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Fayetteville, North Carolina
—  City  —

Seal
Nickname(s): "All-American City","The Old Capitol" "Fayette City","FAYcity","Marquis City","Southeastern Paris","Fayettenam","The Ville",
Motto: History, Heroes, A Hometown Feeling.
Location of Fayetteville, North Carolina
Coordinates: 35°4′0″N 78°55′3″W / 35.066667°N 78.9175°W / 35.066667; -78.9175Coordinates: 35°4′0″N 78°55′3″W / 35.066667°N 78.9175°W / 35.066667; -78.9175
Country United States
State North Carolina
County Cumberland
Settled 1762
Government
 - Mayor Anthony G. Chavonne
 - City Manager Dale E. Iman
Area
 - City 60.0 sq mi (155.3 km2)
 - Land 58.8 sq mi (152.2 km2)
 - Water 1.2 sq mi (3.1 km2)
Elevation 95 ft (29 m)
Population (2008)
 - City 203,100
 Density 2,059.2/sq mi (795.1/km2)
 Metro 341,363
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s) 910
FIPS code 37-22920[1]
GNIS feature ID 1020226[2]
Website http://www.cityoffayetteville.org/
Cross Creek Linear Park

Fayetteville is a city located in Cumberland County, North Carolina. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 121,015. It is the county seat of Cumberland County,[3] and is best known as the home of Fort Bragg, a U.S. Army post located northwest of the city.

As of 2008, the city of Fayetteville has a population of approximately 174,091 including annexation since the 2000 census. It currently ranks as the sixth-largest municipality in North Carolina. Fayetteville is located near the Sandhills in the western part of the Coastal Plain region, on the Cape Fear River. With a population of 341,363, the Fayetteville metropolitan area is the largest in southeastern North Carolina, and the fifth-largest in the state. Suburban areas of metro Fayetteville include Hope Mills, Spring Lake, and Raeford.

Contents

History

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Early Settlement

The area of present-day Fayetteville was inhabited by various Siouan Native American peoples such as the Eno, Shakori, Waccamaw, Keyauwee, and Cape Fear Indians for more than 12,000 years.

After the violent upheavals of the Yamasee War and Tuscarora Wars during the second decade of the eighteenth century, the administration of North Carolina colony encouraged colonial settlement along the upper Cape Fear River, the only navigable waterway entirely within North Carolina. Two inland settlements, Cross Creek, and the riverfront settlement of Campbellton were established by Scots from Campbellton, Argyll and Bute, Scotland.

Merchants in Wilmington wanted a town on the Cape Fear River to secure trade with the frontier country. They were afraid people would use the Pee Dee River, taking their goods to Charleston, S.C. Merchants, though, bought land from Newberry in Cross Creek. Campbellton became a place where free blacks and poor whites lived and was known for its lawlessness.

After the American Revolutionary War, the two towns were united and renamed to honor General Lafayette, a French military hero who fought with and significantly aided the American Army during the American Revolutionary War. Many cities are named after Lafayette but, Fayetteville, N.C., was the first city named in his honour. The Frenchman arrived in Fayetteville by horse-drawn carriage in 1825 during his grand tour of the United States in 1824 and 1825.

American Revolution

The Fayetteville area was the home of many residents, particularly the Highland Scots, who were loyal to the British government. But it also included a number of active Patriots.

In late June 1775, the "Liberty Point Resolves" preceded the Declaration of Independence by a little more than a year. The Liberty Point document pledged the group to "go forth and be ready to sacrifice our lives and fortunes to secure (the county's) freedom and safety." The document concluded: "This obligation to continue in full force until a reconciliation shall take place between Great Britain and America, upon constitutional principles, an event we most ardently desire; and we will hold all those persons inimical to the liberty of the colonies, who shall refuse to subscribe to this Association; and we will in all things follow the advice of our General Committee respecting the purposes aforesaid, the preservation of peace and good order, and the safety of individual and private property." Robert Rowan, who apparently organized the group, signed first.

Robert Rowan (circa 1738-1798) was one of the area's leading public figures of the 1700s. A merchant and entrepreneur by trade, Rowan arrived in Cross Creek in the 1760s. He served as an officer in the French and Indian War, as sheriff, justice and legislator, and as a leader of the Patriot cause in the Revolutionary War. Rowan circulated the statement known as the "Liberty Point Resolves" in 1775. Rowan Street and Rowan Park in Fayetteville and a local chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution are named for him, though Rowan County (founded in 1753) was named for another Rowan (Matthew Rowan), who was not related to Robert.

Flora MacDonald (1722–1790), the Scottish Highland heroine, who gained fame for aiding "Bonnie Prince Charlie" after his Highlander army's defeat at Culloden in 1746, lived in North Carolina for about five years. Legend has it that she exhorted the Loyalist force at Cross Creek that included her husband, Allan, as it headed off to its eventual defeat at the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge in 1776.

Seventy-First Township in western Cumberland County (now a part of Fayetteville) is named for a British unit during the American Revolution - the 71st Regiment of Foot or 'Fraser's Highlanders,' as they were first called.

Post-Revolutionary Fayetteville

Fayetteville experienced what is sometimes called its "golden decade" during the 1780s. It played host, in 1789, to the convention that ratified the U.S. Constitution and to the General Assembly session that chartered the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, America's oldest public university. The legislators paused for the state funeral of former Governor Richard Caswell, who fell ill after arriving in Fayetteville and died November 10, 1789. Fayetteville lost out to the future city of Raleigh in the bid to become the permanent state capital. Fayetteville was the capital of the state from 1789-1793.

In 1793 the Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry formed and is still active as a ceremonial unit. It is the second-oldest militia unit in the country.

Henry Evans (circa 1760-1810) a free black preacher is locally known as the "Father of Methodism," for methodists, in the area. Evans was a shoemaker by trade and a licensed Methodist preacher. He met opposition from whites when he began preaching to slaves in Fayetteville, but his preaching later attracted whites to his services. He is credited with building the first church in town, called the African Meeting House, in 1796. Evans Metropolitan AME Zion Church is named in his honor.

Antebellum Fayetteville

The old "State House" in Fayetteville was destroyed in the "Great Fire" of 1831 along with a multitude of historic buildings.

Fayetteville remained a village of only 3,500 residents in 1820, but Cumberland County's population still ranked as the second-most urban in the state behind New Hanover County (Wilmington).

The "Great Fire" of 1831 was believed to be one of the worst in the nation's history, even though, remarkably, no lives were lost. Hundreds of homes and businesses and most of its best-known public buildings were lost, including the old "State House." Fayetteville leaders moved quickly to help the victims and rebuild the town.

The Market House, completed in 1832, became the center of commerce and celebration. The structure was built on the ruins of the old State House. It was a town market until 1906. Slaves were sold there before abolition. It served as Fayetteville Town Hall until 1907. The City Council is considering turning the Market House into a local history museum.

The Confederate arsenal in Fayetteville was destroyed in March 1865 by Union Gen. William T. Sherman during the Civil War.

The Civil War Era

In March 1865, Gen. William T. Sherman and his 60,000-man army moved into Fayetteville. The Confederate arsenal was totally destroyed. Sherman's troops also destroyed foundries and cotton factories and the offices of The Fayetteville Observer. Not far from Fayetteville, Confederate and Union troops engaged in the last cavalry battle of the Civil War, the Battle of Monroe's Crossroads.

Downtown Fayetteville was the site of a skirmish, as Confederate Lt. Gen. Wade Hampton and his men surprised a cavalry patrol, killing 11 Union soldiers and capturing a dozen on March 11, 1865.

20th century to the Present

Cumberland County's population exploded in the post-World War II years, with its 43% increase in the 1960s the largest in any of North Carolina's 100 counties. Construction was fast-paced as shopping developments and suburban subdivisions began to spread outside the Fayetteville city limits toward Fort Bragg and Pope Air Force Base. The Fayetteville and Cumberland County school systems moved toward integration gradually beginning in the early '60s and bussing brought about large-scale student integration in the 1970s.

Civil rights marches and sit-ins, with students from Fayetteville State Teachers College (now Fayetteville State University) at the forefront, led to the end of whites-only service at restaurants and segregated seating in theaters. Politics changed. Blacks and women gained office in significant numbers, from the late 1960s and on into the early '80s.

A new water tower with the new city logo
Hay Street in Downtown Fayetteville, N.C.

The Vietnam Era was a time of change in the Fayetteville area. Fort Bragg did not send many large units to Vietnam, but from 1966 to 1970, more than 200,000 soldiers trained at the post before leaving for the war. The effect of such a large troop rotation was dramatic and remnants of this era are still visible in much of Fayetteville. Anti-war protests in Fayetteville drew national attention because of the proximity to Fort Bragg, in a city that generally supported the war. Jane Fonda came to Fayetteville to participate in three anti-war events. Because of these changes in the 1960s and 70s, nicknames like "Fayettenam" caught on and are still in popular use today. Also at this time, Fayetteville made headlines after Army doctor Jeffrey R. MacDonald murdered his pregnant wife and two daughters in their Ft. Bragg home in 1970.

Fayetteville has attempted to reverse the image of its downtown area through various downtown revitalization projects, with mixed results. New additions, such as the Airborne & Special Operations Museum, The Fayetteville Area Transportation Museum, Fayetteville Linear Park, and Fayetteville Festival Park, which opened in late 2006, have all contributed somewhat to the changing downtown area. The city still has a very high crime rate.

The towns and rural areas surrounding Fayetteville have experienced rapid growth over the past decade. This growth has spilled over into suburbs such as Hope Mills, Raeford and Spring Lake.

The western part of Cumberland County was annexed into Fayetteville in recent years.

In 2008,BestLife Magazine, using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, the National Center for Education Statistics, the FBI, the American Association of Museums, the National Center for Health Statistics and the American Bar Association, ranked Fayetteville as the 3rd worst city in America to raise a family.[4]

Recently, Where To Retire magazine named Fayetteville one of the best places to retire[5].

In 2005 Congress mandated that due to the BRAC (Base Realignment and Closure) effort Fort Bragg would gain several new commands. The Army will be closing down United States Forces Command and the United States Reserve Command in Atlanta and moving them to Fort Bragg. This move is expected to relocate over 30,000 people to the area as a result of the command changes and businesses that will move to support the command. FORSCOM awards over $300 billion in contracts annually.[6]

Sanctuary community for military families

On September 5, 2008, Fayetteville was declared "The World's First Sanctuary for Military Families." This declaration was supported by local, regional and national dignitaries, including Mayor Tony Chavonne, County Commissioner Chairman Breeden Blackwell, NC State Representative, Brigadier General Arthur Bartell, Colonel John McDonald and Congressman Robin Hayes.[7] Through the Army's Army and other volunteer groups, the citizens and businesses of Fayetteville are dedicated to the military.[8]

Time Magazine recognized Fayetteville for their support of military families and declared Fayetteville as America's most pro-military town.[9]

Crime

Fayetteville's per capita violent crime rate is 87% higher than the national average and the property crime rate is 75% higher than the national average.[10] Fayetteville is known as one of the few cities in the South-East region of the United States to have Bloods and Crips gang violence. However, according to the Fayetteville Police Department,[11] statistics kept by the North Carolina State Bureau of Investigation show that Fayetteville's 2007 index crime rate for violent and property crimes is the lowest it has been since Jamie Kieth was arrested for male prostitution and child molesting.

Fort Bragg/Pope Air Force Base

Fort Bragg and Pope Air Force Base are located next to the city of Fayetteville. Several U.S. Army airborne units are stationed at Fort Bragg, most prominently the XVIII Airborne Corps HQ, the 82nd Airborne Division, and the United States Army Special Operations Command.

Fort Bragg was the home of the Field Artillery at the onset of World War II. All the Army's artillery units east of the Mississippi River were based at the post, about 5,000 men in all. Soldiers tested the Army's new bantam car, which was soon to be known as the Jeep, although most of the power to move artillery still came from horses and burros. On Sept. 12, 1940, the Army contracted to expand the post, bringing the 9th Infantry Division to Fort Bragg.

Missions at Pope AFB range from providing airlift and close air support to American armed forces, to humanitarian missions flown all over the world. Pope AFB particularly provides air transportation for the 82nd Airborne, among other airborne units on Fort Bragg.

Most of Pope AFB's fighter jet squadrons have been relocated to Moody AFB, Georgia. Pope is being turned over to Army control in 2011 and will be called Pope Army Air Field. However, the main entity at Pope at that time will be the Air Force Reserves. The 440th Airlift Wing will handle the majority of Pope Army Airfield's mission.

In September 2008, Fayetteville annexed 85% of Ft. Bragg, bringing the official population of the city to 206,000. The increased population will help to facilitate the perception that the crime rate in Fayetteville is officially lower. Ft. Bragg still has its own police, fire, and EMS services. Fayetteville hopes to attract large retail businesses to the area using the new population figures.[12]

Geography

Fayetteville is located at 35°04'00" North, 78°55'03" West (35.066663, -78.917579).[13]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 60.0 square miles (155.3 km²). 58.8 square miles (152.2 km²) of it is land and 1.2 square miles (3.1 km²) of it is water. The total area is 1.98% water.

Education

Public Schools

Cumberland County Schools, serving Fayetteville and surrounding Cumberland County, is the 78th largest public school system in the nation.

Private Schools

Jack Britt High School

Colleges and universities

Demographics

Historical populations
1930 13,309
1940 17,428
1960 47,106
1970 53,510
1980 59,507
1990 75,695
2000 121,015
2005 137,777
2008 174,091

As of the census of 2000, there were 121,015 people, 48,414 households, and 31,662 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,059.2 people per square mile (795.0/km²). There were 53,565 housing units at an average density of 351.9 persons/km² (911.5 persons/sq mi). The racial makeup of the city was 48.8% White, 42.4% African American, 1.1% Native American, 2.2% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 2.5% from other races, and 2.8% from two or more races. 5.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 48,414 households out of which 31.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.7% were married couples living together, 17.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.6% were non-families. 28.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.96.

In the city the population was spread out with 25.4% under the age of 18, 12.7% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, and 11.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 91.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.7 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $36,287, and the median income for a family was $41,210. Males had a median income of $30,493 versus $23,477 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,141. 14.8% of the population and 11.7% of families were below the poverty line. 21.4% of those under the age of 18 and 14.4% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

A 15-month fight came to an end — at least for now — on Sept. 30, 2005 when Fayetteville annexed 27 square miles (70 km2) and 46,000 residents. Affected residents and developers had blocked the annexation for more than a year with three lawsuits. They lost in the state Court of Appeals in June. The court ruled the challenges were filed after the deadline. The law requires all challenges to be filed within 60 days of when a municipality adopts an annexation ordinance. When the state Supreme Court refused to consider an appeal, the city went ahead with its plans. A request for the U.S. Supreme Court to review the case is pending, and a decision may come in January.

Transportation

Fayetteville Area Transportation Museum

Air Transportation

The Fayetteville Regional Airport is served by Delta Air Lines connection carrier Atlantic Southeast Airlines, Delta Air Lines regional feeder service, and US Airways connection carrier US Airways Express, with daily flights to Charlotte (Charlotte/Douglas International Airport) and Atlanta, Georgia (Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport) and seasonal service to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Philadelphia International Airport).

Highways

Public Transportation

The Fayetteville Area System of Transit (FAST) serves the Fayetteville and Spring Lake regions, with ten bus routes and two shuttle routes.

Passenger Rail

There is an Amtrak station downtown, with routes leading to points along the East Coast.[20]

Notable People from Fayetteville

Henry Evans (circa 1760-1810) built the first Methodist church in Fayetteville in 1793 and is known as the "Father of Methodism" for Methodists in the area.

Radio Stations

Points of interest

Cape Fear River Trail
Liberty Point in Fayetteville where the "Liberty Point Resolves" were signed in June 1775
Cool Spring Tavern, built in 1788

Clubs and organizations

Sports

Club League Venue Established Championships
Fayetteville FireAntz SPHL, Ice hockey Cumberland County Crown Coliseum 2002 1
Fayetteville Guard AIFA, Indoor football Cumberland County Crown Coliseum 2007 1
Fayetteville Swampdogs Coastal Plain League, Collegiate Baseball J.P. Riddle Stadium 2001 1

Religion

Old Bluff Presbyterian Church was founded in Wade in 1758 and is one of the oldest churches in the Upper Cape Fear Valley. Since then, hundreds of houses of worship have been established in and around Cumberland County. Catholic, Baptist, Pentecostal, Methodist and Presbyterian churches have the largest congregations.[24]
Bluff Presbyterian Church maintains a detailed history of Old Bluff Presbyterian Church at their website.[25]
The fourth Sunday of September each year is the annual Old Bluff Reunion; it is open to the public.[26] Also, Fayetteville is home to St. Patrick Church. It is the oldest Catholic parish in North Carolina.

Sister City

France Saint-Avold, France

References

Sources

  • Fenn, Elizabeth A.; Watson, Harry L.; Nathans, Sydney; Clayton, Thomas H.; Wood, Peter H. (2003). Joe A. Mobley. ed. The Way We Lived in North Carolina. The University of North Carolina Press. 
  • Meyer, Duane (1961). The Highland Scots of North Carolina, 1732-1776. The University of North Carolina Press. 
  • Oates, John (1981). The story of Fayetteville and the upper Cape Fear. Fayetteville Woman's Club. 

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

FAYETTEVILLE, a city and the county-seat of Cumberland county, North Carolina, U.S.A., on the W. bank of the Cape Fear river (at the head of steamboat navigation), about 80 m. N.W. of Wilmington. Pop. (1890) 4222; (1900) 4670, of whom 2221 were negroes. It is served by the Atlantic Coast Line railway and the short Raleigh & Southport railway, and by steamboat lines to Wilmington. A scheme was set on foot for the improvement by canalization of the Cape Fear river above Wilmington under a Federal project of 1902, which provided for a channel 8 ft. deep at low water from Wilmington to Fayetteville. Below Wilmington the improvement of the river channel, 270 ft. wide and 16 ft. deep, was completed in 1889, and the project of 1889 provided for an increase in depth to 20 ft. Pine forests surround the town, and oaks and elms of more than a century's growth shade its streets. Fayetteville has two hospitals (each with a training school for nurses), and is the seat of a state coloured normal school and of the Donaldson military school. Several creeks and the upper Cape Fear river furnish considerable waterpower, and in or near Fayetteville are manufactories of cotton goods, silk, lumber, wooden-ware, turpentine, carriages, wagons, ploughs, edge tools and flour. In the earlier half of the 19th century Fayetteville was a great inland market for the western part of the state, for eastern Tennessee and for south-western Virginia. There is a large vineyard in the vicinity; truckgardening is an important industry in the surrounding country; and Fayetteville is a shipping centre for small fruits and vegetables, especially lettuce, melons and berries. The municipality owns its water-works and its electric-lighting plant. The vicinity was settled between 1729 and 1747 by Highlanders, the settlement called Cross Creek lying within the present limits of Fayetteville. In 1762, by an act of the assembly, a town was laid out including Cross Creek, and was named Campbelltown (or "Campbeltown"); but in 1784, when Lafayette visited the town, its name was changed in his honour to Fayetteville, though the name Cross Creek continued to be used locally for many years. Flora McDonald, the famous Scottish heroine, came to Campbelltown in April 1775 with her husband and children, and here she seems to have lived during the remainder of that year. The general assembly of the state met at Fayetteville in 1787, 1788 and 1789 (Newbern, Tarboro, Hillsboro and Fayetteville all being rivals at this time for the honour of becoming the permanent capital); and in 1789 the Federal constitution was here ratified for North Carolina. In 1831 most of the town was burned. At the outbreak of the Civil War, the state authorities seized the United States Arsenal at Fayetteville, which contained 37,000 muskets and a complete equipment for a battery of light artillery. In March 1865 General W. T. Sherman and his army took possession of the town, destroyed the arsenal, and did considerable damage to property. Fayetteville was chartered as a city in 1893. A serious flood occurred in August 1908.


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