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Fear and Desire

Portion of theatrical film poster
Directed by Stanley Kubrick
Produced by Stanley Kubrick
Written by Howard Sackler
Starring Frank Silvera,
Kenneth Harp,
Paul Mazursky
Distributed by Joseph Burstyn
Release date(s) 31 March 1953
Running time 68 minutes
Language English
Budget $50,000 (estimated)

Fear and Desire (1953) is a military action/adventure film directed by Stanley Kubrick. It is noteworthy as Kubrick’s first feature film and is also one of his least-seen productions.

Contents

Plot

Fear and Desire opens with an off-screen narrator (actor David Allen) who tells the audience:

There is a war in this forest. Not a war that has been fought, nor one that will be, but any war. And the enemies that struggle here do not exist unless we call them into being. For all of them, and all that happens now is outside history. Only the unchanging shapes of fear and doubt and death are from our world. These soldiers that you see keep our language and our time, but have no other country but the mind.[1]

The story is set during a war between two unidentified countries. An airplane carrying four soldiers from one country has crashed six miles behind enemy lines. The soldiers come upon a river and build a raft, hoping they can use the waterway to reach their battalion. As they are building their raft, they are approached by a young peasant girl who does not speak. The soldiers apprehend the girl and bind her to a tree with their belts. One of the soldiers goes insane, and while shouting about the William Shakespeare play The Tempest, fatally shoots the girl. A second soldier also goes insane and takes the raft for a solo voyage. The remaining two soldiers unexpectedly locate the headquarters of the enemy army and successfully infiltrate the base. They locate and kill the top ranking general and one of his aides – only to discover the dead men looked exactly like them.[2]

Production

Prior to shooting Fear and Desire, Kubrick was a Look photographer who had directed two short documentaries in 1951, Day of the Fight and Flying Padre. Both films were acquired for theatrical release by RKO Radio Pictures. Based on his experiences in creating short films, Kubrick felt he was ready to make a narrative feature film.[3] Kubrick quit his full-time job with Look and set forth to create Fear and Desire.[4]

The screenplay for Fear and Desire was written by Howard Sackler, a classmate of Kubrick’s at William Howard Taft High School in the Bronx, New York; Sackler later won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1968 drama The Great White Hope. Paul Mazursky, who would later receive recognition as the director of popular films including Harry and Tonto and An Unmarried Woman, was cast as the soldier who kills the captive peasant.[3]

Funds for Fear and Desire was raised from Kubrick's family and friends, with most of it coming from Marvin Peveller, Kubrick’s uncle and the owner of a profitable pharmacy.[5] The film’s original budget has been estimated at $10,000.[3]

The production team consisted of 15 people: five actors (Paul Mazursky, Frank Silvera, Kenneth Harp, Steve Coit and Virginia Leith), five crew members (including Kubrick’s first wife, Tobia Metz) and four Mexican laborers who transported the film equipment around California's San Gabriel Mountains, where the film was shot. Kubrick served as the film's director, producer, cinematographer and editor.[3]

Due to budget limitations, Kubrick improvised in the use of his equipment. To create fog, Kubrick used a crop sprayer – but the cast and crew was nearly asphyxiated because the machinery still contained the insecticide used for its agricultural work.[6] For tracking shots, Paul Mazursky recalled how Kubrick came up with a novel substitute: "There was no dolly track, just a baby carriage to move the camera," he told an interviewer.[5]

Kubrick ran into several problems during the post-production process. He shot the film without sound, with plans to add the dialogue track later, along with the music score and sound effects. However, this raised the cost of finishing the film. Kubrick took a second unit assignment to shoot footage for a television film on the life of Abraham Lincoln in order to secure funds to finish the Fear and Desire soundtrack.[3]

Kubrick also ran into difficulty in editing a key scene where one of the soldiers throws a plate of beans to the floor and enters the frame from the wrong side. Kubrick's blocking of the crucial scene was faulty and his actors accidentally crossed the so-called "director’s line," which required the negative to be flipped in the printing process to preserve continuity; this was another expense.[7]

Distribution and disappearance

Fear and Desire was picked up for U.S. theatrical release by Joseph Burstyn, a distributor who specialized in the presentation of European art house titles.[8] For its New York premiere, the byline-free New York Times movie review noted: "If Fear and Desire is uneven and sometimes reveals an experimental rather than a polished exterior, its over-all effect is entirely worthy of the sincere effort put into it."[9]

Kubrick received praise for Fear and Desire from film critic and screenwriter James Agee, who reportedly took Kubrick out for a drink and told him "there are too many good things...to call [Fear and Desire] arty."[1] Columbia University professor Mark Van Doren sent Kubrick a letter that stated: “The incident of the girl bound to the tree will make movie history once it is seen...Stanley Kubrick is worth watching for those who want to discover high talent at the moment it appears.”[10]

Fear and Desire was not a box office success and Kubrick had to take a for-hire job directing the promotional short The Seafarers on behalf of the Seafarers International Union in order to raise funds for his next planned feature, Killer's Kiss (1954), which would be co-written by Kubrick and Howard Sackler and star Frank Silvera, one of the Fear and Desire actors.[3]

In the years following its release, Fear and Desire seemed to have disappeared. Joseph Burstyn went out of business and there were stories that Kubrick had spent years acquiring all known prints of the film, with the plan of preventing it from ever being seen again. However, some prints of the film remained in private collections.[11]

Fear and Desire had its first retrospective screened at the 1993 Telluride Film Festival.[12] In January 1994, the Film Forum, a nonprofit theater based in New York City, announced plans to show Fear and Desire on a double bill with Killer's Kiss. Although the film’s copyright lapsed and the property was in the public domain, thus allowing it to be shown without fear of legal actions, Kubrick tried to discourage it from gaining an audience. Through Warner Brothers, Kubrick issued a statement that severely downplayed the film’s value, and he called Fear and Desire "a bumbling amateur film exercise."[13]

To date, there have been very few public screenings of Fear and Desire; the only commercially available print belongs to the George Eastman House in Rochester, New York. Among the rare presentations were a 1993 screening at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., a 2003 one-time screening at the Two Boots Den of Cin in New York City and an August 2008 presentation at the Wexner Center for the Arts in Columbus, Ohio.[2][14][15] Also, some footage from a surviving print for the film can be seen in the 2001 documentary Stanley Kubrick: A Life in Pictures.

Fear and Desire has yet to see a commercial home entertainment release.[2] However, bootleg copies proliferate on DVD and on several online video sites.

References

  1. ^ a b "“The country of the mind in Kubrick's Fear and Desire. (Movie Review),” Film Criticism Magazine, September 22, 2004 (library card access required)". http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-18494588_ITM.  
  2. ^ a b c "“Fear and Desire,” Film Threat, May 7, 2003". http://www.filmthreat.com/index.php?section=reviews&Id=4492.  
  3. ^ a b c d e f Duncan, Paul. “Stanley Kubrick: The Complete Films.” Taschen, 2008. ISBN 9783822831151
  4. ^ "“Stanley Kubrick—an appreciation,” World Socialist Web site, March 27, 1999". http://www.wsws.org/articles/1999/mar1999/kub-m27.shtml.  
  5. ^ a b "“The Ones That (Almost) Got Away,” San Francisco Chronicle, July 18, 1999". http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/1999/07/18/PK35513.DTL&type=movies.  
  6. ^ "“The New Pictures,” Time, June 4, 1956". http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,867001,00.html.  
  7. ^ Buchanan, Larry. “It Came From Hunger!”McFarland & Co., 1996. ISBN 078640194X
  8. ^ Allen, Thomas. “Kubrick: Inside a Film Artist’s Maze.” Indiana University Press, 2000. ISBN 0253253908
  9. ^ "New York Times, April 1, 1953". http://movies.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=950CE0D91F3FE43ABC4953DFB2668388649EDE.  
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ "“Here's wishing these DVDs would soon hit the shelves,” Observer-Reporter, November 14, 2003 (fee access required)". http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=WORB&p_theme=worb&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=1056175F5B68D773&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM.  
  12. ^ "“1.Dark subjects can't blight artists' light at Telluride,” Variety, September 10, 1993". http://www.variety.com/article/VR110373.html?categoryid=5&cs=1.  
  13. ^ "“Fear & Desire Plays New York,” National Public Radio, January 19, 1994 (transcript)". http://www.visual-memory.co.uk/amk/doc/0047.html.  
  14. ^ “PROFILE: LIBRARY OF CONGRESS TO SHOW RARELY SEEN STANLEY KUBRICK FILMS ON JULY 26th, WHAT WOULD HAVE BEEN HIS 71ST BIRTHDAY,” NPR, July 15, 1999, (fee-based access)
  15. ^ "“Restrospective: Stanley Kubrick,” Wexner Center for the Arts, August 14, 2008". http://www.wexarts.org/fv/index.php?eventid=3063.  

Further reading

  • Kagan, Norman. The Cinema of Stanley Kubrick. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 0826412432.  
  • Naremore, James. On Kubrick. British Film Institute. ISBN 1844571424.  
  • Sperb, Jason. The Kubrick Facade: Faces and Voices in the Films of Stanley Kubrick. The Scarecrow Press, Inc.. ISBN 081085855X.  

External links

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Fear and Desire
File:Fear and Desire
Portion of theatrical film poster
Directed by Stanley Kubrick
Produced by Stanley Kubrick
Written by Howard Sackler
Starring Frank Silvera,
Kenneth Harp,
Paul Mazursky
Distributed by Joseph Burstyn
Release date(s) 31 March 1953
Running time 72 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $50,000 (estimated)

Fear and Desire (1953) is a military action/adventure film directed by Stanley Kubrick. It is noteworthy as Kubrick’s first feature film and is also one of his least-seen productions.

Contents

Plot

Fear and Desire opens with an off-screen narrator (actor David Allen) who tells the audience:

There is a war in this forest. Not a war that has been fought, nor one that will be, but any war. And the enemies that struggle here do not exist unless we call them into being. For all of them, and all that happens now is outside history. Only the unchanging shapes of fear and doubt and death are from our world. These soldiers that you see keep our language and our time, but have no other country but the mind.[1]

The story is set during a war between two unidentified countries. An airplane carrying four soldiers from one country has crashed six miles behind enemy lines. The soldiers come upon a river and build a raft, hoping they can use the waterway to reach their battalion. As they are building their raft, they are approached by a young peasant girl who does not speak their language. The soldiers apprehend the girl and bind her to a tree with their belts. One of the soldiers is mentally disturbed. He is left behind to guard the girl but when she escapes he fatally shoots her while shouting about William Shakespeare's The Tempest. A second soldier persuades the commander to take the raft for a solo voyage in connection with a plan to capture the headquarters of an enemy general at a nearby base. The remaining two soldiers successfully infiltrate the base, They locate and kill the top ranking general and one of his aides – only to discover the dead men looked exactly like them.[2]

Production

Prior to shooting Fear and Desire, Kubrick was a Look photographer who had directed two short documentaries in 1951, Day of the Fight and Flying Padre. Both films were acquired for theatrical release by RKO Radio Pictures. Based on his experiences in creating short films, Kubrick felt he was ready to make a narrative feature film.[3] Kubrick quit his full-time job with Look and set forth to create Fear and Desire.[4]

The screenplay for Fear and Desire was written by Howard Sackler, a classmate of Kubrick’s at William Howard Taft High School in the Bronx, New York; Sackler later won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1968 drama The Great White Hope. Paul Mazursky, who would later receive recognition as the director of popular films including Harry and Tonto and An Unmarried Woman, was cast as the soldier who kills the captive peasant.[3]

Funds for Fear and Desire were raised from Kubrick's family and friends, with most of it coming from Martin Perveler, Kubrick’s uncle and the owner of a profitable pharmacy.[5] The film’s original budget has been estimated at $10,000.[3]

The production team consisted of 15 people: five actors (Paul Mazursky, Frank Silvera, Kenneth Harp, Steve Coit and Virginia Leith), five crew members (including Kubrick’s first wife, Tobia Metz) and four Mexican laborers who transported the film equipment around California's San Gabriel Mountains, where the film was shot. Kubrick served as the film's director, producer, cinematographer and editor.[3]

Due to budget limitations, Kubrick improvised in the use of his equipment. To create fog, Kubrick used a crop sprayer – but the cast and crew was nearly asphyxiated because the machinery still contained the insecticide used for its agricultural work.[6] For tracking shots, Paul Mazursky recalled how Kubrick came up with a novel substitute: "There was no dolly track, just a baby carriage to move the camera," he told an interviewer.[5]

Kubrick ran into several problems during the post-production process. He shot the film without sound, with plans to add the dialogue track later, along with the music score and sound effects. However, this raised the cost of finishing the film. Kubrick took a second unit assignment to shoot footage for a television film on the life of Abraham Lincoln in order to secure funds to finish the Fear and Desire soundtrack.[3]

Kubrick also ran into difficulty in editing a key scene where one of the soldiers throws a plate of beans to the floor and enters the frame from the wrong side. Kubrick's blocking of the crucial scene was faulty, and his actors accidentally crossed the so-called "director’s line," which required the negative to be flipped in the printing process to preserve continuity; this was another expense.[7]

Distribution and disappearance

Fear and Desire was picked up for U.S. theatrical release by Joseph Burstyn, a distributor who specialized in the presentation of European art house titles.[8] In an uncredited review following the New York premiere, The New York Times noted: "If Fear and Desire is uneven and sometimes reveals an experimental rather than a polished exterior, its overall effect is entirely worthy of the sincere effort put into it."[9]

Kubrick received praise for Fear and Desire from film critic and screenwriter James Agee, who reportedly took Kubrick out for a drink and told him, "There are too many good things... to call [Fear and Desire] arty."[1] Columbia University professor Mark Van Doren sent Kubrick a letter that stated: “The incident of the girl bound to the tree will make movie history once it is seen... Stanley Kubrick is worth watching for those who want to discover high talent at the moment it appears.”[10]

Fear and Desire was not a box office success, and Kubrick had to take a for-hire job directing the promotional short The Seafarers on behalf of the Seafarers International Union in order to raise funds for his next planned feature, Killer's Kiss (1954), which would be co-written by Kubrick and Howard Sackler and star Frank Silvera, one of the Fear and Desire actors.[3]

In the years following its release, Fear and Desire seemed to have disappeared. Joseph Burstyn went out of business and there were stories that Kubrick had spent years acquiring all known prints of the film, with the plan of preventing it from ever being seen again. However, some prints of the film remained in private collections.[11]

Fear and Desire had its first retrospective screened at the 1993 Telluride Film Festival.[12] In January 1994, the Film Forum, a nonprofit art and revival theater in lower Manhattan, announced plans to show Fear and Desire on a double bill with Killer's Kiss. Although the film’s copyright lapsed and the property was in the public domain, thus allowing it to be shown without fear of legal actions, Kubrick tried to discourage it from gaining an audience. Through Warner Brothers, Kubrick issued a statement that severely downplayed the film’s value, and he called Fear and Desire "a bumbling amateur film exercise."[13]

To date, there have been very few public screenings of Fear and Desire; the only commercially available print belongs to the George Eastman House in Rochester, New York. Among the rare presentations were a 1993 screening at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., a 2003 one-time screening at the Two Boots Den of Cin in New York City and an August 2008 presentation at the Wexner Center for the Arts in Columbus, Ohio.[2][14][15] Also, some clips from the film can be seen in the 2001 documentary Stanley Kubrick: A Life in Pictures.

Fear and Desire had yet to see a commercial home entertainment release.[2] Bootleg copies proliferated on DVD and on several online video sites.

Discovering

An original copy of the film was discovered at the Puerto Rican Film laboratory.[16]

References

  1. ^ a b "“The country of the mind in Kubrick's Fear and Desire. (Movie Review),” Film Criticism Magazine, September 22, 2004 (library card access required)". Film Criticism. September 22, 2004. http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-18494588_ITM. 
  2. ^ a b c "“Fear and Desire,” Film Threat, May 7, 2003". http://www.filmthreat.com/index.php?section=reviews&Id=4492. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Duncan, Paul. “Stanley Kubrick: The Complete Films.” Taschen, 2008. ISBN 9783822831151
  4. ^ "“Stanley Kubrick—an appreciation,” World Socialist Web site, March 27, 1999". http://www.wsws.org/articles/1999/mar1999/kub-m27.shtml. 
  5. ^ a b Guthmann, Edward (July 17, 1999). "“The Ones That (Almost) Got Away,” San Francisco Chronicle, July 18, 1999". The San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/1999/07/18/PK35513.DTL&type=movies. 
  6. ^ "“The New Pictures,” Time, June 4, 1956". June 4, 1956. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,867001,00.html. Retrieved May 2, 2010. 
  7. ^ Buchanan, Larry. “It Came From Hunger!”McFarland & Co., 1996. ISBN 078640194X
  8. ^ Allen, Thomas. “Kubrick: Inside a Film Artist’s Maze.” Indiana University Press, 2000. ISBN 0253253908
  9. ^ "New York Times, April 1, 1953". The New York Times. http://movies.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=950CE0D91F3FE43ABC4953DFB2668388649EDE. [dead link]
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ "“Here's wishing these DVDs would soon hit the shelves,” Observer-Reporter, November 14, 2003 (fee access required)". Observer-Reporter. November 14, 2003. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=WORB&p_theme=worb&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=1056175F5B68D773&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM. 
  12. ^ McCarthy, Todd (September 10, 1993). "“1.Dark subjects can't blight artists' light at Telluride,” Variety, September 10, 1993". http://www.variety.com/article/VR110373.html?categoryid=5&cs=1. 
  13. ^ "“Fear & Desire Plays New York,” National Public Radio, January 19, 1994 (transcript)". http://www.visual-memory.co.uk/amk/doc/0047.html. 
  14. ^ “PROFILE: LIBRARY OF CONGRESS TO SHOW RARELY SEEN STANLEY KUBRICK FILMS ON JULY 26th, WHAT WOULD HAVE BEEN HIS 71ST BIRTHDAY,” NPR, July 15, 1999, (fee-based access)
  15. ^ "“Restrospective: Stanley Kubrick,” Wexner Center for the Arts, August 14, 2008". http://www.wexarts.org/fv/index.php?eventid=3063. 
  16. ^ http://www.excessif.com/cinema/actu-cinema/news/fear-and-desire-le-premier-film-de-kubrick-retrouve-6078144-760.html

Further reading

  • Kagan, Norman. The Cinema of Stanley Kubrick. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 0826412432. 
  • Naremore, James. On Kubrick. British Film Institute. ISBN 1844571424. 
  • Sperb, Jason. The Kubrick Facade: Faces and Voices in the Films of Stanley Kubrick. The Scarecrow Press, Inc.. ISBN 081085855X. 

External links


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