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Fas death domain (TNF receptor superfamily, member 6)

PDB rendering based on 1ddf.
Available structures
1ddf
Identifiers
Symbols FAS; ALPS1A; APO-1; APT1; CD95; FAS1; FASTM; TNFRSF6
External IDs OMIM134637 MGI95484 HomoloGene27 GeneCards: FAS Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE FAS 204780 s at tn.png
PBB GE FAS 204781 s at tn.png
PBB GE FAS 215719 x at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 355 14102
Ensembl ENSG00000026103 ENSMUSG00000024778
UniProt P25445 Q6GT31
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000043 NM_007987
RefSeq (protein) NP_000034 NP_032013
Location (UCSC) Chr 10:
90.74 - 90.77 Mb
Chr 19:
34.36 - 34.39 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

The Fas receptor (FasR) is the most intensely studied death receptor. Its aliases include CD95, Apo-1, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 6 (TNFRSf6). The gene is situated on chromosome 10 in humans and 19 in mice. FAS orthologs [1] have also been identified in most mammals for which complete genome data are available.

Contents

Isoforms

Previous reports have identified as many as eight splice variants, which are translated into seven isoforms of the protein. Apoptosis-inducing Fas receptor is dubbed isoform 1 and is a type 1 transmembrane protein. Many of the other isoforms are rare haplotypes that are usually associated with a state of disease. However, two isoforms, the apoptosis-inducing membrane-bound form and the soluble form, are normal products whose production via alternative splicing is regulated by the cytotoxic protein TIA1[2].

Function

Fas forms the death inducing signalling complex (DISC) upon ligand binding. Membrane-anchored Fas ligand trimer on the surface of an adjacent cell causes trimerization of Fas receptor. This event is also mimicked by binding of an agonistic Fas antibody, though some evidence suggests that the apoptotic signal induced by the antibody is unreliable in the study of Fas signaling. To this end, several clever ways of trimerizing the antibody for in vitro research have been employed.

Upon ensuing death domain (DD) aggregation, the receptor complex is internalized via the cellular endosomal machinery. This allows the adaptor molecule FADD to bind the death domain of Fas through its own death domain.[3]

FADD also contains a death effector domain (DED) near its amino terminus,[4]which facilitates binding to the DED of FADD-like ICE (FLICE), more commonly referred to as caspase-8. FLICE can then self-activate through proteolytic cleavage into p10 and p18 subunits, two each of which form the active heterotetramer enzyme. Active caspase-8 is then released from the DISC into the cytosol, where it cleaves other effector caspases, eventually leading to DNA degradation, membrane blebbing, and other hallmarks of apoptosis.

Role in apoptosis

Some reports have suggested that the extrinsic Fas pathway is sufficient to induce complete apoptosis in certain cell types through DISC assembly and subsequent caspase-8 activation.

These cells are dubbed Type 1 cells and are characterized by the inability of anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family (namely Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) to protect from Fas-mediated apoptosis.

Characterized Type 1 cells include H9, CH1, SKW6.4 and SW480, all of which are lymphocyte lineages except the latter, which is a colon adenocarcinoma lineage.

However, evidence for crosstalk between the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways exists in the Fas signal cascade.

In most cell types, caspase-8 catalyzes the cleavage of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bid into its truncated form, tBid. BH-3 only members of the Bcl-2 family exclusively engage anti-apoptotic members of the family (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL), allowing Bak and Bax to translocate to the outer mitochondrial membrane, thus permeabilizing it and facilitating release of pro-apoptotic proteins such as cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO, an antagonist of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs).

Overview of signal transduction pathways involved in apoptosis.

Interactions

Fas receptor has been shown to interact with FADD,[5][6][7][8][9][10] CFLAR,[11][6] Caspase 10,[5][12][6] Caspase 8,[5][11][6] Fas ligand,[5][13][14][15] PDCD6[16] and Small ubiquitin-related modifier 1.[17][18]

References

  1. ^ "OrthoMaM phylogenetic marker: FAS coding sequence". http://www.orthomam.univ-montp2.fr/orthomam/data/cds/detailMarkers/ENSG00000026103_FAS.xml.  
  2. ^ Izquierdo JM, Majós N, Bonnal S, et al (August 2005). "Regulation of Fas alternative splicing by antagonistic effects of TIA-1 and PTB on exon definition". Mol. Cell 19 (4): 475–84. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2005.06.015. PMID 16109372. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1097-2765(05)01418-8.  
  3. ^ Huang B, et al. (1996). "NMR structure and mutagenesis of the Fas (APO-1/CD95) death domain". Nature 384: 638–41. doi:10.1038/384638a0. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=8967952.  
  4. ^ Eberstadt M, et al. (1998). "NMR structure and mutagenesis of the FADD (Mort1) death-effector domain". Nature 391: 941–5. doi:10.1038/31972. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=9582077.  
  5. ^ a b c d Gajate, Consuelo; Mollinedo Faustino (Mar. 2005). "Cytoskeleton-mediated death receptor and ligand concentration in lipid rafts forms apoptosis-promoting clusters in cancer chemotherapy". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 280 (12): 11641–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M411781200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 15659383.  
  6. ^ a b c d MacFarlane, M; Ahmad M, Srinivasula S M, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Cohen G M, Alnemri E S (Oct. 1997). "Identification and molecular cloning of two novel receptors for the cytotoxic ligand TRAIL". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 272 (41): 25417–20. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 9325248.  
  7. ^ Pan, G; O'Rourke K, Chinnaiyan A M, Gentz R, Ebner R, Ni J, Dixit V M (Apr. 1997). "The receptor for the cytotoxic ligand TRAIL". Science (UNITED STATES) 276 (5309): 111–3. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 9082980.  
  8. ^ Huang, B; Eberstadt M, Olejniczak E T, Meadows R P, Fesik S W. "NMR structure and mutagenesis of the Fas (APO-1/CD95) death domain". Nature (ENGLAND) 384 (6610): 638–41. doi:10.1038/384638a0. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 8967952.  
  9. ^ Chinnaiyan, A M; O'Rourke K, Tewari M, Dixit V M (May. 1995). "FADD, a novel death domain-containing protein, interacts with the death domain of Fas and initiates apoptosis". Cell (UNITED STATES) 81 (4): 505–12. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 7538907.  
  10. ^ Thomas, Lance R; Stillman David J, Thorburn Andrew (Sep. 2002). "Regulation of Fas-associated death domain interactions by the death effector domain identified by a modified reverse two-hybrid screen". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (37): 34343–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M204169200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12107169.  
  11. ^ a b Shu, H B; Halpin D R, Goeddel D V (Jun. 1997). "Casper is a FADD- and caspase-related inducer of apoptosis". Immunity (UNITED STATES) 6 (6): 751–63. ISSN 1074-7613. PMID 9208847.  
  12. ^ Vincenz, C; Dixit V M (Mar. 1997). "Fas-associated death domain protein interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme 2 (FLICE2), an ICE/Ced-3 homologue, is proximally involved in CD95- and p55-mediated death signaling". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 272 (10): 6578–83. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 9045686.  
  13. ^ Micheau, Olivier; Tschopp Jürg (Jul. 2003). "Induction of TNF receptor I-mediated apoptosis via two sequential signaling complexes". Cell (United States) 114 (2): 181–90. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 12887914.  
  14. ^ Starling, G C; Bajorath J, Emswiler J, Ledbetter J A, Aruffo A, Kiener P A (Apr. 1997). "Identification of amino acid residues important for ligand binding to Fas". J. Exp. Med. (UNITED STATES) 185 (8): 1487–92. ISSN 0022-1007. PMID 9126929.  
  15. ^ Schneider, P; Bodmer J L, Holler N, Mattmann C, Scuderi P, Terskikh A, Peitsch M C, Tschopp J (Jul. 1997). "Characterization of Fas (Apo-1, CD95)-Fas ligand interaction". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 272 (30): 18827–33. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 9228058.  
  16. ^ Jung, Y S; Kim K S, Kim K D, Lim J S, Kim J W, Kim E (Oct. 2001). "Apoptosis-linked gene 2 binds to the death domain of Fas and dissociates from Fas during Fas-mediated apoptosis in Jurkat cells". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (United States) 288 (2): 420–6. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.5769. ISSN 0006-291X. PMID 11606059.  
  17. ^ Okura, T; Gong L, Kamitani T, Wada T, Okura I, Wei C F, Chang H M, Yeh E T (Nov. 1996). "Protection against Fas/APO-1- and tumor necrosis factor-mediated cell death by a novel protein, sentrin". J. Immunol. (UNITED STATES) 157 (10): 4277–81. ISSN 0022-1767. PMID 8906799.  
  18. ^ Ryu, S W; Chae S K, Kim E (Dec. 2000). "Interaction of Daxx, a Fas binding protein, with sentrin and Ubc9". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (UNITED STATES) 279 (1): 6–10. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2000.3882. ISSN 0006-291X. PMID 11112409.  

Further reading

  • Nagata S (1997). "Apoptosis by death factor.". Cell 88 (3): 355–65. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81874-7. PMID 9039262.  
  • Cascino I, Papoff G, Eramo A, Ruberti G (2004). "Soluble Fas/Apo-1 splicing variants and apoptosis.". Front. Biosci. 1: d12–8. PMID 9159204.  
  • Uckun FM (1998). "Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) as a dual-function regulator of apoptosis.". Biochem. Pharmacol. 56 (6): 683–91. doi:10.1016/S0006-2952(98)00122-1. PMID 9751072.  
  • Krammer PH (2000). "CD95's deadly mission in the immune system.". Nature 407 (6805): 789–95. doi:10.1038/35037728. PMID 11048730.  
  • Siegel RM, Chan FK, Chun HJ, Lenardo MJ (2001). "The multifaceted role of Fas signaling in immune cell homeostasis and autoimmunity.". Nat. Immunol. 1 (6): 469–74. doi:10.1038/82712. PMID 11101867.  
  • Wajant H (2002). "The Fas signaling pathway: more than a paradigm.". Science 296 (5573): 1635–6. doi:10.1126/science.1071553. PMID 12040174.  
  • Yonehara S (2003). "Death receptor Fas and autoimmune disease: from the original generation to therapeutic application of agonistic anti-Fas monoclonal antibody.". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 13 (4-5): 393–402. doi:10.1016/S1359-6101(02)00024-2. PMID 12220552.  
  • Choi C, Benveniste EN (2004). "Fas ligand/Fas system in the brain: regulator of immune and apoptotic responses.". Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. 44 (1): 65–81. doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2003.08.007. PMID 14739003.  
  • Poppema S, Maggio E, van den Berg A (2004). "Development of lymphoma in Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS) and its relationship to Fas gene mutations.". Leuk. Lymphoma 45 (3): 423–31. doi:10.1080/10428190310001593166. PMID 15160902.  

External links

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