The Full Wiki

Fee: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A fee is the price one pays as remuneration for services, especially the honorarium paid to a doctor, lawyer, consultant, or other member of a learned profession. Fees usually allow for overhead, wages, costs, and markup.

Traditionally, professionals in Great Britain received a fee in contradistinction to a payment, salary, or wage, and would often use guineas rather than pounds as units of account.

A contingent fee is an attorney's fee which is reduced or not charged at all if the court case is lost by the attorney.

A service fee, service charge, or surcharge is a fee added to a customer's bill. The purpose of a service charge often depends on the nature of the product and corresponding service provided. Examples of why this fee is charged are: travel time expenses, truck rental fees, liability and workers' compensation insurance fees, and planning fees. UPS and FedEx have recently begun surcharges for fuel.

Restaurants and banquet halls charging service charges in lieu of tips must distribute them to their wait staff in some U.S. states (e.g., Massachusetts, New York, Montana), but in the State of Kentucky may keep them.

A fee may be a flat fee or a variable one, or part of a two-part tariff.

It is now very common in the United States for fees to be used to hide the real price of a service or product, in a widely used form of deceptive taxation and advertising.

Advance-fee fraud is a scam, although some contractors and other businesses may legitimately go bankrupt after accepting a fee in advance.

A membership fee is charged as part of a subscription business model.

Contents

Telecom

For telecommunications services such as high-speed Internet and mobile phones, an activation fee is commonly assessed, although most companies fail to include it in the advertised price, and activation means only typing some customer information into a computer. For example, as of 2008, Verizon Wireless has begun charging 20 dollars for activation of its phones, even for existing customers who want to upgrade. Customers are told that the phones can be returned or exchanged within 15 days, but are not told that the extra fee (which has been disclosed only in fine print) will not be returned, and that yet another fee will assessed against him or her for getting a different new phone, or even going back to their old one.

Another fee is the early-termination fee applied nearly-universally to cellphone contracts, supposedly to cover the remaining part of the subsidy that the provider prices the phones with. If the user terminates before the end of the term, he or she will be charged, often well over 100 dollars. In the U.S., mobile phone companies have come under heavy criticism for this anti-competitive practice, and the FCC is considering limits to prevent price gouging, such as requiring the fees to be prorated.

Many cable TV and telephone companies, including AT&T, include a regulatory-cost recovery fee in the bill each month of around three U.S. dollars, passing the blame onto government regulation, and essentially charging their customers for complying with U.S. law.

Banking

Bank fees are assessed to customers for various services and as penalties. There are unauthorised overdraft fees, ATM usage fees, fees for having an account balance under a required amount. Some banks charge a fee for using tellers in an effort to encourage customers to use automated services instead.[1], The fees have come in for criticism as excessive from consumer advocates. They have also targeted banks practices the maximize the assessment of fees and fees that can add up to many times the amount of small transactions.

U.S. banks extract fees from automatic teller machine transactions that are made at rival banks, even if the customer's home bank has no branch in a particular area (such as when the customer is on vacation). Customers are sometimes charged twice, both by the bank that owns the ATM, and again by their bank. Bank of America charges a denial fee, literally a fee for refusing service to the customer (if there are insufficient funds or a daily limit), and a fee to simply check the account balance at a "foreign" (other bank's) ATM.

Following the 2008 financial crisis and legislation passed by Congress, banks have modified many credit card agreements with customers sometimes increasing interest rates or reducing credit limits.

Renting

Like an activation fee, a setup fee is often charged by places that rent space or other things. In the case of self-storage businesses, this negates claims of "only one dollar for the first month" made by Public Storage and others. Apartment complexes often charge fees for pets (mainly dogs and cats). Some complexes euphemisitically call these a non-refundable deposit, ignoring the definition of a deposit as inherently being refundable.

Real estate

Main article: Closing cost

A title company or attorney collects a variety of fees in the course of handling the purchase of a house at a closing (real estate). These may include fees for tax service, flood certification, underwriting, appraisal, credit report, record deed, record deed trust, loan signing and processing.

Event tickets

With respect to events tickets, online reservations and payments, and other transactions, there is sometimes a service charge (often called a convenience fee) that serves as additional compensation for the company facilitating the transaction. Ticketmaster and others charge this, and have made a business model of it. However, such groups have a monopoly on particular events or even entire concert venues.

Air travel

Airlines have long charged fees for changing flights, and for excess luggage. However, with the oil price increases since 2003, many are increasing fees. In May 2008, it was announced that some would be charging even for just one checked bag, making it nearly impossible to avoid. Airlines have also invented fees for nearly every "service" that has always previously been included in the ticket price. While the extra income may be necessary to prevent bankruptcy, the practice of not including mandatory fees in the stated price is deceptive.

Airports also charge landing fees to airlines in order to cover costs, particularly airport security.

Customer service

Some businesses charge fees just for talking to a customer service representative. DirecTV charges this when ordering a pay-per-view movie via telephone instead of through the set-top box. Some companies charge for technical support, either prepaid or by using a premium-rate telephone number (such as the 1-900 numbers in North America). In the 2000s, some banks in the U.S. began charging a fee just to visit a teller, prompting such customer anger that the banks were forced to back down.

Speaking

A speaking fee is a payment awarded to an individual for speaking at a public event. Sometimes it is used as a way to pass money to individuals which would otherwise be prohibited.

Late fees

Late fees are charged when payment is not received by a deadline. These are supposedly intended to get people to pay rent or other charges on time, but these are sometimes exorbitant, or extremely out of proportion to the amount of money which is late. They can also add insult to injury for people who have hit hard financial times, making their situation worse. When added to credit card bills or check card statements, it may also cause an overlimit or NSF fee, creating an endless and inescapable cycle of fees that trigger other fees for people aleady stretched to their financial limit.

Retail

Some retail stores add fees, mainly for "guest passes" at membership warehouses like Costco and Sam's Club, where membership dues have not been paid.

There are a few other "cost-plus" stores, however, that add ten percent or so at checkout, using the lower shelf price to trick consumers into erroneous comparison shopping. At Food Depot and other smaller low-end chain stores like this, the shelf price may be 1.95, when the shopper will actually be charged 2.15 in the end, in a sort of legalized bait and switch. (Furthermore, a disclaimer indicates the shelf price is not even the actual cost to the store.)

Early termination

An early-termination fee is charged by a company when a customer wants or needs to be released from a contract before it expires. One example is when a renter leaves an apartment before a year-long contract is over. If tenants rent for a shorter period, or month-to-month, they are instead charged significantly more per month, and are often denied any promotional deals. Mobile phone companies in the U.S. are notorious for huge early-termination fees, typically starting at 175 dollars, and falling by only a few dollars per month, no matter the actual cost of or subsidy to the phone.

Some mortgage companies also charge early payment penalties if the homeowner pays more than is due in order to reduce the interest owed and to shorten the remaining term of the loan. The fees typically negate this advantage at least in part.

There are also fees charged for any type of termination. In the suburban Atlanta county of Gwinnett for example, customers were hit with termination fees of over 23 dollars when the county commission chose not to renew the contracts of the county trash collectors in November 2008. The two companies charged this both in violation of county law and in breach of contract.

Infrastructure and environment

An impact fee is a charge which a developer must pay to local government, in order to raise money for capital improvements to roads, libraries, and other services upon which the new land development places a burden. This prevents existing residents from being forced to pay in taxes, in addition to already having to put-up with the traffic, noise, and environmental damage of the new development.

Government

Advertisements

Public resources

A user fee is a fee paid for the use of a public resource, like a park. This is most common for national parks, and often also state parks or provincial parks, and for privately-owned areas.

Licenses and permits

Fees are usually charged for various government services, including license plates and annual motor vehicle registration, as well as driver licenses and professional licensing. Fees are also charged for various permits, like demolition and building permits, rezoning, and land grading (which causes silt); and sometimes for increasing stormwater runoff, destroying native vegetation, and cutting-down healthy trees.

Deceptive use

Sometimes fee is used to whitewash what are actually penalties or taxes. For example, Virginia's now-repealed Civil Remedial Fees were actually a tax on drivers with certain kinds of traffic law violations. Another example is the upcoming health care bill with its "fees".

Schooling

At public universities and community colleges, students are charged tuition and matriculation, when can themselves be considered fees charged per credit hour. However, the term student fees typically refers to additional charges which the student is required to pay, typically no matter how many hours the student is taking in the academic term.

Commonly this is a student activity fee, which helps to fund student organisations, particularly those which are academic in nature; and those which serve all students equally, like student government and student media. A newer fee is the technology fee, which is often charged to students by schools when state government funding fails to meet needs for computers and other classroom technology. Students may also be charged a health fee which usually covers the campus nurse, and possibly a visit to a local clinic if the student is ill.

Parking fees are normally optional, because students may not have their own automobiles. However, many U.S. schools are now forcing meal plans on their students, particularly those that stay in dorms, and some force freshmen to stay in the dorms. Generally, all fees except parking are covered under scholarships, whether they are from private, government, or lottery funds. However, at least one U.S. state (Georgia) began denying HOPE Scholarship money for any new fees added, even by its own state schools.

References

...


A fee is the price one pays as remuneration for services. Fees usually allow for overhead, wages, costs, and markup.

Traditionally, professionals in Great Britain received a fee in contradistinction to a payment, salary, or wage, and would often use guineas rather than pounds as units of account.

A contingent fee is an attorney's fee which is reduced or not charged at all if the court case is lost by the attorney.

A service fee, service charge, or surcharge is a fee added to a customer's bill. The purpose of a service charge often depends on the nature of the product and corresponding service provided. Examples of why this fee is charged are: travel time expenses, truck rental fees, liability and workers' compensation insurance fees, and planning fees. UPS and FedEx have recently begun surcharges for fuel.

Restaurants and banquet halls charging service charges in lieu of tips must distribute them to their wait staff in some U.S. states (e.g., Massachusetts, New York, Montana), but in the State of Kentucky may keep them.

A fee may be a flat fee or a variable one, or part of a two-part tariff.

A membership fee is charged as part of a subscription business model.

Contents

Telecom

For telecommunications services such as high-speed Internet and mobile phones, an activation fee is commonly assessed, although most companies fail to include it in the advertised price, and activation means only typing some customer information into a computer. For example, as of 2008, Verizon Wireless has begun charging 20 dollars for activation of its phones, even for existing customers who want to upgrade. Customers are told that the phones can be returned or exchanged within 15 days, but are not told that the extra fee (which has been disclosed only in fine print) will not be returned, and that yet another fee will assessed against him or her for getting a different new phone, or even going back to their old one.

Another fee is the early-termination fee applied nearly-universally to cellphone contracts, supposedly to cover the remaining part of the subsidy that the provider prices the phones with. If the user terminates before the end of the term, he or she will be charged, often well over 100 dollars. In the U.S., mobile phone companies have come under heavy criticism for this anti-competitive practice, and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is considering limits to prevent price gouging, such as requiring the fees to be prorated.

Many cable TV and telephone companies, including AT&T, include a regulatory-cost recovery fee in the bill each month of around three U.S. dollars, passing the blame onto government regulation, and essentially charging their customers for complying with U.S. law.

Banking

Bank fees are assessed to customers for various services and as penalties. There are unauthorised overdraft fees, ATM usage fees, fees for having an account balance under a required amount. Some banks charge a fee for using tellers in an effort to encourage customers to use automated services instead.[1], The fees have come in for criticism as excessive from consumer advocates. They have also targeted banks practices the maximize the assessment of fees and fees that can add up to many times the amount of small transactions.

U.S. banks extract fees from automatic teller machine transactions that are made at rival banks, even if the customer's home bank has no branch in a particular area (such as when the customer is on vacation). Customers are sometimes charged twice, both by the bank that owns the ATM, and again by their bank. Bank of America charges a denial fee, literally a fee for refusing service to the customer (if there are insufficient funds or a daily limit), and a fee to simply check the account balance at a "foreign" (other bank's) ATM.[citation needed]

Following the 2008 financial crisis and legislation passed by Congress, banks have modified many credit card agreements with customers sometimes increasing interest rates or reducing credit limits.

MasterCard and Visa Convenience Fee Rules & Policies

Over the last several years MasterCard and Visa have liberalized their rules regarding convenience fees charged by merchants. The card associations, especially MasterCard, have encouraged new avenues of card acceptance by allowing merchant to charge these fees. In general, convenience fees are prohibited by MasterCard/Visa except in the situations described below.

Registration with MasterCard/Visa are required for merchants processing convenience fees. MasterCard Convenience Fee Rules


MasterCard states that any convenience fee must comply with the following: • Must be properly disclosed to the cardholder in advance • Cannot discriminate against or discourage use of the MasterCard cards or brand in favor of any payment acceptance brand deemed by MasterCard to be a competitive brand, including American Express, Discover, and Visa • Does not have to be assessed on cash, check, automated clearinghouse (ACH), or personal identification number (PIN) based debit payments • Can be assessed as either a flat per transaction fee, a variable or tiered rate fee based on the amount owed, or a fixed percentage of the amount owed The merchants segments allowed to charge convenience fees under MasterCard rules are listed here:

• Elementary and secondary schools for tuition and related fees and school- maintained room and board • Colleges, universities, professional schools and junior colleges for tuition and related fees and school-maintained room and board • Local, state and federal courts of law that administer and process court fees, alimony and child support payments • Government entities that administer and process local, state and federal fines • Local, state and federal entities that engage in financial administration and taxation • Government services - merchants that provide general support services for the government

Additionally, MasterCard (unlike Visa) will permit a variable convenience fee to be assessed in connection with Debit MasterCard® transactions in card acceptor business code (MCC) 9311—Tax Payments.

This provision allows, for example, a percentage-based convenience fee to be assessed for Debit MasterCard transactions using MCC 9311, even if a fixed or ad valorem convenience fee is assessed for a similar transaction on a competitive debit card. This allows the merchant to recoup processing costs based on the amount of the transaction.


General MasterCard/Visa Rule Pg 5-20

http://www.mastercard.com/us/merchant/pdf/BM-Entire_Manual_public.pdf

Visa Convenience Fee Rules

http://usa.visa.com/download/merchants/visa-international-operating-regulations-main.pdf Page 486


Visa convenience fee rules are more restrictive than MasterCard, as follows:

- The convenience fee must be a bona fide convenience in the form of a an alternate payment channel, and must apply to all forms of payment in the alternate payment channel - The convenience fee applies only to non face-to-face transactions - The convenience fee must be disclosed to the cardholder and must allow the cardholder to cancel the transaction - The convenience fee must be a fixed or flat payment amount - The convenience fee must be included in the total amount of the transaction


The following is applicable only for the Visa Tax Payment Program:

- The convenience fee must be charged by the merchant, and must not be a third      party to the transaction
- The convenience fee may not be a recurring transaction

A Visa merchant that accepts solely mail/phone order transactions may not charge a convenience fee.

Unlike MasterCard, Visa allows a convenience fee only if the merchant offers “an alternate payment channel” that provides a convenience to the cardholder. The most common example is a merchant that accepts face-to-face transactions with no convenience fee, but allows payment over the internet with a convenience fee.

Also, note that Visa allows only a fixed or flat convenience fee payment amount, unlike MasterCard which allows a variable fee.

Renting

Like an activation fee, a setup fee is often charged by places that rent space or other things. In the case of self-storage businesses, this negates claims of "only one dollar for the first month" made by Public Storage and others. Apartment complexes often charge fees for pets (mainly dogs and cats). Some complexes euphemisitically call these a non-refundable deposit, ignoring the definition of a deposit as inherently being refundable.

Real estate

Main article: Closing cost

A title company or attorney collects a variety of fees in the course of handling the purchase of a house at a closing (real estate). These may include fees for tax service, flood certification, underwriting, appraisal, credit report, record deed, record deed trust, loan signing and processing.

Event tickets

With respect to events tickets, online reservations and payments, and other transactions, there is sometimes a service charge (often called a convenience fee) that serves as additional compensation for the company facilitating the transaction. Ticketmaster and others charge this, and have made a business model of it. However, such groups have a monopoly on particular events or even entire concert venues.

Air travel

Airlines have long charged fees for changing flights, and for excess luggage. However, with the oil price increases since 2003, many are increasing fees. In May 2008, it was announced that some would be charging even for just one checked bag, making it nearly impossible to avoid. Airlines have also invented fees for nearly every "service" that has always previously been included in the ticket price. While the extra income may be necessary to prevent bankruptcy, the practice of not including mandatory fees in the stated price is deceptive.

Airports also charge landing fees to airlines in order to cover costs, particularly airport security.

Customer service

Some businesses charge fees just for talking to a customer service representative. DirecTV charges this when ordering a pay-per-view movie via telephone instead of through the set-top box. Some companies charge for technical support, either prepaid or by using a premium-rate telephone number (such as the 1-900 numbers in North America). In the 2000s, some banks in the U.S. began charging a fee just to visit a teller, prompting such customer anger that the banks were forced to back down.[citation needed]

Speaking

A speaking fee is a payment awarded to an individual for speaking at a public event. Sometimes it is used as a way to pass money to individuals which would otherwise be prohibited.

Late fees

Late fees are charged when payment is not received by a deadline. These are supposedly intended to get people to pay rent or other charges on time, but these are sometimes exorbitant, or extremely out of proportion to the amount of money which is late. They can also add insult to injury for people who have hit hard financial times, making their situation worse. When added to credit card bills or check card statements, it may also cause an overlimit or NSF fee, creating an endless and inescapable cycle of fees that trigger other fees for people aleady stretched to their financial limit.

Retail

Some retail stores add fees, mainly for "guest passes" at membership warehouses like Costco and Sam's Club, where membership dues have not been paid.

There are a few other "cost-plus" stores, however, that add ten percent or so at checkout, using the lower shelf price to trick consumers into erroneous comparison shopping. At Food Depot and other smaller low-end chain stores like this, the shelf price may be 1.95, when the shopper will actually be charged 2.15 in the end, in a sort of legalized bait and switch. (Furthermore, a disclaimer indicates the shelf price is not even the actual cost to the store.)

Early termination

An early-termination fee is charged by a company when a customer wants or needs to be released from a contract before it expires. One example is when a renter leaves an apartment before a year-long contract is over. If tenants rent for a shorter period, or month-to-month, they are instead charged significantly more per month, and are often denied any promotional deals. Mobile phone companies in the U.S. are notorious for huge early-termination fees, typically starting at 175 dollars, and falling by only a few dollars per month, no matter the actual cost of or subsidy to the phone.

Some mortgage companies also charge early payment penalties if the homeowner pays more than is due in order to reduce the interest owed and to shorten the remaining term of the loan. The fees typically negate this advantage at least in part.

There are also fees charged for any type of termination. In the suburban Atlanta county of Gwinnett for example, customers were hit with termination fees of over 23 dollars when the county commission chose not to renew the contracts of the county trash collectors in November 2008. The two companies charged this both in violation of county law and in breach of contract.

Infrastructure and environment

An impact fee is a charge which a developer must pay to local government, in order to raise money for capital improvements to roads, libraries, and other services upon which the new land development places a burden. This prevents existing residents from being forced to pay in taxes, in addition to already having to put-up with the traffic, noise, and environmental damage of the new development.

Government

Public resources

A user fee is a fee paid for the use of a public resource, like a park. This is most common for national parks, and often also state parks or provincial parks, and for privately-owned areas.

Licenses and permits

Fees are usually charged for various government services, including license plates and annual motor vehicle registration, as well as driver licenses and professional licensing. Fees are also charged for various permits, like demolition and building permits, rezoning, and land grading (which causes silt); and sometimes for increasing stormwater runoff, destroying native vegetation, and cutting-down healthy trees.

Deceptive use

Sometimes fee is used to whitewash what are actually penalties or taxes. For example, Virginia's now-repealed Civil Remedial Fees were actually a tax on drivers with certain kinds of traffic law violations.

Schooling

At public universities and community colleges, students are charged tuition and matriculation, when can themselves be considered fees charged per credit hour. However, the term student fees typically refers to additional charges which the student is required to pay, typically no matter how many hours the student is taking in the academic term.

Commonly this is a student activity fee, which helps to fund student organisations, particularly those which are academic in nature; and those which serve all students equally, like student government and student media. A newer fee is the technology fee, which is often charged to students by schools when state government funding fails to meet needs for computers and other classroom technology. Students may also be charged a health fee which usually covers the campus nurse, and possibly a visit to a local clinic if the student is ill.

Parking fees are normally optional, because students may not have their own automobiles. However, many U.S. schools are now forcing meal plans on their students, particularly those that stay in dorms, and some force freshmen to stay in the dorms. Generally, all fees except parking are covered under scholarships, whether they are from private, government, or lottery funds. However, at least one U.S. state (Georgia) began denying HOPE Scholarship money for any new fees added, even by its own state schools.

References

...


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

FEE, an estate in land held of a superior lord on condition of the performance of homage or service (see FEUDALISM). In English law "fee" signifies an estate of inheritance (i.e. an estate descendable to the heirs of the grantee so long as there are any in existence) as opposed to an estate for life. It is divisible into three species: (I) fee simple; (2) conditional fee; (3) fee tail. (See ESTATE.) A fee farm rent is the rent reserved on granting a fee farm, i.e. land in fee simple, to be held by the tenant and his heirs at a yearly rent. It is generally at least one-fourth of the value of the land at the time of its reservation. (See RENT.) The word "fee" has also the sense of remuneration for services, especially the honorarium paid to a doctor, lawyer or member of any other profession. It is also used of a fixed sum paid for the right to enter for an examination, or on admission to membership of a university or other society. This sense of the word is taken by the New English Dictionary to be due to a use of "fee" in its feudal sense, and to represent a sum paid to the holder of an office "in fee." The etymology of the Med. Lat. feudum, feodum or feum, of its French equivalent fief, and English "fee," in Scots law "feu" (q.v.), is extremely obscure. (See the New English Dictionary, s.v. " Fee.") There is a common Teutonic word represented in Old English as feoh or feo, in Old High German as fehu, meaning property in the shape of cattle (cf. modern Ger. Vieh, Dutch vee). The old Aryan peku gives Sanskrit paru, Lat. pecus, cattle, whence pecunia, money. The O. Eng. feoh, in the sense of money, possibly survives in "fee," honorarium, though this is not the view of the New English Dictionary. The common explanation of the Med. Lat. feudum or feodum, of which Ducange (Glossarium, s.v.) gives an example from a constitution of the emperor Charles the Fat of the year 884, is that it is formed from the Teutonic fehu, property, and od, wealth (cf. ALLODIUM and UDAL). This would apparently restrict the original meaning to movable property, while the early applications of feudum are to the enjoyment of something granted in return for service (beneficium). Another theory takes the origin to be fehu alone, in a particular sense of wages, payment for services. This leaves the d- of feudum unexplained. Some have taken the origin to be a verbal form feudare=feum dare. Another theory finds the source in the O. High Ger. fehon, to eat, feed upon, "take for one's enjoyment."


<< Camillo Federici

Hermann Von Fehling >>


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

German

Etymology

French fée

Noun

Fee f. (genitive Fee, plural Feen)

  1. fairy

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Antoine Laurent Apollinaire Fée article)

From Wikispecies

Antoine Laurent Apollinaire Fée   (Fée)
French botanist (1789 - 1874)
Worked on ferns, lichens, and fungi

External links


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

A payment for service done or to be done, usually for professional or special services, the amount being usually fixed by law or custom. The duties discharged by the Levites in connection with the service of the Tabernacle and, afterward, of the Temple were compensated by the tithes of Israel. The priests in their turn received a tithe of the income of the Levites, as well as a number of gratuities known under the name of "the twenty-four gifts of the priesthood" (Tosef., Ḥallah, ii.; "Aruch Completum," s.v. (missing hebrew text) ). Samuel took naught of any man's hand (1Sam 12:4). Elisha refused to accept anythingfrom Naaman, the Syrian captain, for curing his leprosy, and cursed Gehazi for taking a gift (2Kg 5:16-27). Yet Elisha did not object to the furnished chamber prepared by the Shunammite; from which the Talmud deduces that one may accept a gratuity, although the prophet Samuel taught otherwise by carrying his household with him whenever he traveled (Ber. 10b) so as not to be dependent on others.

Contents

Teachers.

The learned professions were not strictly defined in Talmudic times, and the Rabbis treated the laws pertaining to them under the laws of master and servant. While a learned man need not reject a favor or benefit, he must not demand payment for teaching the Law. Moses said: "Behold I have taught you statutes and judgments even as the Lord my God commanded me" (Deut 4:5). All must follow the example of God and of Moses and teach without reward. However, a primary-school teacher may charge for taking care of children, or for instruction in the accents and the division of verses (B. B. 37a). Maimonides allows the customary price for teaching the Scriptures, but not for the common law ("Yad," Talmud Torah, i. 7; compare Shulḥan 'Aruk, Yoreh De'ah, 246). Nevertheless, the student must hire a teacher, even if he can not obtain free tuition, as the Proverbs say: "Buy the truth and sell it not" (xxiii. 23). R. Zadok said: "Make not the Law thy hoe . . . for whoever derives a benefit of the Law loses his life in the world to come" (Abot iv.). R. Tarphon, accused of theft and in danger of being thrown into the river, saved himself by revealing his identity; an act which he regretted all his life as an unworthy use of the respect paid to him only as a scholar. Jonathan b. Amram, a disciple of Rabbi Judah, would not make himself known in order to share in Judah's distribution of food to scholars at a time of famine, but begged to be fed like a dog or a crow (B. B. 8a). In Temple times teachers were appointed to instruct the priests in the details of the service, and they received a stipulated sum from the Temple treasury (Ket. 106a).

Physicians.

The physician, although frequently looked upon as a communal official (see Health Laws), seems not to have received any fixed salary, but to have maintained himself by casual fees. The fee incidental to an illness caused by an assault was collected from the assailant, who was also obliged to make a further payment in compensation (see Damage; Tort). The fee in this case, as in the case of hired service, if not determined previously, was regulated by legal custom (see Hiring and Letting).

Attorneys at law were unknown to Jewish jurisprudence and those who assumed their functions were regarded with suspicion by the Rabbis (see Abot i. 8; comp. Shab. 139a). The attorney who was authorized to represent his principal for the purpose of receiving property from a bailee or trustee was regarded as an agent, and the principal was obliged to pay all his expenses (B. K. 70a). There was no provision for his fee, which was probably regulated by the general customs of hiring and letting (see Attorney; Master and Servant).

Notaries.

The scribes of the court of justice or of the Temple received an annual salary (Ket. 106a; comp. Shab. 56a). There were, however, private notaries who drew up deeds of sale, bills of marriage or divorce, promissory notes, and other legal documents. They received a special fee for each service rendered. The general principle was that the party to whose advantage the transaction was presumably made should pay the scribe's fee. Thus the borrower paid the fee for the preparation of a promissory note, the buyer for the deed of sale, the hirer or tenant for the lease, and the bridegroom for the engagement or marriage contract. The fee for documents prepared in connection with the litigation of a case that came up in court was divided equally between the litigants (B. B. 167b; Maimonides, "Yad," Malweh, xxiv. 2).

Judges.

The judge was forbidden to take any fee for rendering judgment; the decisions of a judge who accepted a, payment should be considered void (Bek. 29a). The rendering of judgment was regarded by the Rabbis as teaching the Law, for which no payment might be accepted. But a judge was permitted to demand payment for loss of time, which payment was shared equally by plaintiff and defendant. Thus Karna, a justice of Babylonia, accepted a zuz from both the complainant and the defendant, explaining that he merely took his usual fee as a connoisseur of wine. Another justice, R. Huna, when the litigants appeared before him, said: "Pay me for the hire of a man to irrigate the field in my place, and I will sit in judgment" (Ket. 105a). Those judges who were appointed by the community and had no other occupation might take a salary from the communal treasury (see "Yad," Sanhedrin, xxiii. 5; Ḥoshen Mishpaṭ, 9, 3). In Temple times the magistrates of Jerusalem ( (missing hebrew text) ), whose duty it was to guard the public safety, received an annual salary from the Temple treasury ("terumat-ha-lishkah": Ket. 105a). There is no mention made of the salaries which the members of the Sanhedrin, or the city or government officials, received.

Ministers.

Later, when communities chose permanent ministers, whose duty it was not only to decide questions of ritual, but to render judgment in civil cases, it became customary for both parties to pay a fee to the minister for the decision rendered. In spite of the opposition of many authorities to this custom, it remained in force and is still practised. In the Orient, however, and particularly in Jerusalem, the custom still prevails not to charge the litigants anything. Some pious and learned men would not derive benefit from the Law by accepting a paying rabbinical position. Isaiah Hurwitz of Safed, in his "ẓawwa'ah" (ethical will), admonished his sons not to accept remuneration for any rabbinical position beyond the amount necessary to maintain the yeshibah ("Shelah," p. 183b, ed. Amsterdam, 1698). On the other hand, the acceptance of fees is defended by Simeon b. Ẓemaḥ Duran ("Tashbaẓ," i. 142-148), by the Shulḥan 'Aruk (Ḥoshen Mishpaṭ, 9, 5), and by the glossarists, especially in a responsum of Alfandari. The continuance of the custom, in spite of much objection, is probably due to the fact that the rabbis of those days received meager salaries,the fees being necessary to their maintenance. The fee was not regulated by law or custom, but was left entirely to the good will of the parties interested (Ḥoshen Mishpaṭ, 9, 5; Pitḥe Teshubah, ad loc.; Ḥatam Sofer, Ḥoshen Mishpaṭ, 164; Shebut Ya'aḳob, i. 142). Fees were also given, notwithstanding the opposition of many authorities, for the performance of a marriage ceremony, the arrangement of a divorce or a ḥaliẓah, or for the performance of other religious functions. The fees charged for a divorce by the rabbis of Germany were sometimes very exorbitant (Obadiah de Bertinoro on Bek. iv. 6).

Bibliography: Bloch, Der Vertrag, Budapest, 1893; idem, Das Politzeirecht, ib. 1879; Amram, Jewish Law of Divorce, Philadelphia, 1896; Farbstein, Das Recht der Unfreien und Freien Arbeiter, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1896.

This entry includes text from the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906.

Simple English

Simple English Wiktionary has the word meaning for:

A fee is the price one gives as payment for services, especially the honorarium paid to a doctor, lawyer, consultant or member of a learned profession. Traditionally, a fee is different to a payment, salary, or wage, because the fee usually is paid only once for the professional's services.


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message