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Far right, extreme right, hard right, radical right, and ultra-right are terms used to discuss the qualitative or quantitative position a group or person occupies within right-wing politics. The terms are often used to imply that someone is an extremist. The terms have been used by different scholars in somewhat conflicting ways.[1]

Far right politics usually involve supremacism — a belief that superiority and inferiority is an innate reality between individuals and groups — and a complete rejection of the concept of social equality as a norm.[2] Far right politics often support segregation; the separation of groups deemed to be superior from groups deemed to be inferior.[3] Far right politics also commonly include authoritarianism, nativism, racism and xenophobia.[4]

The ideologies usually associated with the far right include fascism, Nazism and other ultra-nationalist, religiously extreme or reactionary ideologies.[5][6][7][8][9]

The term radical right refers to sections of the far right that promote views which are very conservative in traditional left-right terms, but which aim to break with prevailing institutions and practices.[10] The radical right does not have a clear straightforward structure, but rather consists of overlapping subcultures with diverse styles of rhetoric, dress and symbolism whose cohesion comes from the use of alternative system of communications.[11]


See also


  1. ^ Betz & Immerfall 1998; Betz 1994; Durham 2000; Durham 2002; Hainsworth 2000; Mudde 2000; Berlet & Lyons, 2000.
  2. ^ Merkl, Peter H. and Leonard Weinberg, Right-wing Extremism in the Twenty-first Century (London, England, UK; Portland, Oregon, USA: Frank Cass Publishers), p. 127
  3. ^ Merkl, Peter H. and Leonard Weinberg, Right-wing Extremism in the Twenty-first Century (London, England and Portland, Oregon, USA: Frank Cass Publishers), p. 127.
  4. ^ Hilliard, Robert L. and Robert L and Michael C. Keith, Waves of Rancor: Tuning in the Radical Right (New York: M. E. Sharpe Inc., 1999
  5. ^
  6. ^,M1
  7. ^,M1
  8. ^
  9. ^ Roger Griffin (11 Aug 2005). Fascism, Totalitarianism and Political Religion (Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions). Routledge 1 edition. ISBN 978-0415375504. 
  10. ^ Plotkem, David and Daniel Bell,The Radical Right, 3rd ed. (Transaction Publishers, 2001) p. xiii
  11. ^ Militias, Christian Identity and the Radical Right by Michael Barkun, accessed 11 April 2010

Further reading

Author(s)/Editor(s) Title Year Publisher
Chip Berlet and Matthew N. Lyons Right-Wing Populism in America: Too Close for Comfort 2000 The Guilford Press. ISBN 1572305622
Hans-Georg Betz Radical Right-wing Populism in Western Europe 1994 New York: St. Martins Press
Hans-Georg Betz and Stefan Immerfall, eds. The New Politics of the Right: Neo-Populist Parties and Movements in Established Democracies 1998 New York: St. Martin's Press
Martin Blinkhorn Fascists and Conservatives: The Radical Right and the Establishment in Twentieth-Century Europe 1990
Aurel Braun The Extreme Right: Freedom and Security at Risk 1997
Göran Dahl Radical Conservatism and the Future of Politics 1999
Peter Davies and Derek Lynch The Routledge Companion to Fascism and the Far Right 2002 Routledge. ISBN 0415214955
Martin Durham The Christian Right, the Far Right and the Boundaries of American Conservatism. 2000 Manchester, England: Manchester University Press
Martin Durham "From Imperium to Internet: the National Alliance and the American Extreme Right" 2002 Patterns of Prejudice 36(3), (July): 50-61
Roger Eatwell Western Democracies and the New Extreme Right Challenge 2004
Nicholas Fraser The Voice of Modern Hatred: Encounters with Europe's New Right 2000
Paul Hainsworth The Politics of the Extreme Right: From the Margins to the Mainstream. 2000 London: Pinter
Piero Ignazi Extreme Right Parties in Western Europe 2003 Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0199291594
Jeffrey Kaplan, with contributions from Leonard Weinberg The Emergence of a Euro-American Radical Right 1998 Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0813525640
Bert Klandermans Extreme Right Activists in Europe: Through the Magnifying Glass 2006
Daniel Levitas The Terrorist Next Door: The Militia Movement and the Radical Right 2002
Peter Merkl The Revival of Right-Wing Extremism in the Nineties 1997
Peter Merkl Right-Wing Extremism in the Twenty-First Century 2003
Pippa Norris Radical Right: Voters and Parties in the Electoral Market 2005 Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052161385X
Angus Roxburgh Preachers of Hate: The Rise of the Far Right 2002
Jens Rydgren Movements of Exclusion: Radical Right-Wing Populism in the Western World 2005
Martin Schain Shadows Over Europe: The Development and Impact of the Extreme Right in Western Europe 2002
David Schmitz The United States and Right-Wing Dictatorships, 1965-1989 2006 Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521678536
David Schoenbaum Hitler's Social Revolution: Class and Status in Nazi Germany, 1933-1939 1966 ISBN 0393315541
Robert Brent Toplin Radical Conservatism: The Right's Political Religion 2006 University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0700614877
Michelle Hale Williams The Impact of Radical Right-Wing Parties in West European Democracies 2006

External links



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