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Federal Protective Service of Russia
Федеральная служба охраны
Common name Federal Protective Service
Abbreviation FSO
Emblem of the Russian Federal Protective Service.png
The emblem of the FSO.
Agency overview
Formed May 27, 1996
Preceding agency Glavnoye Upravlenie Okhrani (GUO)
Legal personality Governmental: Government agency
Jurisdictional structure
Federal agency Russia
Constituting instrument Law On State Protection
General nature
Specialist jurisdiction Protection of internationally protected persons, other very important persons, and-or of state property of significance.
Operational structure
Agency executive General Evgeny Murov

For the American Federal Protective Service see:Federal Protective Service (United States)

In the Russian Federation, the Federal Protective Service (FSO) (Russian: Федеральная служба охраны, ФСО) is a federal government agency concerned with the tasks related to the protection of several, mandated by the relevant law, high-ranking state officials, including the President of Russia, as well as certain federal properties. It traces its origin to the USSR's Ninth Chief Directorate of the KGB and later Presidential Security Service (SBP) led by KGB general Alexander Korzhakov.

On May 27, 1996, the law "On State Protection" reorganized the GUO (Glavnoye Upravlenie Okhrani) into the FSO (Federal Protection Service). Under the law (article 7), "the President of the Russian Federation, while in office, shall not be allowed to forgo state protection."[1]


Structure and command

Since May 18, 2008, the agency is headed by General Evgeny Murov. FSO has roughly 20,000 - 30,000 uniformed personnel plus several thousand plainclothes personnel and controls the "black box" that can be used in the event of global nuclear war[2]. It also operates the secure high-level communications system and the secure subway system used by the government Moscow metro-2.

It reportedly[3] includes, inter alia, Russia Presidential Security Service service, though the latter is not listed as one of the structural units on the FSO official website.

One of its units is the Kremlin Regiment.

The FSO is a powerful institution with a range of rights and powers, including the right to conduct searches and surveillance without warrants, make arrests, and give orders to other state agencies.

The Service under Putin was alleged to be effectively supervised by Viktor Zolotov, head of the president's personal security service[2]. The service is still subordinated to Vladimir Putin and allegedly used to "keep an eye" on the current Russian president Medvedev[4]

History of the federal protective services

  • Special department by VChK College
  • Special department of GPU
  • Special department by OGPU College - Dec, 1929
  • 5th department (special safeguard) of Operod, SOU OGPU Jan, 1930 - Mar, 1931
  • 5th department (special safeguard) of Operod, SOU OGPU Mar - Jun, 1931
  • 4th department of Operod, OGPU Jun, 1931 -
  • Operod of OGPU
  • Operative division (Operod) of GUGB NKVD USSR Jul, 1934 - Nov, 1936
  • Division of safeguard by GUGB NKVD USSR Dec, 1936 - Jun, 1938
  • Department of Moscow Kremlin’s commandant, NKVD USSR
  • 1st division of 1st Department by NKVD USSR Jun - Sep, 1938
  • 1st division of GUGB
  • 1st division of NKGB
  • Department of Moscow Kremlin’s commandant, NKGB USSR
  • 1st division of NKVD
  • Department of Moscow Kremlin’s commandant, NKVD USSR
  • Sixth department of NKGB USSR Apr, 1943 - Mar, 1946
  • Department of Moscow Kremlin’s commandant, NKGB USSR
  • Sixth department of MGB USSR Mar, 1946 - Apr, 1946
  • Department of safeguard No. 1, MGB Apr, 1946 - Dec, 1946
  • Department of safeguard No. 2, MGB Apr, 1946 - Dec, 1946
  • Department of Moscow Kremlin’s commandant, MGB USSR - Dec, 1946
  • Headquarters of safeguard, MGB USSR Dec, 1946 - May, 1952
  • Department of safeguard, MGB May, 1952
  • Ninth department of MVD USSR Mar, 1953 - Mar, 1954
  • Tenth department of MVD USSR Mar, 1953- Mar, 1954
  • Ninth department of KGB by SM USSR Mar, 1954 -
  • Tenth department of KGB by SM USSR Mar, 1954 -
  • Fifteenth department of KGB by SM USSR
  • Ninth department of KGB USSR
  • Fifteenth department of KGB USSR
  • Service of safeguard, KGB USSR
  • Department of safeguard by USSR President
  • Main Administration of Protection (GUO- Glavnoye Upravlenie Okhrani) (1992–1996)
  • Federal Protective Service (FSO) (1996-today)

See also


  1. ^ (Russian) Статья 7 Федерального Закона О государственной охране 1996 года
  2. ^ a b Pete Earley. Comrade J.: The Untold Secrets of Russia's Master Spy in America after the End of the Cold War, Putnam Adult (January 24, 2008), ISBN 0399154396, pages 298-301.
  3. ^ Служба безопасности Президента (СБП)
  4. ^ Померяться силами May 15, 2008.

External links



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