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In Following the Fashion (1794), James Gillray caricatured a figure flattered by the short-bodiced gowns then in fashion, contrasting it with an imitator whose figure is not flattered.

Fashion, a general term for the style and custom prevalent at a given time, in its most common usage refers to costume or clothing style.

The more technical term, costume, has become so linked in the public eye with the term "fashion" that the more general term "costume" has in popular use mostly been relegated to special senses like fancy dress or masquerade wear, while the term "fashion" means clothing generally, and the study of it. This linguistic switch is due to the fashion plates which were produced during the Industrial Revolution, showing the latest designs.[citation needed] For a broad cross-cultural look at clothing and its place in society, refer to the entries for clothing, costume and fabrics. The remainder of this article deals with clothing fashions in the Western world.[1]

Contents

Clothing fashions

2008 runway show

For detailed historical articles by period, see History of Western fashion

The continually changing fashions of the West have been generally unparalleled either in antiquity or in the other great civilizations of the world until recent decades. Early Western travellers, whether to Persia, Turkey, Japan or China frequently remark on the absence of changes in fashion there, and observers from these other cultures comment on the unseemly pace of Western fashion, which many felt suggested an instability and lack of order in Western culture. The Japanese Shogun's secretary boasted (not completely accurately) to a Spanish visitor in 1609 that Japanese clothing had not changed in over a thousand years.[2] However in Ming China, for example, there is considerable evidence for rapidly changing fashions in Chinese clothing.[3]

Changes in costume often took place at times of economic or social change (such as in ancient Rome and the medieval Caliphate), but then a long period without large changes followed. This occurred in Moorish Spain from the 8th century, when the famous musician Ziryab introduced sophisticated clothing styles based on seasonal and daily timings from his native Baghdad and his own inspiration to Córdoba, Spain.[4][5] Similar changes in fashion occurred in the Middle East from the 11th century, following the arrival of the Turks who introduced clothing styles from Central Asia and the Far East.[6]

The beginnings of the habit in Europe of continual and increasingly rapid change in styles can be fairly reliably dated to the middle of the 14th century, to which historians including James Laver and Fernand Braudel date the start of Western fashion in clothing.[7][8] The most dramatic manifestation was a sudden drastic shortening and tightening of the male over-garment, from calf-length to barely covering the buttocks, sometimes accompanied with stuffing on the chest to look bigger. This created the distinctive Western male outline of a tailored top worn over leggings or trousers.

Marie Antoinette was a fashion icon

The pace of change accelerated considerably in the following century, and women and men's fashion, especially in the dressing and adorning of the hair, became equally complex and changing. Art historians are therefore able to use fashion in dating images with increasing confidence and precision, often within five years in the case of 15th century images. Initially changes in fashion led to a fragmentation of what had previously been very similar styles of dressing across the upper classes of Europe, and the development of distinctive national styles, which remained very different until a counter-movement in the 17th to 18th centuries imposed similar styles once again, finally those from Ancien Régime in France.[9] Though the rich usually led fashion, the increasing affluence of early modern Europe led to the bourgeoisie and even peasants following trends at a distance sometimes uncomfortably close for the elites - a factor Braudel regards as one of the main motors of changing fashion.[10]

Albrecht Dürer's drawing contrasts a well turned out bourgeoise from Nuremberg (left) with her counterpart from Venice. The Venetian lady's high chopines make her taller

Ten 16th century portraits of German or Italian gentlemen may show ten entirely different hats, and at this period national differences were at their most pronounced, as Albrecht Dürer recorded in his actual or composite contrast of Nuremberg and Venetian fashions at the close of the 15th century (illustration, right). The "Spanish style" of the end of the century began the move back to synchronicity among upper-class Europeans, and after a struggle in the mid 17th century, French styles decisively took over leadership, a process completed in the 18th century.[11]

Though colors and patterns of textiles changed from year to year,[12] the cut of a gentleman's coat and the length of his waistcoat, or the pattern to which a lady's dress was cut changed more slowly. Men's fashions largely derived from military models, and changes in a European male silhouette are galvanized in theatres of European war, where gentleman officers had opportunities to make notes of foreign styles: an example is the "Steinkirk" cravat or necktie.

The pace of change picked up in the 1780s with the increased publication of French engravings that showed the latest Paris styles; though there had been distribution of dressed dolls from France as patterns since the 16th century, and Abraham Bosse had produced engravings of fashion from the 1620s. By 1800, all Western Europeans were dressing alike (or thought they were): local variation became first a sign of provincial culture, and then a badge of the conservative peasant.[13]

Although tailors and dressmakers were no doubt responsible for many innovations before, and the textile industry certainly led many trends, the history of fashion design is normally taken to date from 1858, when the English-born Charles Frederick Worth opened the first true haute couture house in Paris. Since then the professional designer has become a progressively more dominant figure, despite the origins of many fashions in street fashion. The four major current fashion capitals are acknowleged to be Milan, New York City, Paris, and London. Fashion weeks are held in these cities, where designers exhibit their new clothing collections to audiences, and which are all headquarters to the greatest fashion companies and are renowned for their major influence on global fashion.

Modern Westerners have a wide choice available in the selection of their clothes. What a person chooses to wear can reflect that person's personality or likes. When people who have cultural status start to wear new or different clothes a fashion trend may start. People who like or respect them may start to wear clothes of a similar style.

Fashions may vary considerably within a society according to age, social class, generation, occupation, and geography as well as over time. If, for example, an older person dresses according to the fashion of young people, he or she may look ridiculous in the eyes of both young and older people. The terms fashionista or fashion victim refer to someone who slavishly follows the current fashions.

One can regard the system of sporting various fashions as a fashion language incorporating various fashion statements using a grammar of fashion. (Compare some of the work of Roland Barthes.)

Media

Fashion shot from 2006

An important part of fashion is fashion journalism. Editorial critique and commentary can be found in magazines, newspapers, on television, fashion websites, social networks and in fashion blogs.

At the beginning of the 20th century, fashion magazines began to include photographs or (PicS) and became even more influential than in the past. In cities throughout the world these magazines were greatly sought-after and had a profound effect on public taste. Talented illustrators drew exquisite fashion plates for the publications which covered the most recent developments in fashion and beauty. Perhaps the most famous of these magazines was La Gazette du Bon Ton which was founded in 1912 by Lucien Vogel and regularly published until 1925 (with the exception of the war years).

Vogue, founded in the US in 1892, has been the longest-lasting and most successful of the hundreds of fashion magazines that have come and gone. Increasing affluence after World War II and, most importantly, the advent of cheap colour printing in the 1960s led to a huge boost in its sales, and heavy coverage of fashion in mainstream women's magazines - followed by men's magazines from the 1990s. Haute couture designers followed the trend by starting the ready-to-wear and perfume lines, heavily advertised in the magazines, that now dwarf their original couture businesses. Television coverage began in the 1950s with small fashion features. In the 1960s and 1970s, fashion segments on various entertainment shows became more frequent, and by the 1980s, dedicated fashion shows like FashionTelevision started to appear. Despite television and increasing internet coverage, including fashion blogs, press coverage remains the most important form of publicity in the eyes of the industry.

Fashion Editor, Sharon Mclellan said, "There's a misconception in the industry that TV, magazines and blogs dictate to the consumer, what to wear. But most trends aren't released to the public before consulting the target demographic. So what you see in the media is a result of research of popular ideas among the people. Essentially, fashion is a group of people bouncing ideas off of one another, like any other form of art." [14]

Sporting a different view, a few days after the 2010 Fall Fashion Week in New York City came to a close, Fashion Editor Genevieve Tax said, "Because designers release their fall collections in the spring and their spring collections in the fall, fashion magazines such as Vogue always and only look forward to the upcoming season, promoting parkas come September while issuing reviews on shorts in January." "Savvy shoppers, consequently, have been conditioned to be extremely, perhaps impractically, farsighted with their buying." [15]

Intellectual property

Within the fashion industry, intellectual property is not enforced as it is within the film industry and music industry. To "take inspiration" from others' designs contributes to the fashion industry's ability to establish clothing trends. Enticing consumers to buy clothing by establishing new trends is, some have argued, a key component of the industry's success. Intellectual property rules that interfere with the process of trend-making would, on this view, be counter-productive. In contrast, it is often argued that the blatant theft of new ideas, unique designs, and design details by larger companies is what often contributes to the failure of many smaller or independent design companies.

In 2005, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) held a conference calling for stricter intellectual property enforcement within the fashion industry to better protect small and medium businesses and promote competitiveness within the textile and clothing industries.[16][17]

See also

References

  1. ^ For a discussion of the use of the terms "fashion", "dress", "clothing" and "costume" by professionals in various disciplines, see Valerie Cumming, Understanding Fashion History, "Introduction", Costume & Fashion Press, 2004, ISBN 0-8967-6253-X
  2. ^ Braudel, 312-3
  3. ^ Timothy Brook: "The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China" (University of California Press 1999); this has a whole section on fashion.
  4. ^ al-Hassani, Woodcok and Saoud (2004), 'Muslim Heritage in Our World', FSTC publisinhg, pp. 38-9
  5. ^ Terrasse, H. (1958) 'Islam d'Espagne' une rencontre de l'Orient et de l'Occident", Librairie Plon, Paris, pp.52-53.
  6. ^ Josef W. Meri & Jere L. Bacharach (2006). "Medieval Islamic Civilization: A-K". Taylor & Francis. p. 162. 
  7. ^ Laver, James: The Concise History of Costume and Fashion, Abrams, 1979, p. 62
  8. ^ Fernand Braudel, Civilization and Capitalism, 15th-18th Centuries, Vol 1: The Structures of Everyday Life," p317, William Collins & Sons, London 1981
  9. ^ Braudel, 317-24
  10. ^ Braudel, 313-15
  11. ^ Braudel, 317-21
  12. ^ Thornton, Peter. Baroque and Rococo Silks.
  13. ^ James Laver and Fernand Braudel, ops cit
  14. ^ http://www.Composing-Moments.com
  15. ^ http://www.newislander.com/ports/2010/02/fashions_own_sense_of_season/
  16. ^ IPFrontline.com: Intellectual Property in Fashion Industry, WIPO press release, December 2, 2005
  17. ^ INSME announcement: WIPO-Italy International Symposium, 30 November - 2 December 2005

Further reading

  • Cumming, Valerie: Understanding Fashion History, Costume & Fashion Press, 2004, ISBN 0-8967-6253-X
  • Meinhold, Roman (2008) Meta-Goods in Fashion Myths. Philosophic-Anthropological Implications of Fashion Myths. In: Prajna Vihara. Journal of Philosophy and Religion. Bangkok, Assumption University. Vol.8., No.2, July-December 2007. 1-17. ISSN 1513-6442

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Fashion refers to styles of dress (but can also include cuisine, literature, art, architecture, and general comportment) that are popular in a culture at any given time. Such styles may change quickly, and "fashion" in the more colloquial sense refers to the latest version of these styles. Inherent in the term is the idea that the mode will change more quickly than the culture as a whole.

Quotes

  • Fashions Change, But Change Is Always The Fashion
    • Anonymous.
  • “Innovators are the cool ones who ‘pump’ new fashions into our world,” Dr Bentley said. “Most are ignored, but some get copied.”
    • Anonymous.
  • Fashion is a form of ugliness so intolerable that we have to alter it every six months.
  • A woman without a coat hanger is like a man without a sock: always looking for one.

External links

Wikipedia
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Look up Fashion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

FASHION

Fashion is a style that is accepted and used by the majority of a group at any one time for a substantial period. They tend to grow slowly, remain popular for a while, then decline slowly.

High fashion

It refers to those styles or designs accepted by a limited group of fashion leaders-elite class-who are first to accept fashion change. These articles are sold in low quantity but at outrageous prices to socialites, entertainers and fashion innovators.

Mass fashion/volume fashion

These are styles widely accepted. High fashion is toned down to adjust into Normal price with Normal fabric.


Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Fashion
by Anna Cora Mowatt
Title page

Contents

Dedication

To WALTER WATTS, ESQ.,

ONE of the most liberal supporters of the Drama, whose desire to elevate and purify it--whose appreciation and patronage of its humblest as, well as highest talent--whose liberality and consideration to all with whom the profession connects him--and whose efforts to establish harmony amongst them, while he promotes the interest of all, are beyond eulogium, the Comedy of "FASHION" is respectfully dedicated, with the grateful acknowledgments of

ANNA CORA MOWATT.

Preface

THE Comedy of Fashion was intended as a good-natured satire upon some of the follies incident to a new country, where foreign dross sometimes passes for gold, while native gold is cast aside as dross; where the vanities rather than the virtues of other lands are too often imitated, and where the stamp of fashion gives currency even to the coinage of vice.

The reception with which the Comedy was favoured proves that the picture represented was not a highly exaggerated one.

It was first produced at the Park Theatre, New York, in March, 1845.

The splendid manner in which the play was put upon the stage, and the combined efforts of an extremely talented company, ensured it a long continued success. It was afterwards received with the same indulgence in all the principal cities of the United States, for which the authoress is doubtless indebted to the proverbial gallantry of Americans to a countrywoman.

A. C. M.

London, January, 1850.

Dramatis Personae

Adam Trueman: a farmer from Catteraugus
Count Jolimaitre: a fashionable European Importation
Colonel Howard: an Officer in the U. S. Army.
Mr. Tiffany: a New York merchant.
T. Tennyson Twinkle: a modern poet
Augustus Fogg: a drawing room appendage
Snobson: a rare species of confidential clerk
Zeke: a colored servant
Mrs. Tiffany: a lady who imagines herself fashionable.
Prudence: a maiden lady of a certain age.
Millinette: a French lady's maid
Gertrude: a governess
Seraphina Tiffany: a Belle
Ladies and Gentlemen of the Ball Room

Costumes

Adam Trueman.--First Dress: A farmer's rough overcoat, coarse blue trousers, heavy boots, broad-brimmed hat, dark coloured neckerchief, stout walking stick, large bandanna tied loosely around his neck.--Second dress: Dark grey old-fashioned coat, black and yellow waistcoat, trousers as before.--Third dress: Black old-fashioned dress cost, black trousers, white vest, white cravat.
Count Jolimaitre.--First dress: Dark frock coat, light blue trousers, patent leather boots, gay coloured vest and scarf, profusion of jewellery, light overcoat.--Second dress: Full evening dress; last scene, travelling cap and cloak.
Mr. Tiffany.--First dress: Dark coat, vest, and trousers.--Second dress: Full evening dress.
Mr. Twinkle.--First dress: Green frock coat, white vest and trousers, green and white scarf.--Second dress: Full evening dress.
Mr. Fogg.--First dress: Entire black suit.--Second dress: Fall evening dress, same colour.
Snobson. --First dress: Blue Albert coat with brass buttons, yellow vest, red and black cravat, broad plaid trousers.--Second dress: Evening dress.
Col. Howard.--First dress: Blue undress frock coat and cap, white trousers.--Second dress: Full military uniform.
Zeke.--Red and blue livery, cocked hat, &c.
Mrs. Tiffany.--First dress: Extravagant modern dress.--Second dress: Hat, feathers, and mantle, with the above.-Third dress: Morning dress.-Fourth dress: Rich ball dress.
Serafina.--First dress: Rich modern dress, lady's tarpaulin on one side of head.--Second dress: Morning dress.--Third dress: Handsome ball dress, profusion of ornaments and flowers.-Fourth dress: Bonnet and mantle.
Gertrude.--First dress: White muslin.--Second dress: Ball dress, very simple.
Millinette.--Ladies Maid's dress, very gay.
Prudence.--Black satin, very narrow in the skirt, tight sleeves, white muslin apron, neckerchief of the same, folded over bosom, old-fashioned cap, high top and broad frill, and red ribbons.

Exits and entrances

R. means Right; L., Left; R. 1 E., Right First Entrance; 2 H., Second Entrance; D. F., Door in the Flat.

Relative positions

R. means Right; L., Left: C., Centre; R. C., Right of Centre: L. C., Left of Centre.

The reader is supposed to be on the Stage facing the Audience.

The Play


1911 encyclopedia

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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Simple English

File:Lesly Masson
Model on a catwalk: simple

[[File:|thumb|right|200px|Model on a catwalk: complex]]

File:Morocco - veiled woman in
Other places, other customs...

Fashion mostly refers to the style of clothing worn at a particular time. Clothing at its most basic is to keep us warm, but it serves many other functions. Fashion can also mean a style of language or behaviour. Fashions are a kind of nonverbal communication. They communicate something, but exactly what is something of a mystery. Often what they express is membership of a particular group.

Fashions are like trends. They change more quickly than the entire culture. The term 'fashion' is often used a synonym for glamour and style. Sometimes the term is used in a negative sense, to mean a 'fad'.

There are fashions in many types of human activity and ways of thinking. There are fashions in architecture (the way people build houses) and interior design (the way people decorate inside their houses). There are fashions for clothing. There are fashions for dance and music, and for the way people speak. There are fashions for ideas.

Clothing fashions

Fashion is more than just a designer's whim. Fashion is a reflection of a given time, socially, politically, economically, and artistically. The changing styles show just as much about history and the time period as any history book. It reflects on what people think, what they valued and how they lived. Fashion is a statement, a way of living. Fashion is used in different ways such as clothing, culture, religions etc. Clothes are not just for keeping warm!

Fashion is a way to express one's self. Many teenagers show their ideas and opinions by the way they look. They may want to look unique and individual, often to be a member of a group which looks unique. Fashion is superficial (on the surface) but as the outside of a person is the only bit that other people see, what they wear is meaningful. It helps people to make their first opinion of you and can influence the opinions and ideas of other people.

Fashion has changed over the years, long dresses, miniskirts, and bell bottoms are examples of clothing items that were once in style. Clothing fashions that keep coming back in style are known as classics. Khaki pants, polo shirts, and simple dresses are all examples of classics. Eye makeup, Jewellery, hair styles, hats and shoes can all work together to create a fashion image, a total effect.

”D&G” redirects here. For the region in south-west Scotland, see Dumfries and Galloway.

Type Pr, D.Gelfond Industry Fashion Founded 1985 Headquarters Milan, Italy Products Clothing, footwear, handbags, sunglasses Employees 3,150 Website www.dolcegabbana.it

Dolce & Gabbana (Italian pronunciation: [ˈdoltʃe e ɡabˈbaːna]), is an Italian luxury fashion house.[1]

The company was started by the Italian designers Domenico Dolce & Stefano Gabbana in Milan, Italy. By 2005 their turnover was €750 million.[2] Their clothing designs are usually black in color and geometric in shape.

[1]








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