler , French such as Depuis , and Greek such as Papagiorcopulou , Dacoutros .
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.After the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake, Portuguese authorities realized the benefits of enforcing the use and registry of surnames.^ Often, surnames of Portuguese noble families who were accepted as God parents were used as the surnames of the converted.
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^ In the Portuguese naming customs, the main surname (the one used in alphasorting, indexing, abbreviations, and greetings), appears last (reverse the order of Spanish surnames).
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.Henceforth, they became mandatory, although the rules for their use were very liberal.^ The use of family names today is widespread in cultures around the world although each culture has its own rules as to how these names are applied and used.
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.During the mid-20th century, under French influence and among upper classes, women started to take up their husbands' surname(s).^ In Hong Kong, some women would be known to the public with the surnames of their husbands preceding their own surnames, such as Anson Chan Fang On Sang.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet another is the identity crisis women may experience when giving up their surname.
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  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As of 2004, roughly 90% of American women automatically assumed their husband's surname upon getting married.
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.From the 1960s onwards, this usage spread to the common people, again under French influence, this time however due to the forceful legal adoption of their husbands' surname which was imposed onto Portuguese immigrant women in France.^ De : "of the": a Norman-French habitational prefix used by some of the most common Irish surnames among which are De Búrca, De Brún, De Barra, De Cíosóg and de Faoite.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ De: "of the": a Norman-French habitational prefix used by some of the most common Irish surnames among which are De Búrca, De Brún, De Barra, De Cíosóg and de Faoite.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Hong Kong, some women would be known to the public with the surnames of their husbands preceding their own surnames, such as Anson Chan Fang On Sang.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the 1974 Carnation Revolution onwards the adoption of their husbands' surname(s) receded again, and today both the adoption and non-adoption occur; also, it is legally possible for the husband to adopt his wife's surname(s), but this practice is rare.^ In certain rare situations, especially the nobility, she may be addressed as if her maternal surname had been replaced with her husband's paternal surname often linked with de .
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^ As an alternative, both the husband and wife may adopt a double-barrelled name.
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^ In the old traditional Persian culture the wife did not take on the husband's surname.
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.Brazilians usually call people only by their given names, omitting family names, even in many formal situations (as in the press referring to authorities, e.g.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
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^ Rather, people will be referred to by their given name, usually accompanied by an honorific.
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^ Usually, family names are written after any given name in most uses.
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  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."Former President Fernando Henrique", never Former President Cardoso), or "President Lula" ("Lula" was actually his nickname).^ "President Fernando Henrique", never President Cardoso).
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When formality or a prefix requires a family name, the given name usually precedes the surname, e.g.^ Usually, family names are written after any given name in most uses.
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  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When formality or a prefix requires a family name, the given name usually precedes the surname, e.g.
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^ In English-, Dutch-, German-, French- and Scandinavian-speaking countries, people often have two or more given names, and the family name goes at the end.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.João Santos, or Sr.^ João Santos, or Sr.
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^ João Santos , or Sr.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

João Santos
.

Dutch-speaking countries

The Netherlands
Belgium
South Africa

By country

Arab Countries - in general

.Arabic surnames The given name is always followed by father's first name then the father's family surname.^ The convention is to write the first name followed by middle names and surname.
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^ The family gives the child its first name.
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  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In speech, the use of given name first, family name last is standard.
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.Some surnames have a pre-fix of ibn- meaning son of (wild- in Mauritania) The surnames follow similar rules defining relation to a clan, family, place etc..^ Grammatically, Russian family names follow the same rules as other nouns or adjectives (names ending with -oy , -aya are grammatically adjectives), with exceptions: some names do not change in different cases and have the same form in both genders (for example, Sedykh , Lata ).
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^ In either case it is a patrronymic form of a surname because of the sohn similar in form to Mendelsohn, son of Mendel ( Hanks and Hodges, 1998 ).
  • SURNAME ORIGINS AND/OR MEANINGS, KOLOMEA RESEARCH GROUP SURNAMES OF INTEREST 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In some parts of Southern India, no formal Surname is used, because the family has decided to forgo its existing clan name.
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  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In Egypt, after 1952, as part of abolishing the feudal system, Nasser banned the use of surnames and forced the use of first names only with a son father grandfather system
Some Arab countries have differences due to historic rule by Ottoman Empire or due to being a different minority >>>>> More input is required for specific countries

Armenia

.Armenian surnames almost always have the ending (Armenian: յան) transliterated into English as -yan or -ian (spelled -ean (եան) in Western Armenian and pre-Soviet Eastern Armenian, of Parthian origin, presumably meaning "son of"), though names with that ending can also be found among Persians and a few other nationalities.^ Most, but not all last names that end in "ian" and sometimes "yan" are traditionally Armenian last names.
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^ Persian last names can also contain ian, which does not mean that they have to be Armenian.
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  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The name originally in Gaelic is found as Mac Uaid , “son of Watt” .
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

.Armenian surnames can derive from a geographic location, profession, noble rank, personal characteristic or personal name of an ancestor.^ Armenian surnames can derive from a geographic location, profession, noble rank, personal characteristic or personal name of an ancestor.
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^ A separate class of surnames derive from the names of noble clans .
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^ Occupation, characteristic and location/origin-based surnames names also occur.
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.Armenians in the diaspora sometimes adapt their surnames to help assimiliation.^ Armenians in the diaspora sometimes adapt their surnames to help assimiliation.
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.In Russia, many have changed -yan to -ov (or -ova for women).^ In Russia, many have changed -yan to -ov (or -ova for women).
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^ Many women choose to change their name when they marry, while others don't.
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.In Turkey, many have changed the ending to -oglu (also meaning "son of").^ In Turkey, many have changed the ending to -oglu (also meaning "son of").
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^ Wolkowitz is Polish and in Polish, the ending wicz means son of.
  • SURNAME ORIGINS AND/OR MEANINGS, KOLOMEA RESEARCH GROUP SURNAMES OF INTEREST 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org [Source type: Reference]

.In English and French-speaking countries, many have shortened their name by removing the ending (for example Charles Aznavour).^ In English and French-speaking countries, many have shortened their name by removing the ending (for example Charles Aznavour ).
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^ English-speaking countries .
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^ French-speaking countries .
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.In ancient Armenia, many noble names ended with the locative -t'si (example, Khorenatsi) or -uni (Bagratuni).^ In ancient Armenia, many noble names ended with the locative -t'si (example, Khorenatsi).
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^ In ancient Armenia, many noble names ended with the locative -t'si (example, Khorenatsi ).
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^ In many surviving family noble names, such as Cederqvist ("cedar-twig") or Stiernhielm ("star-helmet"), the spelling is obsolete, but since it applies to a name, remains unchanged.
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.Several modern Armenian names also have a Turkish suffix which appears before -ian/-yan: -lian denotes a placename; -djian denotes a profession.^ Several modern Armenian names also have a Turkish suffix which appears before -ian/-yan: -lian denotes a placename; -djian denotes a profession.
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^ Although given names appear before family names in most Romanian contexts, official documents invert the order, ostensibly for filing purposes.
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^ Persian last names can also contain ian, which does not mean that they have to be Armenian.
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.Some Western Armenian names have a particle Der, while their Eastern counterparts have Ter.^ Some Western Armenian names have a particle Der, while their Eastern counterparts have Ter.
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^ Thus someone named Der Bedrosian (Western) or Ter Petrosian (Eastern) is a descendent of an Armenian priest.
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^ By the time of the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century , family names were uncommon in the Eastern Roman (i.e.
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.This particle indicates an ancestor who was a priest (Armenian priests can choose to marry or remain celibate, but married priests cannot become a bishop).^ This particle indicates an ancestor who was a priest (lower Armenian priests can marry, while bishops cannot).
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^ The names Bishop, Priest, or Abbot, for example, usually indicate that an ancestor worked for a bishop, a priest, or an abbot, respectively.
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^ The records of the Musee Heritage in St. Albert indicate that there was a Joseph Cardinal born in Montreal who married a lady named Aimable Imbault/Hinbeau (b.
  • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus someone named Der Bedrosian (Western) or Ter Petrosian (Eastern) is a descendent of an Armenian priest.^ Some Western Armenian names have a particle Der, while their Eastern counterparts have Ter.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus someone named Der Bedrosian (Western) or Ter Petrosian (Eastern) is a descendent of an Armenian priest.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the time of the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century , family names were uncommon in the Eastern Roman (i.e.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The convention is still in use today: the children of a priest named Hagop Sarkisian would be called Der Sarkisian.^ The convention is still in use today: the children of a priest named Hagop Sarkisian would be called Der Sarkisian.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because the family name is today generally given last in English-speaking societies, the term last name is commonly used for family name .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arms are the correct term used to describe what we call today a Coat of Arms or Family Crest, with a Crest being the charge (symbol) over the helmet, so both terms coat of arms and family crest are the same thing.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Azerbaijan

[citation needed]
.Traditional[citation needed] Azeri surnames usually end with "-lı", "-lu", (Turkic for 'with' or 'belonging to'), "-oğlu", "-qızı" (Turkic for 'son of' and 'daughter of'), "-zade"(Persian for 'born of').^ A son John E. was born on Jul.10,1865 and a daughter Margaret Blesi was born on Jan.10,1868 and married Frederick Zimmermann Sr.

^ In a new proposal of law, the son can be given the surname of the mother rather than the usual father's.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Georgian surnames end alternately with the suffixes of "-shvili", Georgian for "child", "Offspring", or "-dze", Georgian for 'Son'.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Azerbaijanis of Iranian decent traditionally use suffixes such as '-pour' or '-zadeh', meaning 'born of' with their father's name.^ A family name such as Dahlgren is derived from "dahl" meaning valley and "gren" meaning branch; or similarly Upvall [5] meaning "upper-valley"; It depends on the Scandinavian country, language, and dialect.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A family name such as Dahlgren is derived from "dahl" meaning valley and "gren" meaning branch; or similarly Upvall [9] meaning "upper-valley"; It depends on the Scandinavian country, language, and dialect.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the groom is the first born with an obligation to carry his own ancestor's name, a compromise may be reached in that the first male child carries the mother's family name while subsequent offspring carry the father's family name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is, However, more usual for them to use the name of the city in which their ancestors lived in (e.g.^ The second was usually the name of the godfather or godmother, while the third and last given name was the name used in everyday situations.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The concepts of 'first' and 'last' names do not work well across cultural and linguistic boundaries; however they are widely used in addressbooks and databases.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The printed forms however were claimed by some to be actually more readable when used for printing Germanic languages .
  • German Language 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC carsguide.110mb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Tabrizpour for those from Tabriz) or their occupation (e.g. Damirchizadeh for blacksmiths).

Bulgaria

.Bulgarian names usually consists of three components - given name, father's name, family name.^ Usually, family names are written after any given name in most uses.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children usually inherit fathers family name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In older naming convention which was common in Serbia and Bosnia up until mid 19th century a persons name would consist of three distinct parts persons given name, patronymic derived from father's personal name and the family name, as seen in for example in the name of language reformer Vuk Stefanović Karadžić .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Given names have many variations, but the most common names have Christian/Greek (e.g.^ Across the North Channel, MacCurdy is a well-known Rathlin name, having been for centuries the most common name on the island.
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Over time, many of these patronymics became family names and are some of the most common names in the Spanish-speaking world.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although given names appear before family names in most Romanian contexts, official documents invert the order, ostensibly for filing purposes.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Maria, Ivan, Christo, Peter, Pavel), Slavic (Ognyan, Miroslav, Tihomir) or Protobulgarian (Krum, Asparukh) (pre Christian) origin. .Father's names normally consists of the father's first name and the "-ov" (male) or "-ova" (female) or "-ovi" (plural) suffix.^ The patronymic custom in most of Eritrea and Ethiopia gives children the father's exact first name as their surname.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Caste or clan names (Pillai, Gounder, Parmar, Sindhi, Vaish).Reddy and naidu are not surnames but suffixes to first names to indicate their clan or caste.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many communities, especially Christian, names are formed by the given name as the first name, the family name and house name as the middle name(s) and the father's/husband's given name as the last name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Family names usually also end with the "-ov", "-ev" (male) or "-ova", "-eva" (female) or "-ovi", "-evi" (plural) suffix.^ In English-, Dutch-, German-, French- and Scandinavian-speaking countries, people often have two or more given names, and the family name goes at the end.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Family names in German-speaking countries are usually positioned last, after all given names.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Republic of Macedonia, the most popular suffix today is "-ski", which has been to an extent artificially spread in the 20th century to replace most "-ov" names, perceived as sounding too Bulgarian.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In many cases (depending on the name root) the suffixes can be also "-ski" (male and plural) or "-ska" (female); "-ovski", "-evski" (male and plural) or "-ovska", "-evska" (female); "-in" (male) or "-ina" (female) or "-ini" (plural); etc.^ In many cases, names were taken from the nature around them.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Names formed this way are adjectives grammatically, and therefore change their form depending on gender; for example, Jan Kowalski and Maria Kowalska collectively use the plural Kowalscy .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jakub Wiślicki ("James of Wiślica ") and Zbigniew Oleśnicki (" Zbigniew of Oleśnica "), with masculine suffix es -ski , -cki and -dzki or respective feminine suffixes -ska , -cka and -dzka .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The meaning of the suffixes is similar to the English word "of", expressing membership/belonging to a family.^ The name derives from the Old English word bœcestre, meaning a 'female baker', and was common in Angus.
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The English surname Dane (which is not derived from Denmark but from an old English word meaning a valley) has inevitably been confused with Dean (q.v.
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

^ French-speaking countries have many similarities to English-speaking ones in the way family names are used.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example family name Ivanova means a person, belonging to the Ivanovi family.^ Name - The family name of some person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A family name, surname, or last name is the part of a person's name that indicates to what family he or she belongs.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The family name of some person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

.A father's name Petr*ov* means son of Peter.^ Ivan ov (son of Ivan), Petr ov (son of Petr), Sidor ov (son of Sidor).
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most Russian family names originated from patronymics, that is, father's name usually formed by adding the adjective suffix -ov(a) or -ev(a)) .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Scottish name MacWard, Gaelic Mac a'Bhaird, meaning 'son of the bard', was also largely anglicised to Baird.
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

.Regarding the different meaning of the prefixes, "-ov", "-ev"/"-ova", "-eva" are used for expressing relationship to the father and "-in"/"-ina" - relationship to the mother (often for orphans with dead father).^ The values of are expressed using hexadecimal numbers prefixed by "U+", corresponding to character code positions in ISO 10646 ( [ISO10646] ).
  • Fonts 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Also, different cultures and tribes use family name as father's name or gradfather's name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most Russian family names originated from patronymics, that is, father's name usually formed by adding the adjective suffix -ov(a) or -ev(a)) .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Finland

Finland has two predominant surname traditions: the West Finnish and the East Finnish. .Until the early 20th Century, Finland was a predominantly agrarian society and the names of West Finns were based on their association with a particular area, farm, or homestead, e.g.^ Until the early 20th Century, Finland was a predominantly agrarian society and the names of Finns were based on their association with a particular area, farm, or homestead, e.g.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until the early 20th Century, Finland was a predominantly agrarian society and the names of Finns were based on their association with a particular area, farm , or homestead , e.g.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They would not significantly reappear again in Eastern Roman society until the 10th century, apparently influenced by the familial affilations of the Armenian military aristocracy.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Jaakko Jussila ("Jaakko from the farm of Jussi"). .On the other hand, the East Finnish surname tradition dates back to 13th century.^ In the British Isles, hereditary surnames were adopted in the 13th and 14th centuries, initially by the aristocracy but, eventually, by everyone.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the British Isles , hereditary surnames were adopted in the 13th and 14th centuries, initially by the aristocracy but, eventually, by everyone.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There, the Savonians pursued slash-and-burn agriculture which necessitated moving several times during a person's lifetime.^ When Daniel’s father, Vincent, moved to McDonald Flats, Daniel moved there as well, but only for a short time.
  • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For several years they did job work for J. Dean and Company, during which time they accumulated quite a stock of logs, which they were two years in converting into lumber.

^ The week spent there was his first introduction to the Indians, during which time he slept in the house of the Chief Big Thunder, father of Little Crow.

.This in turn required the families to have surnames, which were in wide use among the common folk as early as in the 13th century.^ The oldest use of family or surnames is unclear.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition many Parsi, Bohra and Gujarati families have used English trade names as last names since the 18th and 19th centuries (Contractor, Engineer, Builder).
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ De : "of the": a Norman-French habitational prefix used by some of the most common Irish surnames among which are De Búrca, De Brún, De Barra, De Cíosóg and de Faoite.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the mid-16th century, the East Finnish surnames had become hereditary.^ In the British Isles, hereditary surnames were adopted in the 13th and 14th centuries, initially by the aristocracy but, eventually, by everyone.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the British Isles , hereditary surnames were adopted in the 13th and 14th centuries, initially by the aristocracy but, eventually, by everyone.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was another 16th century Kelly family among the border rievers scattered by James VI who were located in Berwickshire and the surname is also found in Galloway as MacKelly.
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

.Typically, the oldest East Finnish surnames were formed from the first names of the patriarchs of the families, e.g.^ Simo is a Finnish first name.
  • Finnish last names - Teppo Pihlajamäki 17 September 2009 10:58 UTC teppo.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ A metathetic form of the family name Turnbull.
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Antti is a Finnish first name.
  • Finnish last names - Teppo Pihlajamäki 17 September 2009 10:58 UTC teppo.tv [Source type: Original source]

Ikävalko, Termonen, Pentikäinen. .In the 16th, 17th and 17th centuries, new names were most often formed by adding the place name of the former or current place of living (e.g.^ In the 16th and 17th century the name was common throughout the Lowlands of Scotland .
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bunnon is not a name found in its own right and is most likely a form of Bunnion.
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Across the North Channel, MacCurdy is a well-known Rathlin name, having been for centuries the most common name on the island.
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

Puumalainen < Puumala). .In the East Finnish tradition, the females carried the family name of their fathers in female form (e.g.^ A metathetic form of the family name Turnbull.
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the groom is the first born with an obligation to carry his own ancestor's name, a compromise may be reached in that the first male child carries the mother's family name while subsequent offspring carry the father's family name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patronymics and Ancestry, where the father's name or an ancestor's given name is used in its original form or in a derived form (e.g.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Puumalatar < Puumalainen). .By 19th century, this practice fell into disuse due to the influence of West-European surname tradition.^ English surnames exist due to Malta forming a part of the British Empire in the 19th century and most of the 20th.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scerri, Griscti, Sciriha, due to Maltese being written in the Italian alphabet in the 19th century.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a surname it is relatively recent since tabacco was not introduced into Europe until the 16th century ( Hanks and Hodges, 1998 ).
  • SURNAME ORIGINS AND/OR MEANINGS, KOLOMEA RESEARCH GROUP SURNAMES OF INTEREST 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org [Source type: Reference]

.In Western Finland, the agrarian names dominated, and the last name of the person was usually given according to the farm or holding they lived on.^ Name - The last name of a person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Given name - The given name of some person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ They initially denoted the differences between various people living in the same town or village and bearing the same name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1921, surnames became compulsory for all Finns.^ Surnames became compulsory for all Finns in 1921.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At this point, the agrarian names were usually adopted as surnames.^ People began treating the agrarian names as proper surnames, and this practice produced many surnames ending with -nen, e.g.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People began treating the agrarian names as proper surnames, and this practice produced many surnames ending with -nen , e.g.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When formality or a prefix requires a family name, the given name usually precedes the surname, e.g.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A typical feature of such names is the addition of prefixes Ala- (Sub-) or Ylä- (Up-), giving the location of the holding along a waterway in relation of the main holding.^ Names below the rank of family (subfamily, supertribe, tribe and subtribe) proposed up to 1 Jan 1900 are available at another location.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Also related to Turkish influence is prefix Hadži- found in some family names.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also related to Turkish influence is prefix Had?i- found in some family names.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(e.g. Yli-Ojanperä, Ala-Verronen)
.A third, foreign tradition of surnames was introduced in Finland by the Swedish-speaking upper and middle classes which used typical German and Swedish surnames.^ Surnames from foreign countries from Middle Ages include German ones such as von Brockdorff, Engerer, Hyzler, French such as Depuis, and Greek such as Papagiorcopulou, Dacoutros.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surnames from foreign countries from Middle Ages include German ones such as von Brockdorff , Engerer , Hyzler , French such as Depuis , and Greek such as Papagiorcopulou , Dacoutros .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is also common to use a different surname after Singh in which case Singh or Kaur are used as middle names (Montek Singh Ahluwalia, Surinder Kaur Badal).
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By custom, all Finnish-speaking persons who were able to get a position of some status in urban or learned society, discarded their Finnish name, adopting a Swedish, German or (in case of clergy) Latin surnames.^ Family names in German-speaking countries are usually positioned last, after all given names.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Name - The family name of some person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Surname - The surname of some person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

.In the case of enlisted soldiers, the new name was given regardless of the wishes of the individual.^ So the terms "first name" and "last name" are potentially confusing and should be avoided, as they do not in this case denote the given and family names.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In each case, the adorned font name is given in the src descriptor to allow locally installed versions to be preferentially used if available.
  • Fonts 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.In the late 19th and early 20th century, the overall modernization process and especially, the political movement of fennicization caused a movement for adoption of Finnish surnames.^ English surnames exist due to Malta forming a part of the British Empire in the 19th century and most of the 20th.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the early 16th century, ( the Polish Renaissance), toponymic names became common, especially among the nobility .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People in Jamaica in the late 18th and early 19th century were natives of many other islands and countries.

.At that time, many persons with a Swedish or otherwise foreign surname changed their family name to a Finnish one.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A family name, surname, or last name is the part of a person's name that indicates to what family he or she belongs.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A family name , surname , or last name is the part of a person's name that indicates to what family he or she belongs.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The features of nature with endings -o/ö, -nen (Meriö < Meri "sea", Nieminen < Niemi "point") are typical of the names of this era, as well as more or less direct translations of Swedish names (Paasivirta < Hällström).^ People began treating the agrarian names as proper surnames, and this practice produced many surnames ending with -nen, e.g.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In English-, Dutch-, German-, French- and Scandinavian-speaking countries, people often have two or more given names, and the family name goes at the end.
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^ In mediavel records we meet more frequently the cognate name le Ireis; its modern form, Irish was formerly well known in Co.
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

[10]
.In the 21st century Finland, the use of surnames follows the German model.^ Muslim surnames, generally following the same rules used in Pakistan.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Every person is legally obliged to have a first and last name.^ Name - The first name of a person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Name - The last name of a person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The concepts of 'first' and 'last' names do not work well across cultural and linguistic boundaries; however they are widely used in addressbooks and databases.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

.At most, three first names are allowed.^ The patronymic custom in most of Eritrea and Ethiopia gives children the father's exact first name as their surname.
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^ It is currently the third most numerous name in England, the first being Smith and the second, Jones.
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Main articles: Polish surnames and Polish name In Poland and most of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, surnames first appeared during the late Middle Ages.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Finnish married couple may adopt the name of either spouse, or either spouse (or both spouses) may decide to use a double barrelled name.^ As an alternative, both the husband and wife may adopt a double-barrelled name .
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^ These are used either as separate names or the first part of a double-barrelled name .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As an alternative, both the husband and wife may adopt a double-barrelled name.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The parents may choose either surname or the double barrelled surname for their children, but all siblings must share the same surname.^ The Father may also choose to give the child both his parents' surnames if he wishes (that is Gustavo Paredes, whose parents are Eulogio Paredes and Juliana Angeles, while having Maria Solis as a wife, may name his child Kevin S. Angeles-Paredes.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some immigrants have had difficulty naming their children, as they must choose from an approved list based on the family's household language.
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^ Also, either by design or by error, all stems may have slightly different widths.
  • Fonts 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

[11] .All persons have the right to change their surname once without any specific reason.^ By knowing the surname, a short form without all capital letters can be used with confidence as in President Castro, Chairman Mao, President Bush, or Sultan Tunku Salahuddin.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A surname that is un-Finnish, contrary to the usages of the Swedish or Finnish languages or is in use by any person resident in Finland cannot be accepted as the new name, unless valid family reasons or religious or national customs give a reason for waiving this requirement.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
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^ A family name, surname, or last name is the part of a person's name that indicates to what family he or she belongs.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of family names varies among cultures.
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.However, persons may change their surname to any surname that has ever been used by their ancestors, if they can prove such claim.^ The name property, like all RDF properties with a range of rdfs:Literal, may be used with XMLLiteral datatyped values (multiple name s are acceptable whether they are in the same langauge or not).
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ However it should be noted that MBTI FOAF descriptions are self-selecting; MBTI categories may not be uniformly appealing to the people they describe.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Children will however automaticaaly inherit their father's surname if they are considered legitimate.
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[12] .Some immigrants have had difficulty naming their children, as they must choose from an approved list based on the family's household language.^ Some immigrants have had difficulty naming their children, as they must choose from an approved list based on the family's household language.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ There were 1,417 immigrants listed in the report, and they were grouped by families.

^ A family name such as Dahlgren is derived from "dahl" meaning valley and "gren" meaning branch; or similarly Upvall [5] meaning "upper-valley"; It depends on the Scandinavian country, language, and dialect.
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.In the Finnish language, both the root of the surname and the first name can be modified by consonant gradation regularly when inflected to a case.^ In this case, Demesie is the first name and Birhanu is the surname, and also the first name of the father.
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^ The patronymic custom in most of Eritrea and Ethiopia gives children the father's exact first name as their surname.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The convention is to write the first name followed by middle names and surname.
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  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Georgia

.Most eastern Georgian surnames end with the suffix of "-shvili", (e.g.^ Italian surnames are generally easy to recognize because most end in a vowel, like nearly all words in standard Italian , and many of them have been derived from descriptive nicknames.
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^ Surnames of some South Slavic groups such as Serbs, Croats, Montenegrins, and Bosniaks traditionally end with the suffix "-vi?"
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^ Most of their surnames have suffixes which are found to varying degrees over the different nations.
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.Sharmazana'shvili) Georgian for "child" or "offspring". Western Georgian surnames most commonly have the suffix "-dze", Georgian for "son". Megrelian surnames usually end in "-ia" or "ua". Other location-specific endings exist: In Svaneti "-iani", meaning "belonging to", or "hailing from", is common.^ The risk to an individual traveler varies considerably by the specific location, visit duration, type of activities, type of accommodations, time of year, and other factors.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the ancient ages the patronymicum was commonly used — surnames like Gonçalves ("son of Gonçalo"), Fernandes ("son of Fernando"), Nunes ("son of Nuno"), Soares ("son of Soeiro"), Sanches ("son of Sancho"), Henriques ("son of Henrique") and many more are used today as usual family names.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most common Dutch surnames in Belgium are Peeters, Janssens, Maes, Jacobs, Willems, Mertens, Claes, Wouters, Goossens, and De Smet.
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.In the eastern Georgian highlands common endings are "uri" and "uli". Some noble family names end in "eli", meaning "of (someplace)". In Georgian, the surname is not normally used as the polite form of address; instead, the given name is used together with a title.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
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^ For example, some Oromos use Warra Ali to mean families of Ali.
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^ Usually, family names are written after any given name in most uses.
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For instance, Nikoloz Sharmazanashvili is politely addressed as bat'onii Nikolozi "Mr. Nikoloz".

Greece and Cyprus

.Greek surnames are most commonly patronymics.^ Greek surnames are most commonly patronymics.
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^ The patronymic custom in most of Eritrea and Ethiopia gives children the father's exact first name as their surname.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although surnames are static today, dynamic and changing patronym usage survives in middle names in Greece where the genitive of father's first name is commonly the middle name.
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.Occupation, characteristic or ethnic background and location/origin-based surnames names also occur; they are sometimes supplemented by nicknames.^ Occupation, characteristic and location/origin-based surnames names also occur.
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^ Some immigrants have had difficulty naming their children, as they must choose from an approved list based on the family's household language.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Armenian surnames can derive from a geographic location, profession, noble rank, personal characteristic or personal name of an ancestor.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Commonly, Greek male surnames end in -s, which is the common ending for Greek masculine proper nouns in the nominative case.^ Greek surnames are most commonly patronymics.
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^ Commonly, Greek male surnames end in -s, which is the common ending for Greek masculine proper nouns in the nominative case .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Commonly, Greek male surnames end in -s, which is the common ending for Greek masculine proper nouns in the nominative case.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Exceptionally, some end in -ou, indicating the genitive case of this proper noun for patronymic reasons.^ Exceptionally, some end in -ou, indicating the genitive case of this proper noun for patronymic reasons.
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^ Commonly, Greek male surnames end in -s, which is the common ending for Greek masculine proper nouns in the nominative case .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grammatically, Russian family names follow the same rules as other nouns or adjectives (names ending with -oy , -aya are grammatically adjectives), with exceptions: some names do not change in different cases and have the same form in both genders (for example, Sedykh , Lata ).
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.Although surnames are static today, dynamic and changing patronym usage survives in middle names in Greece where the genitive of father's first name is commonly the middle name.^ The convention is to write the first name followed by middle names and surname.
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^ In this case, Demesie is the first name and Birhanu is the surname, and also the first name of the father.
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^ In Mongolia, it is customary for children to take the first name of their father as their surname (see patronymic).
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.Because of their codification in the Modern Greek state, surnames have Katharevousa forms even though Katharevousa is no longer the official standard.^ The modern day spellings of names originated when families translated their surnames to English, with no standardization across the country.
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^ In the modern times, some states have attempted at standardization, particularly where the surnames were corrupted because of the early British insistence of shortening them for convenience.
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^ And many people from the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala do not use any formal surnames, though most have one.
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.Thus, the Ancient Greek name Eleutherios forms the Modern Greek proper name Lefteris, and former vernacular practice (prefixing the surname to the proper name) was to call John Eleutherios as Leftero-giannis.^ People began treating the agrarian names as proper surnames, and this practice produced many surnames ending with -nen, e.g.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In mediavel records we meet more frequently the cognate name le Ireis; its modern form, Irish was formerly well known in Co.
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The modern day spellings of names originated when families translated their surnames to English, with no standardization across the country.
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.Modern practice is to call the same person Giannis Eleftheriou: the proper name is vernacular (and not Ioannis), but the surname is an archaic genitive.However, children are almost always baptised with the archaic form of the name so in official matters the child will be referred as Ioannis Eleftheriou and not Giannis Eleftheriou.^ People began treating the agrarian names as proper surnames, and this practice produced many surnames ending with -nen, e.g.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In mediavel records we meet more frequently the cognate name le Ireis; its modern form, Irish was formerly well known in Co.
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The patronymic custom in most of Eritrea and Ethiopia gives children the father's exact first name as their surname.
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.Female surnames, are most often in the Katharevousa genitive case of a male name.^ Female surnames, are most often in the genitive case of a male name.
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^ The patronymic custom in most of Eritrea and Ethiopia gives children the father's exact first name as their surname.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note that in the case of the English, the most accepted theory of the origin of family names in England is their introduction to the Normans and the Domesday Book of 1086.
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.This is an innovation of the Modern Greek state; Byzantine practice was to form a feminine counterpart of the male surname (e.g.^ Feminine forms of these surnames have the ending -a : .
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^ Feminine forms of these surnames have the ending -a: .
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^ In the modern times, some states have attempted at standardization, particularly where the surnames were corrupted because of the early British insistence of shortening them for convenience.
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masculine Palaiologos, Byzantine feminine Palaiologina, Modern feminine Palaiologou).
.In the past, women would change their surname when married, to that of their husband (again in genitive case) signifying the transfer of "dependence" from the father to the husband.^ Finnish women usually change their surname when they get married.
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^ In the past, women would change their surname when married, to that of their husband (again in genitive case) signifying the transfer of "dependence" from the father to the husband.
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^ Nowadays, women are forced to keep their paternal surname by law (or in very rare cases where this is agreed by the parents before marriage, the maternal); however quite paradox ically, the genitive case is still kept, signifying (mostly unintentionally due to tradition) that dependence (or the dependence to their mother's father in the other case).
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.In earlier Modern Greek society, women were named with -aina as a feminine suffix on the husband's first name: "Giorgaina", "Mrs George", "Wife of George". Nowadays, a woman's surname does not change upon marriage, though she can use the husband's surname socially.^ It has long been the patriarchal tradition for women to change their surname upon marriage from their birth name (or maiden name ) to their husband's last name.
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^ Italian women don't switch their surname to that of their husband upon marriage.
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^ In some jurisdictions, a woman's legal name used to change automatically upon marriage.
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.Children usually receive the paternal surname, though in rare cases, if the bride and groom have agreed before the marriage, the children can receive the maternal surname.^ Nowadays, women are forced to keep their paternal surname by law (or in very rare cases where this is agreed by the parents before marriage, the maternal); however quite paradox ically, the genitive case is still kept, signifying (mostly unintentionally due to tradition) that dependence (or the dependence to their mother's father in the other case).
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^ Nowadays, women are forced to keep their paternal surname by law (or in very rare cases where this is agreed by the parents before marriage, the maternal); however quite paradoxically, the genitive case is still kept, signifying (mostly unintentionally due to tradition) that dependence (or the dependence to their mother's father in the other case).
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^ Though the practice of women maintaining their surname after marriage is increasing, it hasn't caught on in the general population.
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Some surnames are prefixed with Papa-, indicating ancestry from a priest, i.e. "Papageorgiou", the "son of a priest named George". Others, like Archi- and Mastro- signify "boss" and "tradesman" respectively.
Prefixes such as Konto-, Makro-, and Chondro-, describe body characteristics, such as "short", "tall/long" and "fat". "Gero-" and "Palaio-" signify "old" or "wise".
.Other prefixes include Hadji- which was an honorific deriving from the Arabic Hadj or pilgrimage, and indicate that the person had made a pilgrimage (in the case of Christians to Jerusalem) and Kara- which is attributed to the Turkish word for "black" deriving from the Ottoman Empire era.^ Other prefixes include hadji - which was an honorific deriving from the Arabic Hadj or pilgrimage, and indicate that the person had made a pilgrimage (in the case of Christians to Jerusalem) and Kara- the Turkish word for "black" deriving from the Ottoman Empire era.
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^ Other prefixes include hadji- which was an honorific deriving from the Arabic Hadj or pilgrimage, and indicate that the person had made a pilgrimage (in the case of Christians to Jerusalem) and Kara- the Turkish word for "black" deriving from the Ottoman Empire era.
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^ One prominent example is name of royal dynasty of Karađorđević derived from name and nick name of its founder Kara (Turkish Black) Đorđe Petrović.
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Arvanitic surnames also exist. For example, the Arvanitic word for "brave" or "pallikari" (in Greek) being "çanavar" or its shortened form "çavar" was pronounced "tzanavar" or "tzavar" giving birth to traditional Arvanitic family names like "Tzanavaras" and/or "Tzavaras".[13]
.Most Greek patronymic suffixes are diminutives, which vary by region.^ Greek surnames are most commonly patronymics.
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^ Most of their surnames have suffixes which are found to varying degrees over the different nations.
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  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most Russian family names originated from patronymics, that is, father's name usually formed by adding the adjective suffix -ov(a) or -ev(a)) .
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The most common Hellenic patronymic suffixes are:
  • -poulos/-poulou, which has Latin origin (pullus) and means "the little", representing "the son of ...", so a man whose family name is "Christopoulos" means that his father was named "Christos". This suffix is very spread mostly throughout the whole Greece and is original from the Peloponessus in particular.
  • -idis/-idou and -iadis/-iadou are both very ancient last names and clan forms used in the Pontus and Asia Minor regions, i.e. "Michailidis", the "clan of Michael"
  • -akis/-aki is associated primarily with Crete and the Aegean Islands. A patronymic signifying "little" and/or "son" therefore "Theodorakis" being "little Theodore".
Others, less common are:
.The suffix -idis(often transliterated -ides in English and French languages) is the oldest in use.^ The suffix -idis is the oldest in use and survives from ancient times (often transliterated -ides ) for patronymic epithets.
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^ The suffix -idis is the oldest in use and survives from ancient times (often transliterated -ides) for patronymic epithets.
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^ In English-, Dutch-, German-, French- and Scandinavian-speaking countries, people often have two or more given names, and the family name goes at the end.
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.Zeus, for example was also referred to as Cronides ("son of Cronus").^ Zeus , for example was also referred to as Cronides ("son of Cronus ") and the daughters of Pleione are the Pleiades.
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.Either the surname or the given name may come first in different contexts; in newspapers and in informal uses, the order is given name > surname, while in official documents and forums (tax forms, registrations, military service, school forms), the surname is often listed or said first.^ In speech, the use of given name first, family name last is standard.
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^ Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the surname is written before given names when used in many official documents (for example, Giovanni Fabbri may be referred to Fabbri Giovanni in official documents).
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  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Hungary

.In Hungarian, like Asian languages but unlike most other European ones (see French and German above for exceptions), the family name is placed before the given names.^ Further information: Hungarian name, Hungarian language#Name order In Hungarian, like Asian languages but unlike all other European ones, the family name is placed before the given names.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Tyrone Moores are most likely decended from Lanarkshire families of the name .
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Usually, family names are written after any given name in most uses.
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  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This usage does not apply to non-Hungarian names, for example "Tony Blair" will remain "Tony Blair" when written in Hungarian texts.^ This usage doesn't apply to non-Hungarian names, for example "Tony Blair" will remain "Tony Blair" when written in Hungarian texts.
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^ In many surviving family noble names, such as Cederqvist ("cedar-twig") or Stiernhielm ("star-helmet"), the spelling is obsolete, but since it applies to a name, remains unchanged.
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^ However, the surname is written before given names when used in many official documents (for example, Giovanni Fabbri may be referred to Fabbri Giovanni in official documents).
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.Names of Hungarian individuals, however, appear in Western order in English writing.^ However, names of Hungarian individuals appear in Western order in English writing.
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^ Anglicization of many surnames has been so thorough that bona-fide Irish names such as Crockwell and Harrington appear 100% English.
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^ Although given names appear before family names in most Romanian contexts, official documents invert the order, ostensibly for filing purposes.
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  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Iceland

In Iceland, most people have no family name; a person's last name is most commonly a patronymic, i.e. derived from the father's first name. For example, when a man called Karl has a daughter called Anna and a son called Magnús, their full names will typically be Anna Karlsdóttir ("Karl's daughter") and Magnús Karlsson ("Karl's son"). .The name is not changed upon marriage.^ It has long been the patriarchal tradition for women to change their surname upon marriage from their birth name (or maiden name ) to their husband's last name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some cultures, a woman's family name traditionally changes upon marriage, although few countries mandate such a change.
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  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some jurisdictions, a woman's legal name used to change automatically upon marriage.
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India

.India is a country with numerous distinct cultural and linguistic groups.^ India is a country with numerous distinct cultures and language groups within it.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Indian family name India is a country with numerous distinct cultures and language groups within it.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, Indian surnames, where formalized, fall into seven general types.^ Most surnames of British origin fall into six types: .
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, Indian surnames, where formalized, fall into seven general types.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most surnames of Adyge origin fall into six types: .
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.And many people from the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala do not use any formal surnames, though most might have one.^ This practice is prevalent in Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This practice is prevalent in Tamil Nadu and Kerala .
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^ And many people from the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala do not use any formal surnames, though most have one.
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  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In spite of hiding their cast discrimination, Tamil people not using their family or cost names.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
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^ The use of family names varies among cultures.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In particular, Icelanders, Tibetan s, Burmese, and Javanese often do not use a family name — well-known people lacking a family name include U Thant (Burmese), Suharto and Sukarno (see Indonesian names ), and Dilber (Uyghur, a Turkic language).
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.They are using initials in front of their names example J. John Vimalraj, again initial J is stands for his father name John Peter, though they have their last name such as Muthaliyar, Kounder and etc...^ It is common to use the father's first name as the middle name or last name even though it is not universal.
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  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition many Parsi, Bohra and Gujarati families have used English trade names as last names since the 18th and 19th centuries (Contractor, Engineer, Builder).
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition many Parsi , Bohra and Gujarati families have used English trade names as last names since the 18th and 19th centuries (Contractor, Engineer, Builder).
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Northern India, most of the people have their family name after the given names, whereas in Southern India, the given names come after the family name.^ Usually, family names are written after any given name in most uses.
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^ In English-, Dutch-, German-, French- and Scandinavian-speaking countries, people often have two or more given names, and the family name goes at the end.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because the family name is today generally given last in English-speaking societies, the term last name is commonly used for family name .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • Patronymics and ancestry, where the father's name or an ancestor's given name is used in its original form or in a derived form (e.g.^ Patronymics and Ancestry, where the father's name or an ancestor's given name is used in its original form or in a derived form (e.g.
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Place names or names derived from places of ancestral origin (Marwari, Gawaskar, Mangeshkar, Kapoor, Kokradi ,Karnad).
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    ^ In older naming convention which was common in Serbia and Bosnia up until mid 19th century a persons name would consist of three distinct parts persons given name, patronymic derived from father's personal name and the family name, as seen in for example in the name of language reformer Vuk Stefanović Karadžić .
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Aggarwal or Agrawal or Agrawala derived from the ancestor Agrasen).
  • Occupations (Chamar, Patel or Patil meaning Village Headman, Gandhi, Kamath, Kulkarni who used to maintain the accounts and records and used to collect taxes, Kapadia, Nadkarni, Patwardhan, Patwari, Shenoy, etc.^ Aggarwal or Agrawal or Agrawala derived from the ancestor Agrasen).
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Therefore, it is understood in the local traditions that Agrawal and Aggarwal represent the same name derived from Uttar Pradesh and Punjab respectively.
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    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Patronymics and Ancestry, where the father's name or an ancestor's given name is used in its original form or in a derived form (e.g.
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ) and priestly distinctions .(Bhat, Bhattar, Trivedi, Shukla, Chaturvedi, Twivedi, Purohit, Mukhopadhyay) Businesspeople: Amin, Shah.^ (Bhat, Bhattar, Trivedi, Chaturvedi, Twivedi, Purohit, Mukhopadhyay) Businesspeople:Amin, Shah .
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (Bhat, Bhattar, Trivedi, Chaturvedi, Twivedi, Purohit, Mukhopadhyay) Businesspeople:Amin, Shah.
    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In addition many Parsi, Bohra and Gujarati families have used English trade names as last names since the 18th and 19th centuries (Contractor, Engineer, Builder).
  • Caste or clan names (Pillai, Gounder, Goud, Gowda, Boyar, Parmar, Sindhi, Vaish, Reddy, Goud and Naidu) are not surnames but suffixes to first names to indicate their clan or caste.
  • Place names or names derived from places of ancestral origin (Aluru, Marwari, Gawaskar, Gaonkar, Mangeshkar, Kapoor, Wamankar, Kokradi, Karnad, Medukonduru, Rachapalli).
  • A few last names originate from the names (Juthani)
  • The father's first name is used as a surname in certain Southern states, such as Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu (but not in Andhra pradesh as it has a mixture of aryan and dravidian culture).^ In addition, many people with Chinese names have non-Chinese first names which are commonly used.
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
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    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This practice is prevalent in Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .However after the marriage the bride uses her husband's first name instead.
  • Muslim surnames, generally following the same rules used in Pakistan.^ The convention is to write the first name followed by middle names and surname.
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    ^ It is generally better to use account instead.
    • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Muslim surnames, generally following the same rules used in Pakistan.
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    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Khan among the most popular, often signifying Afghan/Central Asian descent.
  • Bestowed titles or other honorifics (titles bestowed by kings, rajas, nawabs and other nobles before the British Raj (Wali, Rai, Rao, Tharakan, Panicker, Vallikappen, Moocken, etc.^ Bestowed titles or other honorifics (titles bestowed by Kings, Rajas, Nawabs and other nobles before the British Raj (Wali, Rai, Rao, Tharakan, Panicker, Vallikappen, Moocken, etc.
    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Khan among the most popular, often signifying Afghan/Central Asian descent.
    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Nobles, as mentioned before in the case of other Fermanagh planters lived on the English side of the West March of the Scottish Borders.
    • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

    ) and those bestowed by the .British (Rai, Bahadur).
  • Names indicating nobility or feudal associations or honorifics (Chowdary, Naidu, Varma, Singh, Burman, Raja, Reddy, Tagore, Thakur)
  • Colonial Surnames based on tax or after religious conversion, particularly in Goa which was under Portuguese control (D'Cruz, Pinto).^ In Bengal, it is also common custom to create hybrid surnames based on the previous last names and new titles (Raichoudhury) Names indicating nobility or feudal associations or honorifics (Varma, Singh, Burman, Raja, Reddy, Tagore, Thakur) Colonial Surnames forced on natives based on tax or after religious conversion, particularly in Goa which was under Portuguese control (D'Cruz, Pinto).
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    ^ In Bengal , it is also common custom to create hybrid surnames based on the previous last names and new titles (Raichoudhury) Names indicating nobility or feudal associations or honorifics (Varma, Singh, Burman, Raja, Reddy , Tagore, Thakur) Colonial Surnames forced on natives based on tax or after religious conversion, particularly in Goa which was under Portuguese control (D'Cruz, Pinto).
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    ^ Bestowed titles or other honorifics (titles bestowed by Kings, Rajas, Nawabs and other nobles before the British Raj (Wali, Rai, Rao, Tharakan, Panicker, Vallikappen, Moocken, etc.
    • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Often, surnames of Portuguese noble families who were accepted as godparents were used as the surnames of the converted.^ Often, surnames of Portuguese noble families who were accepted as God parents were used as the surnames of the converted.
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    ^ The oldest use of family or surnames is unclear.
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    ^ In some parts of Southern India, no formal Surname is used, because the family has decided to forgo its existing clan name.
    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Some families still keep their ancestral Hindu surnames along with their given Catholic Surnames e.g.^ Some families still keep their ancestral Hindu surnames along with their given Catholic Surnames eg.
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    ^ Generally children take the surname of their father, but some are given the name of their mother, either alone or combined to their father's.
    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Further information: Chinese surname, Korean family name, Japanese name, and Vietnamese name In Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese cultures, the family name is placed before the given names.
    • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Miranda-Prabhu and Pereira-Shenoy.
.The convention is to write the first name followed by middle names and surname.^ The convention is to write the first name followed by middle names and surname.
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^ Main articles: Polish surnames and Polish name In Poland and most of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, surnames first appeared during the late Middle Ages.
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^ The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is common to use the father's first name as the middle name or last name even though it is not universal.^ In speech, the use of given name first, family name last is standard.
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^ It is common to use the father's first name as the middle name or last name even though it is not universal.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition many Parsi, Bohra and Gujarati families have used English trade names as last names since the 18th and 19th centuries (Contractor, Engineer, Builder).
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some Indian states like Maharashtra, official documents list the family name first, followed by a comma and the given names.^ Given the following list of fonts: .
  • Fonts 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The family gives the child its first name.
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^ In speech, the use of given name first, family name last is standard.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is customary for wives to take the surname of their husband after marriage.^ It is customary for wives to take the surname of their husband after marriage.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has long been the patriarchal tradition for women to change their surname upon marriage from their birth name (or maiden name) to their husband's last name.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italian women don't switch their surname to that of their husband upon marriage.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In modern times, in urban areas at least, this practice is not universal.^ In modern times, in urban areas at least, this practice is not universal.
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.In some rural areas, particularly in North India, wives may also take a new first name after their nuptials.^ In some rural areas, particularly in north India, wives may also take a new first name after their nuptials.
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^ If the groom is the first born with an obligation to carry his own ancestor's name, a compromise may be reached in that the first male child carries the mother's family name while subsequent offspring carry the father's family name.
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^ Wife or child takes the given name of the husband or father (Usha married Satish, and may therefore be called Usha Satish or simply S. Usha).
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.Children inherit their surnames from their father.^ Children inherit their surnames from their father.
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^ Children will however automaticaaly inherit their father's surname if they are considered legitimate.
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^ In France, until January 1, 2005, children were required by law to take the surname of their father.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some parts of Southern India, no formal surname is used, because the family has decided to forgo its existing clan name.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some parts of Southern India, no formal Surname is used, because the family has decided to forgo its existing clan name.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A family name, surname, or last name is the part of a person's name that indicates to what family he or she belongs.
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.There has been a minor reversal of this trend in the recent times.^ There has been a minor reversal of this trend in the recent times.
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This practice is prevalent in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. .For example, people from the kongu vellala gounder community of Tamil Nadu have in general two titles: the caste title Gounder and the clan name, example Perungudi.^ For example, people from the kongu vellala gounder community of Tamilnadu have in general two titles: the caste title Gounder and the clan name, example Perungudi.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, Alexander the Great was known by the clan name Herakles (as a supposed descendant of Heracles) and the dynastic name Karanos/Caranus referring to the founder of the dynasty.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Caste or clan names (Pillai, Gounder, Parmar, Sindhi, Vaish).Reddy and naidu are not surnames but suffixes to first names to indicate their clan or caste.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nowadays it is common for people not to use any of these titles.^ Nowadays it is common for people not to use any of these titles.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In countries that use family names, these are most often used to refer to a stranger in a formal setting, often with the use of a title such as Mr or Mrs (or equivalent).
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These serve as as a shorthand for some common cases; their use may not always be appropriate.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

.So a Konguvel, son of Shanmuganathan, of say Erode, would call himself Konguvel Shanmughanathan, instead of the traditional Erode Perungudi Konguvel Gounder.^ So a Konguvel, son of Shanmuganathan, of say Erode, would call himself Konguvel Shanmughanathan, instead of the traditional Erode Perungudi Konguvel Gounder.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This story goes that some of the Aboriginal people decided that they would call Sagaputura “Was-say-jo” since he wanted to be a the son of a “white man” and get scrip.
  • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reply Chris says: April 21, 2009 at 5:07 am Maybe it isn’t fake – there’s a fat german singer who sings traditional songs from Cologne who calls himself King Size Dick.
  • Family Name Fail « FAIL Blog: Epic Fail Pictures and Videos of Owned, Pwnd and Fail Moments 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC failblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This practise is of very recent origin though.^ This practise is of very recent origin though.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wife or child takes the given name of the husband or father (Usha married Satish, and may therefore be called Usha Satish or simply S. Usha).^ Wife or child takes the given name of the husband or father (Usha married Satish, and may therefore be called Usha Satish or simply S. Usha).
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Father may also choose to give the child both his parents' surnames if he wishes (that is Gustavo Paredes, whose parents are Eulogio Paredes and Juliana Angeles, while having Maria Solis as a wife, may name his child Kevin S. Angeles-Paredes.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the groom is the first born with an obligation to carry his own ancestor's name, a compromise may be reached in that the first male child carries the mother's family name while subsequent offspring carry the father's family name.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However in some families(Nair/Nayar), the children carry the last name of their mother instead of the father and are considered part of the mother's family.^ A family name, surname, or last name is the part of a person's name that indicates to what family he or she belongs.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, some consider the extra length of the hyphenated names undesirable.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All their offspring carry the mother's family name.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In many communities, especially Christian, names are formed by the given name as the first name, the family name and house name as the middle name(s) and the father's/husband's given name as the last name.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many communities, especially Christian, names are formed by the given name as the first name, the family name and house name as the middle name(s) and the father's/husband's given name as the last name.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is common to use the father's first name as the middle name or last name even though it is not universal.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, the last name changes with each generation.^ Thus, the last name changes with each generation.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their witnesses were Peter Blesi, his brother, and William Blesi a distant cousin from another family line who later on settled in Renwick, IA. and changed his last name to Blesie.

^ Jains generally use Jain, Shah, Firodia, Singhal or Gupta as their last names.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The house name would also change as generations move out of their consanguineal family homes with the changing ownership of property upon the death of the patriarch.^ The house name would also change as generations move out of their consanguineal family homes with the changing ownership of property upon the death of the patriarch.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This property specifies a prioritized list of font family names and/or generic family names.
  • Fonts 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Thus, the last name changes with each generation.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Dravidian movement in the beginning of 20th century was instrumental in knocking off the concept of surnames in Tamil Nadu.^ English surnames exist due to Malta forming a part of the British Empire in the 19th century and most of the 20th.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beginning in the 14th century, it became necessary to add a second name to distinguish between individuals with the same surname.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And many people from the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala do not use any formal surnames, though most have one.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since many companies in the industrially rich Tamil Nadu managed to filter candidates just by looking at their names, the movement went on to such an extent that surnames/castenames were simply refused at primary school levels.^ In addition many Parsi, Bohra and Gujarati families have used English trade names as last names since the 18th and 19th centuries (Contractor, Engineer, Builder).
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anglicization of many surnames has been so thorough that bona-fide Irish names such as Crockwell and Harrington appear 100% English.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many surviving family noble names, such as Cederqvist ("cedar-twig") or Stiernhielm ("star-helmet"), the spelling is obsolete, but since it applies to a name, remains unchanged.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The movement went so active that even Streets, roads and galis where names with caste name was published, road-tar was applied on caste names.^ Those of his new names not associated with a full and direct reference to a taxon with a Latin description or diagnosis are not validly published even if those older names themselves are valid.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What is only indirectly stated in the Code is that one may use an effectively published description or diagnosis associated even with a name at a misplaced rank.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

For instance in a Ranganatha Mudaliar street, the Mudaliar name was struck off with tar, leaving the street as Ranganathan Street. Similar was the case with almost all castes, Now it's hard to find a Mudaliar, Nadar, Pillai, Goundar, Iyer, Chettiar etc in any public display. .Only on arranged marriages, people feel proud to publish their caste names.^ Brazilians usually call people only by their given names, omitting family names, even in many formal situations (as in the press referring to authorities, i.e.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, people from the kongu vellala gounder community of Tamilnadu have in general two titles: the caste title Gounder and the clan name, example Perungudi.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women take a man's surname upon marriage, and their name is written as: Maria Borg née Zammit in official documents, but only as Maria Borg in informal scenarios.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In cases where people arrange their own marriages (intercaste / inter religion), the caste name almost vanishes.^ For example, people from the kongu vellala gounder community of Tamilnadu have in general two titles: the caste title Gounder and the clan name, example Perungudi.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Hence the famous "ETHIRAJA MUDALIAR College" in Chennai is simply "ETHIRAJ COLLEGE" or "Kamaraja nadar road" is simply "Kamaraj road". This is being welcomed by politicians from UP, Bihar etc.
.Jains generally use Jain, Shah, Firodia, Singhal or Gupta as their last names.^ Jains generally use Jain, Shah, Firodia, Singhal or Gupta as their last names.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, the last name changes with each generation.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition many Parsi, Bohra and Gujarati families have used English trade names as last names since the 18th and 19th centuries (Contractor, Engineer, Builder).
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sikhs generally use the words Singh ("lion") and Kaur ("princess") as surnames added to the otherwise unisex first names of men and women, respectively.^ According to Karaka this is "an almost complete list of names of Parsi men and women in general use at present.
  • Avesta names; Old Persian names; Parsi names; Irani Zoroastrian names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.avesta.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN).
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is also common to use a different surname after Singh in which case Singh or Kaur are used as middle names (Montek Singh Ahluwalia, Surinder Kaur Badal).^ The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this case, the user agent uses an existing, accessible font that has the same family name as the requested font.
  • Fonts 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In Arabic, for example, all letters have four (or two) different shapes, depending on whether the letter is used at the start of a word, in the middle, at the end, or in isolation.
  • Fonts 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The tenth Guru of Sikhism ordered (Hukamnama) that any man who considered himself a Sikh must use Singh in his name and any woman who considered herself a Sikh must use Kaur in her name.^ User agents must map names to values in a way that preserves visual order; a face mapped to a value must not be lighter than faces mapped to lower values.
  • Fonts 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ NOTE: If this family is united with Hippocrateaceae , the name Celastraceae must be used.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ NOTE: If this family is united with Corylaceae , the name Betulaceae must be used.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

.Other middle names or honorifics that are sometimes used as surnames include Kumar, Dev, Lal, and Chand.^ ObjectProperty ObjectProperty is OWL's name for those properties which are not textually-expressed; instead, they are used when mentioning or referring to some other thing.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A number of naming constructs are under development to provide naming substructure; draft properties include firstName , givenName , and surname .
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ CSS uses the term 'cursive' to apply to a font for any script, although other names such as Chancery, Brush, Swing and Script are also used in font names.
  • Fonts 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The modern day spellings of names originated when families translated their surnames to English, with no standardization across the country.^ Family name originally spelled: Pechou š ek.

^ It is said to have originated in the case of early emigrants from Ireland who thus acquired the Norman name of de Yrlande, some of their descendants returning eventually to this country.
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Basionyms validated by a description in English; family name validated by a reference Phareae Hubb.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

.Variations are regional, based on how the name was translated from the local language to English in the 18th, 19th or 20th centuries during British rule.^ FOAF has also benefited greatly from documentation contributed in non-English languages, many thanks to all contributors of translations (foaf-a-matic and other docs).
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It includes a listing of various alternate names, former names, local names, and regional names referenced to one or more related Factbook entries.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It does not seem possible to define a rule that will always identify incompatibilities, but will not prevent the use of a perfectly suitable local copy of the font data with a given name.
  • Fonts 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Therefore, it is understood in the local traditions that Agrawal and Aggarwal represent the same name derived from Uttar Pradesh and Punjab respectively.^ The name 'FOAF' is derived from traditional internet usage, an acronym for 'Friend of a Friend'.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

Similarly, Tagore derives from Bengal while Thakur is from Hindi-speaking areas. The officially-recorded spellings tended to become the standard for that family. .In the modern times, some states have attempted at standardization, particularly where the surnames were corrupted because of the early British insistence of shortening them for convenience.^ First, it is stated as the difference in hours between the capital of an entity and Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) during Standard Time.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Thus Bandopadhyay became Banerji, Mukhopadhay became Mukherji, Chattopadhyay became Chatterji etc. .This coupled with various other spelling variations created several surnames based on the original surnames.^ The following descriptor specifies the number of "units" per em; these units may be used by several other descriptors to express various lengths, so 'units-per-em' is required if other descriptors depend on it.
  • Fonts 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Jabber, unlike several other online messaging systems, is based on an open, publically documented protocol specification, and has a variety of open source implementations.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

The West Bengal Government now insists on re-converting all the variations to their original form when the child is enrolled in school.
.Some parts of Sri Lanka, Thailand, Nepal, Burma, and Indonesia have similar patronymic customs as that of India.^ Basic Groupings Theravada Buddhism: The oldest Buddhist school, Theravada is practiced mostly in Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Laos, Burma, and Thailand, with minority representation elsewhere in Asia and the West.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Indonesia

Indonesians comprise more than 300 ethnic groups. Not all of these groups traditionally have surnames. .Nonetheless, Indonesians are well aware of the custom of family names, which is known as "Marga", or "Fam", and such names have become a specific kind of identifier.^ Family name traditionally attributed to Hutchinson (Fam.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ She said she had seen his name on the program.” “We were both shocked, but it is an affectionate-sounding name in German and he was already so well known in Cologne that there was no way he would have changed it.
  • Family Name Fail « FAIL Blog: Epic Fail Pictures and Videos of Owned, Pwnd and Fail Moments 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC failblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Latin; family name validated by a description in Latin in a key and a reference to the basionym as well as an effectively (Art.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

People can tell what a person's heritage is by his or her surname.
.
  • The various ethnicities of Batak people from North Sumatra are known for their strict tradition of preserving their family names, which are actually clan names.^ One of the better known trails, is the one that heads north from Rock Lake where a battle between two groups of aboriginal people took place.
    • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Kenny name has disappeared from Grande Cache, but the family has intermarried with the local people, so Henry has descendants living in the area.
    • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Over the years, a number of family names stand out as having been associated with the Rocky Mountain people.
    • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .See Marga (Batak) for details.
  • The clan names of the Minangkabau people are passed down from mothers to their children.^ Rocky Pass was named because of the huge rocks that came down off a mountain, much like what happened with the Frank Slide in the town of Frank in Southern Alberta.
    • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Minangkabau is the largest matrilineal society in the world.
  • The Minahasan people of the North Sulawesi have an extensive list of surnames, such as Muntuan, Nayoan, Wenas and Luntungan.
  • Ambonese people of the Maluku Islands have family names such as Lawalata, Matulessy and Latumahina.
  • The various ethnicities of the Dayak people from the provinces in Kalimantan have names such as Dau and Narang.
  • The Bugis people from South Sulawesi have surnames such as Mappanyukki, Mallarangeng and Matalatta.
Javanese people are the majority in Indonesia, and most do not have any surname. .There are many individuals who have only name, such as "Suharto" and "Sukarno". These are not only common with the Javanese but also with ethnic groups who do not have the tradition of surnames.^ As such, these names are meaningless.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Consequently, there are many many things that we might want to say about people, not to mention these related objects (ie.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Some such groups may have associated characteristics which could be captured in RDF (perhaps a homepage , name , mailing list etc.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

.If, however, they are Muslims, they might opt to follow Arabic naming customs.^ The concepts of 'first' and 'last' names do not work well across cultural and linguistic boundaries; however they are widely used in addressbooks and databases.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

Most Chinese Indonesians substituted their Chinese surnames with Indonesian-sounding surnames due to political pressure from 1965 to 1998 under Suharto's regime.

Ireland, Isle of Man, and Scotland

.Many surnames in Ireland of Gaelic origin derive from ancestors' names, nicknames, or descriptive names.^ They are generally classified into four groups, based on the origin of a nickname: given names, job designations, bodily attributes, and geographical...
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usually, such family names are derived from nicknames.
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the first group can be placed surnames such as McMurrough and McCarthy, derived from patronymics, or O'Brien and O'Grady, derived from ancestral names.^ The Rafinesque name has been selected arbitrarily as the first place of publication for the purpose of establishing priority.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The first section is an alphabetical listing of all names with details as to place of publication, original orthography, means of validation, and type information.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some such groups may have associated characteristics which could be captured in RDF (perhaps a homepage , name , mailing list etc.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

.Gaelic surnames derived from nicknames include Ó Dubhda (from Aedh ua Dubhda - Aedh, the dark one), O'Doherty (from dochartaigh, "destroyer" or "obtrusive"), Garvery (garbh, "rough" or "nasty"), Manton (mantach, "toothless"), Bane (bán, "white", as in "white hair"), Finn (fionn, "fair", as in "fair hair"), and Kennedy (cinnéide, "ugly head").^ And even though b-kup is as frustrating as a pimple in one’s ear, he does play fair compared to the white-trash.
  • Think Progress » Porn company names Gingrich ‘Family Values Porn Fan of the Year, 2009.’ 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Very few Gaelic surnames are derived from placenames or venerated people/objects. .Among those that are included in this small group, several can be shown to be derivations of Gaelic personal names or surnames.^ For example, FOAF defines categories ('classes') such as foaf:Person , foaf:Document , foaf:Image , alongside some handy properties of those things, such as foaf:name , foaf:mbox (ie.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Agent Person name nick title homepage mbox mbox_sha1sum img depiction ( depicts ) surname familyName givenName firstName lastName Personal Info .
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

One notable exception is Ó Cuilleáin or O'Collins (from cuileann, "Holly") as in the Holly Tree, considered one of the most sacred objects of pre-Christian Celtic culture. Another is Walsh (Irish: Breatnach), meaning Welsh.
.In areas where certain family names are extremely common, extra names are added that sometimes follow this archaic pattern.^ Below are the most common family names.
  • Korean name: Encyclopedia II - Korean name - Family names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: General]

^ This Lytle added fame to family name .
  • This Lytle added fame to family name on The Murfreesboro Post 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.murfreesboropost.com [Source type: General]

^ The origin of family names is area-dependent.
  • Bambooweb: Surname 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Ireland, for example, where Murphy is an exceedingly common name, particular Murphy families or extended families are nicknamed, so that Denis Murphy's family were called The Weavers and Denis himself was called Denis "The Weaver" Murphy.^ For example, the family name for Helvetica-Bold is Helvetica and the family name of ITC Stone Serif Semibold Italic is ITC Stone Serif.
  • Fonts 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, spaces are not allow in a PostScript name, but are common in full font names.
  • Fonts 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Shand stated that Henry Kenny was a Sekani from Fort St. John who wanted to obtain Metis scrip, so he called himself Henry Kenny, when his real name was Eneesja.
  • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(See also O'Hay.)
For much the same reason, nicknames (e.g. the Fada Burkes, "the long/tall Burkes"), father's names (e.g. John Morrissey Ned) or mother's maiden name (Kennedy becoming Kennedy-Lydon) can become colloquial or legal surnames. .The Irish family of de Courcy descends from Anglo-Normans who came to Ireland following the Norman Conquest.^ There is some evidence to suggest that the Delorme family may be descended from the Iroquois who came west in the early 1800's to trap for the fur trade companies, probably after the War of 1812.
  • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Grande Cache Moberly family is descended from Henry John Moberly, who was born in Penetanguishene, Ontario on August 8, 1835.
  • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the fall of 1866 the family came to America, locating near Galena, Illinois, and the following year, removed to Eden Prairie.

.(The name is of French derivation, and indicates that the family once held a manor of that name in Normandy .^ French, and by an indication of family rank.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ French; family name validated by a diagnosis in French in a key and a reference to the basionym.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Basionym validated by a diagnosis in French; family name validated by a diagnosis in English and a reference to the basionym.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

) The de Courcy family was prominent In County Cork from the earliest days of the Norman occupation and subsequently became prominent in Ireland.[14]
.In addition to all this, Irish speaking areas still follow the old tradition of naming themselves after their father, grandfather, great-grandfather and so on.^ All of the following are ancestral names for us.
  • Surnames - Table of Contents 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC www.martygrant.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition to all this, Irish speaking areas still follow the old tradition of naming themselves after their father, grandfather, great-grandfather and so on.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My father died when I was 6 months old, and my grandfather shortly thereafter.
  • Cassidy Family Name Variations, including Cassity and Casada, Their Origin and Family History 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.cassidyclan.org [Source type: General]

.Examples include Mike Bartly Pat Reilly ("Mike, son of Bartholomew, son of Pat Reilly"), John Michel John Oge Pat Breanach ("John, son of Michael, son of young John, son of Pat Breanach"), Tom Paddy-Joe Seoige ("Tom, son of Paddy-Joe Seoige"), and Mary Bartly Mike Walsh ("Mary, daughter of Bartly, son of Mike Walsh").^ Caroline was the daughter of John Henry Moberly and Mary Joachim who homesteaded southwest of Hinton.
  • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mary Cardinal was the daughter of Madeleine Cardinal, who was of Iroquois descent and a sister of Michael Cardinal.
  • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ John Blesi's sons, Albert and Michael Blesi, divided the farm land into 2 parcels, Albert and his wife Annie, nee  Reinke, Blesi had 8 daughters and no sons.

.Sometimes, the female line of the family is used, depending on how well the parent is known in the area the person resides, e.g.^ A well known sub-class is Person , representing people.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The latter were used to carry their families and baggage, as well as to transport the results of the chase.

^ The Wanyandie family can trace its roots to Ignace Nawanionthe (sometimes called Wanyante or Wayande or Ouanianthe), an Iroquois from the Montreal area.
  • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Paddy Mary John ("Paddy, son of Mary, daughter of John").^ A son John E. was born on Jul.10,1865 and a daughter Margaret Blesi was born on Jan.10,1868 and married Frederick Zimmermann Sr.

^ Caroline was the daughter of John Henry Moberly and Mary Joachim who homesteaded southwest of Hinton.
  • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ John Blesi's sons, Albert and Michael Blesi, divided the farm land into 2 parcels, Albert and his wife Annie, nee  Reinke, Blesi had 8 daughters and no sons.

.A similar tradition continues even in English-speaking areas, especially in rural districts.^ He could not speak English, but was a leader among the Aboriginal people of the area.
  • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some Irish surnames can be mistaken for non-Irish. Anglicization of many surnames has been so thorough that bona-fide Irish names such as Crockwell and Harrington appear to be English. .Other Irish names can appear to be German (Bruder), Italian (Costello), or Polish (Comiskey).^ Olinieae ) validated by descriptions in Latin and German as this name might have appeared before Oct 1862.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

Surname prefixes

.
  • Bean: "Wife", pronounced [bæn̺].
  • De: "of the": a Norman-French habitational prefix used by some of the most common Irish surnames among which are De Búrca, De Brún, De Barra, De Cíosóg, Devane and de Faoite.^ These serve as as a shorthand for some common cases; their use may not always be appropriate.
    • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

    'De' historically has signaled ownership of lands and was traditionally therefore a mark of prestige.
  • Mac: for most purposes, taken to mean "son of", as in Mac Néill (son of Neil). However, literally, the "of" part does not come from the "Mac" prefix but from the patronymic that follows it. .E.g., in the case of MacNéill, Mac merely means "son", "Néill" (meaning "of Neil") is the genitive form of Niall ("Neil").^ Clan Donald MacMurchies derive fromthe Gaelic: Mac Mhurchaidh - "son of Murdoch" , meaning "sea warrior" or navigator".
    • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

    In some cases if the second word begins with a vowel Mac then becomes Mag, as in Mag Eocháin.
  • Mhic: [vɪkʲ]. Compressed form of bean mhic ("wife of the son of") e.g. Máire Mhic Néill (Máire, the wife of Mac Néill). This is the grammatically correct form of the prefix Mac always taken by a woman after marriage (i.e. a woman marrying someone of the surname Mac Néill would become Mhic Néill). .Mhig (also pronounced [vɪkʲ]) is used similarly to Mag in some cases (e.g.^ These serve as as a shorthand for some common cases; their use may not always be appropriate.
    • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

    Mag Shamhráin/Mhig Shamhráin).
  • Maol: In Pagan times this was expressed as Mug, as in the case of Mug Nuadat. The literal expression of this is "slave of Nuada", i.e. "devotee of Nuada". In the Christian era the word Mael was used in its place for given names such as Mael Bridget, Mael Padraig, Mael Lagan, Mael Sechlainn, and Mael Martain. .In later times, some of these given names evolved into surnames, e.g.^ Given name - The given name of some person.
    • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Although these concepts do not capture the full range of personal naming styles found world-wide, they are commonly used and have some value.
    • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ These names attest to the fact that the Rocky Mountain Cree have inhabited this land for a long time.
    • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Ó Máel Sechlainn and Mac Mael Martain or Mael Lagan, which became after the 15th Century the name Milligan.
  • Fitz: a Norman-French word derived from the Latin word filius ("son"). It was used in patronymics by thousands of men in the early Norman period in Ireland (e.g. .fitz Stephen, fitz Richard, fitz Robert, fitz William) and only on some occasions did it become used as an actual surname, the most famous example being the FitzGerald Earls of Kildare.^ If a particular character cannot be displayed using this font, the UA should indicate that a character is not being displayed (for example, using the 'missing character' glyph).
    • Fonts 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Of these descriptors, the most important are the 'widths' descriptor and 'bbox' which are used to prevent text reflow should the actual font become available.
    • Fonts 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Some translations apply only if we use the word's meaning in Finnish slang, although I've tried to minimise the amount of these.
    • Finnish last names - Teppo Pihlajamäki 17 September 2009 10:58 UTC teppo.tv [Source type: Original source]

    .Yet well into the 17th and 18th century it was used in certain areas dominated by the Hiberno-Norman of Ireland in its original form, as a patronymic.^ The original application area for schoolHomepage was for 'schools' in the British-English sense; however American-English usage has dominated, and it is now perfectly reasonable to describe Universities, Colleges and post-graduate study using schoolHomepage .
    • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Originally the title of the Lords of the Isles, in the 16th century it started being used as a last name by those who could claim to be a "son of Donald".
    • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Missionaries from Ireland to South Uist - early 18th century - Clanranald.
    • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

    .The Tribes of Galway were especially good at conserving this form, with examples such as John fitz John Bodkin and Michael Lynch fitz Arthur, used even as late as the early 1800s.^ It could be used, for example, to help find answers to questions such as "Find me members of this organisation with an interest in XML who have also contributed to CPAN )".
    • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ FunctionalProperty OWL provides even more useful information about properties, such as the ability to say that a property is 'functional'.
    • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

    .A number of illegitimate descendent of the British royal family (who were not, due to their illegitimacy, members themselves) were given surnames which indicated their illegitimacy: some of the illegitimate children of King Charles II were named FitzCharles or FitzRoy ("son of the King"); those of King James II were named FitzJames; those of Prince William, Duke of Clarence and St Andrews (later King William IV) were named FitzClarence.^ The Kenny name has disappeared from Grande Cache, but the family has intermarried with the local people, so Henry has descendants living in the area.
    • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Names at the rank of family and below are subject to priority, whereas those above the rank of family (including, seemingly the rank of superfamily, currently a vague problem in the Code ) are not subject to the mandates of priority.
    • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions.
    • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Note that "Fitzpatrick" is not Norman: it is actually a Normanisation of the Gaelic surname Mac Ghiolla Phádraig.
  • Ó: In Old Irish as ua ("grandson", "descendant").^ They derive from the Gaelic: Ua-h-Ainie - "descendant of Ainie" .
    • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

    .E.g., the ancestor of the O'Brien clan, Brian Boru (937-1014) was known in his lifetime as Brian mac Cennéide mac Lorcán ("Brian, the son of Cennéide, the son of Lorcán ").^ Clan Donald MacGillespies derive from the Gaelic: Mac Gilleeaspuig - "son of the servant of the bishop" .
    • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Clan Donald MacBrehons derive from the Gaelic: Mac a'Bhriuthainn - "son of the judge" .
    • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Clan Donald MacIllemartines derive from the Gaelic: Mac Gille Martainn - "son of the servant of St. Martin" .
    • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

    .Not until the time of his grandsons and great-grandsons was the name O'Brien used as a surname, used to denote descent from an illustrious ancestor.^ Reply Squiggly says: April 21, 2009 at 4:19 am Their great-great ancestors were all giants named Richard… .
    • Family Name Fail « FAIL Blog: Epic Fail Pictures and Videos of Owned, Pwnd and Fail Moments 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC failblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It has for some three hundred years been written as O', but in recent years the apostrophe is often dropped, bringing it into line with early medieval forms.^ After serving, three years as an apprentice, he formed a partnership with Mr. Beede, which continued three years, during which time they were engaged in mill building throughout Maine.

    The apostrophe came into existence as an error by the English, when in the process of anglicizing the surnames in Ireland, mistakenly recognized the accent above the O as an apostrophe.
  • : This is the plural of Ó and is used in reference to a kin-group or clan, e.g. Uí Néill, in reference to the O'Neill clan. .It is pronounced [i].
  • : This is used for women instead of Ó before a surname and comes a shortened form of the Irish word for a daughter, e.g.^ By knowing the surname, a short form without all capital letters can be used with confidence as in President Castro, Chairman Mao, President Bush, or Sultan Tunku Salahuddin.
    • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Máire Ní Bhriain ("Mary O'Brien").
  • Nic: This is used for women instead of Mac, but only if this is their maiden name, never their married name.^ Margaret never married, so passed on her maiden name.

    ^ Of interest is the fact that only Henry used the Kenny name.
    • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ignace married Marie Sekanaise (her last name indicates that she was from the Sekani group of Aboriginal people).
    • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Compressed form of iníon mhic ("daughter of the son of/Mac…"), e.g. Máire Nic Charthaigh ("Mary, daughter of McCarthy"). Nig [nɪkʲ] is used in cases where the surname uses Mag e.g. Nig Shamhráin.

Iranian/Persian

.Most Persian last names have the following affixes.^ An indirect reference can be a scientific name and author (the most common sort), or a discussion somewhere in the text that alludes to a particular system of classification the author is following.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

Affixes are:
-i, -zadeh (born of), -pour (son of), -nejad (from the race of), -mand, -vand, -far, -doost (friend), -khah, -zad, -mannesh
.Sometimes name of cities or towns are attached as the last word in the family name such as: Tehrani, Shirazi, Esfahani, Tabrizi, Zanjani, Angurani, Samani, Farahani.^ Their witnesses were Peter Blesi, his brother, and William Blesi a distant cousin from another family line who later on settled in Renwick, IA. and changed his last name to Blesie.

.Some common Persian last names are: Afshar, Agassi, Alivandi, Alizadeh, Amanpour, Ansari, Anvari, Ariani, Arki, Ashtari, Azria, Bahari, Bahrami, Bakhtiari, Barati, Bateni, Bozorgi, Dashti, Davoodi, Ebadi, Elmi, Emami, Esfahani, Fakoor, Farahani, Feiz, Firozi, Gharani, Gharibpour, Ghassemi, Golzari, Hosseini, Javanmardy, Kalbasi, Kamarei, Karimi, Kashani, Kiani, Kiyanfar, Kiyanpour, Loghmani, Majd, Mehranzadeh, Mesgara, Milani, Mirzapour, Motallebzadeh, Najafi, Nakhoda, Niazi, Niyazfar, Omidifar, Ovisi, Ovasi, Rabiee, Rahimi, Rastinpour, Rezaei, Rouzrokh, Samani, Sarafpour, Sattari, Shirazi, Soltanzadeh, Souriani, Talebi, Tehrani, Teymourian, Yaghoubi, Yari, Yazdani, Zahedi, Zandi and Zandipour.^ Very common given name throughout Clan Donald, giving rise to many variations as last names.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

.Many last names that end in "ian" (or sometimes "yan") are traditionally Persian last names (though this is also common in Armenian last names, which are not related).^ Many Finnish names end in -nen or -la .
  • Finnish last names - Teppo Pihlajamäki 17 September 2009 10:58 UTC teppo.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Many Finnish last names are funny ( Mr Sling ass ), gory ( Mrs Fetus ) or weird ( Mr Nation's ditch ).
  • Finnish last names - Teppo Pihlajamäki 17 September 2009 10:58 UTC teppo.tv [Source type: Original source]

.This is the same for "-stan" which is a Persian noun-maker suffix used for country names such as Pakistan, Afghanistan, etc.^ The name property, like all RDF properties with a range of rdfs:Literal, may be used with XMLLiteral datatyped values (multiple name s are acceptable whether they are in the same langauge or not).
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Some such groups may have associated characteristics which could be captured in RDF (perhaps a homepage , name , mailing list etc.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ However it has some utility, since many people use the same string (or slight variants) across a variety of such environments.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

which comes from Persian meaning "land" or "province" (Ostan in Persian).
In the Persian culture the wife does not take on the husband's surname, as opposed to the European style.

Italy

Italy has around 350,000 surnames. Most of them derive from the following sources: patronym or ilk (e.g. .Francesco Di Marco, "Francis, son of Mark" or Eduardo De Filippo, "Edward belonging to the family of Philip"), occupation (e.g.^ His son, Edward, died in 1933.

Enzo Ferrari, "Enzo the Smiths"), personal characteristic (e.g. nicknames or pet names like Dario Forte, "Darius the Strong"), geographic origin (e.g. Elisabetta Romano, "Elisabeth from Rome") and objects (e.g. Carlo Sacchi, "Charles Bags"). .The two most common Italian family names, Russo and Rossi, mean the same thing, "Red", possibly referring to a hair color that would have been very distinctive in Italy.^ French; family name validated by a diagnosis in French in a key and a reference to the basionym.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Basionyms validated by a description in English; family name validated by a reference Phareae Hubb.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Basionym validated by a diagnosis in French; family name validated by a diagnosis in English and a reference to the basionym.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

.Both Western and Eastern orders are used for full names: the given name usually comes first, but the family name may come first in formal or administrative settings; lists are usually indexed according to the last name.^ Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN).
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their witnesses were Peter Blesi, his brother, and William Blesi a distant cousin from another family line who later on settled in Renwick, IA. and changed his last name to Blesie.

.Since 1975 women keep their surname when married, but since recently they should have added the surname of the husband according to the civil code, although it was not a common practice.^ They were married in 1853, but probably lived together as husband and wife until at priest happened to be available to perform the ceremony.
  • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1875 he married Ellen H. Pease, a widow whose husband established the Pleasant Grove House, which they have enlarged to double its former capacity.

^ They became husband and wife, but were not officially married until October 16, 1853, when Marie was sixty years old.
  • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In recent years, the husband's surname can be used only in unofficial situations.[15] In these unofficial situations, sometimes both surnames are written (the proper first), sometimes separated by in (e.g. Giuseppina Mauri in Crivelli) or, in case of widows, ved. (vedova).

Latvia

Latvian male surnames usually end in -s, or -is whereas the female versions of the same names end in -a or -e in both unmarried and married women. .Before the emancipation from serfdom (1817 in Courland, 1819 in Vidzeme, 1861 in Latgale) only noblemen, free craftsmen or people living in towns had surnames.^ The Beaver people lived north and west of Grande Cache at the time of the story, but had probably occupied the Grande Cache region years before.
  • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore the oldest Latvian surnames are originating from German or Low German reflecting the dominance of German as an official language in Latvia till 19th century.^ Zoroastrianism - Originating from the teachings of Zoroaster in about the 9th or 10th century B.C., Zoroastrianism may be the oldest continuing creedal religion.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ German placename etymology, Topic Placenames in the German language area can be classified by the language from which they originate, and by their age.
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Examples: Meijers/Meijere (German: Meier, farm administrator; akin to Mayor), Millers/Millere (German: Müller, miller), Šmits/Šmite (German: Schmidt, smith), Šulcs/Šulca (German: Schulze, constable), Ulmanis (German: Ullmann, a person from Ulm), Godmanis (a God-man), Pētersons (son of Peter).^ Peter and his wife Margaretha moved to Minneapolis in 1887 and his son Henry continued with the farming.

Some of Latvian surnames, mainly from Latgale are of Polish or Belorussian origin by changing the final -ski/-cki to -skis/-ckis, -czyk to -čiks or -vich/-wicz to -vičs, such as Sokolovkis/Sokolovska, Baldunčiks/Baldunčika or Ratkevičs/Ratkeviča. Most of Latvian peasants received their surnames in 1826 (in Vidzeme), in 1835 (in Kurzeme), and in 1866 (in Latgale). .Diminutives were the most common form of family names.^ The Agnes name is no longer in evidence in the area, but Washy Joe’s descendants are intermarried into most of the local families.
  • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Moyese name is no longer in evidence in the region, but most of the local families are related to the family through marriage.
  • Family Names - Aseniwuche Winewak Nation of Canada - Canada's Rocky Mountain Aboriginal People 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.aseniwuche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Examples: Kalniņš/Kalniņa (small hill), Bērziņš/Bērziņa (small birch). Nowadays many Latvians have surnames of Russian or Ukrainian origin, for example Volkovs/Volkova or Antoņenko.

Libya

.Libya's names and surnames have strong Islamic/Arab nature with some influence from Ottoman Empire rule of nearly 400 years Amazigh, Touareg and other minorities also have their own name/surname traditions.^ ObjectProperty ObjectProperty is OWL's name for those properties which are not textually-expressed; instead, they are used when mentioning or referring to some other thing.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Dan Brickley FOAF provides some other naming constructs.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Contrary to the mistaken beliefs of some, the use of a misplaced rank does not invalidate any names at other ranks.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

Due to its location as a trade route and the different cultures that had their impact on Libya through out history one can find names that could be originated from neighboring countries
Examples: Arabic surnames similar to those found in Arab peninsula that usually refer to a clan Names derived from Ottoman Empire Army who come from different countries ruled by the Empire Examples names that sound Turkish usually carrying a symbol of military rankk or status such as Basha and Agha >>> more input required

Lithuania

Lithuanian names follow the Baltic distinction between male and female suffixes of names, although the details are different. Male surnames usually end in -as, -is, -ius, or -us, whereas the female versions change these suffixes to -aitė, -ytė, -iūtė, and -utė respectively (if unmarried) or -ienė (if married). .Some of Lithuanians have names of Polish or another Slavic origin, which are made to conform to Lithuanian by changing the final -ski to -skas, such as Sadauskas, with the female version being -skienė.^ Some such groups may have associated characteristics which could be captured in RDF (perhaps a homepage , name , mailing list etc.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Their witnesses were Peter Blesi, his brother, and William Blesi a distant cousin from another family line who later on settled in Renwick, IA. and changed his last name to Blesie.

^ While some names such as "Angiospermae" have a generally understood meaning today, its circumscription as applied by Crantz (Strip.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

Malta

.Due to different cultures that had their impacts on the Maltese archipelago, various surnames are evident.^ The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sicilian and Italian surnames are common due to the close vicinity to Malta. .Examples include Bonello, Camilleri, Cauchi, Chetcuti, Dalli, Darmanin, Farrugia, Giglio, Gauci, Delicata, Licari, Magri, Rizzo, Schembri, Tabone, Troisi, Vassallo, etc.^ Examples might include EverQuest , Xbox live , Neverwinter Nights , etc., as well as older text-based systems (MOOs, MUDs and suchlike).
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Examples include Amazon , eBay , PayPal , thinkgeek , etc.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

English surnames exist due to Malta forming a part of the British Empire in the 19th century and most of the 20th. Examples include Bickle, Bone, Haidon,'Harding, Harmsworth, Hogg, Atkins, Mattocks, Martin, Wallbank, Smith, Jones, Sixsmith, Woods, Turner, Henwood.
Semitic surnames are common, due to the early presence of Eastern and Southern Mediterranean people in Malta. Examples include Sammut, Zammit, Said, Borg, Xuereb, Xerri, Grixti, Xriha, although the last three are also written in a Italianized form, i.e. Scerri, Griscti, Sciriha, due to Maltese being written in the Italian alphabet in the 19th century.
Spanish surnames exist too. .One common Maltese name that appears to be Spanish in origin is Galdes and less common surnames are Enriquez, Herrera, Guzman, Inguanez, Carabez.^ Only one known family of this name and no more than 1 in 720 Reynolds originally had a Mac prefix.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

.A variant of Galdes exists and is Galdies, with only one family possessing it.^ From Ulster - only one family.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Without exception, in all of these publications one finds numerous orders, but only a few of these orders were subdivided into families.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Only one family - found in North Uist.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

At first glance, another common Maltese surname that appears to be Spanish in origin is Calleja , though, the first recorded instance of the surname on Malta predates Spanish rule and was spelled Calleya in the 1200s[16]. Giovanni Francesco Abela, the father of Maltese history suspected the surname to be of Greek origin. .It should also be noted that Calleja does appear in Sicily in Italy, two other forms of the name is Calleya and Callea—in fact is it not entirely unlikely the surname is of Italian/Sicilian origin and was exported to both Malta and Spain.^ Another form of MacDonald, mainly found in the American South, where the two names were almost completely interchangable.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

Such as Papagiorcopoulo, Dacoutros, Vasilopoulos, Vasilis, Trakosopoulos
Such as Depuis, Montfort, Monsenuier.
.Surnames from foreign countries from Middle Ages include German
Such as von Brockdorff, Maempel, Engerer, Hyzler, Schranz, Craus, Fenech.
^ This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Jews have also left a relic of their presence on the island with the surnames of Abela, Ellul, Azzopardi and Cohen.
  • Double Surnames
Some Maltese women, in order to preserve a rare surname from becoming extinct after marriage, add their maiden surname to their husband's. Sometimes, it becomes a sign of social status.
These include: Spiteri Maempel, Zammit Maempel, Spiteri-Gonzi, Fleri Soler, Mifsud-Bonnici, Sammut-Alessi, Sammut-Testaferrata, Samut-Tagliaferro, Cachia-Zammit, Caruana Curran, Vella-Maistre, Zarb Cousin, Fenech-Adami, Borg Olivier, Sant Fournier.
  • Surnames showing places in Malta
The few original Maltese surnames are those which show places of origin, for example, Chircop (Kirkop), Lia (Lija), Balzan (Balzan), Valletta (Valletta), Sciberras (Xebb ir-Ras Hill, on which Valletta was built) and possibly Curmi from Qormi.
.The village of Munxar, Gozo is characterised by the majority of its population having one from two surnames, either Curmi or de Brincat.^ This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In Gozo, the surnames Bajada and Farrugia are also common.
  • Customs
Women take a man's surname upon marriage, and their name is written as: Maria Borg née Zammit in official documents, but only as Maria Borg in informal scenarios. .However some celebrities retain their old name as a stage name.^ Meanings of some old names have long since been forgotten.
  • Finnish last names - Teppo Pihlajamäki 17 September 2009 10:58 UTC teppo.tv [Source type: Original source]

.Generally children take the surname of their father, but some are given the name of their mother, either alone or combined to their father's.^ Given name - The given name of some person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ His mother died some time between 1840 and 1852 and in 1852 his father re-married to Margarite (Elmire) Yelle.

^ While some names such as "Angiospermae" have a generally understood meaning today, its circumscription as applied by Crantz (Strip.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

The custom to address a family is to use the initial and surname of the male and refer also to the family. For example, if a letter is sent to a person named David Saliba and his family, one writes Mr. and Mrs. D. Saliba.
.Except for the new surnames from foreign countries, and sometimes the long, combined and rare ones, generally the Maltese people do not give a lot of importance to the origins of their surnames, and cohabit hand in hand.^ Foreign-owned are ships that fly the flag of one country but belong to owners in another.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here he was obliged to jump on the ice, after securing a long cord to the raft, one end of which he held in his hand.

  • Foreign Minority Surnames
Some new surnames have entered Maltese society through asylum seekers from third world countries and Eastern Europe. An example is Nwoko, following the naturalization of footballer Chucks Nwoko. Others include Okoh, Ohaegbu, Yekoko, Stefanov, Bogdanovic, Giorev, Mohammed, Abu Shala, Abu Shamala.
  • Some Maltese surnames
Some examples of surnames from Malta are:
  • A: Abdilla; Abela; Agius; Anastasi; Ancilleri; Apap; Aquilina; Arpa; Arrigo; Asciak; Attard; Axisa; Azzopardi
  • B: Bajada; Baldacchino; Balzan; Barbara; Barbaro; Bartolo; Bencini; Bezzina; Bickle; Bilocca; Bisazza; Boffa; Bonanno; Bonavia; Bonello; Bonnici; Bontempo; Borg; Briffa; Brincat; Bruno; Bugeja; Buhagiar; Busuttil; Buttigieg
  • C: Cachia; Calamitta; Calì; Calleja; Callus; Camenzuli; Camilleri; Cannataci; Carabott; Caruana; Casha; Cassar; Cauchi; Cefai; Chetcuti; Chircop; Ciantar; Ciappara; Cilia; Cini; Coleiro; Coppini; Cortis; Cremona; Cucciardi; Cumbo; Curmi; Cuschieri; Cutajar
  • D: Dalli; Dalmas; D'Amato; Darmanin; Debattista; Debono; Debrincat; Decelis; Degabriele; Degiovanni; Deguara; Delia; Delicata; Demanuele; Demicoli; Desira; Diacono; Dimech; Dingli
  • E: Ebejer; Ellul; Esposito; Engerer
  • F: Falzon; Farrugia; Fava; Fenech; Ferriggi; Filletti; Fleri Soler; Formosa; Francalanza; Frendo; Friggieri; Fsadni
  • G: Gafa'; Galdes; Galea; Gambin; Gatt; Gauci; Gerada; Ghigo; Ghirxi; Gonzi; Grech; Grillo; Grima; Griscti; Grixti; Gusman
  • H: Haber; Herrera; Hili; Hyzler
  • I: Imbroll; Incorvaia; Inglott
  • L: Laferla; Lanfranco; Lautier; Lewis; Lia
  • M: Magri; Magro; Mahoney; Mallia; Mamo; Manduca; Mangion; Marmara; Massa; Meilak; Meli; Mercieca; Micallef; Mifsud; Mintoff; Mizzi; Montebello; Montalto; Mugliett; Mula; Muscat; Musumeci
  • N: Nani; Naudi
  • P: Pace; Padovani; Palmier; Parascandolo; Paris; Parnis; Pavia; Penza; Pirotta; Pisani; Piscopo; Portelli; Privitelli; Psaila; Pule'; Pulis; Pullicino
  • Q: Quattromani; Quintano
  • R: Rapa; Rapinett; Refalo; Rizzo
  • S: Sacco; Said; Saidon; Salerno; Saliba; Sammut; Sant; Sapiano; Sapienza; Savona; Scerri; Sceberras; Schembri; Schiavone; Sciberras; Scicluna; Scriha; Seguna; Seychell; Spagnol; Spina; Spiteri; Stivala; Suda; Sultana
  • T: Tabone; Tanti; Tedesco; Testa; Theuma; Tonna; Trapani ;Troisi
  • V: Valletta; Vassallo; Vella
  • X: Xerri; Xuereb
  • Z: Zahra; Zammit; Zarb; Zerafa; Zrinzo

Mongolia

Mongolians do not use surnames in the way that most Westerners, Chinese or Japanese do. Since the socialist period, patronymics - then called ovog, now called etsgiin ner - are used instead of a surname. If the father's name is unknown, a matronymic is used. The patro- or matronymic is written before the given name. .Therefore, if a man with given name Tsakhia has a son, and gives the son the name Elbegdorj, the son's full name is Tsakhia Elbegdorj.^ Very common given name throughout Clan Donald, giving rise to many variations as last names.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

Very frequently, the patronymic is given in genitive case, i.e. Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj. However, the patronymic is rather insignificant in everyday use and usually just given as initial - Ts. Elbegdorj. People are normally just referred to and addressed by their given name (Elbegdorj guai - Mr. Elbegdorj), and if two people share a common given name, they are usually just kept apart by their initials, not by the full patronymic.
.Since 2000, Mongolians have been officially using clan names - ovog, the same word that had been used for the patronymics before - on their IDs.^ The name property, like all RDF properties with a range of rdfs:Literal, may be used with XMLLiteral datatyped values (multiple name s are acceptable whether they are in the same langauge or not).
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The term is derived from the name of the Indus River and has been in use in Greek since Plutarchus (1st century AD).
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Etymology of Aberdeen, Topic The Etymology of Aberdeen (which is the meaning / origin of the word) is that of the name first used for the city of Aberdeen, Scotland.
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many people chose the names of the ancient clans and tribes such Borjigin, Besud, Jalair, etc.^ Very common given name throughout Clan Donald, giving rise to many variations as last names.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

Also many extended families chose the names of the native places of their ancestors. Some chose the names of their most ancient known ancestor. .Some just decided to pass their own given names (or modifications of their given names) to their descendants as clan names.^ Given name - The given name of some person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

Some chose or other attributes of their lives as surnames. Gürragchaa chose Sansar (Cosmos). Clan names precede the patronymics and given names, i.e. Besud Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj.[17] In practice, these clan names seem to have had no really significant effect, and are not even included in Mongolian passports.

Netherlands (Holland)

Pakistan

.Pakistani surnames are basically divided in three categories: Arab naming convention, tribal names and ancestral names.^ The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Modern Judaism has three basic categories of faith: Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform/Liberal.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Family names indicating Arab ancestry, e.g. Shaikh, Siddiqui, Abbasi, Syed, Bukhari, Zaidi, Naqvi, Farooqi, Osmani, Alavi, Hassani, Hussaini, and Suhrawardi.
.People claiming Afghan ancestry include those with family names Khan, Suri etc.^ While foaf:name does not explicitly represent name substructure (family vs given etc.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

Family names indicating Turkish heritage include Mughal, Chughtai (this name is also an Arab Family name in Middle East) , Mirza, Baig or Beg, Pasha, and Barlas.
.People claiming Indian ancestry include those with family names Barelwi, Lakhnavi, Delhvi, Bilgrami etc.^ Names at the rank of family and below are subject to priority, whereas those above the rank of family (including, seemingly the rank of superfamily, currently a vague problem in the Code ) are not subject to the mandates of priority.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ While foaf:name does not explicitly represent name substructure (family vs given etc.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Originally the title of the Lords of the Isles, in the 16th century it started being used as a last name by those who could claim to be a "son of Donald".
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

.People claiming Iranian ancestry include those with family names Agha, Firdausi, Ghazali, Hamadani, Isfahani, Kashani, Kermani, Khorasani, Mir, Montazeri, Nishapuri, Noorani, Kayani, Qizilbash, Saadi, Sabzvari, Shirazi, Sistani, Yazdani, Zahedi, and Zand.^ Originally the title of the Lords of the Isles, in the 16th century it started being used as a last name by those who could claim to be a "son of Donald".
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Etymology of Kamboja, Topic Kamboja (or Kambuja) is the name of an ancient Indo-Iranian tribe who spoke a language in the Indo-European family of languages.
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Tribal names include Abro Afaqi, Afridi, Amini, Ashrafkhel, Awan, Bajwa, Baloch, Barakzai, Baranzai, Bhatti, Bhutto, Ranjha, Bijarani, Bizenjo, Brohi, Bugti, Butt, Detho, Gabol, Ghaznavi, Ghilzai, Gichki, Gujjar, Jakhrani, Jamali, Jamote, Janjua, Jatoi, Jutt Joyo, Junejo, Karmazkhel, Kayani, Khan, Khar, Khattak, Khuhro, Lakhani, Leghari, Lodhi, Magsi, Malik, Mandokhel(MAYO, Marwat, Mengal, Mughal , Palijo, Paracha, Panhwar, Popalzai, Qureshi, Rabbani, Raisani, Rakhshani,Swati, Soomro, Sulaimankhel, Talpur, Talwar, Thebo, Yousafzai, and Zamani.
In Pakistan the official paperwork format regarding personal identity is as follows;
So and so, son of so and so, of such and such tribe or clan and religion and resident of such and such place. For example, Amir Khan s/o Fakeer Khan, tribe Mughal Kayani or Chauhan Rajput, Follower of religion Islam, resident of Village Anywhere, Tehsil Anywhere, District.
A large number of Muslim Rajputs have retained their surnames such as Chauhan, Rathore, Parmar, Janjua, Bargujar, etc.

The Philippines

.Until the middle of the 19th century, there was no standardization of surnames in the Philippines.^ Until the middle of the 19th century, there was no standardization of surnames in the Philippines .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until there is a definite, there will be NO BaconLube™.
  • Family Name Fail « FAIL Blog: Epic Fail Pictures and Videos of Owned, Pwnd and Fail Moments 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC failblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until the middle of the 19th century, there was no standardization of surnames in the Philippines.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There were native Filipinos without surnames, others whose surnames deliberately did not match that of their families, as well as those who took certain surnames simply because they had a certain prestige, usually ones dealing with the Roman Catholic religion, such as de los Santos and de la Cruz.^ He is a son of George A. and Harriet E. (Hastings) Badger, who were natives of Massachusetts and representatives of old New England families.

^ Both names are conserved, that is they must be used over any other earlier family name, and because of this alternative status, the priority for Asteraceae dates back to 1789 even though it was not proposed formally until 1820.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The notion of 'creator' in the latest versions of Dublin Core matches FOAF's notion of 'maker'; based on their definitions, every pair of things that are related by one of those properties are also related by the other.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

In 1849, Governor-general Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa decreed an end to these arbitrary practices, the result of which was the Catálogo Alfabético de Apellidos ("Alphabetical Inventory of Surnames"). The book contained many words coming from Spanish and the Philippine languages such as Tagalog and many Basque surnames, such as Zuloaga or Aguirre.
In practice, the application of this decree varied from municipality to municipality. .Some municipalities received only surnames starting with a particular letter.^ Some municipalities received only surnames starting with a particular letter.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mexico, Honduras, Colombia, Peru, Chile, Venezuela), most people have two surnames, although in some situations only the first is used.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ México, Honduras, Colombia, Peru, Chile, Venezuela), most people have two surnames, although in some situations only the first is used.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example, the majority of residents of the island of Banton in the province of Romblon have surnames starting with F such as Fabicon, Fallarme, Fadrilan, and Ferran. Thus, although there perhaps a majority of Filipinos have Spanish surnames, such a surname does not always indicate Spanish ancestry.
.The vast majority of Filipinos follow a naming system which is the reverse of the Spanish one.^ The Portuguese position is the reverse of the Spanish one.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The vast majority of Filipinos follow a naming system which is the reverse of the Spanish one.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Greek and Roman women and slaves regularly bore but one name, followed, if necessary, by that of the person (father, husband, master, etc.

.Children take the mother's surname as their middle name, followed by their father's as their surname; for example, a son of Juan de la Cruz and his wife Maria Agbayani may be David Agbayani de la Cruz.^ For example, the president of Vietnam is Tran Duc LUONG. His surname is Tran, but he is referred to by his given name - President LUONG. .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following season obtained from Bishop Hamline, from whom it takes its name, the munificent sum of twenty-five thousand dollars.

.Women take the surnames of their husband upon marriage; so upon her marriage to David de la Cruz, the full name of Laura Yuchengco Macaraeg would become Laura Yuchengco Macaraeg de la Cruz.^ Basionyms validated by a diagnosis in Latin; family name validated by a diagnosis in Latin and a full and direct reference to Nelsonieae Nees in A. P. de Candolle & A. L. P. P. de Candolle, Prodr.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Find your surname in the table below and take note of the people who share an interest in the same names.

.There are other sources for surnames.^ There are other sources for surnames.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since Mark has also been an Askenazic surname in Eastern Europe, where English influence is out of the question, there must be at least one other explanation.
  • SURNAME ORIGINS AND/OR MEANINGS, KOLOMEA RESEARCH GROUP SURNAMES OF INTEREST 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Other sources of surnames are personal appearance or habit, e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many Filipinos also have Chinese-derived surnames, which in some cases could indicate Chinese ancestry. Many Hispanicised Chinese numerals and other Hispanicised Chinese words, however, were also among the surnames in the Catálogo Alfabético de Apellidos. .For those whose surname may indicate Chinese ancestry, analysis of the surname may help to pinpoint when those ancestors arrived in the Philippines.^ Those not Scots may be of Greek ancestry.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

A hispanicised Chinese surname such as Cojuangco suggests an 18th-century arrival while a Chinese surname such as Lim suggests a relatively recent immigration. Some Chinese surnames such as Tiu-Laurel are composed of the immigrant Chinese ancestor's surname as well as the name of that ancestor's godparent on receiving Christian baptism.
In the predominantly Muslim areas of the southern Philippines, adoption of surnames was influenced by connexions to that religion, its holy places, and prophets. As a result, surnames among Filipino Muslims are largely Arabic-based, and include such surnames as Hassan and Haradji.
.There are also Filipinos who, to this day, have no surnames at all, particularly if they come from indigenous cultural communities.^ The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, there’s an old saying that says, “people who spend their time boasting about what they are going to do?
  • Think Progress » Porn company names Gingrich ‘Family Values Porn Fan of the Year, 2009.’ 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like all FOAF properties, there is in general no requirement to use gender in any particular document or description.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

Unique Spanish family names in the Philippines

.Prior to the establishment of the Philippines as a US territory during the earlier part of the 20th century, Filipinos usually followed Iberian naming customs.^ The romanization of personal names in the Factbook normally follows the same transliteration system used by the US Board on Geographic Names for spelling place names.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, upon the promulgation of the Family Code of 1987, Filipinos begin to adopt the American system of using their surnames.
A common Filipino name will consist of the given name (mostly 2 given names are given), the initial letter of the mother's maiden name and finally the father's surname (i.e. Lucy Anne C. de Guzman). .Also, women are allowed to retain their maiden name or use both her and her husband's surname, separated by a dash.^ OWL encourages vocabularies to avoid using a single named property in both 'ObjectProperty' and 'DataTypeProperty' styles.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

This is common in feminist circles or when the woman hold a prominent office (e.g. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Miriam Defensor-Santiago). In more traditional circles, especially those who belong to the prominent families in the provinces, the custom of the woman being addressed as Mrs. Husband's Full Name is still common.
.For widows, who chose to marry again, two norms are in existence.^ Two years later Mr. Benton came to Minneapolis, where he was married to Jeanette Graham of this city, who bore him two children, Christine and Harry.

^ In 1854 he married Mrs. Sarah Hopkins, widow of a missionary who was drowned in the Minnesota river at St. Peter.

.For those who were widowed before the Family Code, the full name of the woman remains while the surname of the deceased husband is attached.^ The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their witnesses were Peter Blesi, his brother, and William Blesi a distant cousin from another family line who later on settled in Renwick, IA. and changed his last name to Blesie.

^ Name of a heroic king of ancient Iran who flourished centuries before Zarathushtra.
  • Avesta names; Old Persian names; Parsi names; Irani Zoroastrian names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.avesta.org [Source type: Original source]

That is, Maria Andres, who was widowed by Ignacio Dimaculangan will have the name Maria Andres viuda de Dimaculangan. If she chooses to marry again, this name will still continue to exist while the surname of the new husband is attached. .That, if Maria marries Rene de los Santos, her new name will be Maria Andres viuda de Dimaculangan de los Santos.^ Etymology of Brazil, Topic The first names used for the new-found-land were Ilha de Vera Cruz ("Vera Cruz Island") and Terra de Santa Cruz ("Santa Cruz Land").
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, a new norm is also in existence. .The woman may choose to use her husband's surname to be one of her middle names.^ The name property, like all RDF properties with a range of rdfs:Literal, may be used with XMLLiteral datatyped values (multiple name s are acceptable whether they are in the same langauge or not).
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ XML language tagging may be used to indicate the language of the name.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

Thus, Maria Andres viuda de Dimaculangan de los Santos may also be called Maria A.D. de los Santos.
Children will however automatically inherit their father's surname if they are considered legitimate. If the child is born outside wedlock, the mother will automatically pass her surname to the child, unless the father gives a written acknowledgment of paternity. The father may also choose to give the child both his parents' surnames if he wishes (that is Gustavo Paredes, whose parents are Eulogio Paredes and Juliana Angeles, while having Maria Solis as a wife, may name his child Kevin S. Angeles-Paredes.
In some Tagalog regions, the norm of giving patronyms, or in some cases matronyms, are also accepted. .These names are of course not official, since family names in the Philippines are inherited.^ Of course, both of these authors applied the name differently from Kützing (Linnaea 17: 98.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

It is not uncommon to refer to someone as Juan anak ni Pablo (John, the son of Pablo) or Juan apo ni Teofilo (John, the grandson of Theophilus).

Romania

.In Romania, like in most of Europe, a child inherits his father's family name, and a wife takes her husband's last name.^ Basionyms validated by a description in Latin; family name validated by a reference to the basionym or more likely to Icacineae Benth.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Their witnesses were Peter Blesi, his brother, and William Blesi a distant cousin from another family line who later on settled in Renwick, IA. and changed his last name to Blesie.

There are however exceptions.
.Until the 19th century, the names were primarily of the form "[given name] [father's name] [grandfather's name]". The few exceptions are usually famous people or the nobility (boyars).^ Democracy - a form of government in which the supreme power is retained by the people, but which is usually exercised indirectly through a system of representation and delegated authority periodically renewed.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The name reform introduced around 1850, had the names changed to a western style, most likely imported from France, consisting of a given name followed by a family name.^ While foaf:name does not explicitly represent name substructure (family vs given etc.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Basionyms validated by a description in Latin; family name validated by a reference to the basionym or more likely to Icacineae Benth.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Their witnesses were Peter Blesi, his brother, and William Blesi a distant cousin from another family line who later on settled in Renwick, IA. and changed his last name to Blesie.

.As such, the name is called prenume (French prénom), while the family name is called nume or, when otherwise ambiguous, nume de familie ("family name").^ Usually, such family names are derived from nicknames.
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Although not mandatory, middle names are common.
.Historically, when the family name reform was introduced in the mid 19th century, the default was to use a patronym, or a matronym when the father was dead or unknown.^ NOTE: If this family is united with Hippocrateaceae , the name Celastraceae must be used.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The checklist is arranged in five parts: (a) the main listing with all names arranged alphabetically, (b) a listing by rank , (c) a listing by date of publication , (d) a listing by author and date , and (e) family names in current use .
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ NOTE: If this family is united with Corylaceae , the name Betulaceae must be used.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

The typical derivation was to append the suffix -escu to the father's name, e.g. Anghelescu ("Anghel's child") and Petrescu ("Petre's child"). (The -escu seems to come from Latin -iscum, thus being cognate with Italian -esco and French -esque.) .The other common derivation was to append the suffix -eanu to the name of the place of origin, especially when one came from a different region, e.g.^ The first section is an alphabetical listing of all names with details as to place of publication, original orthography, means of validation, and type information.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It includes a listing of various alternate names, former names, local names, and regional names referenced to one or more related Factbook entries.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I’ve emailed TP including the time he jacked my name and a few other especially disgusting/disturbing posts.
  • Think Progress » Porn company names Gingrich ‘Family Values Porn Fan of the Year, 2009.’ 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Munteanu ("from the mountains") and Moldoveanu ("from Moldova"). These uniquely Romanian suffixes strongly identify ancestral nationality.
.There are also descriptive family names derived from occupations, nicknames, and events, e.g.^ Usually, such family names are derived from nicknames.
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Botezatu ("baptised"), Barbu ("bushy bearded"), Prodan ("foster"), Bălan ("blond"), Fieraru ("smith"), Croitoru ("tailor"), "Păcuraru" ("shepherd").
.Romanian family names remain the same regardless of the sex of the person.^ Name - The family name of some person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The family name of some person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The genus was named Tanna until 2006, when it had to be replaced due to a conflict with a genus of the same name in the Homopteran family Cicadidae, Tanna...
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although given names appear before family names in most Romanian contexts, official documents invert the order, ostensibly for filing purposes.^ While foaf:name does not explicitly represent name substructure (family vs given etc.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Throughout his life time in census, military records, deeds and documents, his name appears as E. S. Barnes or Elbridge S. Barnes.

Correspondingly, Romanians occasionally introduce themselves with their family names first, e.g. a student signing a test paper in school.
Romanians bearing names of non-Romanian origin often adopt Romanianised versions of their ancestral surnames, such as Jurovschi for Polish Żurowski, which preserves the original pronunciation of the surname through transliteration. .In some cases, these changes were mandated by the state.^ These serve as as a shorthand for some common cases; their use may not always be appropriate.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

[18]

Turkey

.In Turkey, following the Surname Law imposed in 1934 in context of Atatürk's Reforms, every family living in Turkey were given a family name.^ The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Historically, parenthetical authors were not given, but over the past fifty years or so names at and above the rank of family had parenthetical authors cited when an author altered the rank of a taxon simply by citing the older name.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Family and suprafamilial names are reconsidered following changes made at the 2005 Botanical Congress held in Vienna, Austria.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

.The surname was generally selected by the elderly people of the family and could be any Turkish word (or a permitted word for families belonging to official minority groups).^ In other words, generic OWL technology gets us most of the way, but the full Group machinery requires extra work for implimentors.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

.The most common family names in Turkey are 'Yılmaz' (means "undaunted"), 'Doğan' (falcon), 'Şahin' (hawk), 'Yıldırım' (thunderbolt), 'Şimşek' (Lightning), Öztürk (means "genuinely Turkish").^ The most common example of this was the early use of the rank of "section" at a time when there was little agreement as to the title of the rank below that of family or subfamily.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An indirect reference can be a scientific name and author (the most common sort), or a discussion somewhere in the text that alludes to a particular system of classification the author is following.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

Some surnames include patronymic suffixes like 'oğlu' (meaning "son of") and 'zade' (originally Persian, meaning "son of"). However, these do not necessarily refer to ancestry or in most cases can not be traced back historically. 'ov/ova', 'yev/yeva' and 'zade' can be found as a suffix in the surnames of Azeri or other Turkic descendants.
Official minorities like Armenians, Greeks, and Jews have surnames in their own mother languages. The Armenian families living in Turkey usually have Armenian surnames and generally have the patronymic 'yan' ('ian'). .Likewise, Greek descendants also usually have Greek surnames which might have Greek patronyms like 'oglou' (From the Turkish suffix for "son of", used for both genders), 'ou', 'akis/aki', 'poulos/poulou', 'idis/idou', 'iadis/iadou' or prefixes like 'papa' or 'kara' (From the Turkish word for "black").^ Like all FOAF properties, there is in general no requirement to use gender in any particular document or description.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

The Sephardic Jews who were expelled from Spain and settled in Turkey in 1492 have apart from Jewish/Hebrew surnames, also surnames in Spanish, usually indicating their native regions, cities or villages back in Spain like 'de leon' or 'toledano'.
However these minorities increasingly tend to "Turkicize" their surnames or replace their original surnames with Turkish surnames altogether to avoid being recognized and discriminated against.

By region

regions of Chinese-character cultural sphere

.In Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese cultures, the family name is placed before the given names.^ The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While foaf:name does not explicitly represent name substructure (family vs given etc.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

.So the terms "first name" and "last name" are generally not used, as they do not in this case denote the given and family names.^ The name property, like all RDF properties with a range of rdfs:Literal, may be used with XMLLiteral datatyped values (multiple name s are acceptable whether they are in the same langauge or not).
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Due to the highly structured nature of the Factbook database, some collective generic terms have to be used.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN).
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Chinese family names have many types of origins, dating back as early as pre-Qin era (i.e., before 221 BCE):
.In history, some changed their surnames due to a naming taboo (from Zhuang 莊 to Yan 嚴 during the era of Liu Zhuang 劉莊) or as an award by the Emperor(Li was often to senior officers during Tang Dynasty).^ The names of ranks often change with language.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

.In modern days, some Chinese adopt a Western given name in addition to their original given names, e.g.^ Given name - The given name of some person.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ They are generally classified into four groups, based on the origin of a nickname: given names, job designations, bodily attributes, and geographical...
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ancient Romans used the name Africa terra --- "land of the Afri" (plural, or "Afer" singular) --- for the northern part of the continent, corresponding to modern-day Tunisia.
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lee Chu-ming (李柱銘) adopted the Western name Martin, which can often be used as a nickname of Chu-ming.^ The nick property relates a Person to a short (often abbreviated) nickname, such as those use in IRC chat, online accounts, and computer logins.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

The adopted Western name can be put in front of their Chinese name, e.g. Martin LEE Chu-ming. .In addition, many people with Chinese names have non-Chinese first names which are commonly used.^ The givenName property is provided (alongside familyName ) for use when describing parts of people's names.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The familyName property is provided (alongside givenName ) for use when describing parts of people's names.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The concepts of 'first' and 'last' names do not work well across cultural and linguistic boundaries; however they are widely used in addressbooks and databases.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

Sometimes, the Chinese name becomes used as a "middle name", e.g. .Martin Chu-ming Lee, or even used a "last name", e.g.^ The concepts of 'first' and 'last' names do not work well across cultural and linguistic boundaries; however they are widely used in addressbooks and databases.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ What is only indirectly stated in the Code is that one may use an effectively published description or diagnosis associated even with a name at a misplaced rank.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Even among non-conserved names, the oldest available name must be used regardless of the current acceptance of its generic type.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

Lee Chu-ming Martin. .Chinese names used in Western countries may be rearranged when written to avoid misunderstanding, e.g.^ The name property, like all RDF properties with a range of rdfs:Literal, may be used with XMLLiteral datatyped values (multiple name s are acceptable whether they are in the same langauge or not).
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In that case selection of a name should be based used on current use so as to avoid nomenclatural confusion.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ XML language tagging may be used to indicate the language of the name.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

cellist Yo-Yo Ma. .However, some well-known Chinese names remain in the traditional order even in English literature, e.g.^ Sep 1829, validated by a description in English; probably published before Dumortier but the traditional attribution of the name to Dumortier is retained as long as the Dumortier can not be more exactly dated.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, when writing in Latin, they assigned the same names the Latin ranks of family (or natural order) and tribe.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The concepts of 'first' and 'last' names do not work well across cultural and linguistic boundaries; however they are widely used in addressbooks and databases.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

.Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Zedong, Yao Ming (Note that the name on the back of Yao Ming's NBA jersey is "Yao," rather than "Ming," as the former is his family name).^ NOTE: If this family is united with Hippocrateaceae , the name Celastraceae must be used.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ NOTE: If this family is united with Corylaceae , the name Betulaceae must be used.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Our use of the name 'FOAF' for a Web vocabulary and document format is intended to complement, rather than replace, these prior uses.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

.Most people from mainland China stick with their own national standard to present their names.^ The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4217 alphabetic currency code for the national medium of exchange is presented in parenthesis.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are approximately 96,725 people in the United States with the first name Lindsay, which makes it the 536th most popular first name in the United States.
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, in all Olympic events all the PRC athletes' names are presented in the Chinese ordering even when they are spelled out phonetically in Latin alphabets.^ The name property, like all RDF properties with a range of rdfs:Literal, may be used with XMLLiteral datatyped values (multiple name s are acceptable whether they are in the same langauge or not).
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Etymology (The Language of Love), Musical Track Latin spelling and pronunciation, Topic The Roman alphabet or Latin alphabet was adapted from an Etruscan alphabet, to represent the phonemes of the Latin language.
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chinese athletes from other countries, especially those on the US team, use the Western ordering.^ ObjectProperty ObjectProperty is OWL's name for those properties which are not textually-expressed; instead, they are used when mentioning or referring to some other thing.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Mormons have a hierarchical religious leadership structure, and actively proselytize their faith; they are located primarily in the Americas and in a number of other Western countries.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

So the non-compliance to the Western ordering is a matter of cultural convention and also a national standard adopted by PRC.
.Vietnamese names are generally stated in East Asian order (family name first) even when writing in English.^ Basionyms validated by a description in English; family name validated by a reference Phareae Hubb.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Basionyms validated by a description in English; family name validated by a full and direct reference to the basionym.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Basionym validated by a diagnosis in French; family name validated by a diagnosis in English and a reference to the basionym.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

.In English writings originating from non-English cultures (e.g.^ In English writings originating from non-English cultures (e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.English newspapers in China), the family name is often written with all capital letters to avoid being mistaken as a middle name, e.g.^ Basionyms validated by a description in English; family name validated by a reference Phareae Hubb.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Basionym validated by a diagnosis in French; family name validated by a diagnosis in English and a reference to the basionym.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Laurence Yee-ming KWONG or using small capitals, as Laurence KWONG Yee-ming or with a comma, as AKUTAGAWA, Ryūnosuke to make clear which name is the family name.^ The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NOTE: If this family is united with Hippocrateaceae , the name Celastraceae must be used.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The checklist is arranged in five parts: (a) the main listing with all names arranged alphabetically, (b) a listing by rank , (c) a listing by date of publication , (d) a listing by author and date , and (e) family names in current use .
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

Such practice is particularly common in mass-media reporting international events like the Olympic Games. The CIA World Factbook stated that "The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of [their] users who are faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions". For example, Leslie Cheung Kwok Wing who is actually Mr.Cheung might be mistaken as Mr. Wing by readers unaware of Chinese naming conventions.
.Vietnamese family names present an added complication.^ Vietnamese family names present an added complication.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vietnamese names are generally stated in East Asian order (family name first) even when writing in English.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At present day in Spain, women upon marrying keep their two family names intact.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Like Chinese family names, they are placed at the beginning of a name, but unlike Chinese names, they are not usually the primary form of address.^ Like Chinese family names, they are placed at the beginning of a name, but unlike Chinese names, they are not usually the primary form of address.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A metathetic form of the family name Turnbull.
  • Ulster Ancestry : A Sample of Irish Family Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.ulsterancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first section of this Directory lists name, full address, occupation, and place of employment, for people from all walks of life in Jamaica.

.Rather, people will be referred to by their given name, usually accompanied by an honorific.^ Rather, people will be referred to by their given name, usually accompanied by an honorific.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second was usually the name of the godfather or godmother, while the third and last given name was the name used in everyday situations.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Others, such as Muhammad Ali and Malcolm X , changed their name rather than live with one given to their ancestors by a slave owner.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example, Phan Van Khai is properly addressed as Mr. Khai, even though Phan is his family name. .This pattern contrasts with that of most other East Asian naming conventions.^ Besides its modern Turkish name, the most notable are Byzantium, Constantinople and Stamboul, but there are also others.
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In Japan, the civil law forces a common surname for every married couple, unless in a case of international marriage. In most cases, women surrender their surnames upon marriage, and use the surnames of their husbands. .However, a convention that a man uses his wife's family name if the wife is an only child is sometimes observed.^ Also, many royal families do not use family names.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of family names varies among cultures.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, a convention that a man uses his wife's family name if the wife is an only child is sometimes observed.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A similar tradition called ru zhui (入贅) is common among Chinese when the bride's family is wealthy and has no son but wants the heir to pass on their assets under the same family name.^ Chinese when the bride's family is wealthy and has no son but wants the heir to pass on their assets under the same family name.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A similar tradition called ru zhui (å ¥è´ ) is common among Chinese when the bride's family is wealthy and has no son but wants the heir to pass on their assets under the same family name.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A similar tradition called ru zhui (??
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Chinese character zhui (贅) carries a money radical (貝), which implies that this tradition was originally based on financial reasons. .All their offspring carry the mother's family name.^ The checklist is arranged in five parts: (a) the main listing with all names arranged alphabetically, (b) a listing by rank , (c) a listing by date of publication , (d) a listing by author and date , and (e) family names in current use .
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What is presented here is a checklist of all validly published names of extant vascular plants at the rank of family and above (with the exception of suborders proposed on or after 1 Jan 1900).
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

If the groom is the first born with an obligation to carry his own ancestor's name, a compromise may be reached in that the first male child carries the mother's family name while subsequent offspring carry the father's family name. The tradition is still in use in many Chinese communities outside of mainland China, but largely disused in China because of social changes from communism. Due to the economic reform in the past decade, accumulation and inheritance of personal wealth made a come back to the Chinese society. It is unknown if this financially motivated tradition would also come back to mainland China.
.In Chinese, Korean, and Singaporean cultures, women keep their own surnames, while the family as a whole is referred to by the surnames of the husbands.^ The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In Hong Kong, some women would be known to the public with the surnames of their husbands preceding their own surnames, such as Anson Chan Fang On Sang. .Anson is an English given name, On Sang is the given name in Chinese, Chan is the surname of Anson's husband, and Fang is her own surname.^ Some Chinese add an English given name in front of their Chinese name, e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anson is an English given name, On Sang is the given name in Chinese, Chan is the surname of Anson's husband, and Fang is her own surname.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anglicization of many surnames has been so thorough that bona-fide Irish names such as Crockwell and Harrington appear 100% English.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A name change on legal documents is not necessary. In Hong Kong's English publications, her family names would have been presented in small cap letters to resolve ambiguity, e.g. Anson CHAN FANG On Sang in full or simply Anson Chan in short form.
.In Macau, some people have their names in Portuguese spelt with some Portuguese style, such as Carlos do Rosario Tchiang[19].^ Some such groups may have associated characteristics which could be captured in RDF (perhaps a homepage , name , mailing list etc.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

^ While some names such as "Angiospermae" have a generally understood meaning today, its circumscription as applied by Crantz (Strip.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although these concepts do not capture the full range of personal naming styles found world-wide, they are commonly used and have some value.
  • FOAF Vocabulary Specification 2 February 2010 17:29 UTC xmlns.com [Source type: Reference]

.Chinese women in Canada, especially Hongkongers in Toronto, would preserve their maiden names before the surnames of their husbands when written in English, for instance Rosa Chan Leung, where Chan is the maiden name, and Leung is the surname of the husband.^ Sep 1829, validated by a description in English; probably published before Dumortier but the traditional attribution of the name to Dumortier is retained as long as the Dumortier can not be more exactly dated.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Validation of family and suprafamilial names is not easy, especially for names proposed before 1 Jan 1935 when Art.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

In Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese, surnames are predominantly monosyllabic (written with one character), though a small number of common disyllabic (or written with two characters) surnames exists (e.g. the Chinese name Ouyang, the Korean name Jegal and the Vietnamese name Phan-Tran).
Many Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese surnames are of the same origin, but simply pronounced differently and even transliterated differently overseas in Western nations. For example, the common Chinese surnames Chen, Chan, Chin, Cheng and Tan, the Korean surname Jin, as well as the Vietnamese surname Trần are often all the same exact character 陳. The common Korean surname Kim is also the common Chinese surname Jin, and written 金. .The common Mandarin surnames Lin or Lim (林) is also one and the same as the common Cantonese or Vietnamese surname Lam and Korean family name Lim (written/pronounced as Im in South Korea).^ One son settled in Ulster, another to USA. Same details by widely separated branches of the family lend credence to this family tradition.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only one known family of this name and no more than 1 in 720 Reynolds originally had a Mac prefix.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

Interestingly, there are people with the surname of Hayashi (林) in Japan too. The common Chinese surname 李, translated to English as Lee, is, in Chinese, the same character but transliterated as Li according to pinyin convention. Lee is also a common surname of Koreans, and the character is identical.

Scandinavia

In Scandinavia family names often, but certainly not always, originate from a patronymic. In Sweden, the patronymic ending is -son, e.g. .Karlsson ("Karl's son").^ For example, when a man called Karl has a daughter called Anna and a son called Magnús , their names will be Anna Karlsdóttir ("daughter of Karl") and Magnús Karlsson ("son of Karl").
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, when a man called Karl has a daughter called Anna and a son called Magnús, their names will be Anna Karlsdóttir ("daughter of Karl") and Magnús Karlsson ("son of Karl").
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Karlsson ("Karl's son").
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Denmark and Norway, the corresponding ending is -sen, as in Karlsen.^ In Denmark and Norway , the corresponding ending is - sen , as in Karlsen .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Denmark and Norway, the corresponding ending is -sen, as in Karlsen.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Names ending with dotter/datter (daughter), such as Olofsdotter, are rare but occurring, and only apply to females. .Today, the patronymic names are passed on similarly to family names in other Western countries, and a person's father doesn't have to be called Karl if he or she has the surname Karlsson.^ A family name, surname, or last name is the part of a person's name that indicates to what family he or she belongs.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A family name , surname , or last name is the part of a person's name that indicates to what family he or she belongs.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A full Russian name consists of personal (given) name, patronymic, and family name (surname).
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, in 2006 Denmark reinstated patronymic and matronymic surnames as an option[20]. Thus, parents Karl Larsen and Anna Hansen can name a son Karlssøn or Annasøn and a daughter Karlsdatter or Annasdatter.
.Before the 19th century there was the same system in Scandinavia as in Iceland today.^ Before the 19th century there was the same system in Scandinavia as in Iceland today.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the first known instance of a woman keeping her birth name, Lucy Stone in the 19th century, there has been a general increase in the rate of women keeping their original name.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until the middle of the 19th century, there was no standardization of surnames in the Philippines.
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Noble families, however, as a rule adopted a family name, which could refer to a presumed or real forefather (e.g.^ However, the country has very strict rules on family names.

^ Noble families, however, as a rule adopted a family name, which could refer to a presumed or real forefather (e.g.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the country has very (7) ____ rules on family names.

Earl Birger Magnusson Folkunge[citation needed] ) or to the family's coat of arms (e.g. King Gustav Eriksson Vasa). .In many surviving family noble names, such as Silfversparre ("silver chevron"; in modern spelling, Silver-) or Stiernhielm ("star-helmet"; in modernized spelling, stjärnhjälm), the spelling is obsolete, but since it applies to a name, remains unchanged.^ In 1859, came with his family to his claim in Plymouth, where he has since remained, and now has a pleasant home.

^ While some names such as "Angiospermae" have a generally understood meaning today, its circumscription as applied by Crantz (Strip.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Until the Vienna Botanical Congress, such names were treated as natural orders (= families; see Art.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

(Some names from relatively modern times also use archaic or otherwise aberrant spelling as a stylistic trait; e.g. -quist pro -kvist "twig" or -grén pro -gren, "branch".)
.Later on, people from the Scandinavian middle classes, particularly artisans and town dwellers, adopted names in a similar fashion to that of the nobility.^ Later on, people from the Scandinavian middle classes, particularly artisans and town dwellers, adopted names in a similar fashion to that of the nobility.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a surname was the name of a common thing, the name of a place, a first name, or simply they were old fashioned, then they often added a de (of), which is similar to the German von or the Dutch van .
  • Reference: Spanish Naming Conventions, Family Names, Given Names, Common Names, Nicknames - Tarver-Gen: Tarver Family Research & Allied Families (Genealogy) 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.tarver-genealogy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In English-, Dutch-, German-, French- and Scandinavian-speaking countries, people often have two or more given names, and the family name goes at the end.
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Family names joining two elements from nature such as the Swedish Bergman, Holmberg ("island mountain"), Lindgren ("linden branch"), Sandström and Åkerlund ("field meadow") were quite frequent and remain common today.^ Usually, such family names are derived from nicknames.
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The same is true for similar Norwegian and Danish names.^ The same is true for similar Norwegian and Danish names.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even more important a driver of change was the need, for administrative purposes, to develop a system under which each individual had a "stable" name - a name that followed the person from birth till the end.^ Names proposed by two or more authors should be sought in the listing under the first author's name.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An indirect reference can be a scientific name and author (the most common sort), or a discussion somewhere in the text that alludes to a particular system of classification the author is following.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Family and suprafamilial names are reconsidered following changes made at the 2005 Botanical Congress held in Vienna, Austria.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

.In the old days, people would be known by their name, patronymic and the farm they lived at.^ From 1862 - 1872 they lived in St. Paul, but returned at the latter date and have since lived in their old home.

.This last element would change if a person got a new job, bought a new farm, or otherwise came to live somewhere else.^ He bought the farm, in 1867, where he now lives.

^ He lived there until 1877, then moved to Boston, Massachusetts, for two years, thence to New York; he then came to Hennepin county and settled in 1880.

^ Came to Minnesota in 1852, and worked with his father on the farm, then bought the one on which he now lives.

.(This is part of the origin, in this part of the world, of the custom of women changing their names upon marriage.^ It is the original, which then gave its name to other Aberdeens around the world as Aberdonians left Scotland to settle in the New World and other colonies.
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Originally it indicated, basically, a change of address, and from older times, there are numerous examples of men doing the same thing).^ The most common example of this was the early use of the rank of "section" at a time when there was little agreement as to the title of the rank below that of family or subfamily.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

.The many patronymic names may derive from the fact that people who moved from the country to the cities, also gave up the name of the farm they came from.^ Some MacColls may derive from this name.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Names of many computer terms, especially computer applications, often relate to the function they perform, e.g., a compiler is an...
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two years later Mr. Benton came to Minneapolis, where he was married to Jeanette Graham of this city, who bore him two children, Christine and Harry.

.As a worker, you passed by your father's name, and this name passed on to the next generation as a family name.^ At the family level, and below, priority rests upon the date of publication and conservation, not upon whether the type of the name (a generic name) is currently recognized.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

Einar Gerhardsen, the Norwegian prime minister, used a true patronym, as his father was named Gerhard Olsen (Gerhard, the son of Ola). Gerhardsen passed his own patronym on to his children as a family name. This has been common in many working class families. The tradition of keeping the farm name as a family name got stronger during the first half of the 20th century in Norway.
.These names often indicated the place of residence of the family.^ These names often indicated the place of residence of the family.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During these times, often only aristocratic families had family names.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Family names indicating Turkish heritage include Mughal, Mirza, Baig or Beg, Pasha , and Barlas .
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For this reason, Denmark and Norway have a very high incidence of last names derived from those of farms, many signified by the suffixes like -bø, -rud, -stuen, -løkken (these being examples from Norway) or even more predominantly -gaard -- the modern spelling is gård in Danish and has changed to gard in Norwegian, but as in Sweden, archaic spelling persists in surnames.^ NMT - Nordic Mobile Telephone; an analog cellular telephone system that was developed jointly by the national telecommunications authorities of the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden).
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their witnesses were Peter Blesi, his brother, and William Blesi a distant cousin from another family line who later on settled in Renwick, IA. and changed his last name to Blesie.

^ Spellings are normally, but not always, those approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN).
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The most well-known example of this kind of surname is probably Kierkegaard (combined by the words "kirke/kierke" (= church) and "gaard" (= farm) meaning "the farm located by the Church" [21]. .It is, however, a common misunderstading that the name relates to its direct translation: churchyard/cemetery), but many others could be cited.^ We Finns are so used to our names that their quality doesn't become apparent until they are translated to some other language.
  • Finnish last names - Teppo Pihlajamäki 17 September 2009 10:58 UTC teppo.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ If a validating description or diagnosis was given along with the direct or indirect citation of an earlier validly published name, then the parenthetical author was not cited.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

.It should also be noted that, since the names in question are derived from the original owners' domiciles, the possession of this kind of name is no longer an indicator of affinity with others who bear it.^ It should also be noted that, since the names in question are derived from the original owners' domiciles, the possession of this kind of name is no longer an indicator of affinity with others who bear it.
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We have two other sisters whos names are 1.
  • A Family Runs Through It: Weird Baby Names 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.pkmeco.com [Source type: General]

^ Place names or names derived from places of ancestral origin (Marwari, Gawaskar, Mangeshkar, Kapoor, Karnad).
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In many cases, names were taken from the nature around them. In Norway, for instance, there is an abundancy of surnames based on coastal geography, with suffixes like -strand, -øy, -holm, -vik, -fjord or -nes. .A family name such as Dahlgren is derived from "dahl" meaning valley and "gren" meaning branch; or similarly Upvall meaning "upper-valley"; It depends on the Scandinavian country, language, and dialect.^ While some names such as "Angiospermae" have a generally understood meaning today, its circumscription as applied by Crantz (Strip.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Until the Vienna Botanical Congress, such names were treated as natural orders (= families; see Art.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

Basque Country

Slavic countries

Slavic countries are noted for having masculine and feminine versions for many (but not all) of their names. Most of their surnames have suffixes which are found in varying degrees over the different nations. (Of course, many other names do not have suffixes at all.)
.Note: the following list does not take regional spelling variations into account.^ Diseases are organized into the following six exposure categories shown in italics and listed in typical descending order of risk .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It includes a listing of various alternate names, former names, local names, and regional names referenced to one or more related Factbook entries.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note: The sequence of exposure categories listed in individual country entries may vary according to local conditions.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • -ov / -ev (-ova/-eva): Russia, Bulgaria (sometimes as -iv), Serbia, Croatia (sometimes as -iv); this has been adopted by many non-Slavic peoples of Central Asia who are or have been under Russian rule, such as the Kyrgyz, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, etc. Note that -ev is the soft form of -ov, found after palatalized consonants or sibilants. In English, -ev is also erroneously written after ch, even though it is pronounced -ov (Gorbachev, Khrushchev, etc.)
  • -sky (-ska), -ski (-ska), -skiy (-skaya): Poland, Ukraine, Czech Republic, Russia, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Macedonia.
  • Note that these first two can be combined: -ovsky (-ovska): Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Ukraine.
  • -ich, -vich, -vych, -ovich: ex-Yugoslavia (Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia, Macedonia), Belarus, Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine, Russia, occasionally Bulgaria. Yugoslav ex.: Petrović, means Petar's son. In Russia, where patronyms are used, a person would have two -(ov)ich names in a row; first the patronym, then the family name (see Shostakovich).
  • -in (-ina): Russia, Serbia, Bulgaria
  • -ko, -nko, -enko: Ukraine, -enkov (-enkova): Russified of Ukrainian origin
  • -ak/-ek/-ik (-akova/-ekova/-ikova): Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Belarus, Slovenia, Croatia
  • -uk, -yuk: Ukraine
  • -ski: Macedonia, Serbia, Bulgaria
If the name has no suffix, it may or may not have a feminine version. Sometimes it has the ending changed (such as the addition of -a). .In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, suffixless names, such as those of German origin, are feminized by adding -ová (for example, Schusterová), but this is not done in neighboring Poland, where feminine versions are used only for -ski (-ska) names (this includes -cki and -dzki, which are phonetically -ski preceded by a t or d respectively) and for other adjectival surnames.^ This entry includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The same system of capitalization is extended to the names of leaders with surnames that are not commonly used such as Queen ELIZABETH II. For Vietnamese names, the given name is capitalized because officials are referred to by their given name rather than by their surname.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The logic behind this traditional view was that such writers (a) adopted natural order or family names others established previously at the rank, (b) attributed those names to their validating authors, (c) occasionally noted their places of publication, and (d) only occasionally subdivided their orders into families at which time they ascribed names (and authorships) established previously by others at the rank of tribe.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

Czech Republic

.Names of Czech people consist of given name (rodné jméno) and surname (příjmení).^ For example, the president of Vietnam is Tran Duc LUONG. His surname is Tran, but he is referred to by his given name - President LUONG. .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People with the given name...
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Usage of the second or middle name is not common. .Females' names are usually derived from males' ones by a suffix -ová (Nováková) or for names being originally adjectives (Veselá), sometimes with a little change of original name's ending (Sedláčková from Sedláček or Svobodová from Svoboda).^ Clan Donald Budges derive from MacDonalds from Skye who fled to Caithness and changed their names.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Only one known family of this name and no more than 1 in 720 Reynolds originally had a Mac prefix.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Originally the title of the Lords of the Isles, in the 16th century it started being used as a last name by those who could claim to be a "son of Donald".
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

.Women change their family names when they get married.^ Their witnesses were Peter Blesi, his brother, and William Blesi a distant cousin from another family line who later on settled in Renwick, IA. and changed his last name to Blesie.

^ The full extent of the changes below the rank of family is unknown and a thorough review of the literature is now required to ascertain the validity of names at the ranks of subfamily, tribe and subtribe.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Family and suprafamilial names are reconsidered following changes made at the 2005 Botanical Congress held in Vienna, Austria.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

Deriving women's names from foreigners' names is often problematic since foreign names do not suit Czech language rules.
The family names are usually nouns (Svoboda, Král, Růžička, Dvořák, Beneš), adjectives (Novotný, Černý, Veselý) or past participles of verbs (Pospíšil). .There is also a couple of names with more complicated origin which are actually complete sentences (Skočdopole, Hrejsemnou or Vítámvás).^ Only one known family of this name and no more than 1 in 720 Reynolds originally had a Mac prefix.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

The most common Czech family name is Novák / Nováková.

Russia

.A full Russian name consists of personal (given) name, patronymic, and family name (surname).^ Basionyms validated by a diagnosis in Latin; family name validated by a description in Latin and a full and direct reference to the basionym.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Basionyms validated by a diagnosis in German in a key; family name validated by a full and direct reference to the basionym and proposed as an avowed substitute (Art.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

.Most Russian family names originated from patronymics, that is, father's name usually formed by adding the adjective suffix -ov(a) or -ev(a)).^ Usually, such family names are derived from nicknames.
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contemporary patronymics, however, have a substantive suffix -ich for masculine and the adjective suffix -na for feminine.
For example, the proverbial triad of most common Russian surnames follows:
  • Ivanov (son of Ivan),
  • Petrov (son of Petr),
  • Sidorov (son of Sidor).
Feminine forms of these surnames have the ending -a:
  • Ivanova (daughter of Ivan),
  • Petrova (daughter of Petr),
  • Sidorova (daughter of Sidor).
.Such a pattern of name formation is not unique to Russia or even to the Eastern and Southern Slavs in general; quite common are also names derived from professions, places of origin, and personal characteristics, with various suffixes (e.g.^ Very common given name throughout Clan Donald, giving rise to many variations as last names.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

-in(a) and -sky (-skaia)).
Professions:
  • kuznets (smith) → KuznetsovKuznetsova
  • portnoi (tailor) → PortnovPortnova
  • pastukh (shepherd) → PastukhovPastukhova.
Places of origin:
  • Moskva (Moscow) → MoskvinMoskvina, MoskovskyMoskovskaia,
  • SmolenskSmolenskySmolenskaia,
  • RiazanRiazanovRiazanova.
Personal characteristics:
  • tolsty (stout, fat) → TolstovTolstova, TolstoyTolstaya,
  • nos (nose) → NosovNosova,
  • sedoi (grey-haired or -headed) → SedovSedova.
.A considerable number of “artificial” names exists, for example, those given to seminary graduates; such names were based on Great Feasts of the Orthodox Church or Christian virtues.^ They are generally classified into four groups, based on the origin of a nickname: given names, job designations, bodily attributes, and geographical...
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the president of Vietnam is Tran Duc LUONG. His surname is Tran, but he is referred to by his given name - President LUONG. .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Great Orthodox Feasts:
  • rozhdestvo (Christmas) → RozhdestvenskyRozhdestvenskaia,
  • voskresenie (Resurrection) → VoskresenskyVoskresenskaia,
  • uspenie (Assumption) → UspenskyUspenskaia.
Christian virtues:
  • philagathos (one who loves goodness) → DobrolubovDobrolubova, DobrolubskyDobrolubskaia,
  • philosophos (one who loves wisdom) → LubomudrovLubomudrova,
  • theophilos (one who loves God) → BogolubovBogolubova.
Many freed serfs were given surnames after those of their former owners. For example, a serf of the Demidov family might be named Demidovsky, which translates roughly as "belonging to Demidov" or "one of Demidov's bunch".
.Grammatically, Russian family names follow the same rules as other nouns or adjectives (names ending with -oy, -aya are grammatically adjectives), with exceptions: some names do not change in different cases and have the same form in both genders (for example, Sedykh, Lata).^ The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their witnesses were Peter Blesi, his brother, and William Blesi a distant cousin from another family line who later on settled in Renwick, IA. and changed his last name to Blesie.

^ The romanization of personal names in the Factbook normally follows the same transliteration system used by the US Board on Geographic Names for spelling place names.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Poland

In Poland and most of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, surnames first appeared during the late Middle Ages. .They initially denoted the differences between various people living in the same town or village and bearing the same name.^ Sometimes an author proposes two new but different names at the same time.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Prior to 1 Jan 1953 it was possible to propose two different names for the same taxon (Art.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, when writing in Latin, they assigned the same names the Latin ranks of family (or natural order) and tribe.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

.The conventions were similar to those of English surnames, using occupations, patronymic descent, geographic origins, or personal characteristics.^ The term "internally displaced person" is not specifically covered in the UN Convention; it is used to describe people who have fled their homes for reasons similar to refugees, but who remain within their own national territory and are subject to the laws of that state.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Originally the title of the Lords of the Isles, in the 16th century it started being used as a last name by those who could claim to be a "son of Donald".
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The romanization of personal names in the Factbook normally follows the same transliteration system used by the US Board on Geographic Names for spelling place names.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Thus, early surnames indicating occupation include Karczmarz ("innkeeper"), Kowal ("blacksmith"), and Bednarczyk ("young cooper"), while those indicating patronymic descent include Szczepaniak ("Son of Szczepan), Józefowicz ("Son of Józef), and Kaźmirkiewicz ("Son of Kazimierz"). Similarly, early surnames like Mazur ("the one from Mazury") indicated geographic origin, while ones like Nowak ("the new one"), Biały ("the pale one"), and Wielgus ("the big one") indicated personal characteristics.
In the early 16th century, ( the Polish Renaissance), toponymic names became common, especially among the nobility. .Initially, the surnames were in a form of "[first name] z ("de", "of") [location]". Later, most surnames were changed to adjective forms, e.g.^ Their witnesses were Peter Blesi, his brother, and William Blesi a distant cousin from another family line who later on settled in Renwick, IA. and changed his last name to Blesie.

^ Etymology of Brazil, Topic The first names used for the new-found-land were Ilha de Vera Cruz ("Vera Cruz Island") and Terra de Santa Cruz ("Santa Cruz Land").
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are approximately 96,725 people in the United States with the first name Lindsay, which makes it the 536th most popular first name in the United States.
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Jakub Wiślicki ("James of Wiślica") and Zbigniew Oleśnicki ("Zbigniew of Oleśnica"), with masculine suffixes -ski, -cki, -dzki and -icz or respective feminine suffixes -ska, -cka, -dzka and -icz on the east of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. .Names formed this way are adjectives grammatically, and therefore change their form depending on gender; for example, Jan Kowalski and Maria Kowalska collectively use the plural Kowalscy.^ "Country" names used in the table of contents or for page headings are usually the short-form names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names and may include independent states, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty, or other geographic entities.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Names with masculine suffixes -ski, -cki, and -dzki, and corresponding feminine suffixes -ska, -cka, and -dzka became associated with noble origin. Many people from lower classes successively changed their surnames to fit this pattern. This produced many Kowalskis, Bednarskis, Kaczmarskis and so on. Today, although most Polish speakers do not know about noble associations of -ski, -cki, -dzki and -icz endings, such names still somehow sound better to them.
.A separate class of surnames derive from the names of noble clans.^ Clan Donald Greenfields derive from a farm in Glengarry whose MacDonells, upon migrating to Caithness, took the name of their Greenfield homelands.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Clan Donald Budges derive from MacDonalds from Skye who fled to Caithness and changed their names.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Clan Donald Ballochs derive from an old Clan Donald given name, e.g.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

.These are used either as separate names or the first part of a double-barrelled name.^ First names are almost always used.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are used either as separate names or the first part of a double-barrelled name .
  • Family name at AllExperts 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Familyname.eu 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.familyname.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are used either as separate names or the first part of a double-barrelled name.
  • directopedia : Directory : Regional : Europe : Poland : Society and Culture : Genealogy : Surnames 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.directopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Family Names and their origins 22 September 2009 17:13 UTC www.family-crests.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Thus, persons named Jan Nieczuja and Krzysztof Nieczuja-Machocki might be related. .Similarly, after World War I and World War II, many members of Polish underground organizations adopted their war-time pseudonyms as the first part of their surnames.^ Visited many parts of the world, spending some time in Australia.

^ Prior to the end of World War II, Shinto was the state religion of Japan, and bolstered the cult of the Japanese emperor.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Edward Rydz thus became Marshal of Poland Edward Śmigły-Rydz and Zdzisław Jeziorański became Jan Nowak-Jeziorański.

South Slavs

Surnames of some South Slavic groups such as Serbs, Croats, Montenegrins, and Bosniaks traditionally end with the suffixes "-ić" and "-ović" (often transliterated to English and other western languages as "ic", "ich", "ovic" or "ovich") which are a diminutive indicating descent i.e. "son of."
Noted exception from patronymic rule was a family name of prominent 19th century Serbia family Babadudić from Baba (literally, granny) Duda.
.In some cases family name was derived from a profession (e.g.^ Some MacColls may derive from this name.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

^ In some special cases, "superconservation" is used to maintain the priority of a younger family name over an older one.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

blacksmith - "Kovač" → "Kovačević").
.In general family names in all of these countries follow this pattern with some family names being typically Serbian, some typically Croat and yet others being common throughout the whole linguistic region.^ A number of etymologies (some of them folk etymologies) have been proposed, all of which suggest that the name was derived from the...
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The checklist is arranged in five parts: (a) the main listing with all names arranged alphabetically, (b) a listing by rank , (c) a listing by date of publication , (d) a listing by author and date , and (e) family names in current use .
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Without exception, in all of these publications one finds numerous orders, but only a few of these orders were subdivided into families.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

Children usually inherit fathers family name. .In older naming convention which was common in Serbia up until mid 19th century a person's name would consist of three distinct parts: the person's given name, the patronymic derived from father's personal name, and the family name, as seen in for example in the name of language reformer Vuk Stefanović Karadžić.^ For example, the alternative name for the sunflower family, Compositae Juss.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Names below the rank of family (subfamily, supertribe, tribe and subtribe) proposed up to 1 Jan 1900 are available at another location.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

.Official family names do not have distinct male or female forms.^ Gesneria and related genera to form "une famille particulire distincte des campanulaces" and gave a diagnosis in French but did not propose a name.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

The somewhat archaic unofficial form of adding suffixes to family names to form female form exists, with -eva, implying "daughter of" or "female descendant of" or -ka, implying "wife of" or "married to".
Bosniak Muslim names follow the same formation pattern but are usually derived from proper names of Islamic origin, often combining archaic Islamic or feudal Turkish titles i.e. Mulaomerović, Šabanović, Hadžihafizbegović etc.
.Also related to Islamic influence is prefix Hadži- found in some family names.^ He was the special patron of Glengarry where is found some of this name.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Only one known family of this name and no more than 1 in 720 Reynolds originally had a Mac prefix.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

Regardless of religion, this prefix was derived from the honorary title which a distinguished ancestor earned by making a pilgrimage to either Christian or Islamic holy places. Hadžibegić, being Bosniak Muslim example.
.In Croatia where tribal affiliations persisted longer, Lika, Herzegovina etc., original family name came to signify practically all people living in one area or holding of the nobles.^ Came to Minnesota in 1852, and worked with his father on the farm, then bought the one on which he now lives.

^ He was married, in 1858, to Jane Delahuut, by whom he has had six children, all living, with the exception of one, who died in Minneapolis.

^ Only one known family of this name and no more than 1 in 720 Reynolds originally had a Mac prefix.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

The Šubić family owned land around the Zrin River in the Central Croatian region of Banovina. The surname became Šubić Zrinski, the most famous being Nikola Šubić Zrinski.
Due to discriminatory laws in Austro-Hungarian Empire some of Serb families of Vojvodina have discarded suffix - in an attempt to mask their ethnicity and avoid heavy taxation.
.Among the Bulgarians, another South Slavic people, the typical surname suffix is "-ov" (Ivanov, Kovachev), although other popular suffixes also exist.^ While typical Bulgarian placenames of Slavic origin vastly dominate, toponyms which stem from Greek, Thracian, Latin and Turkish...
  • Etymologie, Étymologie, Etymology - US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, les États-Unis d'Amérique, The United States of America (USA) - Enzyklopädien, Encyclopédie, Encyclopaedia 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.etymologie.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the Republic of Macedonia, the most popular suffix today is "-ski".

Ukraine and Belarus

.Ukrainian and Belarusian names evolved from the same Old East Slavic and Ruthenian language (western Rus’) origins.^ The original Ceallach is by tradition related to the 4th century Colla Uais from whom the old name of Clan Donald - Clan Cholla came.
  • Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs. 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.clandonald.info [Source type: Original source]

.Ukrainian and Belarusian names share many characteristics with family names from other Slavic cultures.^ The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- References :: Definitions and Notes 25 September 2009 0:12 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Most prominent are the shared root words and suffixes. For example, the root koval (blacksmith) compares to the Polish kowal, and the root bab (woman) is shared with Polish, Slovakian, and Czech. The suffix -vych (son of) corresponds to the South Slavic -vic, the Russian -vich, and the Polish -wicz, while -sky, -ski, and -ska are shared with both Polish and Russian, and -ak with Polish.
However some suffixes are more uniquely characteristic to Ukrainian and Belarusian names, especially: -chuk (Western Ukraine), -enko (all other Ukraine) (both son of), -ko (little [masculine]), -ka (little [feminine]), -shyn, and -uk. See, for example, Mihalko, Ukrainian Presidents Leonid Kravchuk, and Viktor Yushchenko, Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko, or former Soviet diplomat Andrei Gromyko.

Burundi/Rwanda

In Burundi and Rwanda, most, if not all surnames have God in it, for example Hakizimana (meaning God cures), Nshimirimana (I thank God) or Havyarimana/Habyarimana (God gives birth). But not all surnames end with the suffix -imana. Irakoze is one of these. (technically meaning Thank God, though it is hard to translate it correctly in English or probably any other languages.)

Eritrea/Ethiopia

The patronymic custom in most of Eritrea and Ethiopia gives children the father's first name as their surname. .The family then gives the child its first name.^ On the first page the name is given; on the third page Reichenbach uses the Latin expression "tribum naturalium" while on the eighth page he gives the rank as "Families" Isonym: J. Agardh, Theoria Syst.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

Middle names are unknown. So, for example, a person's name might be Bereket mekonen . In this case, Bereket is the first name and Mekonen is the surname, and also the first name of the father.
.The paternal grandfather's name is often used if there is a requirement to identify a person further, for example, in school registration.^ The most common example of this was the early use of the rank of "section" at a time when there was little agreement as to the title of the rank below that of family or subfamily.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Often the cited author's name is not the present-day author of the cited name, but alludes to a paper or book by that person where the name was used.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I usually used the the titulation of the first person of a particular name on the phonebook, but not always.
  • Finnish last names - Teppo Pihlajamäki 17 September 2009 10:58 UTC teppo.tv [Source type: Original source]

.Also, different cultures and tribes use as the family's name the father's or grandfather's given name.^ NOTE: If this family is united with Hippocrateaceae , the name Celastraceae must be used.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The checklist is arranged in five parts: (a) the main listing with all names arranged alphabetically, (b) a listing by rank , (c) a listing by date of publication , (d) a listing by author and date , and (e) family names in current use .
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ NOTE: If this family is united with Corylaceae , the name Betulaceae must be used.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

For example, some Oromos use Warra Ali to mean families of Ali, where Ali, is either the householder, a father or grandfather.
In Ethiopia, the customs surrounding the bestowal and use of family names is as varied and complex as the cultures to be found there. .There are so many cultures, nations or tribes, that currently there can be no one formula whereby to demonstrate a clear pattern of Ethiopian family names.^ Finally, there is a list of family names in current use or NCUs.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Names at the rank of family and below are subject to priority, whereas those above the rank of family (including, seemingly the rank of superfamily, currently a vague problem in the Code ) are not subject to the mandates of priority.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The checklist is arranged in five parts: (a) the main listing with all names arranged alphabetically, (b) a listing by rank , (c) a listing by date of publication , (d) a listing by author and date , and (e) family names in current use .
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

In general, however, Ethiopians use their father's name as a surname in most instances where identification is necessary, sometimes employing both father's and grandfather's names together where exigency dictates.
Many people in Eritrea have Italian surnames, but all of these are owned by Eritreans of Italian descent.

By ethnic group

Jewish

Jewish names have historically varied, encompassing throughout the centuries several different traditions. .The most usual last name for those of the priest tribe is "Cohen"/"Kahen"/"Kogan"/"Kohen"/"Katz" (a Hebrew acronym of Kohen Tzedek, or righteous Kohen) and for those of the Levites, "Levi"/"Levine". Those who came from Europe usually have "Rosen"("rose"), "Speil", "Gold", and other German words as their names' prefixes, and "man", "wyn"/"wein"("wine"), "berg"("mountain"), and other German words as their names' suffixes.^ Their witnesses were Peter Blesi, his brother, and William Blesi a distant cousin from another family line who later on settled in Renwick, IA. and changed his last name to Blesie.

^ In other words, the new name was established much like a new combination is established at the rank of genus or below.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In other words, mere citation of a name associated with an effectively published description fulfills the requirement.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

.Most Sephardic Jews adopted Arabic names, like "Azizi"("you're [someones] love"), "Hassan" or added words to their original names, like "Kohenzadeh"("[she] bore a Kohen").^ In other words, the new name was established much like a new combination is established at the rank of genus or below.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

Names like "Johnson" and "Peterson"("Peter" not included) come from the Jewish tradition to use the father's name as identification. So "Johnson" in Hebrew is "Ben Yochanon", meaning "Yochanon(John)'s son".

Chaldean/Assyrian/Syriac

.These groups of people make up a similar ethnic body with deep and long roots in the Middle East, mainly present-day Iraq and Syria.^ The lean buffalo meat was cut into thin strips, and a skillful woman would cut these strips round and round, making them quite long.

Surnames come from the Aramaic languages of these Chaldean, Assyrian, and Syriac people. Some surnames are connected to Christianity, the religion Chaldeans, Assyrians, and Syriacs currently follow and have followed since its beginnings.
Common surnames include: Ablahat, Aboona, Abraham, Abro, Alamasha, Alamshah, Alawerdy, Aldawood, Amoo, Amu, Antar, Aprim, Asfar, Ashouri, Ashurian, Awshalum, Aziz, Azzo, Baaba, Bacchus, Badal, Balou, Barkoo, Benyamin, Bidavid, Bidawid, Desho, Duman, Elia, Elias, Enwiga, Eshai, Farhad, Gorges, Gewargis, Hasso, Hermes, Hormis, Hosanna, Hurmis, Ibrahim, Isaac, Ishaq, Iskhaq, Jacoub, Josep, Karam, Karoukian, Khamis, Khanbaba, Khanisho, Khedroo, Khubiar, Koshaba, Malech, Malek, Malick, Matti, Mieza, Mikhail, Mnashi, Neesan, Odah, Odisha, Odisho, Oraham, Oshana, Samo, Sargis, Sarkis, Sayad, Semma, Shabas, Shamun, Shamoon, Shimon, Shimonaya, Sleman, Sliwoo, Soleyman, Summa, Tematheus, Thoma, Thomaya, Urshan, Warda, Wyrda, Yacoub, Yawalaha, Yelda, Yohannan, Yonan, Yoseph, Youkhana, Younan, Yousif, and Yukhannan.

Kurdish

The majority of Kurds do not hold Kurdish names because the names have been banned in the countries they primarily live in (namely Iran, Turkey and Syria). Kurds in these respective countries tend to hold Turkish, Persian or Arabic names, in the majority of cases, forcefully appointed by the ruling governments.[22] Others hold Arabic names as a result of the influence of Islam and Arab culture.
Kurds holding authentic Kurdish names are generally found in Diaspora or in Iraqi Kurdistan where Kurds are relatively free. .Traditionally, Kurdish family names are inherited from the tribes of which the individual or families are members.^ Family name traditionally attributed to Engl.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Family name traditionally attributed to Hutchinson (Fam.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC www.plantsystematics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Family name traditionally attributed to [unranked] Cannabineae Endl., Gen.
  • A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants 15 January 2010 9:25 UTC