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Part of a series on Islam
Usul al-fiqh

(The Roots of Jurisprudence)

Fiqh
Ahkam
Scholarly titles

Fard (Arabic: الفرض‎) also farida (Arabic: الفريضة‎) is an Islamic term which denotes a religious duty. The word is also used in Persian, Turkish, and Urdu (spelled farz) in the same meaning.

Fard or its synonym wajib is one of the five types of Ahkam into which Fiqh categorizes acts of every Muslim. Hanafites however makes a distinction between Wajib and Fard, the latter being more obligatory than the former.[1][2]. In Indonesian, wajib also means obligatory, since the word is derived from Arabic.

Contents

Individual duty and sufficiency

The Fiqh distinguishes two sorts of duties:

  • Individual duty or fard al-ayn |الواجب الع relates to tasks every Muslim is required to perform, such as daily prayer (salah), hijab, or the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime (hajj).
  • Sufficiency duty or fard al-kifaya (Arabic: الواجب الكفائي‎) is a duty which is imposed on the whole community of believers (ummah). The classic example for it is jihad: the individual is not required to perform it as long as a sufficient number of community members fulfil it.

See also

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Ahkam

  • Ahkam, commandments, of which fard are a type
  • Mustahabb, recommended but not required

Other religions

  • Mitzvah (somewhat similar Jewish concept)
  • Dharma (Hindu/Buddhist/Sikh term that can be used to mean "duty" or "obligation", although there are also other meanings)

References


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