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Farruhsiyar
Emperor of the Mughal Empire
File:Farrukhsiyar.jpg
Farrukhsiyar
Reign 1713 - 1719
Full name Farrukhsiyar
Born 11 September 1685
Birthplace Aurangabad
Died April 19, 1719 (aged 33)
Place of death Delhi
Predecessor Jahandar Shah
Successor Rafi Ul-Darjat
Wives Nawab Fakhr-un-Nisa Begum Sahiba
Indira Kanwar
Dynasty Timurid
Father Azim-ush-Shan
Mother Sahiba Niswan

Abu'l Muzaffar Muin ud-din Muhammad Shah Farrukh-siyar Alim Akbar Sani Wala Shan Padshah-i-bahr-u-bar [Shahid-i-Mazlum] (or Farrukhsiyar, August 20, 1685 - April 19, 1719) was the Mughal emperor between 1713 and 1719. Noted as a handsome but weak ruler, easily swayed by his advisers, Farukhsiyar lacked the ability and character to rule independently. His reign witnessed the primacy of the Syed Brothers who became the effective powers of the land, behind the façade of Mughal rule.

Contents

Biography

Farrukhn Siyar was born at Aurangabad in the Deccan on September 11, 1683. He was the second son of Azim ush Shan, a son of former emperor Bahadur Shah I. His mother was Sahiba Niswan, a sister of Nawab Shaista Khan, the erstwhile Mughal Subadar of Kashmir. He married his first wife, Nawab Fakhr-un-Nisa Begum Sahiba, daughter of Nawab Sa'adat Khan Bahadur [Mir Muhammad Taqi Husaini], a Kashmiri nobleman from the Marashi clan, sometime prior to December, 1715. In September 1715, Farrukhsiyar married Indira Kanwar, daughter of Maharaja Ajit Singh of Jodhpur. He was also married to at least one other lady.

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Reign

Jahandar Shah was defeated at Samugarh near Agra on 10 January 1713. Following this, the Syed Brothers, helped Farukhsiyar to secure his throne. He took the throne On January 11, 1713, at the age of 30. His reign marked the ascendancy of the Syed Brothers who monopolized state power and reduced the Emperor to an effective figurehead. The town of Farrukhnagar in Gurgaon district, 32 km south of Delhi, was rechristened after his name, during his reign, here he built a Sheesh Mahal and also a mosque.

Trade concessions

It was during Farrukhsiyar's reign, in 1717, that the British East India Company purchased duty-free trading rights in all of Bengal for a mere three thousand rupees a year. It is said that the Company's surgeon, William Hamilton, cured Farrukhsiyar from some ailment and the emperor was moved to grant trading rights to the Company.[1] Another story tells of a bribe to a eunuch of the seraglio and a rumoured British Naval attack on the Moghul navy at Surat.[2] This order, which the Company hailed as the golden firman, was not of much practical use. Even though the Company claimed duty exemptions based on this firman, the Mughal governors of Bengal, from Murshid Quli Khan onwards, ignored this order of their suzerain and continued to collect customs duty from the East India Company.

Death

However Farrukhsiyar in the very short term met a humiliating and bloody end, his constant plotting eventually led the Syed Brothers to officially depose him as the Emperor. Farrukhsiyar was imprisoned and starved; later, on February 28, 1719, he was blinded with needles at the orders of the Saiyad brothers. Farrukhsiyar was strangled to death on the night of April 27/28, 1719. After accomplishing his assassination, the Syed Brothers placed his first-cousin, Rafi Ul-Darjat on the throne. Rafi-ud-durjat's father and Farukhsiyar's father had been brothers.

Notes

  1. ^ A Guide Book.Calcutta, Agra, Delhi, Karachi and Bomabay. The American Redcross of the China-Burma-India Command.
  2. ^ The History of British India By James Mill and Horace Hayman Wilson

External links

Preceded by
Jahandar Shah
Mughal Emperor
1713–1719
Succeeded by
Rafi Ul-Darjat

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