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.Fascism, pronounced /ˈfæʃɪzəm/, is a radical and authoritarian nationalist political ideology.^ Fascism is a radical, authoritarian nationalist ideology.
  • The American Spectator : AmSpecBlog : A Whiff of Fascism from Obama's White House 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC spectator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fascism opposes the political ideologies of communism, liberalism and conservatism as well as political concepts and systems such as democracy, individualism, materialism, pacifism, and pluralism.
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » “Liberal Fascism” - The end of freedom and prosperity 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is objective and discusses the ideology of the nationalists of each country, and the domestic political context of each individual country.

[1][2][3][4] .Fascists seek to organize a nation on corporatist perspectives; values; and systems such as the political system and the economy.^ Organization of a new highly regulated, multiclass, integrated national economic structure whether called national corporatist, national socialist, or national syndicalist.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » More CNN: Roesgen interviews protester who calls Obama a fascist 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC hotair.com [Source type: General]

^ A political philosophy or movement based on or advocating such a system of government.
  • Think Progress » Right-Wing Apoplectic Over Pixar’s WALL-E: ‘Malthusian Fear Mongering,’ ‘Fascistic Elements’ 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Think Progress » Glenn Beck: I was wrong. We’re not marching to socialism, we’re marching toward fascism. 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ Fascist organization is the method of world peace among nations bound together by the universal fascism of the twentieth century.
  • Chapter Thirty-One, THE SPREAD OF FASCISM 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

[5][6] .Scholars generally consider fascism to be on the far right of the conventional left-right political spectrum,[7][8][9][10][11][12] although some scholars claim that fascism has been influenced by both the left and the right.^ The far right Politics .
  • The view: Can cinema resist fascism? | Film | guardian.co.uk 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Fascism is still Right not Left, .
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » “Liberal Fascism” - The end of freedom and prosperity 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And he is very far to my right in politics.
  • We could have been more compassionate to Michael Jackson when he was alive | ItsYourTimes.com 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.itsyourtimes.com [Source type: Original source]

[13][14]
.Fascists believe that a nation is an organic community that requires strong leadership, collective identity, and the will and ability to commit violence and wage war in order to keep the nation strong.^ "The implosion of communism was a great victory for democracy, but the vacuum has been filled by an intense, violent ethnic nationalism and the revival of overt fascist movements that had been suppressed since World War II but are still very much alive.
  • Pro-Existence: Fascism Archives 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.pearceyreport.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fascists believe that nations and races are in perpetual conflict whereby only the strong can survive by being healthy, vital, and by asserting themselves in combat against the weak.
  • The American Spectator : AmSpecBlog : A Whiff of Fascism from Obama's White House 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC spectator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only thing this president cares about is his war, and he’s spent his entire eight years in office trying to keep Americans believing the lie.
  • David Horowitz ‘Declares’ Islamo-Fascism Awareness Week for October 22-26 « Antiwar.com Blog 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

[15] .Fascists identify violence and war as actions that create national regeneration, spirit and vitality.^ He had been one of the architects of Wilson's war collectivism, helping create the Council of National Defense and serving as head of the Railroad Administration.
  • THE AMERICAN ROOTS OF FASCISM - a knol by john ray 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Identifying and rejecting fascist, abusive leaders would be a natural response, if families in this Nation would have raised their children with respect, dignity, equality and justice.
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Hitler got not only his eugenic ideas from American Leftists but even his ideas about war being a purification of the national spirit etc.
  • THE AMERICAN ROOTS OF FASCISM - a knol by john ray 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

[16] .Fascists claim that culture is created by collective national society and its state, that cultural ideas are what give individuals identity, and thus rejects individualism.^ Which is more important in the society, the individual or the state?
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It stands firmly opposed to the idea of class conflict in favor of harmony rooted in a shared national identity (blood and soil) and historical origins.
  • Roger L. Simon » Iran, Honduras: Is Obama “objectively pro-fascist”? 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To be dedicated to the service of the nation was thus to be dedicated to the state-and to its great and glorious leader, Il Duce The state was to control everything, and everyone was to serve the state.
  • Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal: Fascism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.la.wayne.edu [Source type: Original source]

[15] .In viewing the nation as an integrated collective community, fascists claim that pluralism is a dysfunctional aspect of society, and justify a totalitarian state as a means to represent the nation in its entirety.^ Additionally, the fascist State embarks on imperialism, not only through the traditional means of colonial territorial control, like that of the British Empire, but through the use of hegemony to directly or indirectly control nations with or without occupation.

^ What the people wanted was a religious experience and they wanted to feel a close bond between Church and State, and thus the fascist leaders identified with religious feelings in the community and used it to their advantage.

^ Thus understood, Fascism, is totalitarian, and the Fascist State - a synthesis and a unit inclusive of all values - interprets, develops, and potentates the whole life of a people....

[17][18] .Fascists advocate the creation of a single-party state.^ Fascists advocate the creation of a single-party state.
  • The American Spectator : AmSpecBlog : A Whiff of Fascism from Obama's White House 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC spectator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, fascist trends are rearing their heads in the United States where there is not even a Labor Party.
  • Chapter Thirty-One, THE SPREAD OF FASCISM 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A fascist state is one in which the ruling parties are owned by/work for the major large economic institutions.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

[19] .Fascist governments forbid and suppress openness and opposition to the fascist state and the fascist movement.^ Only historical inertia enables the fascist government to keep the proletariat in a state of dispersion and helplessness....
  • LEON TROTSKY: Fascism: What it is and how to fight it 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Likewise, it was the rich industrialists that were behind the fascist movement in the United States during the 1930s.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The strange world of Alan Girvan Alan Girvan is one of many BNP members who, despite their opposition to the anti-fascist movement, periodically takes to posting on anti-fascist sites.

[20] .Fascism rejects and resists autonomy of cultural or ethnic groups who are not considered part of the fascists' nation and who refuse to assimilate or are unable to be assimilated.^ Modern Fascism, particularly in America and parts of Europe, draws its inspiration from the late, great Sir Oswald Mosley, who led the British Union of Fascists in the 1930’s.
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » “Liberal Fascism” - The end of freedom and prosperity 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Grogor Says: April 1st, 2009 at 8:30 pm “Fascism tends to include a belief in the supremacy of one national or ethnic group, a contempt for democracy, an insistence on obedience to a powerful leader, and a strong demagogic approach.” .
  • Matthew Yglesias » Beck: We’re Marching Toward Fascism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The “cult of masculinity” as defined by scholars of fascism — who, I imagine, would rather not be called what I originally typed, “fascist scholars” — is a culture obsessed with the militaristic, the athletic, the violent, &c.
  • Liberal Fascism, performed 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

[21] .Fascists consider attempts to create such autonomy as an affront and threat to the nation.^ I want the wearing of the full veil to be systematically considered as proof of insufficient integration into French society, creating an obstacle to gaining (French) nationality,” he said.
  • Fascism | loonwatch.com 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.loonwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Opinions Fascist Nation November 2, 2007 Ron Paul and the 9/11 Truthers Ron Paul will face ever more smears as he grows in threat.
  • Powell Gammill -- Fascist Nation 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.freedomsphoenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hitler chose the Jews and communists, Mussolini the communists, and in our own time, fascists such as Saddam Hussein the United States, and Slobodan Milosevic the Muslims, as enemies, and all creating an artificial unity with this imagined threat.
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC harun-yahya.cnrglab.itb.ac.id [Source type: Original source]
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.harunyahya.com [Source type: Original source]

[21]
.Fascists support a "Third Way" in economic policy, which they believed superior to both the rampant individualism of laissez-faire capitalism and the severe control of state socialism.^ Why are social conditions the way they are?
  • Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal: Fascism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.la.wayne.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Fascist state controls the individual and at the same time is the individual.
  • Fascism | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was based on individualism, a limited state and an essentially laissez-faire economy.
  • Fast Capitalism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.uta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22][23] .Fascism presents itself as an economically trans-class movement that promotes ending economic class conflict to secure national solidarity.^ It stands firmly opposed to the idea of class conflict in favor of harmony rooted in a shared national identity (blood and soil) and historical origins.
  • Roger L. Simon » Iran, Honduras: Is Obama “objectively pro-fascist”? 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dimitrov points out:”The development of fascism, and the fascist dictatorship itself, assume different forms in different countries, according to historical, social and economic conditions, and to the national peculiarities and the international position of the given country.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus fascism, which has undertaken to bury Marxism, the revolutionary movement of the working class, is, as a result of the dialectics of life and the class struggle, itself leading to the further development of the forces that are bound to serve as its grave-diggers, the grave-diggers of capitalism.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

[24] .They blame capitalism and liberal democracies for creating class conflict, and accuse communists of exploiting the concept.^ Capitalism was the major force in creating the middle class where most of that political action took place,so capitalism should share the credit for the emergence of those freedoms.
  • The Greenroom » Forum Archive » The Eff Word 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC hotair.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have already outlined what the fascists opposed, they opposed liberalism, democracy, Marxism, secularism, and laissez-faire capitalism.

^ Fascism arises when the capitalist ruling class can no longer maintain the system through the charade of "liberal democracy".
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

[25] .Fascists accuse liberalism, as a bourgeois movement, and Marxism, as a proletarian movement, for both having created anarchy through support of democracy, Freemasonry, materialism, plutocracy, positivism, and rationalism.^ In the acute class struggle for the restoration of their tottering power and the grabbing back from the people the fruits of the anti-fascist victory, the imperialist bourgeoisie and the reactionaries had to fight against Marxism and the very idea of the proletarian dictatorship, socialism, and the movement for national liberation of the oppressed countries.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the acute class struggle for the restoration of their > tottering power and the grabbing back from the people the fruits of the > anti-fascist victory, the imperialist bourgeoisie and the reactionaries had to > fight against Marxism and the very idea of the proletarian dictatorship, > socialism, and the movement for national liberation of the oppressed countries.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The official Fascist intellectuals were mainly engaged in attacking modern culture and the liberal intelligentsia for having betrayed traditional values.
  • more on conservative facism | MetaFilter 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: Original source]

[26] .Fascists believe that economic classes are not capable of properly running a nation, and that a merit-based aristocracy of experienced military persons must rule through regimenting a nation's forces of production and securing the nation's independence.^ PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE BARACK OBAMA: We cannot continue to rely on our military in order to achieve the national security objectives we’ve set.
  • Is the ‘Obama as fascist dictator’ meme acceptable in GOP? | Jay Bookman 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ Fascists believe that nations and races are in perpetual conflict whereby only the strong can survive by being healthy, vital, and by asserting themselves in combat against the weak.
  • The American Spectator : AmSpecBlog : A Whiff of Fascism from Obama's White House 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC spectator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of this economic intervention and government expansion, all of this use of collectivist language and collectivist goals, combined with the first big steps towards Obama's goal of "a civilian national security force that's just as powerful, just as strong, just as well-funded" as the American military, is straight out of Mussolini's playbook .
  • Pro-Existence: Fascism Archives 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.pearceyreport.com [Source type: Original source]

[27]
.Following the defeat of the Axis powers in World War II and the publicity surrounding the atrocities committed during the period of fascist governments, the term fascist has been used as a pejorative word,[28] often referring to widely varying movements across the political spectrum.^ During World War II many things happened in American society and politics.

^ From the early '30s to the mid-'60s, roughly, these were of necessity restricted mainly to the periodicals of his own political movements, as well as various sympathetic foreign political publications.
  • Select Bibliography -- Works on Oswald Mosley and British Fascism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.ihr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This open push for Nazi-style fascism should not be a surprise, since the Nazis and the other fascist movements of the 1920s and 1930s were created by the financiers of the Anglo-Dutch Liberal empire for the express purpose of breaking the power of the nation-states, and taking the world back to a modernized variation of medieval feudalism.
  • Obama’s Health Care Fascism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29]

Contents

Etymology

.The term fascismo is derived from the Italian word fascio, which means "bundle" or group, and from the Latin word fasces.^ The word comes from the Italian Fascismo, which itself is derived from the Latin fasces meaning " bundles ".

^ The word fascism has as its root in the Latin word “Fasces” or a bundle of sticks.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Arabic word is translated more correctly from “jahada” which means “to strive,” the term ‘jihad’ derived then as a “spiritual struggle” or “self struggle” meant to apply to daily life in an assertive bettering of the self in ones’ society.
  • David Horowitz ‘Declares’ Islamo-Fascism Awareness Week for October 22-26 « Antiwar.com Blog 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.The fasces, which consisted of a bundle of rods that were tied around an axe, was an ancient Roman symbol of the authority of the civic magistrate.^ The fasces in Ancient Rome referred to the bundle of rods with an axe which was borne before Roman Magistrates as a symbol of their authority.

^ Also, the symbol on the mercury penny is the fasces , the ancient Roman symbol of political authority.
  • Matthew Yglesias » Beck: We’re Marching Toward Fascism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jon Lester Says: April 2nd, 2009 at 4:59 am Actually, the fasces was the symbol of the Roman Republic, and was an ax with a bundle of rods tied around it.
  • Matthew Yglesias » Beck: We’re Marching Toward Fascism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

.They were carried by his lictors and could be used for corporal and capital punishment at his command.^ They were carried symbolically in the late Roman Republic by an honor guard consisting of lictors (and by then the axe had been removed).
  • Matthew Yglesias » Beck: We’re Marching Toward Fascism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Corporations were protected by the government, but could really do whatever the heck they wanted.
  • Roger L. Simon » Iran, Honduras: Is Obama “objectively pro-fascist”? 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: Original source]

[30][31]
.The symbolism of the fasces suggested strength through unity: a single rod is easily broken, while the bundle is difficult to break.^ The bundle of rods bound together symbolizes the strength which a single rod lacks.
  • Us vs. Them: On the Meaning of Fascism « INTIFADA 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC intifada-palestine.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The fasces of ancient Roman times were of course the bundles of rods carried by the lictors to symbolize the great strength of the organized Roman people.
  • THE AMERICAN ROOTS OF FASCISM - a knol by john ray 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The fasces in Ancient Rome referred to the bundle of rods with an axe which was borne before Roman Magistrates as a symbol of their authority.

[32] .Similar symbols were developed by different fascist movements.^ The Congress pointed out that ‘in a more or less developed form, fascist tendencies and the germs of a fascist movement are to be found almost everywhere’.” Can anyone deny that today we are facing a similar danger?
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Congress pointed out that 'in a more or less developed form, fascist tendencies and the germs of a fascist movement are to be found almost everywhere.'
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Within the > movement of support for the Peruvian revolution that is developing abroad these > manoeuvres of the fascist Fujimori government have also had some effect.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

For example the Falange symbol is a bunch of arrows joined together by a yoke.[33]

Definitions

.Historians, political scientists, and other scholars have engaged in long debates concerning the exact nature of fascism.^ Go to any description of fascism that wasn’t written for present-day political purposes – by anyone who studies fascism as a historian or political scientist – and see what they identify as its core tenets.
  • Roger L. Simon » Iran, Honduras: Is Obama “objectively pro-fascist”? 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For 60 years most historians have been putting fascism on the right, or conservative, side of the political spectrum.
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » “Liberal Fascism” - The end of freedom and prosperity 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I won’t even get into the irony of your refusal to find an evolving of “Othering” to include an Othering based on a social construct like partisan politics, germane to the debate.
  • Liberal Fascism, performed 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

[34] .Since the 1990s, scholars like Stanley Payne, Roger Eatwell, Roger Griffin and Robert O. Paxton have begun to gather a rough consensus on the system's core tenets.^ In the first stage, a rural movement emerges to effect some kind of nationalist renewal (what Roger Griffin calls "palingenesis" -- a phoenix-like rebirth from the ashes).
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

.Each form of fascism is distinct, leaving many definitions as too wide or too narrow.^ Now, that is in many ways the most subtle and sophisticated form of Fascism.

^ It must find in good time ways and suitable forms to prevent fascism from winning over the wide mass of discontented working people.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor does the definition seem capable of taking into all forms of fascism.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[35][36]
Griffin wrote:
[Fascism is] a genuinely revolutionary, trans-class form of anti-liberal, and in the last analysis, anti-conservative nationalism. .As such it is an ideology deeply bound up with modernization and modernity, one which has assumed a considerable variety of external forms to adapt itself to the particular historical and national context in which it appears, and has drawn a wide range of cultural and intellectual currents, both left and right, anti-modern and pro-modern, to articulate itself as a body of ideas, slogans, and doctrine.^ Syndicalism is neither left nor right in itself.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I will not respond to the gentleman who labels himself 'Truth' (a misnomer if ever I've heard one) because he's clearly up to his neck in the propaganda of the extreme left, and is incapable of making a rational argument in defence of his anti-McGeoughism.
  • Fascist Ex Provo Exposed - Indymedia Ireland 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ It stands firmly opposed to the idea of class conflict in favor of harmony rooted in a shared national identity (blood and soil) and historical origins.
  • Roger L. Simon » Iran, Honduras: Is Obama “objectively pro-fascist”? 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the inter-war period it manifested itself primarily in the form of an elite-led "armed party" which attempted, mostly unsuccessfully, to generate a populist mass movement through a liturgical style of politics and a programme of radical policies which promised to overcome a threat posed by international socialism, to end the degeneration affecting the nation under liberalism, and to bring about a radical renewal of its social, political and cultural life as part of what was widely imagined to be the new era being inaugurated in Western civilization.^ The radicalization of the masses will affect the social democrats.
  • LEON TROTSKY: Fascism: What it is and how to fight it 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The leader of fascism spoke for many when he described the Versailles Treaty, Italy's weak and squabble-prone post-war liberal government and resurgent socialism as dark episodes: "I assert that the episodes of 1919 and 1920 had in them bacilli which, if not treated heroically, are deadly for the life of a civilized nation" (Mussolini 1939:65).
  • Fast Capitalism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.uta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fascist movements promote violence between nations, political factions, and races as part of a social Darwinist and militarist stance that views violence between these groups as a natural and positive part of evolution.” .
  • Think Progress » Glenn Beck: I was wrong. We’re not marching to socialism, we’re marching toward fascism. 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

.The core mobilizing myth of fascism which conditions its ideology, propaganda, style of politics and actions is the vision of the nation's imminent rebirth from decadence.^ We need not be dismayed, comrades, if the people mobilized around these day-to-day interests consider themselves either indifferent to politics or even followers of fascism.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So it was not only irrationalism, but elitism and nationalism and the attitudes of the Counter-Enlightenment, too, that came together in the early twentieth century in the totalitarian ideology of fascism.
  • Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal: Fascism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.la.wayne.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The adoption of anti-communism as the core of the post-World War II US ideology made any analysis of the anti-socialist roots of fascism inconvenient.
  • Facism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC omnicenter.org [Source type: Original source]

[37]
Paxton wrote that fascism is:
a form of political behavior marked by obsessive preoccupation with community decline, humiliation or victimhood and by compensatory cults of unity, energy and purity, in which a mass-based party of committed nationalist militants, working in uneasy but effective collaboration with traditional elites, abandons democratic liberties and pursues with redemptive violence and without ethical or legal restraints goals of internal cleansing and external expansion.[38]

Position in the political spectrum

.For some odd reason, they find it tasteful.^ They find needle-in-haystack incidents around the world where some Jew or some Christian or some other non-muslim has done something wrong, and say “LOOK! LOOK! What if he was muslim!”… .
  • Fascism | loonwatch.com 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.loonwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However the reasoning behind some conservative thinking finds its base in the Bible.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 19 November 2009 19:35 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: Original source]

.Fascism is normally described as "extreme right",[39] although some writers have found placing fascism on a conventional left-right political spectrum difficult.^ Fascism, on the extreme right is totalitarian and Communism, on the extreme left is totalitarian.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Fascism is still Right not Left, .
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » “Liberal Fascism” - The end of freedom and prosperity 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Remember this in the future when you hear of fair and balanced justice when it comes to Right vs. Left politics.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

[40] .There is a scholarly consensus that fascism was influenced by both the left and the right.^ Fascism is still Right not Left, .
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » “Liberal Fascism” - The end of freedom and prosperity 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I know complete dictatorial control comes from both the left and the right.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Fascism, on the extreme right is totalitarian and Communism, on the extreme left is totalitarian.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

[8] .A number of historians have regarded fascism either as a revolutionary centrist doctrine, as a doctrine which mixes philosophies of the left and the right, or as both of those things.^ He really wasn't left or right, he was centrist.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 19 November 2009 19:35 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fascism is still Right not Left, .
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » “Liberal Fascism” - The end of freedom and prosperity 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For 60 years most historians have been putting fascism on the right, or conservative, side of the political spectrum.
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » “Liberal Fascism” - The end of freedom and prosperity 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: Original source]

[9][10][11]
.The historians Eugen Weber,[41] David Renton,[42] and Robert Soucy[43] view fascism as on the ideological right.^ For 60 years most historians have been putting fascism on the right, or conservative, side of the political spectrum.
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » “Liberal Fascism” - The end of freedom and prosperity 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I don't know if the birthers are correct, but they certainly have a right to express their views and it is no fascism to say the President should prove his Constitutionally eligibility.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

.Rod Stackelberg argues that fascism opposes egalitarianism (particularly racial) and democracy, which according to him are characteristics that make it an extreme right-wing movement.^ Fascism is called a right-wing movement because it was a right-wing movement, from start to finish.

^ But his definition of fascism is not ultimately much more satisfying than "Right wing governments I don't like."

^ The only thing I'd like to toss in, in case no one has, is that it's triflingly easy to make the case that Stalin was a right-wing dictator.

[44] Stanley Payne states that pre-war fascism found a coherent identity through alliances with right-wing movements[45] Roger Griffin argues that since the end of World War II, fascist movements have become intertwined with the radical right, describing certain groups as part of a "fascist radical right".[46][47]
.Walter Laqueur says that historical fascism "did not belong to the extreme Left, yet defining it as part of the extreme Right is not very illuminating either", but that it "was always a coalition between radical, populist ('fascist') elements and others gravitating toward the extreme Right".[48] Payne says "fascists were unique in their hostility to all the main established currents, left right and center", noting that they allied with both left and right, but more often the right.^ Nationalism taken to extremes is a key part of fascism, after all.
  • American Fascist Writer Westbrook Pegler - Boing Boing 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: General]

^ The more they cut the care, the more left for them.
  • Obama’s Health Care Fascism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fascism is still Right not Left, .
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » “Liberal Fascism” - The end of freedom and prosperity 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: Original source]

[49][50] .However, he contends that German Nazism was closer to Russian communism than to any other non-communist system.^ To compare and contrast Fascism from Communism one would need German, Russian, Italian, and Chinese, along with English, and probably French and Spanish.

^ I am not a Communist and will say only that that system of ideas has as much right to present its case to the public and seek converts as any other creed or system.
  • Big Blue Books: Fascist Romanism Defies Civilization 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "I have no other desire than to be the first soldier of the German Reich."
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC harun-yahya.cnrglab.itb.ac.id [Source type: Original source]
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.harunyahya.com [Source type: Original source]

[51]
.The position that fascism is neither right nor left is supported by a number of contemporary historians and sociologists, including Seymour Martin Lipset[52] and Roger Griffin.^ Fascism is still Right not Left, .
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » “Liberal Fascism” - The end of freedom and prosperity 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Syndicalism is neither left nor right in itself.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For 60 years most historians have been putting fascism on the right, or conservative, side of the political spectrum.
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » “Liberal Fascism” - The end of freedom and prosperity 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: Original source]

[53] .Griffin argued, "Not only does the location of fascism within the right pose taxonomic problems, there are good ground for cutting this particular Gordian knot altogether by placing it in a category of its own "beyond left and right."^ There have been times and places when nationalism has been right-wing, and times when it has been left-wing.

^ Fascism is still Right not Left, .
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » “Liberal Fascism” - The end of freedom and prosperity 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So in fact free trade can only take place with the existence of at least some publicly owned property, which can be used as the avenue of trade.

[54]
.On economic issues, fascists reject ideas of class conflict and internationalism, which are commonly held by Marxists and international socialists, in favour of class collaboration and statist nationalism.^ National Socialist movements, were opposed by the International Socialist movements (i.e.
  • Liberal Fascism, performed 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ It stands firmly opposed to the idea of class conflict in favor of harmony rooted in a shared national identity (blood and soil) and historical origins.
  • Roger L. Simon » Iran, Honduras: Is Obama “objectively pro-fascist”? 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I distinguish between Stalin and Hitler by considering Hitler a national socialist and Stalin as an international socialist.

[55][56] .However, Italian fascism also declared its objection to excessive capitalism, which it called supercapitalism.^ Let us, however, first attempt to define the word Caribbean as our subject calls for us to look at "Fascism - A Caribbean Reality?"

^ Even at this point, however, M ussolini placed more emphasis on the will to engage in [196 Fascism] revolutionary struggle than on economic factors and the contradictions of capitalism.
  • Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal: Fascism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.la.wayne.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Falasca-Zamponi's (2000) spectacle-based analysis is useful in that she utilizes the concept of aesthetic politics and merges it with spectacle in order to understand Italian fascism.
  • Fast Capitalism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.uta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57] .Zeev Sternhell sees fascism as an anti-Marxist form of socialism.^ Fascism is a form of SOCIALISM, people!
  • Think Progress » Glenn Beck: I was wrong. We’re not marching to socialism, we’re marching toward fascism. 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ Fascism is a form of totalitarian socialism as is Communism.
  • The American Spectator : AmSpecBlog : A Whiff of Fascism from Obama's White House 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC spectator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Socialism is not a form of fascism.
  • Guest Post: Capitalism, Socialism or Fascism? « naked capitalism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.nakedcapitalism.com [Source type: Original source]

[58]
.A number of fascist movements described themselves as a "third force" that was outside the traditional political spectrum altogether.^ In 1938 he forced the last remains of democracy, the Council of Deputies, to vote themselves out of existence, leaving Mussolini dictator of Fascist Italy.
  • Fascism | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the second stage, fascist movements take root, turn into real political parties, and seize their seat at the table of power.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Recent Documents from Health Care Task Force demonstrate politics of personal destruction as practiced by your so-called Liberal Fascists.
  • Liberal Fascism, performed 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

[59] Mussolini promoted ambiguity about fascism's positions in order to rally as many people to it as possible, saying fascists can be "aristocrats or democrats, revolutionaries and reactionaries, proletarians and anti-proletarians, pacifists and anti-pacifists".[60] Mussolini claimed that Italian Fascism's economic system of corporatism could be identified as either state capitalism or state socialism, which in either case involved "the bureaucratisation of the economic activities of the nation."[61] Mussolini described fascism in any language he found useful.[60][62] Spanish Falangist leader José Antonio Primo de Rivera was critical of both left-wing and right-wing politics, once saying that "basically the Right stands for the maintenance of an economic structure, albeit an unjust one, while the Left stands for the attempt to subvert that economic structure, even though the subversion thereof would entail the destruction of much that was worthwhile".[63]
.Roger Eatwell sees terminology associated with the traditional “left-right” political spectrum as failing to fully capture the complex nature of the ideology[64] and many other political scientists have posited multi-dimensional alternatives to the traditional linear left-right spectrum.^ That applies to many on the Left and the Right, from all across the reductionism one-dimensional spectrum.

^ THE LEFT-RIGHT POLITICAL AXIS: I am not the first to complain about this atrocious thing, which pretends to explain all of our complex political and problem-solving processes according to where delegates sat in the 1789 French Assembly.

^ Mon, 08/10/2009 - 03:48 — rjt (not verified) Many on the right do not know their political right from the left.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

[65] .In some two dimensional political models, such as the Political Compass (where left and right are described in purely economic terms), fascism is ascribed to the economic centre, with its extremism expressing itself on the authoritarianism axis instead.^ Fascism is still Right not Left, .
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » “Liberal Fascism” - The end of freedom and prosperity 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Syndicalism is neither left nor right in itself.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ THE LEFT-RIGHT POLITICAL AXIS: I am not the first to complain about this atrocious thing, which pretends to explain all of our complex political and problem-solving processes according to where delegates sat in the 1789 French Assembly.

[66]

Fascist as epithet

.In political discourse, the term "fascist" is commonly used to denote authoritarian tendencies, but is often used as a pejorative epithet by adherents to both left-wing and right-wing politics to denigrate those with opposing viewpoints.^ Right-wing authoritarianism .

^ Right-wing authoritarianism 4.

^ Mon, 08/10/2009 - 03:48 — rjt (not verified) Many on the right do not know their political right from the left.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

.George Orwell wrote in 1944 that "the word ‘Fascism’ is almost entirely meaningless ...^ George Orwell wrote in 1944: .
  • Think Progress » Glenn Beck: I was wrong. We’re not marching to socialism, we’re marching toward fascism. 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ The word ‘Fascism’ is almost entirely meaningless.
  • Think Progress » Glenn Beck: I was wrong. We’re not marching to socialism, we’re marching toward fascism. 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ George Washington needs to look at the entire picture … WORDS ARE IMPORTANT … .
  • Guest Post: Capitalism, Socialism or Fascism? « naked capitalism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.nakedcapitalism.com [Source type: Original source]

almost any English person would accept ‘bully’ as a synonym for ‘Fascist’".[67] Richard Griffiths argued in 2005 that "fascism" is the "most misused, and over-used word, of our times".[36] "Fascist" is sometimes applied to post-war organisations and ways of thinking that academics more commonly term "neo-fascist".[68]

Historical causes of the rise of fascism

.There are a variety of views on what led to the rise of fascism.^ All of the same issues came up in America that had been critical in Europe during the rise of fascism there.

.One view is that fascism in Italy was a response to the perceived failings of democracy, liberalism and Marxism, which were seen as either favouring individualism or internationalism at the expense of the nation.^ FASCISM by its very nature is LOOTING of one group by another, whether nation and/or class.
  • Guest Post: Capitalism, Socialism or Fascism? « naked capitalism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.nakedcapitalism.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have already outlined what the fascists opposed, they opposed liberalism, democracy, Marxism, secularism, and laissez-faire capitalism.

^ Fascism opposes the political ideologies of communism, liberalism and conservatism as well as political concepts and systems such as democracy, individualism, materialism, pacifism, and pluralism.
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » “Liberal Fascism” - The end of freedom and prosperity 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: Original source]

[69][70] .Fascism presented itself as a radical nationalist alternative to Bolshevism.^ Fascism is a radical, authoritarian nationalist ideology.
  • The American Spectator : AmSpecBlog : A Whiff of Fascism from Obama's White House 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC spectator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arab nationalist sentiment is not enough by itself to produce fascism.
  • Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal: Fascism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.la.wayne.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Generally speaking, fascism made use of chaos and instability within a country to impose itself on its inhabitants, by presenting itself as an ideology of salvation.
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC harun-yahya.cnrglab.itb.ac.id [Source type: Original source]
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.harunyahya.com [Source type: Original source]

.It nevertheless incorporated aspects of Bolshevism, such as the single-party state, elite rule over the masses, and appeals to the proletariat.^ Nevertheless, such otherwise useless attacks have an unexpected positive aspect: they serve to instruct by negative example.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Such a party would be a specific form of the mass People's Front in America and should be put in opposition to the parties of the trusts and the banks, and likewise to growing fascism.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And here it must be said that under American conditions the creation of a mass party of the working people, a Workers' and Farmers' Party , might serve as such a suitable form.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

[71] .At a time when war veterans were facing unemployment and other economic problems, fascists promoted a form of collectivism, calling for the end of bourgeois individualism, as well as opposing Marxism for its anti-nationalism and perceived anti-patriotism.^ Principles and Organisations of the patriotic and anti-communist movement in Italy started during the 191418 war, culminating in the dictatorship of Benito Mussolini (died 1945) and initiated by Fascist or Blackshirt associations in other countries.

^ Fascists wish to solve existing economic, political, and social problems by achieving a millenarian national rebirth by exalting the nation or race as well as promoting cults of unity, strength and purity.
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » “Liberal Fascism” - The end of freedom and prosperity 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The U.S. Supreme Court saw no problem with government seizing your property to give to other private individuals or groups with the intent of getting more government revenue.
  • Powell Gammill -- Fascist Nation 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.freedomsphoenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[69]
.The creation of the League of Nations after World War I aggravated nationalists, who saw the organization as imposing an internationalist political order upon nations.^ Most who find General Butler's War is a Racket interesting would be interested as well in Scott Nearing's brilliant work War , which is appropriately subtitled "Organized Destruction and Mass Murder by Civilized Nations."
  • Smedley Butler Stopped American Fascist Conspiracy to Overthrow FDR - Democratic Underground 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.democraticunderground.com [Source type: General]

^ The great political fact emerging from the Second World War > is that the popular masses of the whole world stood up.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ War alone brings up to its highest tension all human energy and puts the stamp of nobility upon the peoples who have courage to meet it."
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC harun-yahya.cnrglab.itb.ac.id [Source type: Original source]
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.harunyahya.com [Source type: Original source]

[72] .Fascists saw the league as only benefiting wealthy capitalist democracies.^ In a corporate fascist state, if state control of the economy exists it is for the benefit of the maximum leader, his cohorts and the capitalist class; in a socialist state, state control of the economy is primarily for the benefit of the working and poor people, and their dependents.

^ Not only have we become fascist, but now the plutocracy (no, we're not really a democracy) has morphed into a kleptocracy.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

[72] .Disillusionment with liberalism deepened with the 1929 stock market crash and the Great Depression.^ When the Stock Markets crashed in 1929, the beginning of the Great Depression, it changed American attitudes about the economy.

^ The "crisis" referred to in the above paragraph was the economic depression that swept the capitalist world after the Wall Street crash of 1929.
  • LEON TROTSKY: Fascism: What it is and how to fight it 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

[73] .Alfredo Rocco, Benito Mussolini and Giovanni Gentile justified fascism as answering a need for purpose in an absurd world.^ Benito Mussolini The creeping-fascism story .
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Fascism has nothing to do with heavy-handed police states (see Benito Mussolini’s “Social Doctrine,” page 1) or wars of imperial conquest.
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » “Liberal Fascism” - The end of freedom and prosperity 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Benito Mussolini, from the entry he wrote for the Italian Encyclopedia on the definition of fascism.
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC harun-yahya.cnrglab.itb.ac.id [Source type: Original source]
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.harunyahya.com [Source type: Original source]

[74][75][76] Mussolini wrote:
...it is a spiritualized conception, itself the result of the general reaction of modern times against the flabby materialistic positivism of the nineteenth century. .Anti-positivistic, but positive: not skeptical, nor agnostic, nor pessimistic, nor passively optimistic, as are, in general, the doctrines (all negative) that put the center of life outside man, who with his free will can and must create his own world.^ Who's the Main Man we owe it all to?
  • Does America Face the Risk of a Fascist Backlash? | Corporate Accountability and WorkPlace | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ It must likewise be the special care of the State to create those material conditions of life without which an orderly society cannot exist.

^ I am of the opinion that all Palestinians who lost their homes should be generously compensated.
  • Pickled Politics » The ‘fascist’ in Israel 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.pickledpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

.Fascism desires an active man, one engaged in activity with all his energies: it desires a man virilely conscious of the difficulties that exist in action and ready to face them.^ So this form of Fascism - autocracy within a parliamentary system - is certainly the most dangerous one of all.

^ If they were all Catholic, you'd be the first one yelling for action and talking about the evils of Christianity.
  • News: Are You Ready for 'Islamo-Fascism Week'? - Inside Higher Ed 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.insidehighered.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What you've done is taken a small part of the definition of the word and applied it to one incident, calling it fascism, while implying all the while the whole, ugly weight of evil fascism.
  • The American Spectator : AmSpecBlog : A Whiff of Fascism from Obama's White House 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC spectator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It conceives of life as a struggle, considering that it behooves man to conquer for himself that life truly worthy of him, creating first of all in himself the instrument (physical, moral, intellectual) in order to construct it.^ First of all, you seem to view your position as an academic as some kind of political appointment, and you consider all women to be your “sister.” This is a bit of a stretch.
  • News: Are You Ready for 'Islamo-Fascism Week'? - Inside Higher Ed 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.insidehighered.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Their aim was principally to transform their outlook and create a whole proletarian generation able to conceive of life totally without the bourgeoisie.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He who thinks of renouncing "physical" struggle must renounce all struggle, for the spirit does not live without flesh.
  • LEON TROTSKY: Fascism: What it is and how to fight it 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

[77]

Ideological origins of Fascism

.Fascism is based upon a number of ideological origins from across the political spectrum.^ For 60 years most historians have been putting fascism on the right, or conservative, side of the political spectrum.
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » “Liberal Fascism” - The end of freedom and prosperity 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is no accident that fascism melds together corporate and political power; at their base, the two are one in the same.
  • Fascist America, in 10 Easy Steps | World | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ As for your last question, there is (or rather, was) a lot of discussion regarding the nature of fascism and how to define it, and where it resided on the political spectrum.

Benito Mussolini had a strong attachment to the works of Plato.[78] In The Republic (c. .380 BCE), Plato advocated a system of elite minority rule by highly-educated, intellectual rulers called philosopher kings who were within a class of elite warriors named "guardians" that were allowed to exercise total control over the politics and security of a society.^ In a 1932 article published on the Enciclopedia Italiana under Mussolini's name but written by various pro-fascist philosophers, a totalizing view of the nation was crystallized in the statement that "outside the State there can be neither individuals nor groups (political parties, associations, syndicates, classes)" (1991:290).
  • Fast Capitalism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.uta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The function of this military apparatus is solely to enforce what they call " law and order ", that is to say, law and order for the ruling political elite, law and order which is designed to ensure that the class interests that control the society continue to do so.

^ But this assumption came under sharp attack in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by thinkers who emphasized the importance of elites in society.
  • Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal: Fascism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.la.wayne.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This argument has been considered an inspiration for fascism's promotion of elite rule by a supreme leader and a single-party state.^ Unhappy with the liberal emphasis on the individual and the socialist emphasis on contending social classes, the fascists provided a view of the world in which individuals and classes were to be [188 Fascism] absorbed into an all-embracing whole-a mighty empire under the control of a single party and a supreme leader.
  • Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal: Fascism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.la.wayne.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Consider the words of Benito Mussolini: “Fascism should more appropriately be called Corporatism because it is a merger of state and corporate power” “Fascism is a religion.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But the German people will not be able to do this without a single party and supreme leader to forge them into a united and invincible force.
  • Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal: Fascism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.la.wayne.edu [Source type: Original source]

[79] .Similarly, Vilfredo Pareto's endorsement of an elite minority-led oligarchical government was an influence on fascists.^ Mussolini utilized the ideas elaborated by elite theorists, such as Vilfredo Pareto and Robert Michels, the former Italian and the latter German.
  • Fast Capitalism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.uta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The movement to achieve that central aspect of the fascist program comes from the elite, with the neocons in and out of government playing key roles.
  • Gary Leupp: Christian Fascism in America 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This example illustrates the fact that fascist ideology can be seen as a reinterpretation of reality, aimed at supporting the rule of an elite, led by a leader.
  • Fast Capitalism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.uta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[80] .Mussolini and Margherita Sarfatti identified both Plato and Pareto as the source of fascism's constantly changing character.^ In both instances, the reformists shut their eyes to the organic character of fascism as a mass movement growing out of the collapse of capitalism.
  • LEON TROTSKY: Fascism: What it is and how to fight it 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mussolini's words, when opening the Fascist Culture and Propaganda School in Milan in 1921, are an indication of this, where he identified action as the force that would lead fascism to victory.
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC harun-yahya.cnrglab.itb.ac.id [Source type: Original source]
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.harunyahya.com [Source type: Original source]

[81] .They claim that movement and correction of flaws in ideas renews an ideology and keeps it from becoming corrupt or outdated.^ You have to understand what ideas lie behind those labels, and when you see the ideas behind the labels you can then actually recognize these ideologies as they still present themselves today.

^ As they were educated by the system, people were entirely unaware that they were being brainwashed in fascist ideology, and that all other ideas were completely censored.
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC harun-yahya.cnrglab.itb.ac.id [Source type: Original source]
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.harunyahya.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But since the Republicans lack any cogent ideas, they keep returning to these old tactics.
  • Think Progress » Former loyal Bushie: Obama advancing ‘fascist, socialist ideals.’ 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

[81]
Mussolini modeled his dictatorship and totalitarian aims on Julius Caesar.[82] .Mussolini described his personal admiration of Caesar, claiming that Caesar had "the resolve of a warrior and the resourcefulness of a wise man".[83] The Fascists' March on Rome in 1922 was based on the crossing of the Rubicon river by Caesar and his forces when they seized power in Rome in 49 BCE.[84] Shortly after seizing power with the March on Rome, Mussolini went to the Roman Forum and stood before the ruins to pay homage to Caesar.^ The fasces in Ancient Rome referred to the bundle of rods with an axe which was borne before Roman Magistrates as a symbol of their authority.

^ A hundred years after he wrote that article Julius Caesar marched into Rome across the Rubicon, seized Rome and declared himself emperor for life, ending the Roman republic.
  • 5 Ways to Build a Fascist-Proof America | Rights and Liberties | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ In October 1922, Mussolini-now known to the fascists as Il Duce, the leader-announced that the Fascists would march on Rome, the seat of the Italian gov- [198 Fascism] ernment, and seize power if it were not given to them.
  • Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal: Fascism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.la.wayne.edu [Source type: Original source]

[85] .The Italian Fascist government presented Caesar as a national hero and had multiple statues of Caesar constructed across Italy.^ The Bulgarian fascists make use of the national-liberation movement of the seventies and its heroes beloved by the people, Vassil Levsky, Stephan Karaj and others.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Rampant Sexism -- The governments of fascist nations tend to be almost exclusively male-dominated.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Religion and Government are Intertwined -- Governments in fascist nations tend to use the most common religion in the nation as a tool to manipulate public opinion.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

[86]
Mussolini studied The Prince (1532) by Niccolo Machiavelli, and produced a thesis on it for the University of Bologna in 1924.[81] Mussolini admired Machiavelli as a capable statesman and a thinker.[81] .Mussolini identified Machiavelli's conception of "the prince" as the personification of the state, and sympathized with Machiavelli's negative conception of most people having the tendency to be self-centred and unethical.^ "The Constitution of the United States, for instance, is a marvelous document for self-governmentby Christian people.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The factor that most strengthens the fascist state in the eyes of its people is the myth of "internal and external enemies."
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.harunyahya.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They present what appear to be sacred values to the people and encourage them in self-sacrifice for the sake of the state, to despise other nations or races, and even to torture and kill.
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.harunyahya.com [Source type: Original source]

[81] .Mussolini, like Machiavelli, claimed that populations were unfit to govern themselves, and that they needed leadership to direct their lives.^ It was plain to see they were like babes in the woods, ignorant of life, dumb-struck by the great calamity of the crisis and its attendant effects upon their congregations and themselves.
  • Class Struggle, Volume 3 Number 7 - August 1933 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Note they pushed “private” to the head of the story to try and make it seem like the government was involved.
  • Geithner Bank Bailout Plan: Fiasco « naked capitalism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.nakedcapitalism.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the case of Bush and his backers, the tragedy of September 11, 2001 was the catalyst they needed to complete their full takeover of the American government.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

[87]
Fascism is connected to the theories of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. .This connection to Hegelianism is also shared by Marxism, but fascism focuses on the elements of Hegelianism that Karl Marx detracted from.^ There is actually some truth to the connection between Marxism and Jews, Karl Marx was of Jewish heritage, and many other prominent Marxist leaders and writers were Jews, however there were also plenty of non-Jews who were involved in the movement as well.

^ In fact, Germany was the birthplace of Marxism, as it is where Karl Marx was born and schooled and where his ideologies were first accepted.

^ The ideological element constituted by elite rule was later appropriated by Karl Marx, who provided an alternative definition.
  • Fast Capitalism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.uta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[88] While Marxism focuses on rationalism and empiricism elements of Hegelianism, fascism focuses on the spiritualist elements of Hegelianism.[89] .One of fascism's major philosophers, Giovanni Gentile was a Hegelian.^ We are for united class trade unions as one of the major bulwarks of the working class against the offensive of capital and fascism.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Of the three major ideologies, laissez-faire capitalism, fascism, and Marxist socialism, fascism was the only one which was objectively pro middle class.

^ The French philosopher George Sorel (1847-1922), one of the ideologues of fascism, and who was a particular influence on Mussolini, heads the list of those who believed in the idea.
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC harun-yahya.cnrglab.itb.ac.id [Source type: Original source]
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.harunyahya.com [Source type: Original source]

[90] .Gentile faced opposition from some Italian Fascists who attacked him for being too attached to Hegelianism and for being too dominant to be considered loyal to fascism and to Mussolini.^ True, the preceding Italian governments had all been strongly anti-Catholic Church, and the Lateran Treaties were signed, but Mussolini's Fascists were anything but "cozy" with the Pius XI and the Catholic Church, particularly after 1931 and the encyclical Non Abbiamo Bisogno attacking fascism as worshiping the state and interfering with the Church.

^ FDR was no fascist, and one can argue that even Mussolini’s regime was only truly fascist in the period before the Vatican accord and during the Italian Social Republic, with the intervening period being characterized as being an authoritarian reactionary para-fascism.
  • FDR and Fascism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To some, the characterization of Roosevelt's policies as leaning towards Fascism may be considered as an exaggeration.
  • Class Struggle, Volume 3 Number 7 - August 1933 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

[91] .After the Second Italo-Abyssinian War Gentile's influence in the National Fascist Party (PNF) collapsed, with philosophical influence being centralized to Mussolini's will.^ Fascists believe that nations and races are in perpetual conflict whereby only the strong can survive by being healthy, vital, and by asserting themselves in combat against the weak.
  • The American Spectator : AmSpecBlog : A Whiff of Fascism from Obama's White House 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC spectator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the second stage, fascist movements take root, turn into real political parties, and seize their seat at the table of power.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Opinions Fascist Nation 1-27-2007 Arizona Libertarian Partys pro-taxation platform down ...
  • Powell Gammill -- Fascist Nation 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.freedomsphoenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[92]
.Mussolini and Gabriele d'Annunzio were influenced by Friedrich Nietzsche's concept of übermensch ("overman" or "superman") and his themes of living dangerously.^ Nietzsche's philosophical idea of the "Superman" as a will-based great leader of men who would turn politics into aesthetics probably also influenced Mussolini (Eatwell 1996).
  • Fast Capitalism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.uta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thirdly, fascism was influenced by the exaltation of genius over the mediocrity of the masses, leading to the concept of a national leader (Mussolini) who could engineer a national rebirth.
  • Fast Capitalism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.uta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[93] .D'Annunzio played an important role in bringing Nietzsche's themes into Italy.^ By the fact that the State played an important role in the economy, the State saw to it to protect and promote industries which were viewed as vital to State interests.

^ "Certain American industrialists had a great deal to do with bringing fascist regimes into being in both Germany and Italy.

^ X2 often played the dominant role within the OSS, especially with the more important neutrals of Switzerland, Portugal and Spain.
  • Smedley Butler Stopped American Fascist Conspiracy to Overthrow FDR - Democratic Underground 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.democraticunderground.com [Source type: General]

[94] .Like Nietzsche, d'Annunzio idealized the Renaissance as a period of time during which übermensch ruled and the power of decadent nobility was disintigrating.^ This is in contrast to modern “conservatives,” who would have been labeled “liberals” during this time period.
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » “Liberal Fascism” - The end of freedom and prosperity 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He gave speeches in which he would say things like, during that period, I spent most of my time being a high class muscle- man for Big Business, for Wall Street and for the Bankers.
  • Smedley Butler Stopped American Fascist Conspiracy to Overthrow FDR - Democratic Underground 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.democraticunderground.com [Source type: General]

^ One last time, Norm: Capitalism and the marketplace provide choices; choices provide opportunity ( to succeed or fail ); opportunity erodes the power and authority of ruling elites.
  • The Greenroom » Forum Archive » The Eff Word 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC hotair.com [Source type: Original source]

[94] .Nietzsche and d'Annunzio both held contempt for Christianity, the bourgeoisie, democracy, and reformist politics.^ Hitler held a similar contempt for democracy.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[95] .D'Annunzio supported the creation of a new state based on an aristocracy of intellectuals, a cult of strength and opposition to democracy.^ It may be said, and this is true to a certain extent, that the new middle class, the functionaries of the state, the private administrators, etc., can constitute such a base.
  • LEON TROTSKY: Fascism: What it is and how to fight it 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sixthly, the need to create new apparatuses of State to replace the traditional army and police inherited by, but hostile to, the new regime.

^ In either case we need to create economic room for entrepenuers, create wage based jobs for millions, and re-energise our democracies.
  • Guest Post: Capitalism, Socialism or Fascism? « naked capitalism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.nakedcapitalism.com [Source type: Original source]

[94] .He believed that the best ideology to exemplify Nietzsche's übermensch and living dangerously was aggressive nationalism.^ Nobody challenged his aggressive views toward war, or at best they believed that they could control or contain him.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mussolini and his followers believed that this ideology was the best hope for "saving Western Civilization".

[96] .During World War I, d'Annunzio evoked Italian nationalist themes of irredentism, claiming that Italy was the heir to the Roman Empire.^ He was also a strident Italian nationalist with an avowed aim to restore the Roman empire.
  • MODERN LEFTISM AS RECYCLED FASCISM 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC jonjayray.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is true that Post World War I conditions within Italy and Germany did encourage " irrationalism and adventurism ."

^ From the time the [first world] war ended, there was an upward trend in the revolutionary movement in Italy, and in September 1920 it resulted in the seizure of factories and industries by the workers.
  • LEON TROTSKY: Fascism: What it is and how to fight it 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

[97]
.Prior to becoming a fascist, Mussolini was a socialist who was influenced by Nietszche's anti-Christian ideas and negation of God's existence.^ The King of Italy, was unable to resist the fascist gang who had occupied Rome, and called on Mussolini to establish a government.
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC harun-yahya.cnrglab.itb.ac.id [Source type: Original source]
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.harunyahya.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In developing and strengthening the YCL, our YCL members must work for the formation of anti-fascist associations of the Communist and Socialist Youth Leagues on a platform of class struggle.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ People who call Obama a fascist or a socialist are really off the deep end.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: Obama a 'fascist'? - POLITICO.com 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

[98] Mussolini saw Nietzsche as similar to Jean-Marie Guyau, who advocated a philosophy of action.[98] .Mussolini's use of Nietzsche made him a highly unorthodox socialist, due to Nietzsche's promotion of elitism and anti-egalitarian views.^ Of course Reagan made sure he was the star of this photo op and used it to promote and build support for his extremist military agenda.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He made deals with the socialists, the separatists, and anyone who would enter into a successful coalition with him.
  • Liberal Fascism, performed 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Mussolini famously dueled socialist and communist editors, wounding many, killing two, but it made his position clear: you’re my kind of socialist — i.e.
  • Liberal Fascism, performed 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

[98] .Mussolini felt that socialism had faltered due to the failures of Marxist determinism and social democratic reformism, and believed that Nietzsche's ideas would strengthen socialism.^ To dismiss democratic socialism — an economic and political system — that is older than Marxist collectivism — shows just how ignorant many americans are.
  • Guest Post: Capitalism, Socialism or Fascism? « naked capitalism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.nakedcapitalism.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Were the march of events dependent upon the social-democratic party leadership, Hitler's career would be assured.
  • LEON TROTSKY: Fascism: What it is and how to fight it 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Both were wrong, and we now emphasize, on the one hand, that we are not in the least anxious for a workers government" that would be nothing more nor less than an enlarged Social-Democratic government.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

[99] By the 1900s, Mussolini's writings indicated that he had abandoned Marxism and egalitarianism in favour of Nietzsche's übermensch concept and anti-egalitarianism.[100] Unlike fascists, however, Nietzsche did not admire the state; in his work Thus Spoke Zarathustra, he referred to the state as "the coldest of all monsters".[101]
.Syndicalist philosopher Georges Sorel is considered a major inspiration for both Bolshevism and fascism, both of which Sorel supported because they challenged bourgeois democracy.^ Because the more people feel that it cannot happen here, the more they feel that fascism was an Italian or German or Chilean experience, but that it cannot happen here, the more difficult will be our task.

^ The right opportunists considered that a "workers' government" ought to keep "within the framework of bourgeois democracy," and consequently ought not to take any steps going beyond this framework.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These would never have supported fascism if they had understood its real character and its true nature.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

[102] .Sorel's work Reflections on Violence (1908) claimed that violence could be moral, especially revolutionary violence that brings substantive positive change in society.^ He also believed in the degeneration of societies and believed that social decay could only be delayed by idealists who were willing to use violence to obtain power.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We must bring about a real change for the better in trade union work and make the question of struggle for trade union unity the central issue.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

[103] .Sorel rebuked Marxism, accusing it of becoming decadent, and arguing that it should not resist the free market and free competition, because they would quicken the demise of the bourgeoisie and the victory of the proletariat.^ I am as free market as they come.
  • Geithner Bank Bailout Plan: Fiasco « naked capitalism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.nakedcapitalism.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He abandoned that course of action quickly, perhaps because the magnitude of the payment over market prices would be so large as to be politically explosive were the bagholder taxpayer ever to find out.
  • Geithner Bank Bailout Plan: Fiasco « naked capitalism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.nakedcapitalism.com [Source type: Original source]

^ RE: I suppose I should resist this, because what's the point, but I cannot seem to help myself Posted by: ghost in the machine .
  • 5 Ways to Build a Fascist-Proof America | Rights and Liberties | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[103]
.Sorel argued that socialists should reject the materialism and rationalism of Marx and instead adopt moral and emotional appeals of ideals and myths to promote their cause.^ This should be sufficient for anyone to dispel the myth that the Nazis were socialist, when in fact they were capitalistic extremists.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Socialists reject all forms of racism, while fascism is usually linked to violent victimization of racial, ethnic, and religious minorities in the name of some mythical racial ideal.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: Obama a 'fascist'? - POLITICO.com 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

[103] .Sorel argued that excessive rationalism is a trait of the bourgeoisie, and that the proletariat's mind is more "primitive", being more able to accept myths.^ The particular traits of fascism which spring from the mobilization of the petty bourgeoisie against the proletariat, the Communist Party was unable to discern.
  • LEON TROTSKY: Fascism: What it is and how to fight it 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

[104] .Sorel believed that this was beneficial, because the proletariat would be more willing to accept moral renewal.^ I would say that the reason why many of us did not have more compassion for Jackson was because we believed Jackson had TOO MUCH SEXUAL PASSION FOR CHILDREN. God bless.
  • We could have been more compassionate to Michael Jackson when he was alive | ItsYourTimes.com 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.itsyourtimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the end I believe we all have a role to play, and I suspect you would have more influence than I am ever likely to have.
  • Pickled Politics » The ‘fascist’ in Israel 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.pickledpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The early laissez-faire economists, such as Adam Smith, believed in the liberal ideology that individuals should be encouraged to take actions that would be beneficial to society.

[104] Reflections on Violence was highly popular amongst Italian revolutionary syndicalists,[103] one of whom was Mussolini, who later as a fascist acknowledged Sorel's influence on him, saying "What I am, I owe to Sorel".[102]
.Fascism initially had close connections to futurism; the Futurist Manifesto (1909) by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti "glorified action, technology, and war" and promoted irrationalism over rationalism; the revolutionary entrenchment of modernist and violent art and aesthetics; the destruction of all past aesthetic traditions to liberate modern aesthetics; the promotion of patriotism and militarism; and contempt of women and feminism.^ Futurist Manifesto shouted from the rooftops in 1909.

^ The futurists also set out "to destroy the museums, the libraries", adding: "It is in Italy that we launch this manifesto of violence, destructive and incendiary, by which we this day found futurism, because we would deliver Italy from its canker of professors, archeologists, cicerones and antiquaries ...

^ Women are strangers to architecture, the synthesis of all the arts: and their destiny ends at this point.

[105] .Futurism, like fascism, identified the state in a corporatist manner as an organic body connected to the nation.^ The identified enemies of fascism, were they the Communists or the red proletariat, became "the Other" lying outside the totalitarian fascist state.
  • Fast Capitalism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.uta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It assumes the organic unity of the body politic and longs for a national leader attuned to the will of the people.
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » “Liberal Fascism” - The end of freedom and prosperity 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Under fascism, the identified tensions were utilized, to a varying degree, to construct the myth of a new nation, based on new values and on will.
  • Fast Capitalism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.uta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[106] .However, unlike fascism, the futurist conception of the state proscribed the continuation of democracy, with Marinetti arguing: "Italian democracy is for us a body which must be liberated", this liberation would be achieved through technological development.^ Let us, however, first attempt to define the word Caribbean as our subject calls for us to look at "Fascism - A Caribbean Reality?"

^ We must not hesitate to learn from the enemy if that would > help us more quickly and more effectively to wring its neck.” .
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus understood, Fascism, is totalitarian, and the Fascist State - a synthesis and a unit inclusive of all values - interprets, develops, and potentates the whole life of a people....

[106] .Marinetti was initially drawn to fascism, but rejected it as it adopted more moderate conservative aesthetics once it attained power in Italy.^ Comrades, fascism also attained power for the reason that the proletariat found itself isolated from its natural allies.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Fascism gained power on October 30, 1922, the day on which Mussolini became prime minister of Italy.
  • Fast Capitalism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.uta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ European fascism was certainly more extreme and malignant, but it has to be repeated that the term "fascism" has an unfairly negative connotation today because of its association with the Axis powers.

[107]

Core tenets

Nationalism

.Fascists saw the struggle of nation and race as fundamental in society, in opposition to communism's perception of class struggle.^ Fascists believe that nations and races are in perpetual conflict whereby only the strong can survive by being healthy, vital, and by asserting themselves in combat against the weak.
  • The American Spectator : AmSpecBlog : A Whiff of Fascism from Obama's White House 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC spectator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The class struggle intensified at the international level and the reactionaries sought out all kinds of fascist formulas to achieve their aims.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore struggle against revisionism and opportunism, struggle for the > defence and for the advance of Marxism, is a permanent necessity that can > never end this side of class society.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

[108] .The fascist view of nation is as a single organic entity which binds people together by their ancestry and is a natural unifying force of people.^ The Bulgarian fascists make use of the national-liberation movement of the seventies and its heroes beloved by the people, Vassil Levsky, Stephan Karaj and others.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the place of all those international factors - Democracy, the Conscience of Peoples, the Conscience of the World, the League of Nations, and the like - we have set a single factor - our own people."

^ "He (Himmler) then singled out those nations which he regarded as belonging to the German family of nations and they were: the Germans, the Dutch, the Flemish, the Anglo-Saxons, the Scandinavians and the Baltic people.

[109] .Fascism seeks to solve economic, political, and social problems by achieving a millenarian national rebirth, exalting the nation or race above all else, and promoting cults of unity, strength and purity.^ Fascism was about national and cultural unity.

^ Fascists wish to solve existing economic, political, and social problems by achieving a millenarian national rebirth by exalting the nation or race as well as promoting cults of unity, strength and purity.
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » “Liberal Fascism” - The end of freedom and prosperity 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fascist movements promote violence between nations, political factions, and races as part of a social Darwinist and militarist stance that views violence between these groups as a natural and positive part of evolution.” .
  • Think Progress » Glenn Beck: I was wrong. We’re not marching to socialism, we’re marching toward fascism. 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

[38][54][110][111][112] .Benito Mussolini stated in 1922, "For us the nation is not just territory but something spiritual...^ I’m glad that a total takeover of something like 1/6th of the US Economy and the State welding the Caduceus = “health conscious” .
  • Liberal Fascism, performed 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Fascism has nothing to do with heavy-handed police states (see Benito Mussolini’s “Social Doctrine,” page 1) or wars of imperial conquest.
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » “Liberal Fascism” - The end of freedom and prosperity 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Since for us the state as such is the only form, but the essential is its content, the nation, the people, it is clear that everything else must be subordinated to its sovereign interests."
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

.A nation is great when it translates into reality the force of its spirit."^ First nationalizing banks, interfering into the economy, plans to create civilian protection force (I guess his version of Blackshirts)...
  • Ben Smith's Blog: Obama a 'fascist'? - POLITICO.com 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ The last thing O wants is a REAL civilian national security force (i.e., the militia concept).
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » “Liberal Fascism” - The end of freedom and prosperity 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ How divorced from reality the Stalinist line was may be illustrated be recalling its translation into American terms.
  • LEON TROTSKY: Fascism: What it is and how to fight it 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

[113]
.According to Eoin O'Duffy, an Irish national corporatist: "before everything we must give a national lead to our people...The first essential is national unity.^ Why must unity of action be first established as a preliminary condition of political unity?
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We give Thee praise and thanks for your loving care and protection of our Premier Eric Matthew Gairy; we give Thee praise and thanks for Thy protection against all national disasters.

^ I don’t see our Masters of Mankind being quite so generous in their pursuit of their vile maxim “Everything for myself and nothing for Other People” .
  • Guest Post: Capitalism, Socialism or Fascism? « naked capitalism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.nakedcapitalism.com [Source type: Original source]

We can only have that when the Corporative system is accepted".[114]
Joseph Goebbels described the Nazis as being affiliated with authoritarian nationalism:
.It enables us to see at once why democracy and Bolshevism, which in the eyes of the world are irrevocably opposed to one another, meet again and again on common ground in their joint hatred of and attacks on authoritarian nationalist concepts of State and State systems.^ See, everybody has some common ground.
  • Is the ‘Obama as fascist dictator’ meme acceptable in GOP? | Jay Bookman 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ How many of these "tea baggers" attacked the left for opposing the growing power of the state after 9/11, calling us "un-American"?
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Which “hate?” You mean the one that is spreading across the world, including in the United States, calling for the destruction of America and the implementation of Islamic rule and sharia law?
  • David Horowitz ‘Declares’ Islamo-Fascism Awareness Week for October 22-26 « Antiwar.com Blog 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

For the authoritarian nationalist conception of the State represents something essentially new. In it the French Revolution is superseded.[115]
Plínio Salgado, leader of the Brazilian Integralist Action party emphasized the role of the nation:
.The best governments in the world cannot succeed in pulling a country out of the quagmire, out of apathy, if they do not express themselves as national energies...Strong governments cannot result either from conspiracies or from military coups, just as they cannot come out of the machinations of parties or the Machiavellian game of political lobbying.^ People just cannot think for themselves....
  • Countdown Special Comment on FISA: President Bush Is A Liar And A Fascist | Crooks and Liars 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ America has been the best of the best of the Nations of the World.
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » “Liberal Fascism” - The end of freedom and prosperity 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Shall we succeed in creating a strong party for the moment when the crisis comes?
  • LEON TROTSKY: Fascism: What it is and how to fight it 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.They can only be born from the actual roots of the Nation.^ If the day comes when they are called to account for their actions, they say they did it for the nation, and that they are actually its heroes.
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC harun-yahya.cnrglab.itb.ac.id [Source type: Original source]
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.harunyahya.com [Source type: Original source]

[116]

Foreign policy

Italian fascists described expansionist imperialism as a necessity. .The 1932 Italian Encyclopedia stated: "For Fascism, the growth of empire, that is to say the expansion of the nation, is an essential manifestation of vitality, and its opposite a sign of decadence."^ What makes this particularly alarming is that another essential element for the emergence of fascism is a national enemy.
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Quite the opposite, this tight relationship between corporations and the state defines fascism.
  • Guest Post: Capitalism, Socialism or Fascism? « naked capitalism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.nakedcapitalism.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States avoided full-blown fascism by essentially adopting fascist methods on a milder scale.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[117] .Similarly, the Nazis promoted territorial expansionism to provide "living space" to the German nation.^ The nazi party before it was called the nazi party was the German Workers National Socialist party.
  • Does America Face the Risk of a Fascist Backlash? | Corporate Accountability and WorkPlace | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Roman nations whose living space is favored by nature with a milder climate...I am convinced that after the unification, the Roman nations will be able to persevere as the Germans...This enlarged family of the White race will then have the mission to include the Slavic nations into the family also because they too are of the White race .

^ But there’s a REASON why the Nazis adopted the Marxist-like name “National Socialist German Worker’s Party” for themselves.
  • Think Progress » Glenn Beck: I was wrong. We’re not marching to socialism, we’re marching toward fascism. 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

[118] .Fascists opposed pacifism and believed that a nation must have a warrior mentality.^ Fascists believe that nations and races are in perpetual conflict whereby only the strong can survive by being healthy, vital, and by asserting themselves in combat against the weak.
  • The American Spectator : AmSpecBlog : A Whiff of Fascism from Obama's White House 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC spectator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If we want to build a fascist-proof America for the long haul, we must stand up now for everything we believe and everything we are.
  • 5 Ways to Build a Fascist-Proof America | Rights and Liberties | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Fascist states believe that in order to develop as a nation, they have to conquer weaker nations, and grow by absorbing them.
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC harun-yahya.cnrglab.itb.ac.id [Source type: Original source]
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.harunyahya.com [Source type: Original source]

[119] Benito Mussolini spoke of war idealistically as a source of masculine pride, and spoke negatively of pacifism:
.War alone brings up to their highest tension all human energies and puts the stamp of nobility upon the peoples who have the courage to meet it.^ War alone brings up to its highest tension all human energy and puts the stamp of nobility upon the peoples who have courage to meet it."
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.harunyahya.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a moral duty for people who understand, that we do so, for I am pretty sure that rants of people like David and others will bring in their camps people who are naive and do not understand (there is no dearth of such people).
  • David Horowitz ‘Declares’ Islamo-Fascism Awareness Week for October 22-26 « Antiwar.com Blog 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In one speech, he offered his views on art and artists: We shall discover and encourage the artists who are able to impress upon the State of the German people the cultural stamp of the Germanic race...
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.harunyahya.com [Source type: Original source]

.Fascism carries this anti-pacifist struggle into the lives of individuals.^ Now that the basics of fascism have been outlined, how does anti-Semitism play into all of this?

^ In mobilizing the mass of working people for the struggle against fascism, the formation of a wide anti-fascist People's Front on the basis of the proletarian united front is a particularly important task.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mussolini openly stated that fascism was anti-pacifist, and that he intended to rebuild a Roman Empire.

.It is education for combat...war is to man what maternity is to the woman.^ Regarding the good General Butler: To a man, of combat veterans whom I have had the privilege of meeting are -- and, unfortunately, were -- staunchly opposed to war.
  • Smedley Butler Stopped American Fascist Conspiracy to Overthrow FDR - Democratic Underground 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.democraticunderground.com [Source type: General]

.I do not believe in perpetual peace; not only do I not believe in it but I find it depressing and a negation of all the fundamental virtues of a man.^ Mussolini expressed his opposition to peace in another speech, saying, "I do not believe in peace, but I find it depressing and a negation of all human virtues of man."
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.harunyahya.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fascists believe that nations and races are in perpetual conflict whereby only the strong can survive by being healthy, vital, and by asserting themselves in combat against the weak.
  • The American Spectator : AmSpecBlog : A Whiff of Fascism from Obama's White House 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC spectator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That so many Americans believe him, despite all the evidence to the contrary, is a severe social problem, which can only be dealt with not by education, but only by the beneficent force of the state.
  • 5 Ways to Build a Fascist-Proof America | Rights and Liberties | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[120]

Authoritarianism

.Many fascist movements support the creation of a totalitarian state.^ Thus understood, Fascism, is totalitarian, and the Fascist State - a synthesis and a unit inclusive of all values - interprets, develops, and potentates the whole life of a people....

^ Fascists regard the labor movement as one of their prime enemies and seek to create party- or regime-dominated pseudo-organizations of workers (and other groups) for the purpose of mobilizing uncritical support for the party or regime.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: Obama a 'fascist'? - POLITICO.com 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Hitler - both of whom did exactly THAT and whose fascist armies and totalitarian states grew out of the support of the Banking, Corporate , INdustrial Cartels?
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

.Mussolini's Doctrine of Fascism states: "The Fascist conception of the State is all-embracing; outside of it no human or spiritual values can exist, much less have value.^ The Fascist conception of the State is all embracing; outside of it no human or spiritual values can exist, much less have value.

^ Mussolini states in his 1935 essay on fascism: .

^ True, the preceding Italian governments had all been strongly anti-Catholic Church, and the Lateran Treaties were signed, but Mussolini's Fascists were anything but "cozy" with the Pius XI and the Catholic Church, particularly after 1931 and the encyclical Non Abbiamo Bisogno attacking fascism as worshiping the state and interfering with the Church.

.Thus understood, Fascism is totalitarian, and the Fascist State—a synthesis and a unit inclusive of all values—interprets, develops, and potentiates the whole life of a people."^ Permalink Not all totalitarianism is fascist.

^ Fact: The United States has the lowest taxes of all developed nations.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: Obama a 'fascist'? - POLITICO.com 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Thus understood, Fascism, is totalitarian, and the Fascist State - a synthesis and a unit inclusive of all values - interprets, develops, and potentates the whole life of a people....

[121]
.Some have argued that in spite of Italian fascism's attempt at totalitarianism, fascism in Italy became an authoritarian cult of personality around Mussolini.^ FDR was no fascist, and one can argue that even Mussolini’s regime was only truly fascist in the period before the Vatican accord and during the Italian Social Republic, with the intervening period being characterized as being an authoritarian reactionary para-fascism.
  • FDR and Fascism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some writers and historians have argued that you cannot have fascism without corporatism, as the corporate power structure has much in common with fascism.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition to his economic agenda, FDR shared some other traits of fascist leaders of the day as well, such as his "cult of personality."

[122]
In The Legal Basis of the Total State, Nazi political theorist Carl Schmitt described the Nazi intention to form a "strong state which guarantees a totality of political unity transcending all diversity" in order to avoid a "disasterous pluralism tearing the German people apart"[123]
Japanese fascist Nakano Seigo advocated that Japan follow the Italian and German models, which were "a form of more democratic government going beyond democracy" which itself had "lost its spirit and decayed into a mechanism which insists only on numerical superiority without considering the essence of human beings."[124]
.A key authoritarian element of fascism is its endorsement of a prime national leader, who is often known simply as the "Leader" or a similar title, such as: Duce in Italian, Führer in German, Caudillo in Spanish, Poglavnik in Croatia, or Conducător in Romanian.^ Obama has not undone but reinforced key elements of the national security state.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To compare and contrast Fascism from Communism one would need German, Russian, Italian, and Chinese, along with English, and probably French and Spanish.

^ In the Italian and German usage the salute was to the leader himself, as it was used in Rome to "Hail Caesar" ("Heil Hitler").

.Fascist leaders who ruled countries were not always heads of state, but heads of government, such as Benito Mussolini, who held power under the King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III.^ The Fascist State is an embodied will to power and government, the idea of force in action.

^ Principles and Organisations of the patriotic and anti-communist movement in Italy started during the 191418 war, culminating in the dictatorship of Benito Mussolini (died 1945) and initiated by Fascist or Blackshirt associations in other countries.

^ He further noted that Hitler and Mussolini both took power under these same circumstances: "deadlock of constitutional government (produced in part by the polarization that the fascists abetted); conservative leaders who felt threatened by the loss of their capacity to keep the population under control at a moment of massive popular mobilization; an advancing Left; and conservative leaders who refused to work with that Left and who felt unable to continue to govern against the Left without further reinforcement."
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

Social Darwinism

.Fascist movements have commonly held social Darwinist views of nations, races, and societies.^ Fascists believe that nations and races are in perpetual conflict whereby only the strong can survive by being healthy, vital, and by asserting themselves in combat against the weak.
  • The American Spectator : AmSpecBlog : A Whiff of Fascism from Obama's White House 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC spectator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fascists wish to solve existing economic, political, and social problems by achieving a millenarian national rebirth by exalting the nation or race as well as promoting cults of unity, strength and purity.
  • Israpundit » Blog Archive » “Liberal Fascism” - The end of freedom and prosperity 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.israpundit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead of reaching out a compassionate helping hand towards the poor, the Republicans have adopted a mean spirited social Darwinist view.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[119] .They argue that in order for nations and races to survive in a world defined by perpetual national and racial conflict, nations and races must purge themselves of socially and biologically weak or degenerate people while simultaneously promoting the creation of strong people.^ They must purge themselves of their rotten bourgeois elements.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They must > purge themselves of their rotten bourgeois elements.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Like a cancer, they must be excised from the nation if the country is to survive.
  • Countdown Special Comment on FISA: President Bush Is A Liar And A Fascist | Crooks and Liars 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[125]
Italian Fascist philosopher Giovanni Gentile in The Origins and Doctrine of Fascism promoted the concept of conflict being an act of progress by stating that "mankind only progresses through division, and progress is achieved through the clash and victory of one side over another".[126] Italian Fascist Alfredo Rocco claimed that conflict was inevitable:
.Conflict is in fact the basic law of life in all social organisms, as it is of all biological ones; societies are formed, gain strength, and move forwards through conflict; the healthiest and most vital of them assert themselves against the weakest and less well adapted through conflict; the natural evolution of nations and races takes place through conflict.^ Take your place amongst nations - as one of us !
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ A process of differentiation is taking place in all Social-Democratic Parties.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is now one of the most serious forms of the struggle against fascism.
  • LEON TROTSKY: Fascism: What it is and how to fight it 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

Alfredo Rocco[126]
.In Germany, the Nazis utilized social Darwinism to promote their racialist concept of the German nation as being part of the Aryan race and the need for the Aryan race to be strong in order to be victorious in what the Nazis believed was ongoing competition and conflict between races.^ He was a promoter of what has become known as Social Darwinism.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In order to dispel the myth of the Nazis being socialists we need to first define socialism.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Naziism defined the superior collective as the German or Aryan Race.

[127] .They attempted to strengthen the Aryan race in Germany by killing those they regarded as weaker.^ To the extent the law enforcement in this country coddle and condone the right-wing extremist terrorists, they are helping those who killed some of their own in Pennsylvania.
  • We could have been more compassionate to Michael Jackson when he was alive | ItsYourTimes.com 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.itsyourtimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "He (Himmler) then singled out those nations which he regarded as belonging to the German family of nations and they were: the Germans, the Dutch, the Flemish, the Anglo-Saxons, the Scandinavians and the Baltic people.

^ They present what appear to be sacred values to the people and encourage them in self-sacrifice for the sake of the state, to despise other nations or races, and even to torture and kill.
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.harunyahya.com [Source type: Original source]

.To this end, the T4 project was introduced in the late 1930s and organized the killing of around roughly 275,000 handicapped and elderly German civilians using carbon monoxide gas.^ We carpet-bombed German cities; we killed civilians.
  • Fascist Watch - Bwtm 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.beachblogger.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British doctors and nurses are using it to kill off the weak and the elderly, allegedly by unauthorised overdose or ‘mistaken’ diagnosis or similar crappy excuses for clinical murder!
  • Obama’s Health Care Fascism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HG Wells used it in (or around) the 30's to describe how he wanted to see society organized as a liberal fascist elite of 'enlightened Nazis' ruling over a liberal utopia.

[128]

Social interventionism

.Generally, fascist movements endorsed social interventionism dedicated to influencing society to promote the state's interests.^ In order to regulate industry and "promote the interests of society" the fascists merged the State with private industry.

^ Fascist movements promote violence between nations, political factions, and races as part of a social Darwinist and militarist stance that views violence between these groups as a natural and positive part of evolution.” .
  • Think Progress » Glenn Beck: I was wrong. We’re not marching to socialism, we’re marching toward fascism. 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ By the fact that the State played an important role in the economy, the State saw to it to protect and promote industries which were viewed as vital to State interests.

.January 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] According to G.V. Rimlinger, one cannot speak of “fascist social policy” as a single concept with logical and internally consistent ideas and common identifiable goals.^ FDR was no fascist, and one can argue that even Mussolini’s regime was only truly fascist in the period before the Vatican accord and during the Italian Social Republic, with the intervening period being characterized as being an authoritarian reactionary para-fascism.
  • FDR and Fascism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The history of the relationship between fascism and the Vatican is controversial one, but it cannot be denied that in both Germany and Italy the rise to power of the fascists was aided by the Catholic Church.

^ The Fascist conception of life is a religious one...Fascism is not only a system of government but also and above all a system of thought.

[129]
.Fascists spoke of creating a "new man" and a "new civilization" as part of their intention to transform society.^ This is an analysis of American policy and society and the correlations with fascist ideology as described in Part I of this series: .

^ The goal of the Marxists was ultimately to eliminate all traditional elements of society and create a new society founded on the principle of equality.

[130] .Mussolini promised a “social revolution” for “remaking” the Italian people.^ Ambassador Henry Fletcher saw only a choice between Mussolini and socialism, and the Italian people preferred fascist “peace and prosperity” to the “free speech and loose administration” that risked bringing Bolshevism to power.
  • FDR and Fascism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because they try to exploit the faith in revolution and the urge towards socialism that lives in the hearts of the mass of working people in Germany.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

[131] .Adolf Hitler promised to purge Germany of non-Aryan influences on society and create a pure Aryan race through eugenics.^ Though it is often said today that the concept of an "Aryan race" was invented by Hitler or the Nazis, this is not true.

^ Socialists are not necessarily pacifists, and indeed many early socialists believed that only through armed struggle on the part of the masses could a just society be created.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: Obama a 'fascist'? - POLITICO.com 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ In return Hitler promised to appoint Krupp as the fuehrer of Germany industry.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

Indoctrination

.Fascist states pursued policies of social indoctrination, through propaganda in education and the media, and through regulation of the production of education and media material.^ Modern Example: David Horowitz who promotes a state-controlled fascist educational system - in his own words .
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ That so many Americans believe him, despite all the evidence to the contrary, is a severe social problem, which can only be dealt with not by education, but only by the beneficent force of the state.
  • 5 Ways to Build a Fascist-Proof America | Rights and Liberties | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ States such as Spain under Franco and Chile under Pinochet were indeed fascist states, but they could hardly be described as having a policy of extreme nationalism.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[132][133] .Education was designed to glorify the fascist movement and inform students of its historical and political importance to the nation.^ In the second stage, fascist movements take root, turn into real political parties, and seize their seat at the table of power.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For Pete's sake, Adolph Hitler's political movement was named, "The National Socialist German Workers Party".
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Opinions Fascist Nation July 12, 2007 Welcome Ron Paul to South Carolina GOP politics Ron Paul ticked some Republicans off.
  • Powell Gammill -- Fascist Nation 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.freedomsphoenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It attempted to purge ideas that were not consistent with the beliefs of the fascist movement, and taught students to be obedient to the state.^ NAZI BOOK BURNINGS The fascist state allows only its own ideology to be read and taught, being why book burnings are a distinctive feature of their methods.
  • Harun Yahya - FASCISM : The Bloody Ideology of Darwinism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.harunyahya.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Fascist State is an embodied will to power and government, the idea of force in action.

^ Likewise, it was the rich industrialists that were behind the fascist movement in the United States during the 1930s.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[134]
.Thus fascism tends to be anti-intellectual.^ "Anonymous", however, makes the conventional right-wing charge that fascism came from the Left, which is a fundamental misunderstanding of the anti-intellectual element that is one of the cornerstones of the movement.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

[135] The Nazis, in particular, despised intellectuals and university professors. Hitler declared them unreliable, useless and even dangerous.[136] .He said: "When I take a look at the intellectual classes we have - unfortunately, I suppose, they are necessary; otherwise one could one day, I don't know, exterminate them or something - but unfortunately they're necessary."^ They know what they're doing.
  • David Horowitz ‘Declares’ Islamo-Fascism Awareness Week for October 22-26 « Antiwar.com Blog 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One could also look at attacks on the family, church, Christianity, freedom of speech and thought , and so on.
  • Pro-Existence: Fascism Archives 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.pearceyreport.com [Source type: Original source]

^ March, 2009 at 12:01 PM fug – Why on earth wouldn’t I want to take a look at a culture so removed from those I know?
  • Pickled Politics » The ‘fascist’ in Israel 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.pickledpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

[137]

Abortion, eugenics and euthanasia

.The Fascist government in Italy banned literature on birth control and increased penalties on abortion in 1926, declaring them both crimes against the state.^ "The increasing power of the state and the declining power of institutions intended to control it has been in the making for some time.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ But the cops coddle and condone them, because both the cops and the fascists share the basic racist view against nonwhites in this country, as well as sharing the basic bigoted authoritarian religious totalitarian view against gays and abortion rights.
  • We could have been more compassionate to Michael Jackson when he was alive | ItsYourTimes.com 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.itsyourtimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While FDR was busy bringing American capitalism under the control of the State, many American capitalists began looking to blatantly Fascist Italy and Germany, who were engaged in a large amount of spending, as favorable regions to expand their capitalist empires.

[138] .The Nazis decriminalized abortion in cases where fetuses had hereditary defects or were of a race the government disapproved of, while the abortion of healthy "pure" German, "Aryan" fetuses remained strictly forbidden.^ Naziism defined the superior collective as the German or Aryan Race.

[139] For non-Aryans, abortion was often compelled.[140] Their eugenics program stemmed also from the "progressive biomedical model" of Weimar Germany.[141]
.In 1935 Nazi Germany expanded the legality of abortion by amending its eugenics law, to promote abortion for women with hereditary disorders.^ The Nazis, according to legal scholars, didn't break any laws in coming to power, they did it within a liberal democracy and they did it without ever having a majority of votes.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

[142] The law allowed abortion if a woman gave her permission, and if the fetus was not yet viable,[143][144] and for purposes of so-called racial hygiene.[145][146]

Culture, gender and sexuality

.Fascism promoted principles of masculine heroism, militarism, and discipline; and rejected cultural pluralism and multiculturalism.^ Gun culture is not an obscure fringe, but a very mainstream, widely popular subculture that taps directly into another key component of fascism: martial masculinity.
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ The precursors of fascism -- militarization of culture, vigilantism, masculine fear of female power, xenophobia and economic destabilization -- are ascendant in America today.
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ The “cult of masculinity” as defined by scholars of fascism — who, I imagine, would rather not be called what I originally typed, “fascist scholars” — is a culture obsessed with the militaristic, the athletic, the violent, &c.
  • Liberal Fascism, performed 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

[147]
.Initially, Italian Fascism officially stood in favour of expanding voting rights to women.^ It wasn't initially a feature of Italian fascism, until Mussolini was finally convinced to embrace it by Hitler in the late 1930's.

.In 1920, Benito Mussolini declared that "Fascists do not belong to the crowd of the vain and skeptical who undervalue women's social and political importance.^ The concept of Benito Mussolini as an uncomplicated totalitarian is purely an artifact of people attempting, ex post facto , to define National Socialism as “fascist” and therefore distinct from “real Socialism”.
  • Liberal Fascism, performed 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Fascism is recognized to have first been officially developed by Benito Mussolini, who came to power in Italy in 1922.

^ In 1932 Mussolini declared that the 20 th century would be the "Fascist century" by stating: .

.Who cares about voting?^ I care about getting the banking system running properly again.” Issa may be just about the only politician this year who doesn't want to be called a populist.
  • Fascist Watch - Bwtm 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.beachblogger.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oh, who cares if the earth is trashed; so what if we live there, let someone else worry about it.
  • Think Progress » Right-Wing Apoplectic Over Pixar’s WALL-E: ‘Malthusian Fear Mongering,’ ‘Fascistic Elements’ 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, before you go on a tangent about me being a right-wing conspirator who doesn't deserve to breathe, I voted for Obama.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: Obama a 'fascist'? - POLITICO.com 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

.You will vote!".[148] Women were briefly given the right to vote until 1925 when the Italian Fascist government abolished elections.^ Health care by the same people who can't run the PO? FASCIST? Left and right have all to blame and this will be obvious if you take the time to turn off the TV and TALK TO YOUR FELLOW CITIZENS!Who cares who they vote for!
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ You simply cannot have a fascist government without corporations and a capitalistic economy.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I read your argument a few times, and I still don’t get it: are you saying that the governments of Islamic countries kill women on a different basis then men?
  • News: Are You Ready for 'Islamo-Fascism Week'? - Inside Higher Ed 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.insidehighered.com [Source type: Original source]

[148] .In the 1920s, the Italian Fascist government's Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro (OND) allowed working women to attend various entertainment and recreation events, including sports that in the past had traditionally been played by men.^ Similar events have already been given, in which various Nazis were initially allowed to promote socialism in efforts to appease the lower classes in an effort to gain their support.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Such frequent change in government does not allow businesses to make long range plans, nor does it allow for enough to time for programs enacted by a government to work.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because governments played a role in abolishing slavery, we owe fascist and totalitarian governments unquestioning loyalty forever?
  • The Greenroom » Forum Archive » The Eff Word 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC hotair.com [Source type: Original source]

[149] .The regime was criticized by the Roman Catholic Church, which claimed that these activities were causing "masculinization" of women.^ Catholics should do all in their power to cause the constitution of states, and legislation to be modeled on the principles of the true Church.

^ The Catholic Church is itself the creation of the Roman State and has for all time been the strongest opponent of separation of Church and State.

[150] .The Fascists responded to such criticism by restricting women to only being allowed to take part in "feminine" sports, forbidding them to be part of sports that were played mostly by men.^ Hundreds of books are being published in Germany with only one aim -- to falsify the history of the German people and give it a fascist complexion.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I do not recall but if the volunteers offered rides to only White women, then, Imperiale was not a fascist but he positively was a racist.
  • We could have been more compassionate to Michael Jackson when he was alive | ItsYourTimes.com 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.itsyourtimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The difference being that progressivism is practically built around a fascist mentality, with the transnational collective government taking the place of the traditional state.
  • Liberal Fascism, performed 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

[150]
.Mussolini perceived women's primary role as childbearers while men should be warriors, once saying "war is to man what maternity is to the woman".[151] The Italian Fascist government gave financial incentives to women who raised large families and initiated policies designed to reduce the number of women employed, in an effort to increase birthrates.^ The Italian government protested, Rome newspapers denounced the speech as "insolent and ridiculous," and Mussolini issued a categorical denial: "I have never taken an American on a motor-car trip around Italy, neither have I run over a child, man or woman."
  • Smedley Butler Stopped American Fascist Conspiracy to Overthrow FDR - Democratic Underground 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.democraticunderground.com [Source type: General]

^ Just as in fascist Europe, gender roles became more pronounced with men becoming "sole providers" and women staying at home.

^ The western world is…a gateway from Hell!” or let’s say “Star Wars was a real government project in telekinesis that went wrong!” .
  • David Horowitz ‘Declares’ Islamo-Fascism Awareness Week for October 22-26 « Antiwar.com Blog 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

[152] .Italian Fascism called for women to be honoured as "reproducers of the nation" and the Italian Fascist government held ritual ceremonies to honour women's role within the Italian nation.^ Just as in fascist Europe, gender roles became more pronounced with men becoming "sole providers" and women staying at home.

^ Religion and Government are Intertwined -- Governments in fascist nations tend to use the most common religion in the nation as a tool to manipulate public opinion.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Finally, the same writers that label fascism as socialism would like their readers to believe that these government regulations and bureaucratic offices held ultimate power.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[153] In 1934, Mussolini declared that employment of women was a "major aspect of the thorny problem of unemployment", which Italy was facing at the time and said that women working was "incompatible with childbearing".[154] Mussolini went on to say that the solution to unemployment for men was the "exodus of women from the work force".[155]
.Nazi policies toward women strongly encouraged them to stay at home to bear children and keep house.^ Just as in fascist Europe, gender roles became more pronounced with men becoming "sole providers" and women staying at home.

[156] This policy was reinforced by bestowing the Cross of Honor of the German Mother on women bearing four or more babies. .The unemployment rate was cut substantially, mostly through arms production and sending women home so that men could take their jobs.^ Just as in fascist Europe, gender roles became more pronounced with men becoming "sole providers" and women staying at home.

^ Robby Eisel said he had been taking similar medications after he broke his arm on the job as a maintenance worker at a golf course.
  • Fascist Watch - Bwtm 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.beachblogger.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Socialists are not necessarily pacifists, and indeed many early socialists believed that only through armed struggle on the part of the masses could a just society be created.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: Obama a 'fascist'? - POLITICO.com 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

.Nazi propaganda sometimes promoted premarital and extramarital sexual relations, unwed motherhood and divorce, but at other times the Nazis opposed such behaviour.^ In fact it seems more likely that Dr. Joseph Goebbles, the Nazi Propaganda Minister, and one of Hitler's closest friends, influenced Hitler's views over time.

^ Others are openly racists, such as the Klan, the Nazis and the skinheads.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This was something that the Nazis advocated as well and it is likely that Lindbergh's views on this were impacted by his relations with the Germans who advocated such ideas.

[157] .The growth of Nazi power, however, was accompanied by a breakdown of traditional sexual morals with regard to extramarital sex and licentiousness.^ In the United States, however, it has been apparent for decades that corporate power has become so predominant in the political establishment… as to suggest a role inversion the exact opposite of the Nazis'….
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ That same cosmos, however, is silent regarding the morality of reproductive manipulation and control.
  • Pro-Existence: Fascism Archives 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.pearceyreport.com [Source type: Original source]

[158]
.Fascist movements and governments opposed homosexuality.^ Within the > movement of support for the Peruvian revolution that is developing abroad these > manoeuvres of the fascist Fujimori government have also had some effect.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Within the movement of support for the Peruvian revolution that is developing abroad these manoeuvres of the fascist Fujimori government have also had some effect.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The bigger issue facing the US is not some conjured up fascist movement, but that of an organized marxist movement now gripping our government and media.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Italian Fascist government declared it illegal in Italy in 1931.[159] The Nazis thought homosexuality was degenerate, effeminate, perverted and undermined the masculinity which they promoted, because it did not produce children.^ That small faction of the Nazi party who actually believed that theirs was a socialist party were summarily killed in 1934 under the pretense that they were engaging in homosexual behavior.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many people did not like these things based on their own merits, it's not that they didn't like them because of their supposed association with Jews.

^ We don't tend to say that the Nazis were "cozy" with Communists because of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, and that went a lot further than the Catholic Church's concordat's ever did.

[160] .They considered homosexuality curable through therapy, citing modern scientism and the study of sexology, which said that homosexuality could be felt by "normal" people and not just an abnormal minority.^ They're just people doing what they are doing.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ PEOPLE SHOULD BE CAREFUL WITH PIZZA POLITICS. It might have felt good to pay back to somebody after 9/11, but just as pizza, it hurted more than it helped.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 19 November 2009 19:35 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That supremacist groups and corporations could simply make some people believe they were too inferior for the benefits of democracy.
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[161] .Critics have claimed that the Nazis' claim of scientific reasons for their promotion of racism, and hostility to homosexuals is pseudoscience,[162][163].^ For some reason, I keep hearing people claim that socialism, not fascism, is responsible for the beast of Nazi Germany.
  • Liberal Fascism, performed 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

.Open homosexuals were among those interned in Nazi concentration camps.^ Both communists and socialists were the first to enter the concentration camps in Nazi Germany.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first concentration camp in Germany was Dachau , which opened in 1933.

^ Atheists were put into concentration camps in Nazi Germany and in Fascist Italy Catholicism was the official State religion.

[164] The British Union of Fascists opposed homosexuality and pejoratively questioned their opponents' heterosexuality.[165] The Romanian Iron Guard opposed homosexuality as undermining society.[166]

Economic policies

.Fascists promoted their ideology as a "Third Position" between capitalism and communism.^ What the people wanted was a religious experience and they wanted to feel a close bond between Church and State, and thus the fascist leaders identified with religious feelings in the community and used it to their advantage.

^ The fascists correctly understood that Communism was a reaction to the excesses of laissez-faire capitalism.

[167] .Italian Fascism involved corporatism, a political system in which the economy is collectively managed by employers, workers and state officials by formal mechanisms at national level.^ Unemployment rates sky rocketed and support grew for increased government involvement in the management of the national economy.

^ Corruption at the national and international level proliferates, presenting enormous political problems and threatening the very stability of the states.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On a gut level, Obama does desire to destroy the national economy.
  • Roger L. Simon » Iran, Honduras: Is Obama “objectively pro-fascist”? 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: Original source]

[168] .Fascists advocated a new national class-based economic system, variously termed "national corporatism", "national socialism" or "national syndicalism".[35] The common aim of all fascist movements was elimination of the autonomy or, in some cases, the existence of large-scale capitalism.^ A political philosophy or movement based on or advocating such a system of government.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: Obama a 'fascist'? - POLITICO.com 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]
  • Think Progress » Right-Wing Apoplectic Over Pixar’s WALL-E: ‘Malthusian Fear Mongering,’ ‘Fascistic Elements’ 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The New Deal represented a tremendous change in the American system, and thus FDR was always walking a fine line in Congress in terms of getting support for his measures.

^ The Bulgarian fascists make use of the national-liberation movement of the seventies and its heroes beloved by the people, Vassil Levsky, Stephan Karaj and others.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

[169]
.Fascist governments exercised control over private property but did not nationalize it.^ The U.S. Supreme Court saw no problem with government seizing your property to give to other private individuals or groups with the intent of getting more government revenue.
  • Powell Gammill -- Fascist Nation 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.freedomsphoenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Religion and Government are Intertwined -- Governments in fascist nations tend to use the most common religion in the nation as a tool to manipulate public opinion.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ A totalitarian government is one that seeks to maintain control over all aspects of public and private life by using propaganda, terror, and technology.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[170] .They pursued economic policies to strengthen state power and spread ideology, such as consolidating trade unions to be state or party-controlled.^ "The increasing power of the state and the declining power of institutions intended to control it has been in the making for some time.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ In essence they were placing a bet that the socialism ideology was a fraud and that once in power he would be a tool of capitalist.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Name a prominent or powerful liberal politician who believes that the state should own and control all natural resources, and decide their distribution among the people?

[171] .Attempts were made by both Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany to establish "autarky" (self-sufficiency) through significant economic planning, but neither achieved economic self-sufficiency.^ This is a description of syndicalism; it was the economic model of fascist Italy and Nazi Germany to a large extent.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of course, neither were Nazi Germany or Italy in 1936.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Neither Germany nor Italy were mature democracies.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

[172]

National corporatism, national socialism and national syndicalism

.Fascists supported the unifying of proletarian workers to their cause along corporatistic, socialistic, or syndicalistic lines, promoting the creation of a strong proletarian nation, but not a proletarian class.^ The National Socialist platform, like other fascist platforms, called for the promotion of a middle class and for the support of small business through the power of the State.

^ Opinions Fascist Nation April 30, 2008 Ron Paul Supporters Continue the R3VOLution Ron Paul?
  • Powell Gammill -- Fascist Nation 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.freedomsphoenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whoever counter-poses comrade Stalin to comrade Mao > Tse-tung > is not serving the development of the proletarian cause but the interests of > the > class enemy.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

[173] .Italian Fascism's economy was based on corporatism and a number of other fascist movements similarly promoted corporatism.^ The Bulgarian fascists make use of the national-liberation movement of the seventies and its heroes beloved by the people, Vassil Levsky, Stephan Karaj and others.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Germany and Italian Communists, and the Communists in other fascist countries, as well as the Communist youth, have displayed prodigious valor; they have made and are daily making tremendous sacrifices.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As Goldberg points out in his book, Jews were actually overrepresented in the Italian Fascist movement for most of its history.

.Oswald Mosley of the British Union of Fascists described fascist corporatism, saying that "it means a nation organized as the human body, with each organ performing its individual function but working in harmony with the whole".[174] Fascists were not hostile to the petite bourgeoisie or to small businesses, and promised these groups protection alongside the proletariat from the upper-class bourgeoisie, big business, and Marxism.^ Fascist Quarterly (later British Union Quarterly).
  • Select Bibliography -- Works on Oswald Mosley and British Fascism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.ihr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Additionally, the fascist State embarks on imperialism, not only through the traditional means of colonial territorial control, like that of the British Empire, but through the use of hegemony to directly or indirectly control nations with or without occupation.

^ Union leader Sidney Hillman praised Lenin as “one of the few great men that the human race has produced, one of the greatest statesmen of our age and perhaps of all ages.” Big-business partisan Gen.
  • FDR and Fascism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The promotion of these groups is the source of the term 'extremism of the centre' to describe fascism.^ These explicitly white supremacist groups, contrasted with the implicitly white supremacist Republican Party, for example, openly embrace a vision of fascism, and openly admire fascist leaders.
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ This new fascism aims strategically at > enroling these forces into the legions of ‘men and women of different > nationalities and political groups’ they need in order to promote their > ‘preventive action’, by ‘military means’ when necessary.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These terms do nothing to explain the thoughts and motives of the people that are described by them, they are used only to divide and conquer by the interests behind their usage.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

[175]
.Fascism blamed capitalist liberal democracies for creating class conflict and communists for exploiting it.^ Is that why Germany was doing better economically in the 30s than the USA, or most of the other “capitalist liberal democracies?” .
  • FDR and Fascism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All the talk about conservatives, liberals, communists, capitalists, nazis, libertarians, blah, blah, blah, is interesting but not very important while the ship is sinking.
  • FDR and Fascism 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC majorityrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is simply no need for it when bourgeois "democracy" works so well in the interests of the capitalist class.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

[25] .In Italy, the Fascist period presided over the creation of the largest number of state-owned enterprises in Western Europe such as the nationalisation of petroleum companies into a single state enterprise called the Italian General Agency for Petroleum (Azienda Generale Italiani Petroli, AGIP).^ The changes to the Pledge that they supported were partly a reaction to the Bolshevik Revolution, and also a reaction to growing numbers of immigrants from Europe, such as Jews, Italians and Irish.

^ How much choice can such a woman have when, for instance, the total number of books translated into Arabic from other languages since 1000 A.D. are fewer than the number of books translated by Spain in a single year?
  • News: Are You Ready for 'Islamo-Fascism Week'? - Inside Higher Ed 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.insidehighered.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Just as understanding the rise of fascism in Europe requires understanding the conditions of the time, so too understanding fascism in America requires understanding the conditions leading up to its transformation into a fascist state.

[176] .Fascists made populist appeals to the middle class (especially the lower middle class) by promising to protect small business and small property owners from communism, and by promising an economy based on competition and profit while pledging to oppose big business.^ It appeals to the broad masses of the petty bourgeoisie, the peasantry, office employees and clerks, small business men and the intelligentsia.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It further impinged on the profits of the rich which were accumulated during the intermediate good input intensive consumer durables phase of national capitalism which created middle classes in integrated national societies and growing national economies.
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Italy and Germany were being "made safe" by the fascists for American investment, and this is what was important in economic terms, especially during the Great Depression in America.

[175]
.In 1933, Benito Mussolini declared Italian Fascism's opposition to "decadent capitalism" that he claimed prevailed in the world at the time, but did not denounce capitalism entirely.^ By organizing capitalism, and tying the interests of corporations to that of the State, Mussolini was able to, in some ways, please the wealthy elite while at the same time pleasing the working classes of Italy.

^ Nevertheless this illustrates the degree to which Mussolini and fascism were respected in America at the time.

^ Many fascists make the spurious claim that the world has but two choices---either fascism or communism and they label as communist everyone who refuses to support them.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

.Mussolini claimed that capitalism had degenerated in three stages, starting with dynamic or heroic capitalism (1830–1870) followed by static capitalism (1870–1914) and then reaching its final form of decadent capitalism, also known as supercapitalism beginning in 1914.[177] Mussolini argued that Italian Fascism was in favour of dynamic and heroic capitalism for its contribution to industrialism and technical developments but claimed that it did not favour supercapitalism, which he claimed was incompatible with Italy's agricultural sector.^ Fascism opposed laissez-faire capitalism, but nonetheless supported capitalism in a regulated form.

^ The main difference is that fascism is a form of extreme capitalism or as Benito Mussolini called it "corporatism", government led by a coalition of politicians and clusters of unelected groups consisting of the powerful and corporations.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There were major differences (racial identity wasn’t as critical in Italian fascism as in German Naziism, for example), but the three cross-pollinated ideas.
  • Liberal Fascism, performed 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

[177]
.Thus Mussolini claimed that Italy under Fascist rule was not capitalist in the modern use of the term, which referred to supercapitalism.^ While FDR was busy bringing American capitalism under the control of the State, many American capitalists began looking to blatantly Fascist Italy and Germany, who were engaged in a large amount of spending, as favorable regions to expand their capitalist empires.

^ Italy and Germany were being "made safe" by the fascists for American investment, and this is what was important in economic terms, especially during the Great Depression in America.

^ Moreover, Italy under Mussolini and Germany Under Hitler were the next.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

[177] Mussolini denounced supercapitalism for causing the "standardization of humankind" and for causing excessive consumption.[178] .Mussolini claimed that at the stage of supercapitalism "[it] is then that a capitalist enterprise, when difficulties arise, throws itself like a dead weight into the state's arms.^ Secondly, they are also setting up military reforms to convert the armed forces of their states into forces principally geared to foreign intervention and occupation.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Secondly, they are also setting up military reforms to > convert the armed forces of their states into forces principally geared to > foreign intervention and occupation.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It fell all by itself, just like the "Islamo-facism Week" will fall under the weight of its own stupidity and Horowitz and his employers will fall under the weight of their own hubris!
  • News: Are You Ready for 'Islamo-Fascism Week'? - Inside Higher Ed 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.insidehighered.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is then that state intervention begins and becomes more necessary.^ However, as time goes by and more information becomes available, the collaboration begins to appear significant, as shown in the following article.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Go to http://www.whatreallyhappened.com to learn the truth of “what really happened”, and to learn more about the fascist state our America is becoming.
  • David Horowitz ‘Declares’ Islamo-Fascism Awareness Week for October 22-26 « Antiwar.com Blog 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is then that those who once ignored the state now seek it out anxiously."^ Those who wish to incite prejudice could still flock to the town square or the city park or anywhere else they wish to pump out their hatred.
  • News: Are You Ready for 'Islamo-Fascism Week'? - Inside Higher Ed 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.insidehighered.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And redistribute to those folks Who won't get out of their easy chair.
  • Does America Face the Risk of a Fascist Backlash? | Corporate Accountability and WorkPlace | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ (This is now a favorite cleverness of those who were, in the first place, against sending any soldiers at all.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 19 November 2009 19:35 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: Original source]

[179] .He saw Fascism as the next logical step to solve the problems of supercapitalism and claimed that this step could be seen either as a form of capitalism which involved state intervention, saying "our path would lead inexorably into state capitalism, which is nothing more nor less than state socialism turned on its head.^ This is nothing more than conjecture by a propagandist.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nothing could be more politically incorrect than to point this out.
  • News: Are You Ready for 'Islamo-Fascism Week'? - Inside Higher Ed 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.insidehighered.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And what would the victory of fascism in the United States involve?
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

In either event, the result is the bureaucratization of the economic activities of the nation."[180]
Some fascists were indifferent or hostile to corporatism. .The Nazis initially attempted to form a corporatist economic system like that in Fascist Italy, creating the National Socialist Institute for Corporatism in May 1933, which included many major economists who argued that corporatism was consistent with National Socialism.^ Is our problem that China may ascend to World dominance or that fascists US nationals are robbing us blind?
  • Does America Face the Risk of a Fascist Backlash? | Corporate Accountability and WorkPlace | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ This is a description of syndicalism; it was the economic model of fascist Italy and Nazi Germany to a large extent.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Their analysis is clear – the shocks to the global trading and economic system in the recent, government created downturn, have been every bit as bad or worse, than the 1930s.
  • craigread.com - Canadian Politics - Canadian Economics - History Of Canadian Politics - Social Spending In Canada 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC craigread.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[181][182]. .In Mein Kampf, Hitler spoke enthusiastically about the "National Socialist corporative idea" as one which would eventually "take the place of ruinous class warfare"[183] However, the Nazis later viewed corporatism as detrimental to Germany and that it institutionalized and legitimized social differences within the German nation.^ The nazi party before it was called the nazi party was the German Workers National Socialist party.
  • Does America Face the Risk of a Fascist Backlash? | Corporate Accountability and WorkPlace | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Take your place amongst nations - as one of us !
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ In Mein Kampf Hitler explained his "revelation" about the political situation in Germany: .

.Instead, the Nazis promoted economic organisation that emphasized the biological unity of the German national community.^ The nazi party before it was called the nazi party was the German Workers National Socialist party.
  • Does America Face the Risk of a Fascist Backlash? | Corporate Accountability and WorkPlace | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ The Nazi regime engendered this type of feeling in a large segment of the German nation.

^ The Nazis did not capture the hearts and minds of the German people with hate speeches, they did it by fostering this strong sense of community, loyalty, progress, and love among the people.

[184]
.Hitler continued to refer to corporatism in propaganda, but it was not put into place, even though a number of Nazi officials such as Walther Darré, Gottfried Feder, Alfred Rosenburg, and Gregor Strasser were in favour of a neo-medievalist form of corporatism, as corporations had been influential in German people's history in the medieval era.^ The number of people to be shot will be doubled, and over a thousand Communists and Jews will be put into freight cars and shipped East.

^ It is impossible to understand the actions of the Germans against minorities, and the loyalty of the Germans to Adolph Hitler, without understanding this real sense of passion and community that had been engendered in the German people.

^ Hitler carried out every single one of the Seven Points to a tee, including of course putting Jews into labor camps and forcing them to work.

[185]
Spanish Falangist leader José Antonio Primo de Rivera did not believe that corporatism was effective and denounced it as a propaganda ploy, saying "this stuff about the corporative state is another piece of windbaggery".[186]

Economic planning

.Fascists opposed laissez-faire economic policies dominant in the era prior to the Great Depression.^ Fascism opposed laissez-faire capitalism, but nonetheless supported capitalism in a regulated form.

^ Italy and Germany were being "made safe" by the fascists for American investment, and this is what was important in economic terms, especially during the Great Depression in America.

^ The closest America came to an entirely capitalistic system was either the 1890s and the Robber Barons or the laissez faire policies of Herbert Hoover, and as we all know, that didn't end too well in the Great Depression of the 1930s.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[187] .After the Great Depression began, many people from across the political spectrum blamed laissez-faire capitalism for the Great Depression, and fascists promoted their ideology as a "third way" between capitalism and communism.^ The fascists correctly understood that Communism was a reaction to the excesses of laissez-faire capitalism.

^ Many people have put the blame on "hate".

^ Fascist movements promote violence between nations, political factions, and races as part of a social Darwinist and militarist stance that views violence between these groups as a natural and positive part of evolution.” .
  • Think Progress » Glenn Beck: I was wrong. We’re not marching to socialism, we’re marching toward fascism. 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

[188]
Fascists declared their opposition to finance capitalism, interest charging, and profiteering.[189] .Nazis and other anti-Semitic fascists considered finance capitalism a "parasitic" "Jewish conspiracy".[190] Fascist governments nationalized some key industries, managed their currencies and made some massive state investments.^ The task then in understanding anti-Semitism is in understanding what anti-Semitics consider to be "the Jewish idea" and why.

^ This open push for Nazi-style fascism should not be a surprise, since the Nazis and the other fascist movements of the 1920s and 1930s were created by the financiers of the Anglo-Dutch Liberal empire for the express purpose of breaking the power of the nation-states, and taking the world back to a modernized variation of medieval feudalism.
  • Obama’s Health Care Fascism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Obama has not undone but reinforced key elements of the national security state.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

.January 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] They introduced price controls, wage controls and other types of economic interventionist measures.^ Economic fascism can be defined as government control over the four P’s: Product, Price, Profit Margin, and People.
  • Pro-Existence: Fascism Archives 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.pearceyreport.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These RWAs are terrified that they are losing control and their minds are not wired to adjust to other conditions.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ But the economic freedom that they enjoyed, (freedom from want, and the financial ability to work at convincing others of the rightness of their cause) came from capitalism.
  • The Greenroom » Forum Archive » The Eff Word 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC hotair.com [Source type: Original source]

[191]
.Private property rights were supported, but were contingent upon service to the state.^ I think a privately funded monument to the Bill of Rights done in good taste, placed out in front of the state capitol is a great idea.
  • Powell Gammill -- Fascist Nation 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.freedomsphoenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who enforces the payment of externalites, since property being entirely private is not at all a given and the minimal state that would control the courts and enforce property rights could just as easily corrupted as it is now?
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Rights obtained from CAPITALISM include the right to private property, the right to transfer that property (now extended to intellectual property), and right to keep the gain from the use of the property.
  • The Greenroom » Forum Archive » The Eff Word 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC hotair.com [Source type: Original source]

[192] .For example, "an owner of agricultural land may be compelled to raise wheat instead of sheep and employ more labour than he would find profitable."^ More than I thought it would.
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Both were wrong, and we now emphasize, on the one hand, that we are not in the least anxious for a workers government" that would be nothing more nor less than an enlarged Social-Democratic government.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, any movement that undertakes to reclaim the > fundamental principles of Marxism, principles emasculated by modern > revisionism, > will find such principles are already living more in the morrow than in the > yesterday.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

[193] According to historian Tibor Ivan Berend, dirigisme was an inherent aspect of fascist economies.[194] .The Labour Charter of 1927, promulgated by the Grand Council of Fascism, stated in article 7: "The corporative State considers private initiative, in the field of production, as the most efficient and useful instrument of the Nation", then goes on to say in article 9: "State intervention in economic production may take place only where private initiative is lacking or is insufficient, or when are at stakes the political interest of the State.^ The definition he uses, IIRC (book at home, me at work), is that fascism is a secular religion wherein the State is God.
  • Liberal Fascism, performed 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ So Lieberman is simply taking “Israel” to its logical conclusion -from a Jewish state to a state only for Jews is a logical progression .
  • Pickled Politics » The ‘fascist’ in Israel 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.pickledpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We have fascism already in the United States because of corporate control.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

.This intervention may take the form of control, encouragement or direct management."^ Censorship in this country takes on a different dimension of its own as opposed to the direct elimination of specific forms of speech.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 19 November 2009 19:35 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After all modern science is fond of telling us we may have a genetic predisposition to believe in religion, whatever form it happens to take…”) .
  • The Greenroom » Forum Archive » The Eff Word 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC hotair.com [Source type: Original source]

[195]
.Fascists thought that private property should be regulated to ensure that "benefit to the community precedes benefit to the individual."^ The U.S. Supreme Court saw no problem with government seizing your property to give to other private individuals or groups with the intent of getting more government revenue.
  • Powell Gammill -- Fascist Nation 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.freedomsphoenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paired to direct democracy must be a wisely-regulated capitalism (no, not feudal, imperial nor corporate capitalism), a living wage, open markets and the sanctity of private property.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ In order to regulate industry and "promote the interests of society" the fascists merged the State with private industry.

[196] .They also introduced price controls and other types of economic planning measures.^ Others boast that they plan to flee the country ahead of the coming fascist takeover of the United States.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Economic fascism can be defined as government control over the four P’s: Product, Price, Profit Margin, and People.
  • Pro-Existence: Fascism Archives 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.pearceyreport.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With them price control was only one device within the frame of an all-around system of central planning.
  • The Greenroom » Forum Archive » The Eff Word 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC hotair.com [Source type: Original source]

[191]
.Fascism had a social Darwinist view of human relations.^ Instead of reaching out a compassionate helping hand towards the poor, the Republicans have adopted a mean spirited social Darwinist view.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As long as significant numbers of people continue to hold essentially the same views as the Nazis, though perhaps not associated with Jews, the problem of social fascism will still continue.

^ Related Obama Nominee: Animals Can Sue People Obama Science Czar: Born Baby "Will Ultimately Develop Into a Human Being" Fascism Is Back .
  • Pro-Existence: Fascism Archives 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.pearceyreport.com [Source type: Original source]

[197] .They promoted the interests of successful businesses while banning trade unions and other workers' organizations.^ But at the same time it is our duty, in the interests of the proletariat and its cause, to criticize those persons, organizations and parties that hinder unity of action by the workers.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Did they establish fighting contact between the working class organizations of every political opinion, including the Communists and the Anarchists, and did they weld the working class into a united trade union organization?
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The fascists promised to promote the interests of the Church if they were able to get into power.

[198] Mussolini wrote approvingly of the notion that profits should not, for any purpose, be taken away from those who produce them from their own labour, saying "I do not respect — I even hate — those men that leech a tenth of the riches produced by others".[199]

Social welfare

.Benito Mussolini promised a "social revolution" that would "remake" the Italian people.^ Do you suppose the people would have had a chance of wresting “equality” from the maw of socialism?
  • The Greenroom » Forum Archive » The Eff Word 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC hotair.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because they try to exploit the faith in revolution and the urge towards socialism that lives in the hearts of the mass of working people in Germany.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The concept of Benito Mussolini as an uncomplicated totalitarian is purely an artifact of people attempting, ex post facto , to define National Socialism as “fascist” and therefore distinct from “real Socialism”.
  • Liberal Fascism, performed 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

According to Patricia Knight, this was only achieved in part.[200] The people who primarily benefited from Italian fascist social policies were members of the middle and lower-middle classes, who filled jobs in the vastly expanding government workforce, which grew to about a million in 1930.[200] Health and welfare spending grew dramatically under Italian fascism, with welfare rising from seven percent of the budget in 1930 to 20% in 1940.[201]
.A major social welfare initiative in Fascist Italy was the Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro (OND) or "National After-work Program". Created in 1925, it was the state's largest recreational organisation for adults.^ That they are progressives who will bring the shining light of the state run social programs to the unwashed masses.

^ So, FDR created the economic tools of fascism, but it was not until the 1950s that America would actually become a truly fascist country in both the economic and social sense.

^ Those advancing these views were largely calling for major social changes to correct these socially created problems.

[202] The Dopolavoro was responsible for establishing and maintaining 11,000 sports grounds, over 6,400 libraries, 800 movie houses, 1,200 theatres, and over 2,000 orchestras.[202] Membership of the Dopolavoro was voluntary, but it had high participation because of its nonpolitical nature.[202] .It is estimated that, by 1936, the OND had organised 80 percent of salaried workers[203] and, by 1939, 40 percent of the industrial workforce.^ It has been estimated that at least half, and perhaps as many as 80 percent, of the imported specialists were former Nazi Party members.

The sports activities proved popular with large numbers of workers. The OND had the largest membership of any of the mass Fascist organisations in Italy.[204]
.The enormous success of the Dopolavoro in Fascist Italy was the key factor in Nazi Germany creating its own version of the Dopolavoro, the Kraft durch Freude (KdF) or "Strength through Joy" program of the Nazi government's German Labour Front, which was even more successful than the Dopolavoro.^ Take the "Labor Front" in Germany, or the fascist trade unions in Italy.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Kraft durch Freude (Strength through Joy) -- A mass fascist organization in Nazi Germany, aimed at the fascization of workers and their training for future soldiers.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While the Nazi totalitarianism strove to give the masses a sense of collective power and strength, Kraft durch Freude ("Strength through joy"), inverted totalitarianism promotes a sense of weakness, of collective futility.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

[205] KdF provided government-subsidized holidays for German workers.[206] .KdF was also responsible for the creation of the original Volkswagen ("People's Car"), a state-manufactured automobile that was meant to be cheap enough to allow all German citizens to be able to own one.^ Jim Crow created internal empires of black people forced to work first as sharecroppers, then as cheap labor in most northern and eventually all US cities.
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ It is attitudes like this - thinking that one man is bigger than your own country that gives power to people like him .
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 19 November 2009 19:35 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor, one suspects we are to believe, is such a "chilling effect" a denial of the Constitution, the 1st Amendment, or an unalienable right endowed upon all people by our true Creator (which is not the federal state).
  • Pro-Existence: Fascism Archives 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.pearceyreport.com [Source type: Original source]

.While fascists promoted social welfare to ameliorate economic conditions affecting their nation or race as whole, they did not support social welfare for egalitarian reasons.^ Fascist movements promote violence between nations, political factions, and races as part of a social Darwinist and militarist stance that views violence between these groups as a natural and positive part of evolution.” .
  • Think Progress » Glenn Beck: I was wrong. We’re not marching to socialism, we’re marching toward fascism. 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ I thought it was because th fascists acknowledged nationalism as opposed to class warfare that they were called “the right” – by the commies.
  • The Greenroom » Forum Archive » The Eff Word 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC hotair.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Steigmann-Gall, the extent of support for National Socialism correlates directly to the degree of allegiance to Protestantism, rather than, as has been so often suggested, apostasy from it."

Fascists criticised egalitarianism as preserving the weak. .They promoted instead social Darwinist views, claiming that nations and races must preserve and promote their strengths to ensure survival in a world that is in a perpetual state of national and/or racial conflict and competition.^ Like a cancer, they must be excised from the nation if the country is to survive.
  • Countdown Special Comment on FISA: President Bush Is A Liar And A Fascist | Crooks and Liars 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fascist movements promote violence between nations, political factions, and races as part of a social Darwinist and militarist stance that views violence between these groups as a natural and positive part of evolution.” .
  • Think Progress » Glenn Beck: I was wrong. We’re not marching to socialism, we’re marching toward fascism. 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ That they are progressives who will bring the shining light of the state run social programs to the unwashed masses.

[207][208] .Adolf Hitler was opposed to egalitarian and universal social welfare because, in his view, it encouraged the preservation of the degenerate and feeble.^ Adolf Hitler is known to be definitely opposed to having his party enter the government so long as it is only second in rank.
  • Liberal Fascism, performed 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

[209] .While in power, the Nazis created social welfare programs to deal with the large numbers of unemployed.^ Those advancing these views were largely calling for major social changes to correct these socially created problems.

^ Radicalization is likely if the new regime scores a big military victory, which consolidates its power and whets its appetite for expansion and large-scale social engineering.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Nazi used socialism as a ruse to gain power, but once in power they purged the socialists within their party.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, those programs were neither egalitarian nor universal, but instead residual, excluding multiple minority groups and certain other people whom they felt were incapable of helping themselves, and who would pose a threat to the future health of the German people.^ The people who insist on those conditions being as they are are not likely to be living like that themselves.” .
  • Pickled Politics » The ‘fascist’ in Israel 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.pickledpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The people who insist on those conditions being as they are are not likely to be living like that themselves.
  • Pickled Politics » The ‘fascist’ in Israel 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.pickledpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who refuse would be stripped of their citizenship, but could remain in Israel as permanent residents.
  • Pickled Politics » The ‘fascist’ in Israel 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.pickledpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

[210]

Racism and racialism

Fascists are not unified on the issues of racism and racialism. .Mussolini, in a 1919 speech to denounce Soviet Russia, claimed that Jewish bankers in London and New York City were bound by the chains of race to Moscow, and claimed that 80 percent of the Soviet leaders were Jews.^ Russian Bolshevism came out of the East Side of New York where it was fostered by the encouragement-the religious, moral and financial encouragement - of Jewish leaders.

^ Forty-one percent of Jewish support the segregation of Jews and Arabs in places of recreation and 52 percent of such Jews would oppose such a move.” .
  • Pickled Politics » The ‘fascist’ in Israel 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.pickledpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In The International Jew Ford outlined a brief history of Jewish involvement in America and labeled New York City as the "center of the Jewish population."

[211] .In his 1920 autobiography, he said: "Race and soil are strong influences upon us all", and said of World War I: "There were seers who saw in the European conflict not only national advantages but the possibility of a supremacy of race".[212] In a 1921 speech in Bologna, Mussolini stated that "Fascism was born...^ This has got to be of interest to us all, and if its not there is a strong reason.
  • Pickled Politics » The ‘fascist’ in Israel 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.pickledpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fascism was born out of the ruins of World War I, in which Mussolini served.

^ Mussolini states in his 1935 essay on fascism: .

out of a profound, perennial need of this our Aryan and Mediterranean race".[211] He said in 1928:
[When the] city dies, the nation — deprived of the young life — blood of new generations — is now made up of people who are old and degenerate and cannot defend itself against a younger people which launches an attack on the now unguarded frontiers[...] .This will happen, and not just to cities and nations, but on an infinitely greater scale: the whole White race, the Western race can be submerged by other coloured races which are multiplying at a rate unknown in our race.^ And as Our Lord died on the cross God the Father knew no other race To torment His Son to death, He chose the Jews for this...

^ But politicians and their thugs are intruding not just upon our families "at night," as it were, but upon our nation -- in broad daylight -- in a whole range of un-Constitutional usurpations of power and authority, represented of late by the Obama administration.
  • Pro-Existence: Fascism Archives 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.pearceyreport.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I think you are generally spot on with your analysis, but its not just the US that's getting more fascist, its the whole Western world.
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[213]
.Many Italian fascists held anti-Slavist views, especially against neighbouring Yugoslav nations, whom the Italian fascists saw as being in competition with Italy, which had claims on territories of Yugoslavia, particularly Dalmatia.^ Right now our native fascists are spreading anti-British, anti-Soviet, anti-French and anti-United nations propaganda.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, many of America's wealthy elite were primarily concerned with Communism and viewed the Fascist regimes as a bulwark against the spread of Communism.

^ Many fascists make the spurious claim that the world has but two choices---either fascism or communism and they label as communist everyone who refuses to support them.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[214] .Mussolini claimed that Yugoslavs posed a threat after Italy did not receive the territory along the Adriatic coast at the end of World War I, as promised by the 1915 Treaty of London.^ This element — former junior officers in the great war and their young brothers — today forms the backbone of German Fascism, as it did in Italy.
  • Liberal Fascism, performed 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Throughout World War II, Italy and Germany both suffered major economic hardship and even the citizens had very little food to eat.

^ After the Second World War, how did the correlation of > class > forces stand in the contemporary political scene?
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

He said: "The danger of seeing the Jugo-Slavians settle along the whole Adriatic shore had caused a bringing together in Rome of the cream of our unhappy regions. Students, professors, workmen, citizens—representative men—were entreating the ministers and the professional politicians.[215] Italian fascists accused Serbs of having "atavistic impulses", and of being part of a "social democratic, masonic Jewish internationalist plot".[216] The fascists accused Yugoslavs of conspiring together on behalf of "Grand Orient masonry and its funds".
In 1933, Mussolini contradicted his earlier statements on race, saying: "Race! It is a feeling, not a reality: ninety-five percent, at least, is a feeling. Nothing will ever make me believe that biologically pure races can be shown to exist today. ... .National pride has no need of the delirium of race."^ Look, we don't need no steenkeen conservatives threatening our nation to a civil anarchy and destruction.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 19 November 2009 19:35 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: Original source]

[217]
.At the 1934 Fascist International Congress, the issue of anti-Semitism was debated amongst various fascist parties, with some more favourable to it, and others less favourable.^ But it must be an anti-fascist party and must not be an anti-Communist party.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He will be more fascist in some ways, less so in others.
  • Does America Face the Risk of a Fascist Backlash? | Corporate Accountability and WorkPlace | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ The other thing that is difficult about understanding the personal views of some of the fascist leaders is that it's very hard to separate anti-fascist propaganda from truth.

Two final compromises were adopted, creating the official stance of the Fascist International:
[T]he .Jewish question cannot be converted into a universal campaign of hatred against the Jews[...] Considering that in many places certain groups of Jews are installed in conquered countries, exercising in an open and occult manner an influence injurious to the material and moral interests of the country which harbors them, constituting a sort of state within a state, profiting by all benefits and refusing all duties, considering that they have furnished and are inclined to furnish, elements conducive to international revolution which would be destructive to the idea of patriotism and Christian civilization, the Conference denounces the nefarious action of these elements and is ready to combat them.^ From the publisher down, they were all Jews.

^ In this investigation of the Jewish Question, it is Jewish influence and the Jewish Idea that are being discovered and defined.

^ They were a religious group, after all.
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[21]

Relation to religion

The attitude of fascism toward religion has run the gamut from persecution, to denunciation, to cooperation,[218] to embrace.[219] Stanley Payne notes that fundamental to fascism was the foundation of a purely materialistic "civic religion" that would "displace preceding structures of belief and relegate supernatural religion to a secondary role, or to none at all", and that "though there were specific examples of religious or would-be 'Christian fascists,' fascism presupposed a post-Christian, post-religious, secular, and immanent frame of reference."[220]
.According to Payne, such "would be" religious fascists only gain hold where traditional belief is weakened or absent, as fascism seeks to create new non-rationalist myth structures for those who no longer hold a traditional view.^ Who would think of such a thing?
  • 5 Ways to Build a Fascist-Proof America | Rights and Liberties | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Those who refuse would be stripped of their citizenship, but could remain in Israel as permanent residents.
  • Pickled Politics » The ‘fascist’ in Israel 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.pickledpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a moral duty for people who understand, that we do so, for I am pretty sure that rants of people like David and others will bring in their camps people who are naive and do not understand (there is no dearth of such people).
  • David Horowitz ‘Declares’ Islamo-Fascism Awareness Week for October 22-26 « Antiwar.com Blog 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

[221] .The rise of modern secularism in Europe and Latin America, and the incursion and large-scale adoption of western secular culture in the mid-east leave a void where this modern secular ideology, sometimes under a religious veneer, can take hold.^ Just as understanding the rise of fascism in Europe requires understanding the conditions of the time, so too understanding fascism in America requires understanding the conditions leading up to its transformation into a fascist state.

^ The rise of fascism took a different, non-revolutionary, path in America than it took in Europe.

^ He claims that secularization is part of the Jewish program to take over America.

[221]
.Many fascists were anti-clerical in both private and public life.^ Members of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade came from many walks of life and different political progressive political backgrounds left without the approval and consent of their government returned to be label premature anti-fascists and communist when they weren’t.
  • Fascist America, in 10 Easy Steps | World | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Like the fascists in Europe, Americans were generally opposed to both Communism and "high finance," that is to say the extremely powerful capitalists who had come to dominate the American economy, and who many felt had far too much control over American life.

^ A totalitarian government is one that seeks to maintain control over all aspects of public and private life by using propaganda, terror, and technology.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[222] .Although both Hitler and Mussolini were anti-clerical, they both understood that it would be rash to begin their Kulturkampfs prematurely, such a clash, possibly inevitable in the future, being put off while they dealt with other enemies.^ Both Mussolini in Italy and Hitler in Germany were funded by and collaborated with propertied elite nationalists.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You ask almost anyone off the street who Ron Paul is, they will probably tell you (or rather ask) The Canadian Emperor???...or some such shit.
  • Fascist America, in 10 Easy Steps | World | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ From what I've read on the Jewish members of the Fascist party they were intent, even before any alliance with Hitler, on their co-identity as both Jews and Italians.

[223] .Hitler had a general plan, even before the Nazis' rise to power, to destroy Christianity within the Reich.^ Another common theme in American World War II propaganda was that of describing the Nazis as anti-Christian or trying to destroy religion.

^ Even after gaining power, Hitler went to great pains in dividing power, playing one follower against another, creating rivalries in the party in the process.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet Turner tries to use this as proof that big business did not support Hitler's rise to power, although he does admit that Fritz Thyssen and Kirdolf were supporters of the Nazis during this time.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[224][225][226] .Many Italian Fascists were disgusted by Mussolini's decision to abandon Fascism's anti-clericalism in favour of reconciliation with the Roman Catholic Church.^ True, the preceding Italian governments had all been strongly anti-Catholic Church, and the Lateran Treaties were signed, but Mussolini's Fascists were anything but "cozy" with the Pius XI and the Catholic Church, particularly after 1931 and the encyclical Non Abbiamo Bisogno attacking fascism as worshiping the state and interfering with the Church.

^ Many fascists make the spurious claim that the world has but two choices---either fascism or communism and they label as communist everyone who refuses to support them.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The history of the relationship between fascism and the Vatican is controversial one, but it cannot be denied that in both Germany and Italy the rise to power of the fascists was aided by the Catholic Church.

[227]
.The leader of the Hitler Youth stated "the destruction of Christianity was explicitly recognized as a purpose of the National Socialist movement" from the start, but "considerations of expedience made it impossible" publicly to express this extreme position.^ National Socialist movements, were opposed by the International Socialist movements (i.e.
  • Liberal Fascism, performed 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ This open push for Nazi-style fascism should not be a surprise, since the Nazis and the other fascist movements of the 1920s and 1930s were created by the financiers of the Anglo-Dutch Liberal empire for the express purpose of breaking the power of the nation-states, and taking the world back to a modernized variation of medieval feudalism.
  • Obama’s Health Care Fascism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hitler was no more a hard core righty than a hard core lefty, he started out as a national socialist.
  • Does America Face the Risk of a Fascist Backlash? | Corporate Accountability and WorkPlace | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[224] .In Mexico, the Red Shirts were vehemently atheist, renounced religion, killed priests, and on one occasion gunned down Catholics as they left Mass.^ If they were all Catholic, you'd be the first one yelling for action and talking about the evils of Christianity.
  • News: Are You Ready for 'Islamo-Fascism Week'? - Inside Higher Ed 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.insidehighered.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Officially, the Nazis were a Christian group, if one can assign a religion to the group by the public policies they enacted.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[228][229][230][231][232]
.According to a biographer of Mussolini, "Initially, fascism was fiercely anti-Catholic" — the Church being a competitor for dominion of the people's hearts.^ According to Mussolini, Fascism is a merging of corporations and the state, so with which Islamic corporations are we supposedly at war?
  • David Horowitz ‘Declares’ Islamo-Fascism Awareness Week for October 22-26 « Antiwar.com Blog 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It has been said many many times, but it is repeated again and again, if only the “correct” people were in charge, then we can build a utopia, or a better communism, or a more fair socialism, or a fascism with a heart… .
  • The Greenroom » Forum Archive » The Eff Word 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC hotair.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nazi Germany had been waging a major anti-Communist propaganda campaign as part of its agenda, fascism being the "sworn enemy" or communism.

[233] Mussolini, originally an atheist, published anti-Catholic writings and planned for the confiscation of Church property, but eventually moved to accommodation.[218] .Mussolini endorsed the Roman Catholic Church for political legitimacy, as during the Lateran Treaty talks, Fascist Party officials engaged in bitter arguments with Vatican officials and put pressure on them to accept the terms that the regime deemed acceptable.^ In 1929 Mussolini signed the Lateran Treaty with Pope Pius XI. This established Catholicism as the official religion of the State, gave the Pope increased political powers, gave papal sovereignty to Vatican City, ensured that the Catholic religion would be taught in all schools, compensated the Pope with $90 million for the loss of papal property since 1870, and cemented broad Catholic support for Mussolini.

^ Mussolini made good on his promise when he signed the Lateran Treaty in 1929, giving increased powers to the Catholic Church, establishing Catholicism as the official state religion of Italy, and ensuring that Catholicism would be taught in public schools.

^ The fascist Bush regime, supported by the pro-fascist factions in both major political parties, destroyed our republic with its democratic political process, the rule of law, our civil rights, and the separation of church and state.
  • Does America Face the Risk of a Fascist Backlash? | Corporate Accountability and WorkPlace | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[234] Protestantism in Italy was not as significant as Catholicism, and the Protestant minority was persecuted.[235] .Mussolini's sub-secretary of Interior, Bufferini-Guidi issued a memo closing all houses of worship of the Italian Pentecostals and Jehovah's Witnesses, and imprisoned their leaders.^ Secretary of State Stimson issued a formal apology to Mussolini for "discourteous and unwarranted utterances by a commissioned officer of this government on active duty."
  • Smedley Butler Stopped American Fascist Conspiracy to Overthrow FDR - Democratic Underground 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.democraticunderground.com [Source type: General]

[236] .In some instances, people were killed because of their faith.^ Because they try to exploit the faith in revolution and the urge towards socialism that lives in the hearts of the mass of working people in Germany.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ron Paul, M.D. (R-TX) Because some people who vocally oppose amnesty are supportive of the war, the ideological connection between support of the war and amnesty is often masked.
  • Powell Gammill -- Fascist Nation 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.freedomsphoenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[237]
.A number of Italian Fascists were disgusted by Mussolini's decision to seek reconciliation with the Roman Catholic Church.^ Did they strike at the fascist party of Gil Robles and at the might of the Catholic church?
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The history of the relationship between fascism and the Vatican is controversial one, but it cannot be denied that in both Germany and Italy the rise to power of the fascists was aided by the Catholic Church.

^ Both Hitler and Mussolini were Catholics; neither appeared to be particularly active members of the church.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Ustaše in Croatia had strong Catholic overtones, with some clerics in positions of power.^ It held the power in its hands, it held strong j positions in the army and in the state apparatus.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

[238] .The fascist movement in Romania, known as the Iron Guard or the Legion of Archangel Michael, preceded its meetings with a church service, and their demonstrations were usually led by priests carrying icons and religious flags.^ A near-total lock on vast swathes of American public life, from the news media to the established churches to the labor movement to academia to Hollywood to the civil service.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

[citation needed] The Romanian fascist movement promoted a cult of "suffering, sacrifice and martyrdom."[239][240]
.In Latin America, the most notable fascist movement was Plinio Salgado's Brazilian Integralism.^ Opinions Fascist Nation 12-14-2008 December 15: America's Second Most Important Holiday Monday, December 15, is one of America's most important holidays.
  • Powell Gammill -- Fascist Nation 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.freedomsphoenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Built on a network of lay religious associations, its vision was of an integral state that "comes from Christ, is inspired in Christ, acts for Christ, and goes toward Christ."[241][242][243] Salgado, however, criticised the "dangerous pagan tendencies of Hitlerism".[244]
.Hitler and the Nazi regime attempted to found their own version of Christianity called Positive Christianity which made major changes in its interpretation of the Bible which said that Jesus Christ was the son of God, but was not a Jew; they further claimed that Christ despised Jews, and that the Jews were the ones solely responsible for his death.^ I am not one, but they are not solely to blame.
  • Does America Face the Risk of a Fascist Backlash? | Corporate Accountability and WorkPlace | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ From the start the Jew has been A murderer, said Jesus Christ.

^ Once Christianity became the dominant religion of Rome the Christians that came to power in Rome began taking further action against Jews, who they despised as people who were not only responsible for the killing of Jesus, but who had also opposed the Christian movement all along.

.January 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] By 1940, however, it was public knowledge that Hitler had abandoned even the syncretist idea of a positive Christianty.^ Hence, even before Hitler was appointed to the chancellor position, power was being concentrated into the two offices of the chancellor and the president.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[245]
.The Catholic Church was particularly suppressed by Nazis in Poland.^ As time went on Nazi opposition to the role of private churches in Germany increased, however Hitler always maintained that he was still a Catholic.

^ Goebbels, though himself a believer in God and raised a devout Catholic, was opposed to established religions and saw the power of churches as a possible threat to the Nazi State.

^ Even among Christians, Protestants were quick to pass blame on to the Catholic Church as a means to shift attention away from the role of Protestantism in the Nazi movement.

.In addition to the deaths of some 3 million Polish Jews, 2 million Polish Catholics were killed.^ It is a disgrace for Westerners, in particular Jews, who were victims of Fascism, which killed millions, to then embrace this same class tyranny over Arabs.
  • Fascist America, in 10 Easy Steps | World | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[246] .Between 1939 and 1945, an estimated 3,000 polish clergy (18 percent) were murdered; of these, 1,992 died in concentration camps.^ Some of these people spoke out, and they too were generally punished, sometimes sent to concentration camps.

^ There is no ’slippery slope’ between enforcing existing immigration law and concentration camps.
  • Liberal Fascism, performed 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ If I wanted to assert a connection between immigration reform and concentration camps, I wouldn’t have called slippery slopes out of bounds, right?
  • Liberal Fascism, performed 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

[246] In the annexed territory of Reichsgau Wartheland it was even harsher than elsewhere. Churches were systematically closed, and most priests were either killed, imprisoned, or deported to the General Government.
The Germans also closed seminaries and convents persecuting monks and nuns throughout Poland. .Eighty percent of the Catholic clergy and five of the bishops of Warthegau were sent to concentration camps in 1939; in Chełmno, 48 percent.^ Some of these people spoke out, and they too were generally punished, sometimes sent to concentration camps.

^ On that night, 91 Jews were murdered; 26,000 were rounded up and sent to concentration camps.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[246] Of those murdered by the Nazi regime, 108 are regarded as blessed martyrs.[246] Among them, Maximilian Kolbe was canonized as a saint. Not only in Poland were Christians persecuted by the Nazis. .In the Dachau concentration camp alone, 2,600 Catholic priests from 24 different countries were killed.^ Though it likely didn’t happen exactly as we are told, there were concentration camps, there were round ups, there was forced labor, there was enslavement, there was killing, and lots of death.
  • Obama’s Health Care Fascism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first concentration camp in Germany was Dachau , which opened in 1933.

^ I read your argument a few times, and I still don’t get it: are you saying that the governments of Islamic countries kill women on a different basis then men?
  • News: Are You Ready for 'Islamo-Fascism Week'? - Inside Higher Ed 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC www.insidehighered.com [Source type: Original source]

[246]
.One theory is that religion and fascism could never have a lasting connection because both are a "holistic weltanschauung" claiming the whole of the person.^ Consider the words of Benito Mussolini: “Fascism should more appropriately be called Corporatism because it is a merger of state and corporate power” “Fascism is a religion.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I dont claim to believe everything Moore says because any intelligent person would make their own judgements about what they see or read.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 19 November 2009 19:35 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The results of being called to testify before the Committee could be extremely ruinous to a person's life, even if they themselves were never a member of the party.

[218] .Along these lines, Yale political scientist, Juan Linz and others have noted that secularization had created a void which could be filled by a total ideology, making totalitarianism possible[247][248], and Roger Griffin has characterized fascism as a type of anti-religious political religion.^ Fascism embodied much of traditional social ideology, such as "machismo", family values, religious faith, patriotism, social structure, honor, and traditional hard work.

^ Beneath all the empty bluster, childish insults, and dim-bulb defenses of totalitarianism, Comrade Blitzer channels the wit of that other noted Marx: Groucho.
  • The Greenroom » Forum Archive » The Eff Word 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC hotair.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Anonymous", however, makes the conventional right-wing charge that fascism came from the Left, which is a fundamental misunderstanding of the anti-intellectual element that is one of the cornerstones of the movement.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

[249] .Such political religions vie with existing religions, and try, if possible, to replace or eradicate them.^ He is trying to group Islam (religion) and fascism (politics) together” .
  • David Horowitz ‘Declares’ Islamo-Fascism Awareness Week for October 22-26 « Antiwar.com Blog 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

[248]

Variations and subforms

.Movements identified by scholars as fascist hold a variety of views, and what qualifies as fascism is often a hotly contested subject.^ The rise of fascistic masculinity prefigures systemic fascism, often in the form of vigilantism.
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ As long as significant numbers of people continue to hold essentially the same views as the Nazis, though perhaps not associated with Jews, the problem of social fascism will still continue.

^ The “cult of masculinity” as defined by scholars of fascism — who, I imagine, would rather not be called what I originally typed, “fascist scholars” — is a culture obsessed with the militaristic, the athletic, the violent, &c.
  • Liberal Fascism, performed 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

.The original movement which self-identified as Fascist was that of Benito Mussolini and his National Fascist Party.^ Identifying and rejecting fascist, abusive leaders would be a natural response, if families in this Nation would have raised their children with respect, dignity, equality and justice.
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ In the second stage, fascist movements take root, turn into real political parties, and seize their seat at the table of power.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Stalin, Mussolini, Hitler, Mao all ran on a platform of brotherly love and as labor movements - study the National Socialist German Workers' Party - aka the Nazi party.We can agree that Stalin, Hitler, Mao, Mussolini, Pol Pot were all Fascists of the first water - what was their "turning point"?
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

.Intellectuals such as Giovanni Gentile produced The Doctrine of Fascism and founded the ideology.^ Fascism embodied much of traditional social ideology, such as "machismo", family values, religious faith, patriotism, social structure, honor, and traditional hard work.

^ Fascism is an ideology that focuses on the State, and as such the boundaries between Church and State were broken just as the boundaries between Corporation and State were broken.

^ Such transformations illistrate the opportunistic ideology present in fascism or is it a lack of ideology, as well as further dispeling the myth that fascism is another form of socialism.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

.The majority of strains which emerged after the original fascism, but are sometimes placed under the wider usage of the term, self-identified their parties with different names.^ The Republicans have emerged as a unique phenomenon in American history of a fervently doctrinal party, zealous, ruthless, antidemocratic and boasting a near majority.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ We have not only have parked in the very place fascism starts, our name is on the parking space and we have just arrived for another day of work.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Fascism maintains private industry, but places it under the direct control of the government.
  • The Greenroom » Forum Archive » The Eff Word 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC hotair.com [Source type: Original source]

.Major examples include; Falangism, Integralism, Iron Guard and Nazism as well as various other designations.^ Members of the power elite were in a position to obtain vast wealth from other sources as well: for example, by stealing national resources.
  • Think Progress » Glenn Beck: I was wrong. We’re not marching to socialism, we’re marching toward fascism. 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

[250]

Europe

Italian Fascism

Benito Mussolini
.Fascism was born during a period of social and political unrest following World War I.^ Fascism was born out of the ruins of World War I, in which Mussolini served.

^ During the period preceding the outbreak of WWII it was common to refer to fascism as corporatism in polite English society.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They want to know how they ended up > following in the footsteps of every treason of revisionism, every aggression > of social-imperialism, every crime of social-fascism.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The war had seen Italy begin to feel a sense of nationalism, rather than its historic regionalism.^ According to Steigmann-Gall, the extent of support for National Socialism correlates directly to the degree of allegiance to Protestantism, rather than, as has been so often suggested, apostasy from it."

^ A war culture is a serious problem for a nation filled with a majority who would rather live in a thougtful Republic, and it's important for us to see that we are what we support.
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ But using the more general, political science rather than historical, term, his politics are a pretty good fit.
  • Pickled Politics » The ‘fascist’ in Israel 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.pickledpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

[251] .Despite being an Allied Power, Italy was given what nationalists considered an unfair deal at the Treaty of Versailles.^ "Certain American industrialists had a great deal to do with bringing fascist regimes into being in both Germany and Italy.

^ The U. S. ambassador to Germany, William Dodd, was quoted saying "certain American industrialists had a great deal to do with bringing fascist regimes into being in both Germany and Italy."
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[251]
.When the other allies told Italy to hand over the city of Fiume at the Paris Peace Conference, war veteran Gabriele d'Annunzio declared the independent state there, the Italian Regency of Carnaro.^ On the one hand they swear loyalty to these while, on the other, they seek the opportunity for the coup de force – Berlusconi in Italy, for example.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The significance of the anti-fascist demonstration attended by half a million people in Paris on July 14 of this year, and of the numerous demonstrations in other French cities, is tremendous.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the one hand they swear loyalty to these while, on the > other, they seek the opportunity for the coup de force – Berlusconi in Italy, > for example.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

[252] .He named himself Duce of the nation and declared a constitution, the Charter of Carnaro, which was highly influential to early Fascism, though he himself never became a fascist.^ Opinions Fascist Nation 10-11-2005 Never forget: The Supreme Court took your property Kelo v.
  • Powell Gammill -- Fascist Nation 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.freedomsphoenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the Homeland Security Act to Herr Bush this nation has trashed the Constitution and instituted a Fascist Regime that rivals Hitler's Germany!
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ He has convinced himself that the right-wing fascist Nazis were socialists because “socialist” is in the name.
  • Think Progress » Glenn Beck: I was wrong. We’re not marching to socialism, we’re marching toward fascism. 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

[252]
.Benito Mussolini founded Italian fascism as the Fasci italiani di combattimento after he returned from World War I, and published a Fascist manifesto.^ Fascism was born out of the ruins of World War I, in which Mussolini served.

^ We know that between 50 and 100 million victims can be > attributed to fascism and the reactionary war imposed upon the peoples of the > world by the imperialists.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ European fascism arose from the Treaty of Versailles (1919) following World War I coupled to the impotence of representative democracy and the rising influence of Soviet communism.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

.The birth of the Fascist movement can be traced to a meeting he held in the Piazza San Sepolcro in Milan on March 23, 1919, which declared the original principles of the Fascists through a series of declarations.^ Hermes — on 18th March, 2009 at 11:23 AM Go on Leon, say it…do you mean like Fascist Germany?
  • Pickled Politics » The ‘fascist’ in Israel 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.pickledpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These same narrative threads have woven their way through every fascist movement in history.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Survey of Open-Air Meetings Held by Pro-Fascist Organizations, April-October 1947 [Factual Survey No.
  • Select Bibliography -- Works on Oswald Mosley and British Fascism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.ihr.org [Source type: Academic]

[253]
.These included a dedication to Italian war veterans,[254] a declaration of the fascists' loyalty to Italy and its opposition to foreign aggressors, a pronouncment that the fascists would fight against other political factions and a declaration of opposition to bolshevism and socialism, particularly the socialism of the Italian Socialist Party.^ That small faction of the Nazi party who actually believed that theirs was a socialist party were summarily killed in 1934 under the pretense that they were engaging in homosexual behavior.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Second, the widest masses of working people, particularly the mass trade unions, must be in a state of vehement revolt against fascism and reaction , though not ready to rise in insurrection so as to fight under Communist Party leadership for the establishment of a fully socialist government.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The principal task in fascist countries, particularly in Germany and Italy, where fascism has managed to gain a mass basis and has forced the workers and other working people into its organizations, consists in skilfully combining the fight against the fascist dictatorship from without with the undermining of it from within, inside the fascist mass organizations and bodies.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.They also declared their intention to seize power and their opposition to the multiparty representative democracy in Italy.^ If they can't win elections or policy fights, they're more than willing to take it to the streets, and seize power by bullying Americans into silence and complicity."
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If they can't win elections or policy fights, they're more than willing to take it to the streets, and seize power by bullying Americans into silence and complicity.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In Germany the Nazis announced they would end nationalization of private industries when they seized power.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

The fascists took a moderate stance on the economy, effectively declaring that they favoured class collaboration while opposing excessive state intervention into the economy, and calling for pressure on industrialists and workers to be cooperative and constructive, saying: "As for economic democracy, we favour national syndicalism and reject State intervention whenever it aims at throttling the creation of wealth."[255]
Mussolini and the fascists were simultaneously revolutionary and traditionalist.[256][257] because this was vastly different from anything else in the political climate of the time, it is sometimes described as ."The Third Way".[258] The Fascisti, led by one of Mussolini's close confidants, Dino Grandi, formed armed squads of war veterans called Blackshirts (or squadristi) with the goal of restoring order.^ The main difference is that fascism is a form of extreme capitalism or as Benito Mussolini called it "corporatism", government led by a coalition of politicians and clusters of unelected groups consisting of the powerful and corporations.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In this way a united anti-communist front of imperialism and its > underlings was formed, imposing a ‘cordon sanitaire’ while unleashing their > so-called cold war amidst the most hysterical McCarthy-style campaign.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The third-strongest hurricane ever measured, the September 2, 1935 Labor Day hurricane, killed 258 veterans working on the Highway.
  • Smedley Butler Stopped American Fascist Conspiracy to Overthrow FDR - Democratic Underground 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.democraticunderground.com [Source type: General]

The blackshirts clashed with communists, socialists and anarchists at parades and demonstrations. .The government rarely interfered with the blackshirts' actions, due in part to a widespread fear of a Communist revolution.^ Von Braun was in fact a member of the SS. The NASA program was started as an anti-communist program as part of the Cold War, and von Braun was a vocal promoter of America anti-communist action.

^ But in taking part in the government, the Communists should have used their positions primarily for the purpose of arming the proletariat.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Fascisti grew so rapidly that within two years, it transformed itself into the National Fascist Party at a congress in Rome.^ In a fascist country the party of the fascists cannot set itself the aim of abolishing classes and class contradictions.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Just as understanding the rise of fascism in Europe requires understanding the conditions of the time, so too understanding fascism in America requires understanding the conditions leading up to its transformation into a fascist state.

^ In the second stage, fascist movements take root, turn into real political parties, and seize their seat at the table of power.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

.Also in 1921, Mussolini was elected to the Chamber of Deputies for the first time and was later appointed as Prime Minister by the King in 1922. He then went on to install a dictatorship after 10 June 1924 assassination of anti-fascist writer Giacomo Matteotti by agents of the Mussolini's Ceka secret police.^ S. Res 247 - urging the president to "condemn the anti-Semitic sentiments expressed by Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, the outgoing Prime Minister of Malaysia."
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 19 November 2009 19:35 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mussolini turned his attention to Ethiopia and North Africa; Hitler first to Austria, then Czechoslovakia, followed by Western Europe and later to Norway and the east.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Schacht was later appointed to minister of economics in 1934, a post he retained until he resigned in 1937 over policy disputes.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

Mussolini's colonialism reached further into Africa in an attempt to compete with British and French colonial empires.[259] .Mussolini spoke of making Italy a nation that was "great, respected and feared" throughout Europe, and indeed the world.^ The damages of World War I and the civil turmoil it caused following it in all of the countries participating in that great slaughter must be regarded as a prime cause of the social revolutions of Europe.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is a great man in his late 80’s who has been through enough to make most men give up the fight to save this nation and in my opinion deserves much respect.
  • Obama’s Health Care Fascism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has to be remembered too though that in fact the majority of the message of the fascists of Europe was not one of hate, they too spoke primarily about unity and building a stronger nation.

.An early example was his bombardment of Corfu in 1923. Soon after he succeeded in setting up a puppet regime in Albania and forcibly ended a rebellion in Libya, which had been a colony (loosely) since 1912. It was his dream to make the Mediterranean mare nostrum ("our sea" in Latin).^ The power of the worker’s unions is restricted and trampled upon, repressive legislation set up, all with the aim of making the economy ‘more competitive’.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A fascist regime fostered by imperialism and local reaction was > set up to face the most advanced struggle of the proletariat for political > power > in our time.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "Wellll...we're on a bad road, and if we don't change course, we could end up there soon enough.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

Nazism (National Socialism, Germany)

Flag of the German Nazi Party
.The National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi Party) ruled Germany from 1933 until 1945. The party was originally formed as the German Workers' Party under the leadership of Anton Drexler, and espoused a combination of racialist völkisch nationalism and socialism that rejected the conditions imposed on Germany after World War I.^ The nazi party before it was called the nazi party was the German Workers National Socialist party.
  • Does America Face the Risk of a Fascist Backlash? | Corporate Accountability and WorkPlace | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ He happened to be in Germany under certain conditions.

^ He formed the Fascist Party after leaving, what else, the Socialist Party!
  • Think Progress » Glenn Beck: I was wrong. We’re not marching to socialism, we’re marching toward fascism. 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

.The party accused international capitalism of being Jewish-dominated, and denounced capitalists for war profiteering in World War I.^ In this book he accused Jews of being liars and thieves and blamed just about every bad thing in the world on "the Jews".

^ Unfettered capitalism is supported by both parties -- here in the United States, but also around the world.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ With the end of World War II American leadership immediately took a position hostile to Russia and other Communist Party countries.

[260] .To ease concerns among potential middle-class nationalist supporters, Drexler made clear that unlike Marxists, the party supported middle-class citizens, and that the party's socialist policy was meant to give social welfare to all German citizens who were deemed part of the Aryan race.^ That small faction of the Nazi party who actually believed that theirs was a socialist party were summarily killed in 1934 under the pretense that they were engaging in homosexual behavior.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At any point from this date the German military could have withdrawn its support of Hitler and disbanded the Nazi party .
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Was not the German Social-Democratic Party in a coalition government?
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

[260] .Drexler's insistence on the inclusion of the term "socialist" in the party's name had caused tension amongst members of the party including then-member Adolf Hitler, who preferred that the party be named the "Social Revolutionary Party", until Rudolf Jung persuaded him to support the name "National Socialist German Workers' Party".[261] Drexler was ousted from the leadership in 1921 by Hitler, who secured himself the position of undisputed and permanent leader of the party.^ The nazi party before it was called the nazi party was the German Workers National Socialist party.
  • Does America Face the Risk of a Fascist Backlash? | Corporate Accountability and WorkPlace | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Hitler preferred the term fascism.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For Pete's sake, Adolph Hitler's political movement was named, "The National Socialist German Workers Party".
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

.Hitler admired Benito Mussolini and the Italian Fascists, and after Mussolini's successful March on Rome in 1922, presented the Nazis as a German version of Italian Fascism.^ Benito Mussolini The creeping-fascism story .
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At any point from this date the German military could have withdrawn its support of Hitler and disbanded the Nazi party .
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There were major differences (racial identity wasn’t as critical in Italian fascism as in German Naziism, for example), but the three cross-pollinated ideas.
  • Liberal Fascism, performed 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

[262][263] Hitler endorsed Italian Fascism, saying that "with the victory of fascism in Italy the Italian people has triumphed [over] Jewry" and appraised Mussolini as "the brilliant statesman".[264] Joseph Goebbels, Hitler's chief propagandist, credited Italian Fascism with starting a conflict against liberal democracy, saying:
The march on Rome was a signal, a sign of storm for liberal-democracy. .It is the first attempt to destroy the world of the liberal-democratic spirit[...] which started in 1789 with the storm on the Bastille and conquered one country after another in violent revolutionary upheavals, to let...^ Permalink The "country first" mantra was designed to tell all that one's country needs to be put before one's party.

^ Democracy is all right for the rest of the world, but the Jew wherever he is found forms an aristocracy of one sort or another.

^ By the way, regarding one of your comments directed at me in #141 above, another attempt at gratuitous cruelty and yet another stellar example of your so-called ‘piety’ and ‘morality’…..
  • Pickled Politics » The ‘fascist’ in Israel 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.pickledpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

the nations go under in Marxism, democracy, anarchy and class warfare...[265]
Following the Italians' example, the Nazis attempted a "March on Berlin" to topple the Weimar Republic, which they characterised as "Marxist".[265]
.Days after Mussolini rose to power in October 1922, the major British national newspaper The Times referred to Hitler as Mussolini's promising pupil in Germany.^ Both Mussolini in Italy and Hitler in Germany were funded by and collaborated with propertied elite nationalists.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As time went on Nazi opposition to the role of private churches in Germany increased, however Hitler always maintained that he was still a Catholic.

^ Hitler recruited gays to be his brutal muscle as he rose to power, then created the SS to kill most of the gays that helped him to power.
  • Does America Face the Risk of a Fascist Backlash? | Corporate Accountability and WorkPlace | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[266] .A month after Mussolini had risen to power, amid claims by the Nazis that they were equivalent to the Italian fascists, Hitler's popularity in Germany began to grow, and large crowds began to attend Nazi rallies.^ Lawrence Britt examined the fascist regimes of Hitler (Germany), Mussolini (Italy), Franco (Spain), Suharto (Indonesia) and several Latin American regimes and found 14 defining characteristics common to each.
  • Does America Face the Risk of a Fascist Backlash? | Corporate Accountability and WorkPlace | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Though the fascist movements suffered defeat in World War II (thanks largely to FDR and America’s industrial might), the financier interests behind Hitler and Mussolini remain, and, as the current bailout travesty shows, they still hold enormous power.
  • Obama’s Health Care Fascism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both Mussolini in Italy and Hitler in Germany were funded by and collaborated with propertied elite nationalists.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

The newspaper Berlin Lokal-Anzeiger featured a front page article about Hitler, saying "There are a lot of people who believe him to be the German Mussolini".[262]
Adolf Hitler, German Nazi leader
.In private, Mussolini expressed dislike of Hitler and the Nazis, seeing them as mere imitators of Italian Fascism.^ For more on the Ukrainian famine and the role of the Hearst Press in creating the myth of a Ukrainian genocide see: Fraud, Famine and Fascism: The Ukrainian Genocide Myth from Hitler to Harvard .

^ What does the spread of the racism and chauvinism of the old Hitler and Mussolini style fascism means in these circumstances?
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Watson was awarded a medal by Adolph Hitler for his role in assisting in the Nazi regime, and Watson expressed, "the necessity of extending a sympathetic understanding to the German people, and their leader Adolph Hitler."

When Mussolini met with the Italian Consul in Munich prior to the Nazis' failed Beer Hall Putsch in 1923, he stated that the Nazis were "buffoons".[267]
.Hitler remained impressed by Mussolini and Fascist Italy for many years in spite of resentments towards Italy by other Nazis.^ Lawrence Britt examined the fascist regimes of Hitler (Germany), Mussolini (Italy), Franco (Spain), Suharto (Indonesia) and several Latin American regimes and found 14 defining characteristics common to each.
  • Does America Face the Risk of a Fascist Backlash? | Corporate Accountability and WorkPlace | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Both Mussolini in Italy and Hitler in Germany were funded by and collaborated with propertied elite nationalists.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There were still fascist sympathizers and there were still many Americans who felt that Communism was a bigger threat than the Nazis.

.During the period of positive outlook towards Fascist Italy, Hitler became an Italophile.^ Italy and Germany were being "made safe" by the fascists for American investment, and this is what was important in economic terms, especially during the Great Depression in America.

^ In Fascist Italy, they became rabidly anti-abortion.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: Obama a 'fascist'? - POLITICO.com 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ On the other hand, fascist Italy was not racist in nature until after Mussolini adopted Hitler's Jewish solution.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[268] .Hitler like Mussolini profoundly admired Ancient Rome, and repeatedly mentioned it in Mein Kampf as being a model for Germany.^ In the first part of Mein Kampf he argued that France was the sworn and greater enemy of Germany.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mein Kampf, Adolf Hitler, Houghton Mifflin, 1971, p 394.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hitler referred to Christianity throughout Mein Kampf, as already shown by quotes of which a few more will be included here.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[269] In particular, Hitler admired ancient Rome's authoritarian culture, imperialism, town planning, and architecture, which were incorporated by the Nazis.[270] Hitler considered the ancient Romans to have been a master race.[271] .In an unpublished sequel to Mein Kampf, Hitler declared that he held no antagonism towards Italy for having waged war against Germany and Austria-Hungary in World War I, saying that it was only in Italy became at war with Germany because of Germany's alliance with Austria Hungary which Italy had territorial claims on.^ In the first part of Mein Kampf he argued that France was the sworn and greater enemy of Germany.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mein Kampf, Adolf Hitler, Houghton Mifflin, 1971, p 394.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The western world is…a gateway from Hell!” or let’s say “Star Wars was a real government project in telekinesis that went wrong!” .
  • David Horowitz ‘Declares’ Islamo-Fascism Awareness Week for October 22-26 « Antiwar.com Blog 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

[272] .Hitler declared his sympathy to the Italians for desiring to regain Italian-populated lands held by Austria-Hungary, claiming it was naturally in Italians' national interest to wage war to regain those lands.^ Alas, the place-marker of a war on drugs—that created the largest national prison population on the planet—couldn’t create the pretext for bases in Southwest Asia, so the war on terror will have to do.
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Because the bourgeoisie wages imperialist wars for its predatory purposes, against the interests of the vast majority of the peoples, under whatever guise this war may be waged.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

[273]
.Hitler made controversial concessions to gain Fascist Italy's approval and alliance, such as abandoning territorial claims on the Tyrol region of Italy that had a dense population of hundreds of thousands of Germans.^ Fascist control might produce short-term gains for its favored constituencies, and the sense of organization it brings might benefit a highly disorganized or demoralized population, such as prewar Germany, for a while.
  • The Greenroom » Forum Archive » The Eff Word 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC hotair.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hundreds of books are being published in Germany with only one aim -- to falsify the history of the German people and give it a fascist complexion.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The history of the relationship between fascism and the Vatican is controversial one, but it cannot be denied that in both Germany and Italy the rise to power of the fascists was aided by the Catholic Church.

[274] .In Mein Kampf Hitler declared that it was not in Germany's interest to have war with Italy over South Tyrol.^ Both Mussolini in Italy and Hitler in Germany were funded by and collaborated with propertied elite nationalists.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the first part of Mein Kampf he argued that France was the sworn and greater enemy of Germany.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mein Kampf, Adolf Hitler, Houghton Mifflin, 1971, p 394.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[275]
.The Nazis gained political power in Germany's government through a democratic election in 1932.^ While the Nazi totalitarianism strove to give the masses a sense of collective power and strength, Kraft durch Freude ("Strength through joy"), inverted totalitarianism promotes a sense of weakness, of collective futility.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ This is the way in which the Social-Democrats, by disorganizing and splitting the ranks of the working class, cleared the path to power for fascism in Germany, Austria and Spain.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In short, the Nazis adopted the ruling elite in Germany and supported them, the exact opposite of what a left leaning political ideology would support.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany following the 1933 election, subsequently putting into place the Enabling Act of 1933, which effectively gave him the power of a dictator, except over the German Roman Catholic Church, which was under the Vatican.^ As time went on Nazi opposition to the role of private churches in Germany increased, however Hitler always maintained that he was still a Catholic.

^ "The Fhrer wanted to achieve the unification of the Protestant Evangelical Churches by appointing a Reich Bishop, so that there would be a high Protestant church dignitary as well as a high Catholic church dignitary."

^ For a good look at the crucial years in Germany, from WWI up to 1933, see Sabastian Haffner's book titled "Defying Hitler."
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

.The Nazis announced a national rebirth, in the form of the Third Reich, nicknamed the Thousand Year Empire, promoted as a successor to the Holy Roman Empire and the German Empire.^ The nazi party before it was called the nazi party was the German Workers National Socialist party.
  • Does America Face the Risk of a Fascist Backlash? | Corporate Accountability and WorkPlace | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ The Nazi regime engendered this type of feeling in a large segment of the German nation.

^ I'm sure there are many neo-Nazis who consider Riefenstahl's Triumph of the Will an accurate portrait of the Third Reich and its ideals.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 19 November 2009 19:35 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although the modern consensus sees Nazism as a type of generic fascism,[276] some scholars, including Gilbert Allardyce, Zeev Sternhell, Karl Dietrich Bracher and A.F.K. Organski, argue that Nazism is not fascism – either because it is different in character or because they believe fascism cannot be generically defined.^ They should really leave Marxism alone, although precisely because of > the laws of dialectics, we know they certainly will not.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Some writers and historians have argued that you cannot have fascism without corporatism, as the corporate power structure has much in common with fascism.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These would never have supported fascism if they had understood its real character and its true nature.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

[277][278][279] .Nazism differed from Italian fascism in that it had a stronger emphasis on race, religion, and ethnicity, especially exhibited as antisemitism.^ Interwoven with the master race theory of fascism is a well planned hate campaign against minority races, religions, and other groups.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It's nice to consider historical precedent but this is American fascism, not Italian fascism or German nazism.
  • t r u t h o u t | Is the US on the Brink of Fascism? 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

Roger Griffin, a leading exponent of the generic fascism theory, wrote:
.It might well be claimed that Nazism and Italian fascism were separate species within the same genus, without any implicit assumption that the two species ought to be well-nigh identical.^ Many fascists make the spurious claim that the world has but two choices---either fascism or communism and they label as communist everyone who refuses to support them.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobsbawm states it even more forcefully in claiming that without the October revolution and Leninism there would have been no need for fascism.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a convinced evolutionist, Wells could not conceive of fascism as a possible phenomenon within the logic of history.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Ernst Nolte has stated that the differences could be easily reconciled by employing a term such as 'radical fascism' for Nazism.^ States such as Spain under Franco and Chile under Pinochet were indeed fascist states, but they could hardly be described as having a policy of extreme nationalism.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fascism acquires militaristic aspects because a society organized for war is easier to control, and opponents of the State are more easily dismissed as traitors.
  • The Greenroom » Forum Archive » The Eff Word 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC hotair.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Its only when the summation of many such actions ends in a fascist state that such actions can be seen as a step towards fascism.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

... .The establishment of fundamental generic characteristics linking Nazism to movements in other parts of Europe allows further consideration on a comparative basis of the reasons why such movements were able to become a real political danger and gain power in Italy and Germany, whereas in other European countries they remained an unpleasant, but transitory irritant...^ We all know that fascism, the fruit of the imperialist > crisis of the years following the First World War, came to power within the big > imperialist countries of Italy, Germany and Japan, and also in Spain, Rumania, > Bulgaria, Finland, Poland and other European, Asian and African countries.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Unlike Italy and Germany however, the "threat of communism" was essentially nonexistent in America, whereas in Italy and Germany communists held significant political power, which was part of the reason why regimes there were much more extreme.

^ They inaugurated their foreign policy by withdrawing from the League of Nations > and openly preparing for a war for the forcible revision of the frontiers of > the > European states to the advantage of Germany.” .
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

[280]
Sternhell views Nazism as separate from fascism:
Fascism can in no way be identified with Nazism. .Undoubtedly the two ideologies, the two movements, and the two regimes had common characteristics.^ He found the regimes all had 14 things in common, and he calls these the identifying characteristics of fascism.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

.They often ran parallel to one another or overlapped, but they differed on one fundamental point: the criterion of German national socialism was biological determination.^ These international corporations have grown so large that very often their interests and the national interests within which they are supposedly contained do not coincide.

^ Dimitrov points out:”The development of fascism, and the fascist dictatorship itself, assume different forms in different countries, according to historical, social and economic conditions, and to the national peculiarities and the international position of the given country.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "He (Himmler) then singled out those nations which he regarded as belonging to the German family of nations and they were: the Germans, the Dutch, the Flemish, the Anglo-Saxons, the Scandinavians and the Baltic people.

.The basis of Nazism was a racism in its most extreme sense, and the fight against Jews, against 'inferior' races, played a more preponderant role in it than the struggle against communism.^ Indeed in people like Sid and some zionists minds some racisms are worse than others- they believe anti-semitism against Jews is worse than any other racism .
  • Pickled Politics » The ‘fascist’ in Israel 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.pickledpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ X2 often played the dominant role within the OSS, especially with the more important neutrals of Switzerland, Portugal and Spain.
  • Smedley Butler Stopped American Fascist Conspiracy to Overthrow FDR - Democratic Underground 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.democraticunderground.com [Source type: General]

^ A crisis in which, moreover, the Marxists reorganise, raise again their banners of struggle, and make a comeback equipped with greater experience and more proven solutions than before.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

[281]

Iron Guard (Romania)

Corneliu Zelea Codreanu
Symbol of the Iron Guard .
The Iron Guard was a fascist movement and political party in Romania from 1927 to 1941.[282] It was briefly in power from September 14, 1940 until January 21, 1941. It was founded by Corneliu Zelea Codreanu on 24 July 1927 as the "Legion of the Archangel Michael" (Legiunea Arhanghelului Mihail), and it was led by him until his death in 1938.
.Adherents to the movement continued to be widely referred to as "legionnaires" (sometimes "legionaries"; Romanian: legionari) and the organization as the "Legion" or the "Legionary Movement" (Mişcarea Legionară), despite various changes of the (intermittently banned) organization's name.^ In 1924 the American Legion (a conservative pro-nationalist organization) participated in having the words "my Flag" changed to "the Flag of the United States of America".

.It was strongly anti-Semitic, promoting the idea that "Rabbinical aggression against the Christian world" in "unexpected 'protean forms': Freemasonry, Freudianism, homosexuality, atheism, Marxism, Bolshevism, the civil war in Spain, and social democracy" were undermining society.^ Von Braun was in fact a member of the SS. The NASA program was started as an anti-communist program as part of the Cold War, and von Braun was a vocal promoter of America anti-communist action.

^ Another common theme in American World War II propaganda was that of describing the Nazis as anti-Christian or trying to destroy religion.

^ But as millions if not billions of dollars are spent policing the world for anti-Semitism, one would be hard pressed to not think that the penalty phase will eventually follow.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 19 November 2009 19:35 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: Original source]

[283]
The Iron Guard "inserted strong elements of Orthodox Christianity into its political doctrine to the point of becoming one of the rare modern European political movements with a religious ideological structure."[284]

Falangism (Spain)

Falangism was a form of fascism founded by José Antonio Primo de Rivera in 1934, emerging during the Second Spanish Republic.[285] Primo de Rivera was the son of Spain's former dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera. Following the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic Spain went from a kingdom into a republic dominated by left wing politicians almost overnight.
.Primo de Rivera, inspired by Mussolini, founded the Falange Española party, which merged a year later with the Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista party of Ramiro Ledesma and Onésimo Redondo.^ I discovered the Arizona Libertarian Party (www.AZLP.org) a few years later.
  • Powell Gammill -- Fascist Nation 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.freedomsphoenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mussolini appears to have been indeed a socialist before founding the fascist party.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[286] .The party and Primo de Rivera presented the Falange Manifesto in November 1934; it promoted nationalism, unity, glorification of the Spanish Empire and dedication to the national syndicalism economic policy, inspired by integralism in which there is class collaboration.^ Here their policy of class collaboration with the bourgeoisie found its practical culmination directly in the factories, to the detriment of the vital interests of the working class.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet it is the globalists themselves who promote policies that isolate our nation from the rest of the world.
  • Powell Gammill -- Fascist Nation 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.freedomsphoenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Schacht was later appointed to minister of economics in 1934, a post he retained until he resigned in 1937 over policy disputes.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

The manifesto supported agrarianism, to improve the standard of living for the peasants of the rural areas, anti-capitalism and anti-Marxism. .The Falange participated in the Spanish general election, 1936 with low results compared to the far-left Popular Front, but soon after increased in membership rapidly.^ But we must strengthen the Communist Parties in every way and increase their membership for the very reason that we seriously want to strengthen the united front.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

Flag of the FET and JONS parties.
Primo de Rivera was captured by Republicans on 6 July 1936 and held in captivity at Alicante. .The Spanish Civil War broke out on 17 July 1936 between the Republicans and the Nationalists, with the Falangistas fighting for Nationalist cause.^ I even mentioned the Civil War and the 1964 Civil Rights Act and you still make an ass out of yourself.
  • The Greenroom » Forum Archive » The Eff Word 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC hotair.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I see no qualitative difference between the lunatic war-mongering of the Republicans and Democrats and the suicidal activities of the homosexual network.
  • David Horowitz ‘Declares’ Islamo-Fascism Awareness Week for October 22-26 « Antiwar.com Blog 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After World War I was over 22 countries, including the United States, sent troops to Russia to fight on the side of the Czars in the Russian Civil War between the Reds (the Communists) and the Whites (the Czarists).

Despite his incarceration Primo de Rivera was a strong symbol of the cause, referred to as El Ausente, meaning "the Absent One". He was summarily executed on 20 November after a trial by socialists.[287]
General Francisco Franco, already the leader of the rebel Nationalists, took over the leadership of the Falangists. .Franco's focus was on victory in the war, and ensuring important flows of material from Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, so he was less ideological than his predecessor.^ Lawrence Britt examined the fascist regimes of Hitler (Germany), Mussolini (Italy), Franco (Spain), Suharto (Indonesia) and several Latin American regimes and found 14 defining characteristics common to each.
  • Does America Face the Risk of a Fascist Backlash? | Corporate Accountability and WorkPlace | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Take the "Labor Front" in Germany, or the fascist trade unions in Italy.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With this speech, the > illustrious prisoner of the People’s War in Peru snatched an ideological and > political victory from inside the cage of the tyrant Fujimori.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

[288]
.A merger between the Falange and the Carlists took place in 1937, creating the FET y de las JONS, a more traditionalist, conservative party than the original Falagnists, and one which is described by some "authentic" Falangists as a move away from the party's original fascist principles.^ Each one more ridiculous than the last.
  • Pickled Politics » The ‘fascist’ in Israel 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.pickledpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Is the U.S. more liberal, or more conservative, than it was in 1963?
  • David Horowitz ‘Declares’ Islamo-Fascism Awareness Week for October 22-26 « Antiwar.com Blog 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Do you see any difference between biblical verses written 3,000 years ago and the suicide murders that took place yesterday and the day before yesterday etc.?
  • David Horowitz ‘Declares’ Islamo-Fascism Awareness Week for October 22-26 « Antiwar.com Blog 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

[285][285][289] .Franco balanced several different interests of elements in his party, in an effort to keep them united, especially in regard to the question of monarchy.^ We must strive to establish the widest united front with the aid of joint action by workers' organizations of different trends for the defense of the vital interests of the laboring masses.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If we Communists exert every effort to establish a united front, we do this not for the narrow purpose of recruiting new members for the Communist Parties.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But this notwithstanding, we do not regard the existence of a Social-Democratic government or of a government coalition with bourgeois parties as an insurmountable obstacle to establishing a united front with the Social-Democrats on certain issues.
  • The Fascist Offensive and the Tasks of the Communist International in the Struggle of the Working Class against Fascism 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

[290]
Franco's traditionalist, conservative stance means the Francoist regime is not generally considered to be fascist, as it lacked any revolutionary, transformative aspect.[291][292][293][294][295] Stanley G. Payne, author of "Falange: a history of Spanish fascism", and supporter of minority revisionist historians who see the Spanish civil war as a result of leftist influences, wrote: "scarcely any of the serious historians and analysts of Franco consider the generalissimo to be a core fascist."[296] Those who fought in the civil war against Franco saw it as a fight against Fascism even if it meant as Roman Catholics going against the prevailing sentiments of their Church.[297]
.The ideas of Falangism were also exported, mainly to parts of the Hispanosphere, especially in South America.^ It was in contrast to these ideas that fascism began to develop in societies around the world, especially in America.

[298] .In some countries these movements were obscure, in others they had some impact.^ What would the working-class movement in Austria and Spain look like today if the working class of these countries were guided by the treacherous counsels of the Kautskys?
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of these people were simply businessmen doing business, but others were more involved.

^ On the one hand they swear loyalty to these while, on the other, they seek the opportunity for the coup de force – Berlusconi in Italy, for example.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

[298] .The Bolivian Socialist Falange under Óscar Únzaga provided significant competition to the ruling government during the 1950s until the 1970s.^ The actions of HUAC in strongly perusing members of the film industry played a significant role in shaping film industry content during the 1950s.

[299]
.In Peru, Catholic activist Luis Fernando Figari attempted to promote the ideals of Falangism, creating the youth Catholic association Sodalitium Christianae Vitae, in which, during the 70's, future members were educated in the official social doctrine of the Church as well in the Falangismo.^ The Catholic Church is itself the creation of the Roman State and has for all time been the strongest opponent of separation of Church and State.

Falangism was significant in Lebanon through the Kataeb Party and its founder Pierre Gemayel[300], fighting for national independence which was won in 1943.

Americas

Integralism (Brazil)

Integralist Flag
.Brazilian Integralism (Ação Integralista Brasileira) was a form of fascism founded by Plinio Salgado in Brazil in October 1932. It is considered by many historians as the best, and maybe one of the only adaptations of fascist ideals in Latin America.^ Opinions Fascist Nation 12-14-2008 December 15: America's Second Most Important Holiday Monday, December 15, is one of America's most important holidays.
  • Powell Gammill -- Fascist Nation 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.freedomsphoenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Congress pointed out that ‘in a more or less developed > form, fascist tendencies and the germs of a fascist movement are to be found > almost everywhere’.” .
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Reform, in post modern America, can only come from the right as proven by the fascist regimes of Reagan, Bush and the neo fascist Obama.
  • 5 Ways to Build a Fascist-Proof America | Rights and Liberties | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

From his magazine, Hierarquía directly inspired on “Gerarchia” from Italy, they persuade a great number of intellectuals to enter the group. .400,000 members were gained in the first two years alone, and by 1937 they were one of the most important parties in Latin America with around one million members.^ In 1932 alone they lost 2 million votes.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Even after gaining power, Hitler went to great pains in dividing power, playing one follower against another, creating rivalries in the party in the process.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If we stay in Iraq the bill to taxpayers could top one trillion dollars in another year or two.
  • Powell Gammill -- Fascist Nation 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.freedomsphoenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They took many ideals from fascism instead of the “Italianità” and “Romanità”, in Italy they took the "Brasilianidade". Their principles included Corporativism, Catholicism, and like other fascist movements exhbitied forms of an anti-capitalist, and anti-communist agenda .^ In Fascist Italy, they became rabidly anti-abortion.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: Obama a 'fascist'? - POLITICO.com 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ We also know that it is not true that the majority of the victims of fascism were simply defenceless Jews, as the Zionists make out – themselves a typically fascist and anti-communist movement which also collaborated with fascism in many instances, particularly in the very extermination of the Jewish population of Europe.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We also know that it is not true that the majority of the > victims of fascism were simply defenceless Jews, as the Zionists make out - > themselves a typically fascist and anti-communist movement which also > collaborated with fascism in many instances, particularly in the very > extermination of the Jewish population of Europe.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

.They also took up and formed armed squads, nicknamed Greenshirts.^ Secondly, they are also setting up military reforms to convert the armed forces of their states into forces principally geared to foreign intervention and occupation.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In a way, this article wants to find the traditional strong-arming tactics of the fascist state in the form of violent mobs, but that's not how they operate.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Secondly, they are also setting up military reforms to > convert the armed forces of their states into forces principally geared to > foreign intervention and occupation.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

Asia

Kai-tsu p'ai faction of the Kuomintang (China)

Flag of the Republic of China-Nanjing under the Kai-tsu p'ai.
.Wang Jingwei, a left-wing nationalist and anti-communist member of the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party of China), and in particular the left-wing nationalist Kai-tsu p'ai (Reorganization) faction, was originally hostile to fascism in Europe, but gradually drifted to be in favour of left-wing fascism, especially to the economic policies of Nazism in the late 1930s.^ It is accurate to call a member of a communist party a communist.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The current reactionary offensive, the current fascist > offensive of monopoly capital, of imperialism, is essentially an > anti-communist, > in particular anti-Marxist offensive.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Von Braun was in fact a member of the SS. The NASA program was started as an anti-communist program as part of the Cold War, and von Braun was a vocal promoter of America anti-communist action.

[301][302] .Wang Jingwei visited Germany in 1936, and changed his views towards fascism, speaking positively about European fascist states, saying that: "Several advanced countries have already expanded their national vitality and augmented their people's strength, and are no longer afraid of foreign aggression."^ America already is a fascist state, and has been for several decades.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ The United States of America is already a fascist state.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Dimitrov points out:”The development of fascism, and the fascist dictatorship itself, assume different forms in different countries, according to historical, social and economic conditions, and to the national peculiarities and the international position of the given country.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

[303] .Wang Jingwei became head of the Japanese client state the Republic of China-Nanjing during World War II.^ During the first world war materials were rationed, and sugar was one of those materials.

^ After World War II American society took on characteristics similar in fashion, though not as dramatic, to the European fascist societies.

^ Prior to World War II military contracts were made through sealed bids, but with the war the system changed to negotiated bids, which involved a more personal and subjective system for awarding bids, i.e.

Wang Jingwei receiving Nazi diplomats while head of state of China-Nanjing in 1941.
.Publicist T'iang Leang-Li of the People's Tribune newspaper associated with the Kai-tsu p'ai promoted the positive nature of fascism in Europe while attempting to distance Kai-tsu p'ai from overtly negative aspects of fascism and wrote in 1937: "Whatever we may think about fascist and Nazi methods and policies, we must recognize the fact that their leaders have secured the enthuisiastic support of their respective nations".[304] T'iang Leang-Li claimed that the "foolish, unwise, and even cruel things" done in the fascist states had been done in a positive manner to bring about "tremendous change in the political outlook of the German and Italian people".[305] T'iang Leang-Li wrote articles that positively assessed the "socialist" character of Nazism.^ Most fascist states will have an extreme nationalism policy.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What has to be remembered is that aside from all the bad things which we now associate with fascism, the fascists did develop some successful policies and they were popularly supported at the time.

^ All of this is exactly the same type of thing that took place in Fascist Europe, and just as in Europe these were changes that were not forced upon people by the State, but they were in fact supported by the people out of the increasingly conservative social climate.

.Similarly, Shih Shao-pei of the Kai-tsu p'ai rebuked Chinese critics of Nazism by saying "We in China [...] have heard too much about the 'national' and other flagwaving activities of the Nazis, and not enough about the 'socialist' work they are doing."^ On the other hand, their opportunist brethren who infest the fringes of the working class movement, praise and reclaim Dimitrov while they busy themselves in distorting him.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of this, the Europeans felt that Americans were doing too much boasting for the relatively small sacrifice that they contributed.

^ The Nazi used socialism as a ruse to gain power, but once in power they purged the socialists within their party.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[306] .Shih Shao-pei wrote about reports of improved working conditions in German factories, the vacations given to employees by Kraft durch Freude, improved employer-employee relations, and the provision of public service work camps for the unemployed.^ While the Nazi totalitarianism strove to give the masses a sense of collective power and strength, Kraft durch Freude ("Strength through joy"), inverted totalitarianism promotes a sense of weakness, of collective futility.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Ford cooperated with the American Protective League, an organization of about 250,000 members, who's members were stationed in factories and mingled with the public, profiling working men and women.

^ In a report from Paris, Casey wrote that Safehaven was a valuable field of endeavor, especially because of the potential for leverage with German financial circles, etc., in the future.
  • Smedley Butler Stopped American Fascist Conspiracy to Overthrow FDR - Democratic Underground 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.democraticunderground.com [Source type: General]

[307] Other works made by the People's Tribune spoke positively about Nazism, saying that it was bringing the "integration of the working classes...into the National Socialist state and the abolition of...the evil elements of modern capitalism".[308]

Para-fascism

.Some states and movements have certain characteristics of fascism, but scholars generally agree they are not fascist.^ Likewise, it was the rich industrialists that were behind the fascist movement in the United States during the 1930s.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Opinions Fascist Nation 6-25-2008 Supreme Court saved some kid's lives today The Supreme Court saved the lives of many raped children in the United States today.
  • Powell Gammill -- Fascist Nation 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.freedomsphoenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are dangerous close to imposing a fascist style economy on the United States.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

.Such putatively fascist groups are generally anti-liberal, anti-communist and use similar political or paramilitary methods to fascists, but lack fascism's revolutionary goal to create a new national character.^ The current reactionary offensive, the current fascist > offensive of monopoly capital, of imperialism, is essentially an > anti-communist, > in particular anti-Marxist offensive.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Right now our native fascists are spreading anti-British, anti-Soviet, anti-French and anti-United nations propaganda.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So, FDR created the economic tools of fascism, but it was not until the 1950s that America would actually become a truly fascist country in both the economic and social sense.

[309] .Para-fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian regimes with aspects that differentiate them from true fascist states or movements.^ The term before the war that proponents used to describe its outcome was ” cakewalk ."
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Anyone using the term – Islamo-Fascism – should be ignored outright.
  • David Horowitz ‘Declares’ Islamo-Fascism Awareness Week for October 22-26 « Antiwar.com Blog 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ States such as Spain under Franco and Chile under Pinochet were indeed fascist states, but they could hardly be described as having a policy of extreme nationalism.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[310]
Para-fascists typically eschewed radical change and some viewed genuine fascists as a threat.[311] .Para-fascist states were often the home of genuine fascist movements, which were sometimes suppressed or co-opted, sometimes collaborated with.^ Likewise, it was the rich industrialists that were behind the fascist movement in the United States during the 1930s.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Catholic Church has been the world wide leader in movements to restore the role of the Church within the State, which has often been advocated under the banner of fighting communism.

^ In the United States native fascists have often been anti-Catholic, anti-Jew, anti-Negro, anti-Labor and anti-foreign born.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[309]

Fatherland Front (Austria)

Flag of the Fatherland Front of Austria.
."Austrofascism" is a controversial category encompassing various para-fascist and semi-fascist movements in Austria in the 1930s.^ Likewise, it was the rich industrialists that were behind the fascist movement in the United States during the 1930s.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[312] In particular it refers to the Fatherland Front, which became Austria's sole legal political party in 1934.
.The Fatherland Front like fascism promoted corporatism but unlike fascism it did not promote it along secular and totalitarian grounds.^ Then you've got the nuclear power concerns, who like the idea of centralized power sources to go along with their centralized totalitarian government.
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ In defining fascism, three traits stand above all others, totalitarian, nationalism, and extreme corporatism.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With this very brief review of philosophy has shown that the fascist traits of nationalism, totalitarian, racist, violence, unbridled corporatism, reactionary, and the top down nature of fascism all are grounded in the works of past philosophers.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[313] .Dollfuß rejected the secular totalitarian state and instead promoted Christian corporatism based on Pope Pius XI's encyclical Quadragesimo Anno (1931).^ In a 1937 Encyclical Letter titled On Atheistic Communism, issued from Rome Italy, Pope Pius XI stated: .

[313] The Fatherland Front's corporatism and Austrian corporatism in general was based on the state corporatist theory of Austrian conservative Othmar Spann.[314]
.They were similar in that both served to attack the idea of a class struggle, accusing the left of destroying individuality.^ Nevertheless, such otherwise useless attacks have an unexpected positive aspect: they serve to instruct by negative example.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Nevertheless, such > otherwise useless attacks have an unexpected positive aspect: they serve to > instruct by negative example.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They foster ‘pacifist’ ideology in > order to negate the class struggle and its most acute expression.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

The leader of the Fatherland Front, Engelbert Dollfuß, claimed he wanted to "out-Hitler" (überhitlern) Nazism.
.Unlike the ethnic nationalism promoted by Italian Fascists and Nazis, the Fatherland Front focused entirely on cultural nationalism such as Austrian identity and distinction from Germany, extolling Austria's ties to the Roman Catholic Church.^ The American government began strongly promoting religion as part of an overall strategy to distance American culture from Soviet culture, which was the same thing that the Fascists did as well.

^ The fascists promised to promote the interests of the Church if they were able to get into power.

^ This is a description of syndicalism; it was the economic model of fascist Italy and Nazi Germany to a large extent.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

.The notion of the Fatherland Front being fascist is usually based on the regime's support for and ideological similarities with of Fascist Italy, but its intensely conservative nationalism is often distinguished from revolutionary fascism.^ Opinions Fascist Nation April 30, 2008 Ron Paul Supporters Continue the R3VOLution Ron Paul?
  • Powell Gammill -- Fascist Nation 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.freedomsphoenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italy and Germany were being "made safe" by the fascists for American investment, and this is what was important in economic terms, especially during the Great Depression in America.

^ "Certain American industrialists had a great deal to do with bringing fascist regimes into being in both Germany and Italy.

Estado Novo (Portugal)

Antonio de Oliveira Salazar, Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968.
.The Estado Novo ("New State") regime in Portugal from 1933 to 1974 has been described as having close similarities to fascism as well as significant differences.^ He stated a new form of contemporary fascism would not follow the path of the classical fascisms of the 1930s - 40s.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ States such as Spain under Franco and Chile under Pinochet were indeed fascist states, but they could hardly be described as having a policy of extreme nationalism.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "A clique of U.S. industrialists is hell-bent to bring a fascist state to supplant our democratic government and is working closely with the fascist regime in Germany and Italy.

.Antonio de Oliveira Salazar rose to power in Portugal as Prime Minister in an army coup in 1932. Salazar created an authoritarian conservative nationalist regime that gave him complete control of government affairs and instituted a police state.^ "The increasing power of the state and the declining power of institutions intended to control it has been in the making for some time.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ That enormous step was they created all of the legislation required to impose a fascist military/police state the moment they think a fascist military/police state is required to secure the economic and political power of the pro-fascist capitalist power structure.
  • Does America Face the Risk of a Fascist Backlash? | Corporate Accountability and WorkPlace | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Hitler recruited gays to be his brutal muscle as he rose to power, then created the SS to kill most of the gays that helped him to power.
  • Does America Face the Risk of a Fascist Backlash? | Corporate Accountability and WorkPlace | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[315] .Also, like fascism, Salazar instituted economic corporatism and substantial state control over the economy.^ "The increasing power of the state and the declining power of institutions intended to control it has been in the making for some time.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ We have fascism already in the United States because of corporate control.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ The European fascist autocracies were paired to a state-controlled economy."
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

[316] .Salazar like fascist leaders, denounced democracy as detrimental to nations.^ Identifying and rejecting fascist, abusive leaders would be a natural response, if families in this Nation would have raised their children with respect, dignity, equality and justice.
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Opinions Fascist Nation December 16, 2009 DPS denounces more photo enforcement camera vandalism More photo enforcement camera vandalism from terrorists unworthy to be allowed to live.
  • Powell Gammill -- Fascist Nation 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.freedomsphoenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Detrimental European childrearing practices paved the way for fear and abuse based masses to support their totalitarian, fascist leaders.
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[317] .While Salazar promoted nationalism, he personally made disctinction between his regime's nationalism and fascism's aggressive nationalism, saying in 1934, "Portugal has no need of wars, usurptions, or conquests".[318] Salazar described his regime's nationalism as "sane and non-aggressive".[319] In 1936, Salazar denounced the totalitarianism of fascism, Nazism, and communism.^ Gee, I thought fascism was an unholy alliance between corporations and one-party totalitarian government.
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Understanding the implications of sugar rationing Ben Oehlert, a Washington lobbyist for Coca-Cola, promoted the need to secure a government contract during war time.

^ Prior to World War II military contracts were made through sealed bids, but with the war the system changed to negotiated bids, which involved a more personal and subjective system for awarding bids, i.e.

[320] Salazar in particular criticized the "pagan" nature of Italian Fascism, claiming that it "recognizes no moral or legal order".[321]

Metaxas' 4th of August Regime (Greece)

Labyris, the ancient Greek double-axe that was the symbol of Greece under Metaxas' rule
Ioannis Metaxas, Prime Minister of Greece from 1936 to 1941.
.Greece from 1936 to 1941 was a constitutional monarchy with the government in control of general Ioannis Metaxas as a dictator who created an authoritarian state based on fascism, Francisco Franco's regime in Spain, and Salazar's regime in Portugal.^ We have fascism already in the United States because of corporate control.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Modern Example: David Horowitz who promotes a state-controlled fascist educational system - in his own words .
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Far from being an act of fascism, McVeigh's action can be constituted as a popular strike against a growing fascist government.
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

Metaxas promoted Greek nationalism, promoting a restoration of Hellenic civilization. .The Metaxas regime used a fasces-like symbol for the regime, the Labrys, an ancient Greek double-axe.^ Powerful and Continuing Nationalism -- Fascist regimes tend to make constant use of patriotic mottos, slogans, symbols, songs, and other paraphernalia.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

.Under Metaxas, Greek officials adopted the straight-armed salute.^ When the pledge was officially adopted the old salute was dropped, because it resembled the fascist salute, and was replaced with the new method of reciting the pledge with the hand over the heart.

.Unlike fascism, Metaxas' government did not have a political party in control of the state.^ We have fascism already in the United States because of corporate control.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Gee, I thought fascism was an unholy alliance between corporations and one-party totalitarian government.
  • American Fascism Is on the Rise | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Fascism and Communism are the political control systems, but control of our minds is the real game.
  • 5 Ways to Build a Fascist-Proof America | Rights and Liberties | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

.Metaxas' regime's relation with fascist states disintegrated in 1940 to 1941 with the invasion of Greece by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany which toppled the regime.^ Lawrence Britt examined the fascist regimes of Hitler (Germany), Mussolini (Italy), Franco (Spain), Suharto (Indonesia) and several Latin American regimes and found 14 defining characteristics common to each.
  • Does America Face the Risk of a Fascist Backlash? | Corporate Accountability and WorkPlace | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ While FDR was busy bringing American capitalism under the control of the State, many American capitalists began looking to blatantly Fascist Italy and Germany, who were engaged in a large amount of spending, as favorable regions to expand their capitalist empires.

^ Italy and Germany were being "made safe" by the fascists for American investment, and this is what was important in economic terms, especially during the Great Depression in America.

Imperial Rule Assistance Association (Japan)

.The Imperial Rule Assistance Association (Taisei Yokusankai) was a coalition of fascist and nationalist political movements of Japan such as the Imperial Way Faction (Kōdōha) and the Society of the East (Tōhōkai).^ A fascist regime fostered by imperialism and local reaction was set up to face the most advanced struggle of the proletariat for political power in our time.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A political philosophy or movement based on or advocating such a system of government.
  • Ben Smith's Blog: Obama a 'fascist'? - POLITICO.com 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ In a 1998 paper published in The Journal of Modern History , Paxton argued that the best way to recognize emerging fascist movements isn't by their rhetoric, their politics, or their aesthetics.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

.It was formed under the guidance of Japanese Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe who was seeking to unify competing Japanese fascist and nationalist groups to reduce political friction and strengthen relations with the fascist regimes in Germany and Italy.^ Lawrence Britt examined the fascist regimes of Hitler (Germany), Mussolini (Italy), Franco (Spain), Suharto (Indonesia) and several Latin American regimes and found 14 defining characteristics common to each.
  • Does America Face the Risk of a Fascist Backlash? | Corporate Accountability and WorkPlace | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ A fascist regime fostered by imperialism and local reaction was set up to face the most advanced struggle of the proletariat for political power in our time.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Having elevated violence > and > armed force to the position of prime arbiters of inter-bourgeois > contradictions, > the fascist regimes are compelled to fight with violence and armed force even > against other fascist groups who likewise use violence with the aim of > displacing them and substituting them at the helm of the state.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

[322][323] .Prior to creation of the IRAA, Konoe had already effectively nationalized strategic industries, the news media, and labour unions, in preparation for total war with China.^ As a nation, we was one of the last industrial nations to allow slavery, and it took the Civil War to end slavery.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus the iron curtain, the re-establishment of the pre-war > imperialist encirclement against the Soviet Union, now extended against the > totality of the emerging socialist camp.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The same contenders of the First and Second World Wars are generating and preparing the Third new World War.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Konoe's successor, Hideki Tōjō entrenched the IRAA as the country's ruling political movement, and attempted to establish himself as the absolute leader, or Shogun, of Japan.^ The ruling classes fight with every means at their disposal, economic, political and ideological as well as military, in a hopeless attempt to put the genie back into the bottle.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The ruling classes fight with every means at their disposal, > economic, political and ideological as well as military, in a hopeless attempt > to put the genie back into the bottle.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In other countries, where the ruling bourgeoisie fears an early outbreak of revolution, fascism establishes its unrestricted political monopoly, either immediately or by intensifying its reign of terror against and persecution of all competing parties and groups.
  • Marxism International » Fascism, Old and New 27 January 2010 23:52 UTC blogs.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In contrast to European fascism, though, the cult of personality for the movement focused not on the head of government, but on the Emperor of Japan.^ The real appeal of European fascism was the protection it afforded against working class movements, socialism, and communism.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

[322][323]
The IRAA created Tonarigumi (Neighbourhood Association) and youth organisations, in which participation was mandatory. .After the 1942 general election, all members of the Japanese parliament were forced to become members of the IRAA, making Japan a single-party state.^ If the party members (who gained power through street thuggery) win, an authoritarian police state may well follow.
  • Fascist America: Are We There Yet? | CommonDreams.org 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ This single action by the House Republicans invoked criticism from even members of their own party in the Senate.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are honorable members of the party, but they are being forced into lesser and lesser roles.
  • What Fascism IS and Isn't 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC www.spiritone.com [Source type: Original source]

The IRAA government promoted Japanese expansionism and imperialism, declaring that Japan would form and lead a "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere".[324]

References

Notes

  1. ^ Girvin, Brian. The Right in the Twentieth Century. Pinter, 1994. p. 83. Describes fascism as an "anti-liberal radical authoritarian nationalist movement".
  2. ^ Turner, Henry Ashby. Reappraisals of Fascism. New Viewpoints, 1975. p. 162. States fascism's "goals of radical and authoritarian nationalism".
  3. ^ Payne, Stanley. Fascism in Spain, 1923-1977. University of Wisconsin Press, 1992. p. 43. Payne describes Spanish fascist José Antonio Primo de Rivera's objectives, saying "Young José Antonio's primary political passion was and would long remain the vindication of his father's work, which he was now trying to conceptualize in a radical, authoritarian nationalist form."
  4. ^ Larsen, Stein Ugelvik; Hagtvet, Bernt; Myklebust, Jan Petter. Who were the Fascists: social roots of European Fascism. p. 424. This reference calls fascism an "organized form of integrative radical nationalist authoritarianism"
  5. ^ Wiarda, Howard J. Corporatism and comparative politics. M.E. Sharpe, 1996. p. 12.
  6. ^ E.G. Noel O'Sullivan's five major themes of fascism are: corporatism, revolution, the leader principle, messianic faith, and autarky. The Fascism Reader by Aristotle A. Kallis says, "1. Corporatism. The most important claim made by fascism was that it alone could offer the creative prospect of a 'third way' between capitalism and socialism. Adolf Hitler, in Mein Kampf, spoke enthusiastically about the 'National Socialist corporative idea' as one which would eventually 'take the place of ruinous class warfare'; whilst Benito Mussolini, in typically extravagant fashion, declared that 'the Corporative System is destined to become the civilization of the twentieth century.'"
  7. ^ Lyons, Matthew N.. "What is Fascism? Some General Ideological Features". PublicEye.org. Political Research Associates. http://www.publiceye.org/eyes/whatfasc.html. Retrieved 2009-10-27. 
  8. ^ a b Griffin, Roger: "The Palingenetic Core of Fascism", Che cos'è il fascismo? Interpretazioni e prospettive di ricerche, Ideazione editrice, Rome, 2003 AH.Brookes.ac.uk
  9. ^ a b Stackleberg, Rodney: Hitler's Germany, Routeledge, 1999, p 3
  10. ^ a b Eatwell, Roger: "A 'Spectral-Syncretic Approach to Fascism', The Fascism Reader, Routledge, 2003 pp 71–80 Books.google.com
  11. ^ a b Lipset, Seymour: "Fascism as Extremism of the Middle Class", The Fascism Reader, Routledge, 2003, pp 112–116
  12. ^ Benito Mussolini's Doctrine of Fascism regards fascism as right-wing and collectivist, but it also declares that fascism is sympathetic to ameliorating the conditions that brought about the rise of left-wing political movements, such as class conflict socialism and liberal democracy, while simultaneously opposing the egalitarianism associated with the left. ".We are free to believe that this is the century of authority, a century tending to the 'right', a Fascist century.^ It is to be expected that this century may be that of authority, a century of the "Right," a Fascist century.
    • Mussolini, "Doctrine of Fascism" (1932) 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.historyguide.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mussolini: The Doctrine of Fascism 24 January 2010 22:55 UTC library.flawlesslogic.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We are free to believe that this is the century of authority, a century tending to the " right ", a Fascist century.
    • Mussolini  - THE DOCTRINE OF FASCISM 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.worldfuturefund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We are free to believe that this is the century of authority, a century tending to the 'right', a Fascist century.

    " ... "We are free to believe that this is the 'collective' century, and thus the century of the state. It is eminently reasonable for a new doctrine to make use of still-vital elements from other doctrines," ... " "Fascism is totalitarian, and the Fascist State—a synthesis and a unit inclusive of all values—interprets, develops, and potentiates the whole life of a people." (p. 14) "The Fascist negation of socialism, democracy, liberalism, should not, however, be interpreted as implying a desire to drive the world backwards to positions occupied prior to 1789, a year commonly referred to as that which opened the demo-liberal century. History does not travel backwards. The Fascist doctrine has not taken De Maistre as its prophet. Monarchical absolutism is of the past, and so is ecclesiolatry. Dead and done for are feudal privileges and the division of society into closed, uncommunicating castes. Neither has the Fascist conception of authority anything in common with that of a police ridden State." ... "Fascism is therefore opposed to Socialism to which unity within the State (which amalgamates classes into a single economic and ethical reality) is unknown, and which sees in history nothing but the class struggle. Fascism is likewise opposed to trade unionism as a class weapon. But when brought within the orbit of the State, Fascism recognises the real needs which gave rise to socialism and trade-unionism, giving them due weight in the guild or corporative system in which divergent interests are coordinated and harmonised in the unity of the State." (p.15) "In rejecting democracy Fascism rejects the absurd conventional lie of political equalitarianism, the habit of collective irresponsibility, the myth of felicity and indefinite progress." ... "Fascism denies that numbers, as such, can be the determining factor in human society; it denies the right of numbers to govern by means of periodical consultations; it asserts the irremediable and fertile and beneficent inequality of men who cannot be leveled by any such mechanical and extrinsic device as universal suffrage." Doctrine of Fascism.
  13. ^ Sternhell, Zeev; Sznajder, Mario; Ashéri, Maia; Massel, David (translation). The birth of fascist ideology: from cultural rebellion to political revolution. Princeton, New Jersey, USA: Princeton University Press: 1994. pp. 190-193.
  14. ^ Payne, Stanley G. A history of fascism, 1914-1945. Oxon: The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconson System, 2005 (digital edition). p. 112.
  15. ^ a b Grčić, Joseph. Ethics and political theory. Lanham, Maryland, USA: University of America, Inc, 2000. p. 120
  16. ^ Griffin, Roger (ed.); Feldman, Matthew (ed.). Fascism: Fascism and culture. London, UK; New York, USA: Routledge, 2004. p. 185.
  17. ^ Mussolini, Benito. 1935. Fascism: Doctrine and Institutions. Rome: Ardita Publishers. p 14. "The Fascist conception of the State is all-embracing; outside of it no human or spiritual values can exist, much less have value. .Thus understood, Fascism is totalitarian, and the Fascist State—a synthesis and a unit inclusive of all values—interprets, develops, and potentiates the whole life of a people."^ Permalink Not all totalitarianism is fascist.

    ^ Fact: The United States has the lowest taxes of all developed nations.
    • Ben Smith's Blog: Obama a 'fascist'? - POLITICO.com 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Thus understood, Fascism, is totalitarian, and the Fascist State - a synthesis and a unit inclusive of all values - interprets, develops, and potentates the whole life of a people....

  18. ^ Griffen, Roger (ed). 1995. "The Legal Basis of the Total State" – by Carl Schmitt. Fascism. .New York: Oxford University Press.^ Claudia Koonz, Mothers in the Fatherland : Women, the Family and Nazi Politics, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987, 556 pp.

    ^ I.F. Stone, The Hidden History of the Korean War , New York & London, Monthly Review Press, 1952, 368 pp.

    ^ Herbert Hensley Henson, The Bishop of Durham Quoted in The Group Movement , 2nd Ed., Oxford University Press, p.
    • Religious Roots: What is Fascism? How fascist was Frank Buchman? 9 January 2010 16:016 UTC www.orange-papers.org [Source type: Original source]

    p. 72."Nazi political theorist Carl Schmitt described the Nazi intention to form a "strong state which guarantees a totality of political unity transcending all diversity" in order to avoid a "disasterous pluralism tearing the German people apart."
  19. ^ De Grand, Alexander. Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany: the "fascist" style of rule. Routledge, 2004. p. 28.
  20. ^ Kent, Allen; Lancour, Harold; Nasri, William Z. Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science: Volume 62 - Supplement 25 - Automated Discourse Generation to the User-Centered Revolution: 1970-1995. CRC Press, 1998. ISBN 0824720628, 9780824720629. p. 69.
  21. ^ a b c "Pax Romanizing". TIME Magazine, 31 December 1934. The Fascist International declared their opposition to the seeking of autonomy and cultural distinction of Jewish groups in Europe, claiming that such attempts were dangerous and an affront to national unity.
  22. ^ Peter Davies, Derek Lynch. The Routledge Companion to Fascism and the Far Right. Routledge, 2002. p. 146
  23. ^ Heywood, Andrew. Key Concepts in Politics. Palgrave Macmillan, 2000. p. 78
  24. ^ Griffin, Roger. The Nature of Fascism. New York, New York, USA: St. Martins Press, 1991. pp. 222-223.
  25. ^ a b Welch, David. Modern European History, 1871-2000. p. 57. Books.Google.com (Speaks of fascism opposing capitalism for creating class conflict and communism for exploiting class conflict).
  26. ^ Walter Laqueur, Walter. Fascism: A Readers' Guide : Analysis, Interpretations, Bibliography. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, USA: University of California Press, 1976 (first edition, 1978 (paperback edition). p. 338.
  27. ^ Gregor, Anthony James. Mussolini's intellectuals: fascist social and political thought. Princeton University Press, 2004. p. 172.
  28. ^ Gregor. Mussolini's Intellectuals: Fascist Social and Political Thought, Princeton University Press, 2005 ISBN 0691120099 282 p. 4
  29. ^ George Orwell, What is Fascism? http://www.orwell.ru/library/articles/As_I_Please/english/efasc
  30. ^ New World, Websters (2005). Webster's II New College Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Reference Books. ISBN 0618396012. 
  31. ^ Payne, Stanley (1995). A History of Fascism, 1914-45. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0299148742. 
  32. ^ Doordan, Dennis P (1995). In the Shadow of the Fasces: Political Design in Fascist Italy. The MIT Press. ISBN 0299148742. 
  33. ^ Parkins, Wendy (2002). Fashioning the Body Politic: Dress, Gender, Citizenship. Berg Publishers. ISBN 1859735878. 
  34. ^ Gregor, A. James (2002). Phoenix: Fascism in Our Time. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 0765808552. 
  35. ^ a b Payne, Stanley G (1983). Fascism, Comparison and Definition. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0299080641. 
  36. ^ a b Griffiths, Richard. An Intelligent Person's Guide to Fascism. Duckworth. 
  37. ^ Roger Griffin, The palingenetic core of generic fascist ideology, Chapter published in Alessandro Campi (ed.), Che cos'è il fascismo? Interpretazioni e prospettive di ricerche, Ideazione editrice, Roma, 2003, pp. 97–122.
  38. ^ a b Paxton, Robert. The Anatomy of Fascism. Vintage Books. 
  39. ^ Eatwell, Roger: "A Spectral-Syncretic Approach to Fascism", The Fascism Reader, Routledge, 2003, p 79. Books.Google.com
  40. ^ Turner, Stephen P., Käsler, Dirk: Sociology Responds to Fascism, Routledge. 2004, p 222
  41. ^ Weber, Eugen. Varieties of Fascism: Doctrines of Revolution in the Twentieth Century, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, [1964] 1982. p. 8.
  42. ^ Renton, David. Fascism: Theory and Practice, London: Pluto Press, 1999.
  43. ^ Jenkins, Brian (ed). France in the Era of Fascis’, Oxford: Beghahan Books, 2005, p 66.
  44. ^ Stackleberg, Roderick: Hitler's Germany, London: Routeledge, 1999, p 17
  45. ^ Stanley G. Payne, Fascism: Comparison and Definition. University of Wisconsin Press, 1983, p3.
  46. ^ Roger Griffin, Interregnum or Endgame?: Radical Right Thought in the ‘Post-fascist’ Era, The Journal of Political Ideologies, vol. 5, no. 2, July 2000, pp. 163–78
  47. ^ ‘Non Angeli, sed Angli: the neo-populist foreign policy of the "New" BNP', in Christina Liang (ed.) Europe for the Europeans: the foreign and security policy of the populist radical right (Ashgate, Hampshire, 2007) ISBN 0754648516
  48. ^ Laqueur, Walter. ‘’Fascism Past, Present and Future’’, Oxford, OUP, 1997
  49. ^ Stanley G. Payne, Fascism: Comparison and Definition. University of Wisconsin Press. 1983. ISBN 9780299080648. p. 8 an 104
  50. ^ Books.google.com
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  52. ^ Lipset, Seymour. ‘’Political Man’’, New York, Anchor Books, 1960, p 141
  53. ^ Griffin, Roger. ‘’The Nature of Fascism’’, London, Routeledge, 1991
  54. ^ a b Griffin, Roger (1991). The Nature of Fascism. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0312071329. 
  55. ^ Counts, George Sylvester (1970). Bolshevism, Fascism, and Capitalism: An Account of the Three Economic Systems. Ayer Publishing. ISBN 0836918665. 
  56. ^ Gregor, A. James (2004). Giovanni Gentile: Philosopher Of Fascism. Transaction Pub. ISBN 0765805936. 
  57. ^ Falasca-Zamponi, Simonetta. Fascist Spectacle: The Aesthetics of Power in Mussolini's Italy. University of California Press, 2000. Pp. 136.
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  61. ^ Mussolini, Benito; Schnapp, Jeffery Thompson (ed.); Sears, Olivia E. (ed.); Stampino, Maria G. (ed.). "Address to the National Corporative Council (14 November 1933) and Senate Speech on the Bill Establishing the Corporations (abridged; 13 January 1934)". A Primer of Italian Fascism. University of Nebraska Press, 2000. Pp. 158–159.
  62. ^ Books.Google.com "a final indicator of the amibiguity between left and right extremes is that many militants switch sides, including the very founder of fascism, Benito Mussolini" Terrorism today, Christopher C. Harmon, Routledge, 2000 ISBN 0714649988, 9780714649986 316 pages
  63. ^ Neocleous, Mark. Fascism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997. Pp. 58.
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  65. ^ Books.Google.com Key concepts in politics, Andrew Heywood, Palgrave Macmillan, 2000 ISBN 0312233817, 9780312233815 281 pages page 28 "various horseshoe shaped and two dimensional spectrums have been developed to offer a more complete picture of ideological positions"
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    ^ London: Oxford University Press, 1983.
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    ^ London: Oxford University Press, 1970.
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  112. ^ Passmore, Kevin (2002). Fascism: A Very Short Introduction. .Oxford University Press.^ London: Oxford University Press.
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    ^ London: Oxford University Press, 1983.
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    ^ London: Oxford University Press, 1970.
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    ISBN 0192801554. http://books.google.com/books?id=EQG0AAAACAAJ&dq=A+Very.
     
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  114. ^ Griffen, Roger (ed). Fascism. Oxford University Press, 1995. ISBN0192892495. p. 183.
  115. ^ "Goebbels on National-Socialism, Bolshevism and Democracy, Documents on International Affairs, vol. II, 1938, pp. 17–19. Accessed from the Jewish Virtual Library on February 5, 2009. JewishVirtualLibrary.org Joseph Goebbels describes the Nazis as being allied with countries which had "authoritarian nationalist" ideology and conception of the state.
  116. ^ Griffen, Roger (ed). Fascism. Oxford University Press, 1995. ISBN0192892495. p. 236.
  117. ^ Fordham.edu
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  120. ^ Bollas, Christopher. 1993. Being a Character: Psychoanalysis and Self-Experience. Routledge. ISBN 0415088151, 9780415088152. p. 205. Books.Google.com Speaks of Italian Fascism supporting war and opposing pacifism.
  121. ^ Mussolini, Benito. 1935. Fascism: Doctrine and Institutions. Rome: Ardita Publishers. p 14.
  122. ^ Linz, Juan José. 2000. Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes: with a major new introduction. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 7. Books.google.com
  123. ^ Griffen, Roger (ed). 1995. "The Legal Basis of the Total State" – by Carl Schmitt. Fascism. .New York: Oxford University Press.^ Claudia Koonz, Mothers in the Fatherland : Women, the Family and Nazi Politics, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987, 556 pp.

    ^ I.F. Stone, The Hidden History of the Korean War , New York & London, Monthly Review Press, 1952, 368 pp.

    ^ Herbert Hensley Henson, The Bishop of Durham Quoted in The Group Movement , 2nd Ed., Oxford University Press, p.
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  124. ^ Griffen, Roger (ed). 1995. "The Need for a Totalitarian Japan" – by Nakano Seigo. Fascism. .New York: Oxford University Press.^ Claudia Koonz, Mothers in the Fatherland : Women, the Family and Nazi Politics, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987, 556 pp.

    ^ I.F. Stone, The Hidden History of the Korean War , New York & London, Monthly Review Press, 1952, 368 pp.

    ^ Herbert Hensley Henson, The Bishop of Durham Quoted in The Group Movement , 2nd Ed., Oxford University Press, p.
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  126. ^ a b Hawkins, Mike. Social Darwinism in European and American Thought, 1860-1945: Nature as Model and Nature as Threat. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. p. 285.
  127. ^ Hawkins, Mike. Social Darwinism in European and American Thought, 1860-1945: Nature as Model and Nature as Threat. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. pp. 282, 284.
  128. ^ Hunt, Lynn, Thomas R. Martin, Barbara H. Rosenwein, R. Po-chia Hsia, and Bonnie G. Smith. The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures. 2nd ed. Vol. C. Boston: Bedford St. Martins, 2005. p. 1064.
  129. ^ Rimlinger, G.V. ‘’Social Policy Under German Fascism’’ in Stagnation and Renewal in Social Policy: The Rise and Fall of Policy Regimes by Martin Rein, Gosta Esping-Andersen, and Lee Rainwater, p. 61, M.E. Sharpe, 1987.
  130. ^ Gentile, Emilio. The Struggle for Modernity: Nationalism, Futurism, and Fascism. p. 86. Books.Google.com
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  135. ^ Griffin, Roger and Matthew Feldma Fascism: Critical Concepts in Political Science, 2004 Taylor and Francis
  136. ^ Evans, pg. 299
  137. ^ Domarus, Hitler II. 251–252
  138. ^ De Grazia, Victoria. 2002. How Fascism Ruled Women: Italy, 1922-1945. University of California Press. p. 55.
  139. ^ Henry Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution (Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of Northern Carolina Press, 1995): 30.
  140. ^ McLaren, Angus, Twentieth-Century Sexuality, p. 139 Blackwell Publishing 1999
  141. ^ McLaren, Angus, Twentieth-Century Sexuality p. 139 Blackwell Publishing 1999
  142. ^ Friedlander, Henry (1995). The origins of Nazi genocide: from euthanasia to the final solution. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press. p. 30. ISBN 0-8078-4675-9. OCLC 60191622. 
  143. ^ Proctor, Robert E. (1989). Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 366. ISBN 0-674-74578-7. OCLC 20760638. "This emendation allowed abortion only if the woman granted permission, and only if the fetus was not old enough to survive outside the womb. It is unclear if either of these qualifications was enforced." 
  144. ^ Arnot, Margaret; Cornelie Usborne (1999). Gender and Crime in Modern Europe. New York City: Routledge. p. 241. ISBN 1-85728-745-2. OCLC 249726924. 
  145. ^ Proctor, Robert E. (1989). Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. 122–123. ISBN 0-674-74578-7. OCLC 20760638. "Abortion, in other words, could be allowed if it was in the interest of racial hygiene… the Nazis did allow (and in some cases even required) abortions for women deemed racially inferior… On November 10, 1938, a Luneberg court declared abortion legal for Jews." 
  146. ^ Tierney, Helen (1999). Women's studies encyclopedia. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 589. ISBN 0-313-31072-6. OCLC 38504469. "In 1939, it was announced that Jewish women could seek abortions, but non-Jewish women could not." 
  147. ^ Roger Griffin, The `post-fascism' of the Alleanza Nazionale: a case-study in ideological morphology, Journal of Political Ideologies, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1996
  148. ^ a b Gori, Gigliola. Italian fascism and the female body: sport, submissive women and strong mothers. Routledge, 2004. p. 58
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  150. ^ a b Gori, Gigliola. Italian fascism and the female body: sport, submissive women and strong mothers. Routledge, 2004. p. 145.
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  195. ^ Italian: Lo Stato corporativo considera l’iniziativa privata, nel campo della produzione, come lo strumento più utile ed efficiente della Nazione.
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  208. ^ Hawkins, Mike. Social Darwinism in European and American Thought, 1860-1945: Nature as Model and Nature as Threat. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. p. 285. "Conflict is in fact the basic law of life in all social organisms, as it is of all biological ones; societies are formed, gain strength, and move forwards through conflict; the healthiest and most vital of them assert themselves against the weakest ans less well adapted through conflict; the natural evolution of nations and races takes place through conflict." Alfredo Rocco, Italian Fascist.
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Primary sources

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  • de Oliveira Salazar, António. .1939. Doctrine and Action: Internal and Foreign Policy of the New Portugal, 1928-1939. Faber and Faber.
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    ^ Beyond the Pale: Sir Oswald Mosley and Family 1933-1980.
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    ^ "Interview: William F. Buckley, Jr., Talks with Sir Oswald Mosley" [transcription of 'Firing Line' television broadcasts Firing Line Transcripts, 1972.
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    1968. My Life. Nelson Publications.
  • de Rivera, José Antonio Primo. 1971. Textos de Doctrina Politica. Madrid.
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    Da Capo Press. ISBN 0306808641
  • Ciano, Galezzo. 2001. The Ciano Diaries, 1939—1943. Simon Publications. ISBN 1931313741
  • Mussolini, Benito. .2006. My Autobiography: With "The Political and Social Doctrine of Fascism".^ The combination of social demagogy, corruption and active > White > terror, in conjunction with extreme imperialist aggression in the sphere of > foreign politics, are the characteristic features of fascism.
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    ^ The combination of social demagogy, corruption and active White terror, in conjunction with extreme imperialist aggression in the sphere of foreign politics, are the characteristic features of fascism.
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    Dover Publications. ISBN 0486447774

Secondary sources

  • Eatwell, Roger. .1996. Fascism: A History. New York: Allen Lane.
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  • Reich, Wilhelm.^ OLD AND NEW FASCISM AND THE REVOLUTIONARY TASKS OF THE > PROLETARIAT By Adolfo Olaechea Spokesman for Sol Peru Committee – London The > Stalin Society London, September 25, 1994 .
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    ^ The Nation [New York] Vol.
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    ^ London: Barrie and Rockliff, 1961; New York: St. Martins, 1961.
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    .1970. The Mass Psychology of Fascism.^ Wihelm Reich, The Mass Psychology of Fascism (1933), The Albion Press, 1970, 344 pp.

    ^ The Mass Psychology of Fascism .
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    ^ Wilhelm Reich's book from the early 1930s, The Mass Psychology of Fascism, burned by the US gov in the 1950s, is still insightful to this day.
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    New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
  • Seldes, George. .1935. Sawdust Caesar: The Untold History of Mussolini and Fascism.^ Sawdust Caesar: The Untold History of Mussolini and Fascism .
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    ^ Liberal Fascism: The Secret History of the American Left, From Mussolini to the Politics of Meaning ” .
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    ^ Mussolini states in his 1935 essay on fascism: .

    .New York and London: Harper and Brothers.
  • Alfred Sohn-Rethel Economy and Class Structure of German Fascism, London, CSE Bks, 1978 ISBN 0906336007
  • Kallis, Aristotle A. ," To Expand or Not to Expand?^ OLD AND NEW FASCISM AND THE REVOLUTIONARY TASKS OF THE > PROLETARIAT By Adolfo Olaechea Spokesman for Sol Peru Committee – London The > Stalin Society London, September 25, 1994 .
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    ^ London: Barrie and Rockliff, 1961; New York: St. Martins, 1961.
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    ^ London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1976; New York: Dial Press, 1977.
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    .Territory, Generic Fascism and the Quest for an 'Ideal Fatherland'" Journal of Contemporary History, Vol.^ Journal of Contemporary History Vol.
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    ^ Australian Journal of Politics and History Vol.
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    38, No. 2. (Apr., 2003), pp. 237–260.
  • Fritzsche, Peter. .1990. Rehearsals for Fascism: Populism and Political Mobilization in Weimar Germany.^ We need not be dismayed, comrades, if the people mobilized around these day-to-day interests consider themselves either indifferent to politics or even followers of fascism.
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    ^ Amidst this social and political uncertainty, fascism gained widespread popularity in some countries but consistently failed to overthrow any parliamentary system outside of Italy and Germany.
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    ^ This posture lent itself all too readily to a very different kind of political mobilization: the 'unpolitical' zealotry of fascism.
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    .New York: Oxford University Press.^ Claudia Koonz, Mothers in the Fatherland : Women, the Family and Nazi Politics, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987, 556 pp.

    ^ I.F. Stone, The Hidden History of the Korean War , New York & London, Monthly Review Press, 1952, 368 pp.

    ^ Herbert Hensley Henson, The Bishop of Durham Quoted in The Group Movement , 2nd Ed., Oxford University Press, p.
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    ISBN 0-19-505780-5
  • Griffin, Roger. .2000. "Revolution from the Right: Fascism," chapter in David Parker (ed.^ In the first chapter of Liberal Fascism, Goldberg does in fact discuss the French revolution as the original source of the left/right distinctions.

    ^ Varieties of Fascism: Doctrines of Revolution in the Twentieth Century, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, (Contains chapters on fascist movements in different countries.
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    ^ "Revolution from the Right: Fascism," chapter in David Parker (ed.
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    ) Revolutions and the Revolutionary Tradition in the West 1560-1991, Routledge, London.
  • Laqueur, Walter. 1966. Fascism: Past, Present, Future, New York: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-19-511793-X
  • Sauer, Wolfgang "National Socialism: totalitarianism or fascism?" pages 404–424 from The American Historical Review, Volume 73, Issue #2, December 1967.
  • Sternhell, Zeev with Mario Sznajder and Maia Asheri. [1989] .1994. The Birth of Fascist Ideology, From Cultural Rebellion to Political Revolution., Trans.^ But what sets fascist divisionism apart from the ordinary divisionism of any other political ideology?
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    ^ In general, fascists stand against all scientific, economic, religious, academic, cultural, and leisure activities that do not serve their vision of national political life.
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    ^ Walter Laqueur Few ideologies are as pernicious as fascism, yet the world continues to witness the success of fascist political parties in Italy, France, Austria, Russia, and ...
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    David Maisei. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Baker, David. ."The political economy of fascism: Myth or reality, or myth and reality?"^ Fascism and Communism are the political control systems, but control of our minds is the real game.
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    .New Political Economy, Volume 11, Issue 2 June 2006 , pages 227 – 250
  • Griffin, Roger.^ Opinions Fascist Nation 11-8-2006 Meet the new boss.
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    1991. The Nature of Fascism. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
  • Weber, Eugen. [1964] .1985. Varieties of Fascism: Doctrines of Revolution in the Twentieth Century, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, (Contains chapters on fascist movements in different countries.^ Varieties of Fascism: Doctrines of Revolution in the Twentieth Century, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, (Contains chapters on fascist movements in different countries.
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    ^ New York: Van Nostrand, 1964.
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    ^ The twentieth century was indeed the Fascist century.
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    )
  • Gentile, Emilio. 2005. The Origins of Fascist Ideology, 1918-1925: The First Complete Study of the Origins of Italian Fascism, New York: Enigma Books, ISBN 978-1-929631-18-6

External links