Fascism in Asia: Wikis

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Fascism in Asia refers to political ideologies in Asia which adhered to fascist policies.

Contents

Central Asia

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Israel

Revisionist Maximalism

The Revisionist Maximalist movement formed by Abba Achimeir in 1930 as a right-wing fascist faction within the Zionist Revisionist Movement (ZRM). Achimeir was a self-described fascist who wrote a series of articles in 1928 titled "From the Diary of a Fascist".[1] Achimeir rejected humanism, liberalism, and socialism; condemned liberal Zionists for only working for middle-class Jews; and stated the need for an integralist, "pure nationalism" similar to that in Italy under Mussolini.[2][3] Achemeir refused to be part of reformist Zionist coalitions and insisted that he would only support revolutionary Zionists who were willing to utilize violence.[4] Anti-Jewish violence in 1929 in the British Mandate of Palestine resulted in a rise in support for Revisionist Maximalists and leading Achimeir to decry British rule, claiming that the English people were declining while the Jewish people were ready to flourish, saying:

We fought the Egyptian Pharoah, the Roman emperors, the Spanish Inquisition, the Russian tsars. They 'defeated' us. But where are they today? Can we not cope with a few despicable muftis or sheiks?...For us, the forefathers, the prophets, the zealots were not mythological concepts..." Abba Achimeir. [5]

In 1930, Achimeir and the Revisionist-Maximalists became the largest faction within the ZRM and called for closer relations with Fascist Italy and the Italian people, based on Achemier's claim claim that Italians were deemed the least anti-Semitic people in the world.[6]

In 1932, the Revisionist Maximalists pressed the ZRM to adopt their polices which were titled the "Ten Commandments of Maximalism" which were made "in the spirit of complete fascism".[7] Moderate ZRM members refused to accept this and moderate ZRM member Yaacov Kahan pressured the Revisionist Maximalists to accept the democratic nature of the ZRM and not push for the party to adopt fascist dictatorial policies.[8]

In spite of the Revisionist Maximalists' opposition to the anti-Semitism of the Nazi Party, Achemeir was initially controversially supportive of the Nazi Party in early 1933, believing that the Nazis' rise to power was positive because it recognized that previous attempts by Germany to assimilate Jews had finally been proven to be a failure.[9] In March 1933, Achemeir wrote about the Nazi party, stating that: "The anti-Semitic wrapping should be discarded but not its anti-Marxist core...".[10]Achemeir personally believed that the Nazis' anti-Semitism was just a nationalist ploy that did not have substance.[11]

After Achemeir supported the Nazis, other Zionists within the ZRM quickly condemned Achemeir and the Revisionist Maximalists for their support of Hitler.[12] Achemeir, in response to the outrage, in May 1933 reversed their position and opposed Nazi Germany and began to burn down German consolates and tear down Germany's flag.[13] However in 1933, Revisionist Maximalist' support quickly deteriorated and fell apart, they would not be reorganized until 1938, after Achemeir was replaced by a new leader.[14]

East Asia

China

Kai-tsu p'ai faction of the Kuomintang

Wang Jingwei, a left-wing nationalist and anti-communist member of the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party of China), and in particular the left-wing nationalist Kai-tsu p'ai (Reorganization) faction, was originally hostile to fascism in Europe, but gradually drifted to be in favour of left-wing fascism, especially to the economic policies of Nazism in the late 1930s.[15][16] Wang Jingwei visited Germany in 1936, and changed his views towards fascism, speaking positively about European fascist states, saying that: "Several advanced countries have already expanded their national vitality and augmented their people's strength, and are no longer afraid of foreign aggression."[17] Publicist T'iang Leang-Li of the People's Tribune newspaper associated with the Kai-tsu p'ai promoted the good nature of fascism in Europe while attempting to distance Kai-tsu p'ai from overtly negative aspects of fascism and wrote in 1937: "Whatever we may think about fascist and Nazi methods and policies, we must recognize the fact that their leaders have secured the enthuisiastic support of their respective nations".[18] T'iang Leang-Li claimed that the "foolish, unwise, and even cruel things" done in the fascist states had been done in a positive manner to bring about "tremendous change in the political outlook of the German and Italian people".[19] T'iang Leang-Li wrote articles that positively assessed the "socialist" character of Nazism. Similarly, Shih Shao-pei of the Kai-tsu p'ai rebuked Chinese critics of Nazism by saying "We in China [...] have heard too much about the 'national' and other flagwaving activities of the Nazis, and not enough about the 'socialist' work they are doing."[20] Shih Shao-pei wrote about reports of improved working conditions in German factories, the vacations given to employees by Kraft durch Freude, improved employer-employee relations, and the provision of public service work camps for the unemployed.[21] Other works made by the People's Tribune spoke positively about Nazism, saying that it was bringing the "integration of the working classes...into the National Socialist state and the abolition of...the evil elements of modern capitalism".[22]

Japan

Taisei Yokusankai

The Taisei Yokusankai (大政翼賛会 Imperial Rule Assistance Association ?) was created by Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe on 12 October 1940 and evolved into a "militarist" political party which aimed at removing the sectionalism in the politics and economics in the Empire of Japan to create a totalitarian single-party state, which would maximize efficiency of Japan’s total war effort during World War II.

Tohokai

Tohokai was a Japanese Nazi party formed by Seigo Nakano.

References

Notes

  1. ^ Kaplan, The Jewish Radical Right. P. 15
  2. ^ Kaplan, p15
  3. ^ Larsen, Stein Ugelvik (ed.). Fascism Outside of Europe. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. ISBN0880339888. p364-365.
  4. ^ Larsen, p377.
  5. ^ Larsen, p375.
  6. ^ Larsen, p376.
  7. ^ Larsen, p377.
  8. ^ Larsen, p377.
  9. ^ Larsen, p379.
  10. ^ Larsen, p377.
  11. ^ Larsen, p381.
  12. ^ Larsen, p380.
  13. ^ Larsen, p380.
  14. ^ Larsen, p380.
  15. ^ Dongyoun Hwang. Wang Jingwei, The National Government, and the Problem of Collaboration. Ph.D. Dissertation, Duke University. UMI Dissertation Services, Ann Arbor Michigain. 2000, 118.
  16. ^ Larsen, Stein Ugelvik (ed.). Fascism Outside of Europe. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. ISBN0880339888. P. 255.
  17. ^ Larsen, p255.
  18. ^ Larsen, P. 255
  19. ^ Larsen, p255.
  20. ^ Larsen, p255.
  21. ^ Larsen, p255.
  22. ^ Larsen, p255.

See also


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