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Federated States of Micronesia
Flag Coat of arms
MottoPeace Unity Liberty
AnthemPatriots of Micronesia
Capital Palikir
6°55′N 158°11′E / 6.917°N 158.183°E / 6.917; 158.183
Largest city Kolonia
Official language(s) English (national; local languages are used at state and municipal levels)
Demonym Micronesian
Government Democratic Federated Presidential Republic
 -  President Manny Mori
 -  Vice President Alik L. Alik
Independence from US-administered UN Trusteeship 
 -  Date 3 November 1986 
Area
 -  Total 702 km2 (188th)
271 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible
Population
 -  2009 estimate 111,000[1] (181st)
 -  2000 census 107,000 
 -  Density 158.1/km2 (66th)
409.6/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2002 estimate
 -  Total $277 million (215th)
 -  Per capita $2,000 (180th)
HDI (2003) n/a (unranked) (n/a)
Currency United States dollar (USD)
Time zone (UTC+10 and +11)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+10 and +11)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .fm
Calling code 691
1 GDP is supplemented by grant aid, averaging around $100 million annually (2002 estimate).
2 2002 estimate.

The Federated States of Micronesia en-us-Micronesia.ogg /ˌmaɪkroʊˈniːʒə/ is an island nation located in the Pacific Ocean, north of New Guinea. It is a sovereign state in free association with the United States. The Federated States of Micronesia were formerly part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, a United Nations Trust Territory under U.S. administration. In 1979 they adopted a constitution, and in 1986 independence was attained under a Compact of Free Association with the United States.

The Federated States of Micronesia is spread across the Caroline Islands in the wider region of Micronesia, which consists of hundreds of small islands divided between several countries. The term Micronesia may refer to the Federated States or to the region as a whole.

Contents

History

The ancestors of the Micronesians settled over four thousand years ago. A decentralized chieftain-based system eventually evolved into a more centralized economic and religious empire centered on Yap.

Nan Madol, consisting of a series of small artificial islands linked by a network of canals, is often called the Venice of the Pacific. It is located near the island of Pohnpei and used to be the ceremonial and political seat of the Saudeleur dynasty that united Pohnpei's estimated 25,000 people from about AD 500 until 1500, when the centralized system collapsed.

European explorers—first the Portuguese in search of the Spice Islands (Indonesia) and then the Spanish—reached the Carolines in the sixteenth century, with the Spanish establishing sovereignty. It was sold to Germany in 1899, conquered by Japan in 1914, before being seized by the United States during World War II and administered by the US under United Nations auspices in 1947 as part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

During World War II, a significant portion of the Japanese fleet was based in Truk Lagoon. In February 1944, Operation Hailstone, one of the most important naval battles of the war, took place at Truk, in which many Japanese support vessels and aircraft were destroyed.

On May 10, 1979, four of the Trust Territory districts ratified a new constitution to become the Federated States of Micronesia. Palau, the Marshall Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands chose not to participate. The FSM signed a Compact of Free Association with the United States of America, which entered into force on November 3, 1986, marking Micronesia's emergence from trusteeship to independence. The Compact was renewed in 2004.

Politics

The Federated States of Micronesia is governed by the 1979 constitution, which guarantees fundamental human rights and establishes a separation of governmental powers. The unicameral Congress has fourteen members elected by popular vote. Four senators—one from each state—serve four-year terms; the remaining ten senators represent single-member districts based on population, and serve two-year terms. The President and Vice President are elected by Congress from among the four state-based senators to serve four-year terms in the executive branch. Their congressional seats are then filled by special elections.

The president and vice president are supported by an appointed cabinet. There are no formal political parties.

In international politics, the Federated States of Micronesia has often voted with the United States with respect to United Nations General Assembly resolutions. However, in recent years other countries have had a higher voting coincidence with the United States.[2]

Administrative divisions

Map of the Federated States of Micronesia

The four states in the federation are:

Flag State Capital Land
area
km²[3]
Population[4] Population
density
per km²
Chuuk Chuuk Weno 127 54,595 420
Kosrae Kosrae Tofol 110 9,686 70
Pohnpei Pohnpei Kolonia 346 74,685 100
Yap Yap Colonia 118 16,436 95

These states are further divided into municipalities.

Geography

Kolonia Town looking down from Sokehs Ridge in Pohnpei.

The Federated States of Micronesia consists of 607 islands extending 1,800 miles (2,900 km) across the archipelago of the Caroline Islands east of the Philippines. The four constituent island groups are Yap, Chuuk (called Truk until January 1990), Pohnpei (known as "Ponape" until November 1984), and Kosrae (formerly Kusaie). These four states are each represented by a white star on the national flag. The capital is Palikir, on Pohnpei.

The country has seven official languages: English, Ulithian, Woleaian, Yapese, Pohnpeian, Kosraean, and Chuukese.

The other languages spoken in the country are Pingelapese, Ngatikese, Satawalese, Kapingamarangi Language, Nukuoro Language, Puluwatese, Mortlockese, and Mokilese.

Economy

Economic activity in the Federated States of Micronesia consists primarily of subsistence farming and fishing. The islands have few mineral deposits worth exploiting, except for high-grade phosphate. Long line tuna fishing is also viable with foreign vessels from China operated in the 1990s. The potential for a tourist industry exists, but the remoteness of the location and a lack of adequate facilities hinder development. Financial assistance from the US is the primary source of revenue, with the US pledged to spend $1.3 billion in the islands in 1986–2001. Geographical isolation and a poorly developed infrastructure are major impediments to long-term growth.

The nation uses the US dollar as their currency.

Transportation

The Federated States of Micronesia is served by four international airports.

Demographics

The indigenous population of the Federated States of Micronesia, which is predominantly Micronesian, consists of various ethnolinguistic groups. It has a nearly 100% Pacific Islander and Asian population. Chuukese 48.8%, Pohnpeian 24.2%, Kosraean 6.2%, Yapese 5.2%, Yap outer islands 4.5%, Asian 1.8%, Polynesian 1.5%, other 6.4%, unknown 1.4%. A sizeable minority also have some Japanese ancestry, which is a result of intermarriages between Japanese settlers and Micronesians during the Japanese colonial period.[5] There is also growing expatriate population of Americans, Australians, Europeans, and residents from China and the Philippines since the 1990s. English has become the common language of the government, and for secondary and tertiary education. Outside of the main capital towns of the four FSM states, the local languages are primarily spoken. Population growth remains high at more than 3% annually, offset somewhat by net emigration. Pohnpei is notable for the prevalence of the extreme form of color blindness known as maskun.

Culture

A large (approximately 8 feet (2.4 m) in height) example of Yapese stone money (Rai stones) in the village of Gachpar.

Each of the four States has its own culture and traditions, but there are also common cultural and economic bonds that are centuries old. For example, cultural similarities like the importance of the traditional extended family and clan systems can be found on all the islands.

The island of Yap is notable for its "stone money" (Rai stones), large disks usually of calcite, up to 12 feet (4 m) in diameter, with a hole in the middle. The islanders, aware of the owner of a piece, do not necessarily move them when ownership changes. There are five major types: Mmbul, Gaw, Ray, Yar, and Reng, the last being only 1 foot (30 cm) in diameter. Their value is based on both size and history, many of them having been brought from other islands, as far as New Guinea, but most coming in ancient times from Palau. Approximately 6,500 of them are scattered around the island.

Languages

The languages of the Federated States of Micronesia include English (the official and common language), Trukese, Pohnpeian, Yapese, Kosraean.[6] There are also about 3,000 speakers of Kapingamarangi and Ulithian, and under 1,000 speakers of Nukuoro.

Literature

There have been few published literary writers from the Federated States of Micronesia.[7] In 2008, Emelihter Kihleng became the first ever Micronesian to publish a collection of poetry in the English language[8].

Religion

Defense and foreign affairs

The FSM is a sovereign, self-governing state in free association with the United States, which is wholly responsible for its defense. The Division of Maritime Surveillance operates a paramilitary Maritime Wing and a small Maritime Police Unit. The Compact of Free Association allows FSM citizens to join the U.S. military without having to obtain U.S. permanent residency or citizenship,[9] allows for immigration and employment for Micronesians in the U.S., and establishes economic and technical aid programs.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (.PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1. 2008 revision. United Nations. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  2. ^ General Assembly - Overall Votes - Comparison with U.S. vote lists Micronesia as in the country with the fourth high coincidence of votes. In past years' reports, Micronesia has always been in the top four.
  3. ^ FSM government website - Geography
  4. ^ FSM government website - Population
  5. ^ President Emanuel Mori Meets With Japan Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda; AESonline.org Government of the Federated States of Micronesia, December 12, 2007
  6. ^ CIA World Factbook
  7. ^ "Seeking Micronesian literary writers", Marianas Variety, February 18, 2009
  8. ^ "Micronesian Poet Publishes Collection of Poems", Office of Insular Affairs, May 12, 2008
  9. ^ U.S. Military Enlistment Standards

References

  1. US-CIA. CIA - The World Factbook: Federated States of Micronesia. The World Factbook. United States of America: Central Intelligence Agency. 2003.
  2. History_Federated_States_of_Micronesia

Bibliography

  • Brower, Kenneth; Harri Peccinotti (1981). Micronesia: The Land, the People, and the Sea. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 0807109924. 
  • Darrach, Brad; David Doubilet (1995). "Treasured Islands". Life (August 1995): 46–53. 
  • Falgout, Suzanne (1995). "Americans in Paradise: Anthropologists, Custom, and Democracy in Postwar Micronesia". Ethnology 34 (Spring 1995): 99–111. doi:10.2307/3774100. 
  • Friedman, Hal M. (1993). "The Beast in Paradise: The United States Navy in Micronesia, 1943–1947". Pacific Historical Review 62 (May 1993): 173–195. 
  • Friedman, Hal M. (1994). "Arguing over Empire". Journal of Pacific History 29 (1994): 36–48. doi:10.1080/00223349408572757. 
  • Hanlon, David (1998). Remaking Micronesia: Discourses over Development in a Pacific Territory, 1944–1982. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0824818946. 
  • Hezel, Francis X. (1995). "The Church in Micronesia". America 18 (February 1995): 23–24. 
  • Kluge, P. F. (1991). The Edge of Paradise: America in Micronesia. New York: Random House. ISBN 0394581784. 
  • Malcomson, S. L. (1989). "Stranger than Paradise". Mother Jones 14 (January 1989): 19–25. 
  • "Micronesia: A New Nation". U.S. News & World Report (October 15, 1984): 80–81. 
  • Parfit, Michael (2003). "Islands of the Pacific". National Geographic 203 (March 2003): 106–125. 
  • Patterson, Carolyn Bennett (1986). "In the Far Pacific: At the Birth of Nations". National Geographic 170 (October 1986): 460–500. 
  • Peoples, James G. (1993). "Political Evolution in Micronesia". Ethnology 32 (Winter 1993): 1–17. doi:10.2307/3773542. 
  • Rainbird, Paul (2003). "Taking the Tapu: Defining Micronesia by Absence". Journal of Pacific History 38 (September 2003): 237–250. doi:10.1080/0022334032000120558. 
  • Schwalbenberg, Henry M.; Thomas Hatcher (1994). "Micronesian Trade and Foreign Assistance". Journal of Pacific History 29 (1): 95–104. doi:10.1080/00223349408572762. 

External links

Government
General information
News media
Maps
Travel

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Oceania : Federated States of Micronesia

For the region of Micronesia, please see Micronesia (disambiguation)

noframe
Flag
Image:fm-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Palikir
Government Constitutional government in free association with the US
Currency US dollar (USD)
Area total: 702 km2
note: includes Pohnpei (Ponape), Chuuk (Truk) Islands, Yap Islands, and Kosrae
Population 108,105(July 2006 est.)
Language English (official and common language), Trukese, Pohnpeian, Yapese, Kosrean, Ulithian, Woleaian, Nukuoro, Kapingamarangi
Religion Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 47%
Calling Code +691
Internet TLD .fm
Time Zone UTC+10 to UTC+11

The Federated States of Micronesia [1] is a country in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. It is composed of four major island groups totaling 607 islands that lie just north of the equator about three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to Indonesia, to the north of Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands and to the south of the Marshall Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands and Guam.

Regions

There are 4 states:

Other destinations

The remote atoll of Kapingamarangi is the southernmost island group in FSM.

Understand

Climate

Tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the eastern islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with occasionally severe damage; Natural hazards : typhoons (June to December).

Map of the Federated States of Micronesia
Map of the Federated States of Micronesia

Terrain

Islands vary geologically from high mountainous islands to low, coral atolls; volcanic outcroppings on Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Truk

Highest point: Dolohmwar (Totolom) 791 m
National holiday 
Constitution Day, 10 May (1979)
Constitution 
10 May 1979

In 1979 the Federated States of Micronesia, a UN Trust Territory under US administration, adopted a constitution. On 3 November 1986 independence was attained under a Compact of Free Association with the US; economic provisions of the Compact are being renegotiated.

Independence 
3 November 1986 (from the US-administered UN Trusteeship)

Present concerns include large-scale unemployment, overfishing, and overdependence on US aid.

Get in

By plane

The major airline that travels to FSM is Continental Airlines, which operates a thrice-weekly "island hopper" flight (CO956 eastbound, CO957 westbound) traveling HonoluluMajuroKwajaleinKosraePohnpeiChuukGuam and vice versa. The flight is fourteen and a half hours, leaving in the early morning and terminating in the evening, with a stop of about one hour on each island. There are also nonstop flights from various islands to both Honolulu and Guam.

Honolulu is the most direct gateway into the islands from North America. Guam is the most direct gateway from most points in Asia and Australia, although it is also possible to fly into the islands from Manila via Palau.

By boat

The major international ports are; Chuuk,Pohnpei and Yap. There are inter-island trading ships based in these major ports which visits the outlying islands.

Get around

By bus

Even though there are no bus scheduled service on the island, some buses are available to hire or charter. Also, on Yap there is a school bus that runs twice daily from Colonia to the villages.

Taxi

Taxi service is available throughout the islands and are inexpensive.

Car Hire

There are self-driven cars available in the major towns of the islands. However, It is required to have a National Driver's License or International Driving Permit.

Languages 
English (official and common language), Trukese, Pohnpeian, Yapese, Kosrean, Ulithian, Woleaian, Nukuoro, Kapingamarangi
  • Kosrae Nautilus Resort, P.O. Box 135, Kosrae, Micronesia (15 minute drive from the airport on the eastern side of the island, adjacent to the ocean), + 691 370 3567, [2]. checkin: When the flight arrives; checkout: 10.30AM. 18-room modern hotel with air-conditioned rooms and restaurant, or outside dining by the swimming pool. Free airport transfers, full service scuba dive operation including NAUI scuba instruction. Tour and rental cars arranged. Located adjacent to the Lelu causeway facing east to the Pacific Ocean, with 3 acres of manicured gardens. US$115 to $130. (5.20,163.0) edit

Stay safe

FSM is one of the safest places on earth. there is little violent crime. beware, it is also one of the wettest places on earth, and rains almost everyday.

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Proper noun

Singular
Federated States of Micronesia

Plural
-

Federated States of Micronesia

  1. The official name of Micronesia.

Translations

See also


Simple English

[[File:|thumb|The flag of Micronesia]] Micronesia, officially the Federated States of Micronesia, is an island nation located in the Pacific Ocean, northeast of Papua New Guinea. The country is a sovereign state in free association with the United States. The capital city of Federated States of Micronesia is Palikir.

The Federated States of Micronesia were formerly part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, a United Nations Trust Territory under US administration. In 1979 they adopted a constitution, and in 1986 independence was attained under a Compact of Free Association with the United States. Present concerns include large-scale unemployment, overfishing, and overdependence on U.S. aid.

The Federated States of Micronesia are located in the region known as Micronesia, which consists of hundreds of small islands divided in seven territories. The term Micronesia may refer to the Federated States or to the region as a whole. This area is located in oceania.

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