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Far right, extreme right, hard right and ultra-right are terms used to discuss the qualitative or quantitative position a group or person occupies within right-wing politics. Far right politics involves supremacism, believing that superiority and inferiority is an innate reality between individuals and groups and involves the complete rejection of the concept of social equality as a norm.[1] Far right politics supports segregation and separation of groups deemed to be superior from groups deemed to be inferior.[2] Far-right politics and political views commonly involve authoritarianism, demagoguery, homophobia, nativism, racism, sexism, and xenophobia.[3]

The terms have been used by different scholars in somewhat conflicting ways.[4]

The ideologies associated with the far right are fascism, Nazism, racial supremacists (especially neo-fascists and neo-Nazis group), religious extremists, and other ultra-nationalist or reactionary ideologies and movements.[5][6][7][8][9] The terms are often used to imply that someone is an extremist.

The term far right has been used by some, such as National Public Radio, to describe certain authoritarian governments that promote free market capitalism, such as that of Augusto Pinochet in Chile.[10][11] The BBC has called politician Pim Fortuyn's politics (Fortuynism) "far right" because of his policies on immigration and Muslims.[12]

Contents

Etymology

The political terms left and right arose during the French Revolution, the term far right originally referred to throne-and-altar monarchists such as Joseph de Maistre and Louis de Bonald.[citation needed] The original French meaning of far right is specific to a Roman Catholic nation, and more specifically to a Gallican society in which church and state were closely tied to one another. In this context, the term can be expanded to include the kind of Caesaropapism that occasionally existed in some Eastern Orthodox kingdoms. This specific interpretation of the term far right lost favour in the decades following the Revolutions of 1848, as a return to the Ancien Régime became increasingly implausible. By the reign of Pope Pius XI, this interpretation of far right had essentially become anachronistic even in conservative Catholic circles.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Merkl, Peter H. Weinberg, Leonard. Right-wing extremism in the twenty-first century. London, England, UK; Portland, Oregon, USA: Frank Cass Publishers. Pp. 127.
  2. ^ Merkl, Peter H. Weinberg, Leonard. Right-wing extremism in the twenty-first century. London, England, UK; Portland, Oregon, USA: Frank Cass Publishers. Pp. 127.
  3. ^ Robert L. Hilliard, Robert L; Keith, Michael C. Waves of rancor: tuning in the radical right. New York, New York, USA: M. E. Sharpe, Inc, 1999.
  4. ^ Betz & Immerfall 1998; Betz 1994; Durham 2000; Durham 2002; Hainsworth 2000; Mudde 2000; Berlet & Lyons, 2000.
  5. ^ http://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&id=YYdTvMmSYpEC&dq=%22far+right%22&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=5Kjou7UerL&sig=K9uamjo6ogLg5lBlPkF7YbrjcJ4&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=2&ct=result
  6. ^ http://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&id=Ual1NR2WPasC&dq=%22far+right%22&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=K5bdSeB96U&sig=RC-_zQR3OGeCIj0c4vJv6EEHgAk&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=5&ct=result#PPR7,M1
  7. ^ http://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&id=sVZ8EUvJjJ4C&dq=%22far+right%22&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=SMPfNA8ixk&sig=c_rZ76IsxCm_Kb959LzCekTHYek&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=8&ct=result#PPR5,M1
  8. ^ http://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&id=JcJ5nr2MZfUC&dq=%22far+right%22&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=Y5MrmJz
  9. ^ Roger Griffin (11 Aug 2005). Fascism, Totalitarianism and Political Religion (Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions). Routledge 1 edition. ISBN 978-0415375504. 
  10. ^ "A Dictator's Legacy of Economic Growth". 14 September 2006. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=6069233. Retrieved 2007-10-15. 
  11. ^ Who funds and runs the Politico? - Glenn Greenwald - Salon.com
  12. ^ Pim Fortuyn: The far-right Dutch maverick, BBC

References

  • Arzheimer, Kai and Elisabeth Carter (2006). "Political Opportunity Structures and Right-Wing Extremist Party Success" European Journal of Political Research (45):419-443
  • Betz, Hans-Georg and Stefan Immerfall, eds. 1998. The New Politics of the Right: Neo-Populist Parties and Movements in Established Democracies. New York: St. Martin's Press.
  • Betz, Hans-Georg (1994). Radical Right-wing Populism in Western Europe. New York: St. Martins Press.
  • Durham, Martin (2000). The Christian Right, the Far Right and the Boundaries of American Conservatism. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press.
  • Durham, Martin (2002). "From Imperium to Internet: the National Alliance and the American Extreme Right" Patterns of Prejudice 36(3), (July): 50-61.
  • Hainsworth, Paul (2000). The Politics of the Extreme Right: From the Margins to the Mainstream. London: Pinter.
  • Schoenbaum, David. Hitler's Social Revolution: Class and Status in Nazi Germany,. ISBN
  • Formisano, Ronald P. (2005). "Interpreting Right-Wing or Reactionary Neo-Populism: A Critique". Journal of Policy History 17 (2): 241–255. doi:10.1353/jph.2005.0010. 
  • Radical conservatism : the right's political religion / Robert Brent Toplin., 2006
  • Radical conservatism and the future of politics / Göran Dahl., 1999
  • Fascists and conservatives : the radical right and the establishment in twentieth-century Europe / Martin Blinkhorn., 1990
  • The Routledge companion to fascism and the far right / Peter Davies., 2002
  • The terrorist next door : the militia movement and the radical right / Daniel Levitas., 2002
  • Right-wing populism in America : too close for comfort / Chip Berlet & Matthew N. Lyons, 2000
  • The extreme right : freedom and security at risk / Aurel Braun., 1997
  • The impact of radical right-wing parties in West European democracies / Michelle Hale Williams., 2006
  • Right-wing extremism in the twenty-first century / Peter Merkl., 2003
  • Extreme right parties in Western Europe / Piero Ignazi., 2003
  • The United States and right-wing dictatorships, 1965-1989 / David Schmitz., 2006
  • The emergence of a Euro-American radical right / Jeffrey Kaplan., 1998
  • The politics of the extreme right : from the margins to the mainstream / Paul Hainsworth., 2000
  • The revival of right-wing extremism in the nineties / Peter Merkl., 1997
  • Shadows over Europe : the development and impact of the extreme right in Western Europe / Martin Schain., 2002
  • Western democracies and the new extreme right challenge / Roger Eatwell., 2004
  • The voice of modern hatred : encounters with Europe's new right / Nicholas Fraser., 2000
  • Extreme right activists in Europe : through the magnifying glass / Bert Klandermans., 2006
  • Preachers of hate : the rise of the far right / Angus Roxburgh., 2002
  • Movements of exclusion : radical right-wing populism in the Western world / Jens Rydgren., 2005

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