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Feminist suffrage parade in New York City, May 6, 1912.

The feminist movement (also known as the Women's Movement, Women's Liberation, or Women's Lib) is a series of campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, voting rights, sexual harassment, and sexual violence. The goals of the movement vary from country to country, e.g. opposition to female genital cutting in Sudan, or to the glass ceiling in Western countries.

The movement's history has gone through three "waves," beginning in the 18th century. The First-wave was oriented around the station of middle or upper-class white women, and involved suffrage and political equality. Second-wave feminism attempted to further combat social and cultural inequalities. Third-wave feminism was a reaction to and continuation from the second-wave, taking a post-structuralist analysis of femininity to argue that there is in fact no all-encompassing single feminist idea. It set itself against essentialist definitions of femininity, which assume a universal female identity, instead emphasizing discursive power and the ambiguity of gender. Third-wave theory incorporates elements of queer theory, anti-racism, and other hallmarks of modern progressivism.

The feminist movement has brought a sweeping variety of social and cultural change, its impact touching familial relations, religion, the place of women in society, gendered language, and relationships between men and women.

Contents

History

The history of feminist movements has been divided into three "waves" by feminist scholars.[1][2] Each deals with different aspects of the same feminist issues.

The history, events, and structure of the Feminist movement is closely related to the individuals at the time, specific protests that took place, and the broader transformations taking place in American culture. The feminist movement worked and continues to work against the status quo in American society. According to Bell Hooks, "Feminism is a struggle against sexist oppression. Therefore, it is necessarily a struggle to eradicate the ideology of domination that permeates Western culture on various levels, as well as a commitment to reorganizing society so that the self-development of people can take precedence over imperialism, economic expansion and material desires."[3]

First-wave

The first wave refers to the feminism movement of the 18th through early 20th centuries, which dealt mainly with the Suffrage. Writers such as Virginia Woolf are associated with the ideas of the First Wave of feminism. In her book A Room of One's Own, Woolf "describes how men socially and psychically dominate women". The argument of the book is that "women are simultaneously victims of themselves as well as victims of men and are upholders of society by acting as mirrors to men".[4] She recognizes the social constructs that restrict women in society and uses literature to contextualize it for other women.

The term, "first-wave", was coined retrospectively after the term second-wave feminism began to be used to describe a newer feminist movement that focused as much on fighting social and cultural inequalities as further political inequalities.[5]

In Britain, the Suffragettes campaigned for the women's vote, which was eventually granted − to some women in 1918 and to all in 1928 − as much because of the part played by British women during the First World War, as of the efforts of the Suffragists. In the United States leaders of this movement include Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, who each campaigned for the abolition of slavery prior to championing women's right to vote. Other important leaders include Lucy Stone, Olympia Brown, and Helen Pitts. American first-wave feminism involved a wide range of women, some belonging to conservative Christian groups (such as Frances Willard and the Woman's Christian Temperance Union), others resembling the diversity and radicalism of much of second-wave feminism (such as Stanton, Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage and the National Woman Suffrage Association, of which Stanton was president). In the United States first-wave feminism is considered to have ended with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (1919) granting women the right to vote.[citation needed]

Second-wave

The second wave (1960s-1980s) was concerned with gender inequality in laws and culture. It built on what had been achieved in the First Wave, and began adapting the ideas to America. Simone de Beauvoir is associated with this wave because of her idea of women as "the other". This idea was touched on in the writing of Woolf, and was adapted to apply not only to the gender roles of women in the household or at work, but also their sexuality. Beauvoir set the tone for later Feminist theory.[6]

The second wave of feminist activity began in the early 1960s and lasted through the late 1980s. What helped trigger this second wave was the book written by Betty Friedan. "The key event that marked the reemergence of this movement in the postwar era was the surprise popularity of Betty Friedan's 1963 book The Feminine Mystique. Writing as a housewife and mother (though she had had a long story of political activism, as well), Friedan described the problem with no name the dissatisfaction of educated, middle class wives and mothers like herself who, looking at their nice homes and families, wondered guiltily if that was all there was to life was not new; the vague sense of dissatifaction plaguing housewives was a staple topic for women's magazines in the 1950s. But Friedan, instead of blaming individual women for failing to adapt to women's proper role, blamed the role itself and the society that created it" (Norton, Mary Beth, A people A Nation pg 865. 2005 Houghton Mifflin Company New York.)

During this time feminists campaigned against cultural and political inequalities. The movement encouraged women to understand aspects of their own personal lives as deeply politicized, and reflective of a sexist structure of power. If first-wave feminism focused upon absolute rights such as suffrage, second-wave feminism was largely concerned with other issues of equality, such as the end to discrimination.[5] The feminist activist and author, Carol Hanisch coined the slogan "The Personal is Political" which became synonymous with the second wave.[7][8] Second-wave feminists saw women's cultural and political inequalities as inextricably linked and encouraged women to understand aspects of their personal lives as deeply politicized and as reflecting sexist power structures.

Third-wave

The Third wave of Feminism (1990s-current), is seen as both a continuation and a response to the perceived failures of the Second-wave.[9]

In addition to "responding" to the Second Wave, the Third Wave was less reactive, and had a greater focus on developing the different achievements of women in America. The Feminist Movement as such grew during the Third Wave, to incorporate a greater number of women who may not have previously identified with the dynamics and goals that were established at the start of the movement. Though criticized as mere a continuation of the Second Wave, the Third Wave made its own unique contributions.

In the early 1990s, a movement arose in response to the perceived failures of second wave feminism, it has been termed the "third wave". It is also described as a response to the backlash against initiatives and movements created by second-wave feminism. Feminist leaders rooted in the second wave like Gloria Anzaldúa, bell hooks, Chela Sandoval, Cherríe Moraga, Audre Lorde, Maxine Hong Kingston, and many other feminists of color, called for a new subjectivity in feminist voice. They sought to negotiate prominent space within feminist thought for consideration of race related subjectivities. This focus on the intersection between race and gender remained prominent through the Hill-Thomas hearings, but began to shift with the Freedom Ride 1992. This drive to register voters in poor minority communities was surrounded with rhetoric that focused on rallying young feminists. For many, the rallying of the young is the emphasis that has stuck within third wave feminism.[5][10]

Cultural dynamics

The Feminist Movement's agenda includes acting as a counter to the putatively patriarchal strands in the dominant culture. While differing during the progression of waves, it was a movement that sought to challenge the political structure, power holders, and cultural beliefs or practices

Although antecedents to feminism may be found far back before the 18th century, the seeds of the modern feminist movement were planted during the late part of that century. Christine de Pizan, a late medieval writer, was possibly the earliest feminist in the western tradition. She is believed to be the first woman to make a living out of writing. Feminist thought began to take a more substantial shape during The Enlightenment with such thinkers as Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and the Marquis de Condorcet championing women's education. The first scientific society for women was founded in Middelburg, a city in the south of the Dutch republic, in 1785. Journals for women which focused on issues like science became popular during this period as well.[citation needed]

The women who made the first efforts towards women's suffrage came from more stable and privileged backgrounds, and were able to dedicate time and energy into making change. Initial developments for women, therefore, mainly benefited white women in the middle and upper classes. Thus, the beginning of the Feminist Movement in America was a specific agenda for a certain group of women.

The different waves of feminism are not only reflective of the cultural evolution in American since the 1920s but it is also the way in which the Feminist Movement used different social movement tactics to encourage women in America to become active and motivate individuals to make change for the whole of women in America. Although the Feminist Movement has spanned almost a century there are ways in which to breakdown the timeline and recognize how women have framed the ways they have achieved different goals throughout history. It is "By rendering events or occurrences meaningful, frames function to organize experience and guide action, whether individual or collective" [11]

The Feminist Movement has been an ongoing presence in American culture, and the group of women targeted at the beginning has since changed. The beginning of the Feminist movement was seen as exclusive in that, according to bell hooks, "[oppressed] women... felt that our only response to white, bourgeois, hegemonic dominance of feminist movement is to trash, reject, or dismiss feminism."[3]

The three waves of Feminism are examples of how values have been identified, shared, and transformed, and the Feminist Movement as a whole has worked to redefine certain standards of its agenda in order to include a broader spectrum of people. For example the movement later included women of different races and sexual orientations. It was only in the fall of 1971 that NOW (National Organization of Women) "acknowledged, ‘the oppression of lesbians as a legitimate concern of feminism’" [12]

The Feminist movement continues to support and encourage women to pursue their goals as individuals who deserve equal opportunity. "The Foundation of future feminist struggle must be solidly based on a recognition of the need to eradicate the underlying cultural basis and causes of sexism and other forms of group oppression,"[3] according to bell hooks.

Women's liberation in the United States

The phrase "Women's Liberation" was first used in the United States in 1964[13] and first appeared in print in 1966.[14] By 1968, although the term Women's Liberation Front appeared in the magazine Ramparts, it was starting to refer to the whole women's movement.[15] Bra-burning also became associated with the movement.[16] This term is one that needs to be contextualized within American society. It is assuming that the oppressed are all women in America. The work of the Feminist movement have had liberation as a specific goal for women but the agenda has evolved as culture has transformed and the issues being addressed by the Feminist Movement have increased. Keeping in mind that the "Optimism about the outcome of a collective challenge will thus enhance the probability of participation; pessimism will diminish it" [11] allowed women who therefore achieved some sense of liberation to feel accomplished with the time and energy they were dedicating to the movement.

Participation lacked in respect to the broader spectrum of women in America, specifically women who were not white and part of the middle to upper class. The transitions made throughout history however helped to expand the efforts of the Feminist Movement to include women of different race, class, and sexual orientation. Different actions have been seen to be highlights of Women's Liberation but it was a goal of the greater movement rather than one specific moment in history. One of the most vocal critics of the women's liberation movement has been the African American feminist and intellectual, Gloria Jean Watkins (who uses the pseudonym "bell hooks"), who argues that this movement glossed over race and class and thus failed to address "the issues that divided women". She highlighted the lack of minority voices in the women's movement in her book Feminist theory from margin to center (1984).[17]

The division between women in America has been result of differences of race, class, and sexual orientation. It has been "Racism [that] keeps women from uniting against sexism." It is important not to view race or gender with an eye of oppression (Bhavnani 80). The origins of Women's Liberation in America can be identified as being part of two branches that essentially started the Feminist Movement and more specifically the actions towards women's liberation. The older of the two branches included the formation of organizations such as Women's Equity Action League, Human Rights of Women, and the National Organization of Women (NOW). These organization were primarily concerned with the legal and economic obstacles facing women. Men and women worked to address issues of working women, gender roles, salary, and opportunities of women in the workforce. The second branch identified as the younger branch included a larger number of smaller groups that focused specifically on different activities. The efforts of the younger branch was influenced by the events and actions of the Civil Rights Movement and the motivation to create change came from groups like Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) who targeted college campus communities to get involved.[16] By increasing awareness about women's issues individuals were motivated to educate themselves whether it was through experience or academics.

The difference between the older and younger branches is their organization and structure. The older branch is more likely to work with the structure of society whereas the younger group tend to defy the institutionalized aspect of working with the system [16]. The younger branch makes up many different groups which tended to form among friend circles creating challenges like diversifying the groups. These two branches are important to recognize because they allow the history of the Feminist Movement to be contextualized within American culture. The branches help to identify the efforts that have gone on in social circles, college campus, and cities all over the country.

The scope of the movement

As a movement these women produced the deepest transformation in American society and enlisted the largest number of participants. Underlying the specific conflicts in political economy and culture made gender issues matter like never before to activists on all sides of the issue and to millions of other ordinary citizens.[18] Historian Nancy Cott wrote "feminism was an impulse that was impossible to translate into a program without centrifugal results" [18] about the first wave of the movement. What made a change in gender order feel necessary to so much of society was the fate of the family wage system; the male breadwinner/female homemaker idea that shaped government policies and employment in businesses. In the years of the movement women accomplished many of the goals they set out to do. They won protection from employment discrimination, inclusion in affirmative action, abortion law reform, greater representation in media, equal access to school athletics, congressional passage of an equal rights movement and so much more.

Demographic changes started sweeping industrial society's; birth rates declined, life expectancy increased, and women were entering the paid labor force in massive amounts and new public policies emerged fitted to changing family forms and individual life cycles.[18] The work of these women also changed the popular understanding of marriage and the very meaning of life; women came to want more out of their marriages and from men, education, and themselves.

The efforts and accomplishments of these women and organizations throughout the women's movement inspired many authors of that time to write about their personal experiences with feminism. Jo Freeman and Sara Evans were two such authors. Both women participated in the movement and wrote about their firsthand knowledge of feminism. Freeman, American feminist and writer, wrote several feminist articles on issues such as social movements, political parties, public policy toward women and many other important pieces about women. Evans wrote her experiences in books such as "The Roots of Women's Liberation in the Civil Right Movement and the New Left" and "Born for Liberty". Her works focused more on young women activists recognizing that the "personal is political" as well as showing how these women used discussion sessions to expand understanding of the social roots of personal problems and worked towards developing different practices to address those issues.[18]

Part of what made feminism so successful was the way women in different situations developed their own variants and organized for the goals most important to them. All women, Native American women, working class women, Jewish women, Catholic women, sex workers, and women with disabilities, described what gender equality would mean for them and worked together to achieve it.

Social changes

The feminist movement affected change in Western society, including women's suffrage; the right to initiate divorce proceedings and "no fault" divorce; and the right of women to make individual decisions regarding pregnancy (including access to contraceptives and abortion); and the right to own property.[19][20]

Feminism has affected many changes in Western society, including women's suffrage, broad employment for women at more equitable wages and access to university education.

The United Nations Human Development Report 2004 estimated that when both paid employment and unpaid household tasks are accounted for, on average women work more than men. In rural areas of selected developing countries women performed an average of 20% more work than men, or an additional 102 minutes per day. In the OECD countries surveyed, on average women performed 5% more work than men, or 20 minutes per day.[21] At the UN's Pan Pacific Southeast Asia Women's Association 21st International Conference in 2001 it was stated that "in the world as a whole, women comprise 51 percent of the population, do 66 percent of the work, receive 10 percent of the income and own less than one percent of the property".[22]

The social climate in America has definitely evolved throughout history. The definitions of Feminism, Feminist, and Feminist Theory now are not a monolithic term. There are multiple dimensions to the movement that encompass all different aspects of American culture. In America "most people are socialized to think in terms of opposition rather than compatibility" [3]. Social changes have not only included the right to vote, greater equality in the workforce, as well as reproductive rights but also the recognition of injustices and the ways in which both men and women can work to change them. According to bell hooks, in order to create change it is essential to recognize that "exploited and oppressed groups of women are usually encouraged by those in power to feel that their situation is hopeless, that they can do nothing to break the pattern of domination" [3]

Language

Feminists are often proponents of using non-sexist language, using "Ms." to refer to both married and unmarried women, for example, or the ironic use of the term "herstory" instead of "history". Feminists are also often proponents of using gender-inclusive language, such as "humanity" instead of "mankind", or "he or she" in place of "he" where the gender is unknown.[citation needed]

Gender-neutral language is a description of language usages which are aimed at minimizing assumptions regarding the biological sex of human referents. The advocacy of gender-neutral language reflects, at least, two different agendas: one aims to clarify the inclusion of both sexes or genders (gender-inclusive language); the other proposes that gender, as a category, is rarely worth marking in language (gender-neutral language). Gender-neutral language is sometimes described as non-sexist language by advocates and politically-correct language by opponents.[23]

Heterosexual relationships

The increased entry of women into the workplace beginning in the twentieth century has affected gender roles and the division of labor within households. Sociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild in The Second Shift and The Time Bind presents evidence that in two-career couples, men and women, on average, spend about equal amounts of time working, but women still spend more time on housework.[24][25] Feminist writer Cathy Young responds to Hochschild's assertions by arguing that in some cases, women may prevent the equal participation of men in housework and parenting.[26]

Feminist criticisms of men's contributions to child care and domestic labor in the Western middle class are typically centered around the idea that it is unfair for women to be expected to perform more than half of a household's domestic work and child care when both members of the relationship perform an equal share of work outside the home. Several studies provide statistical evidence that the financial income of married men does not affect their rate of attending to household duties.[27][28]

In Dubious Conceptions, Kristin Luker discusses the effect of feminism on teenage women's choices to bear children, both in and out of wedlock. She says that as childbearing out of wedlock has become more socially acceptable, young women, especially poor young women, while not bearing children at a higher rate than in the 1950s, now see less of a reason to get married before having a child. Her explanation for this is that the economic prospects for poor men are slim, hence poor women have a low chance of finding a husband who will be able to provide reliable financial support.[29]

Although research suggests that to an extent, both women and men perceive feminism to be in conflict with romance, studies of undergraduates and older adults have shown that feminism has positive impacts on relationship health for women and sexual satisfaction for men, and found no support for negative stereotypes of feminists.[30]

Effect on religion

Related terms:
Christian feminism
Dianic Wicca
Islamic feminism
Jewish feminism
New feminism

The feminist movement has affected religion and theology in profound ways. In liberal branches of Protestant Christianity, women are now allowed to be ordained as clergy, and in Reform, Conservative and Reconstructionist Judaism, women are now allowed to be ordained as rabbis and cantors. In some of these groups, some women are gradually obtaining positions of power that were formerly only held by men, and their perspectives are now sought out in developing new statements of belief. These trends, however, have been resisted within most sects of Islam, Roman Catholicism, and Orthodox Christianity.[citation needed]

Feminist theology is a movement that reconsiders the traditions, practices, scriptures, and theologies of religions from a feminist perspective. Some of the goals of feminist theology include increasing the role of women among the clergy and religious authorities, reinterpreting male-dominated imagery and language about God, determining the place of women place in relation to career and motherhood, and studying images of women in the religion's sacred texts.[31]

Christian feminism is a branch of feminist theology which seeks to reinterpret and understand Christianity in light of the equality of women and men. Because this equality has been historically ignored, Christian feminists believe their contributions are necessary for a complete understanding of Christianity. While there is no standard set of beliefs among Christian feminists, most agree that God does not discriminate on the basis of biologically-determined characteristics such as sex. Their major issues are the ordination of women, male dominance in Christian marriage, and claims of moral deficiency and inferiority of abilities compared to men. They also are concerned with the balance of parenting between mothers and fathers, and the overall treatment of women in the church.[32][33]

Early feminists such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton concentrated almost solely on "making women equal to men". However, the Christian feminist movement chose to concentrate on the language of religion because they viewed the historic gendering of God as male as a result of the pervasive influence of patriarchy. Rosemary Radford Ruether provided a systematic critique of Christian theology from a feminist and theist point of view. She called for the language of God and religion to become something that represents the ability of God to be either male or female and to be neither male nor female concurrently.[34] Ruether claimed that the male personification of God resulted from the tradition of Judeo-Christian leadership that failed to recognize gender inequalities as problematic. She also suggests that it might have been difficult to note, because of the numerous women that filled roles of power.

Islamic feminism is concerned with the role of women in Islam and aims for the full equality of all Muslims, regardless of gender, in public and private life. Islamic feminists advocate women's rights, gender equality, and social justice grounded in an Islamic framework. Although rooted in Islam, the movement's pioneers have also utilized secular and Western feminist discourses and recognize the role of Islamic feminism as part of an integrated global feminist movement.[35] Advocates of the movement seek to highlight the deeply rooted teachings of equality in the Quran and encourage a questioning of the patriarchal interpretation of Islamic teaching through the Quran, hadith (sayings of Muhammad), and sharia (law) towards the creation of a more equal and just society.[36]

Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. Feminist movements, with varying approaches and successes, have opened up within all major branches of Judaism. In its modern form, the movement can be traced to the early 1970s in the United States. According to Judith Plaskow, who has focused on feminism in Reform Judaism, the main issues for early Jewish feminists in these movements were the exclusion from the all-male prayer group or minyan, the exemption from positive time-bound mitzvot, and women's inability to function as witnesses and to initiate divorce.[37]

The Dianic Wicca or Wiccan feminism is a female focused, Goddess-centered Wiccan sect; also known as a feminist religion that teaches witchcraft as every woman's right. It is also one sect of the many practiced in Wicca.[38]

See also

References

  1. ^ Humm, 1978. p. 251
  2. ^ Walker, Rebecca, 'Becoming the Third Wave' in Ms. (January/February, 1992) pp. 39-41
  3. ^ a b c d e (hooks, bell. 2000. Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center. Cambridge: South End Press. p. 26)
  4. ^ Humm, 1992. p. 22
  5. ^ a b c Freedman, Estelle B., No Turning Back: The History of Feminism and the Future of Women (London: Ballantine Books, 2003)
  6. ^ Humm, 1992. p. 44
  7. ^ Echols, Alice (1989). Daring to be bad: radical feminism in America, 1967-1975. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. pp. 416. ISBN 0-8166-1787-2. 
  8. ^ Hanisch, Carol (2006-01-01). [http://scholar.alexanderstreet.com/pages/viewpage.action?pageId=2259 "Hanisch, New Intro to "The Personal is Political" - Second Wave and Beyond"]. The Personal Is Political. The "Second Wave" and Beyond. http://scholar.alexanderstreet.com/pages/viewpage.action?pageId=2259. Retrieved 2008-06-08. 
  9. ^ Krolokke, Charlotte and Anne Scott Sorensen, "From Suffragettes to Grrls" in Gender Communication Theories and Analyses:From Silence to Performance (Sage, 2005)
  10. ^ Henry, Astrid (2004). Not my mother's sister: generational conflict and third-wave feminism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-21713-4. 
  11. ^ a b Snow, David A., E. Burke Rochford, Jr., Steven K. Wordon, Robert D. Benford. 1986. Frame Alignment Processes, Micromobilization, and Movement Participation. American Sociological Review. p. 464)
  12. ^ Gatlin, Rochelle. 1987. American Women Since 1945. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. p. 119
  13. ^ Sarachild, Kathie. Consciousness-Raising: A Radical Weapon, in Sarachild, K, Hanisch, C, Levine, F, Leon, B, Price, C (eds.) Feminist Revolution. Random House N.Y. 1978 pp. 144-150.
  14. ^ Mitchell, Juliet, 'Women: The longest revolution' in New Left Review, 1966, Nov-Dec, pp. 11-37
  15. ^ Hinckle, Warren and Marianne Hinckle. Women Power. Ramparts 1968 February 22–31
  16. ^ a b c Freeman, Jo. The politics of women's liberation. David McKay N.Y. 1975
  17. ^ Hooks, Bell (2000). Feminist theory: from margin to center. Cambridge, Massachusetts: South End Press. ISBN 0-89608-614-3. 
  18. ^ a b c d MacLean, Nancy. 2006. "Gender is Powerful: The Long Reach of Feminism". Magazine of History 20: 19-23
  19. ^ Messer-Davidow, Ellen, Disciplining feminism: from social activism to academic discourse (Duke University Press, 2002), ISBN 9780822328437
  20. ^ Butler, Judith, 'Feminism in Any Other Name', differences vol. 6, numbers 2-3, pp. 44-45
  21. ^ "Section 28: Gender, Work Burden, and Time Allocation in United Nations Human Development Report 2004". http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/hdr04_complete.pdf.  (page 233)
  22. ^ PPSEAWA International Bulletin - Pan Pacific Southeast Asia Women's Association 21st International Conference
  23. ^ "Gender Neutral Language." University of Saskatchewan Policies, 2001. http://www.usask.ca/policies/2_03.htm. Accessed March 25, 2007.
  24. ^ Hochschild, Arlie Russell, The Second Shift (Penguin, 2003), ISBN 9780142002926
  25. ^ Hochschild, Arlie Russell, The Time Bind: When Work Becomes Home and Home Becomes Work (Owl Books U.S, 2003), ISBN 9780805066432
  26. ^ The mama lion at the gate - Salon.com
  27. ^ Scott J. South and Glenna Spitze, "Housework in Marital and Nonmarital Households", American Sociological Review 59, no. 3 (1994):327-348
  28. ^ Sarah Fenstermaker Berk and Anthony Shih, "Contributions to Household Labour: Comparing Wives' and Husbands' Reports,", in Berk, ed., Women and Household Labour
  29. ^ Luker, Kristin, Dubious Conceptions: The Politics of the Teenage Pregnancy Crisis. Harvard University Press (1996)
  30. ^ [1] Laurie A. Rudman & Julie E. Phelan, "The Interpersonal Power of Feminism: Is Feminism Good for Romantic Relationships?" Sex Roles, Vol. 57, No. 11-12, December 2007.
  31. ^ Bundesen, Linda, The Feminine Spirit: Recapturing the Heart of Scripture (Jossey Bass Wiley, 2007), ISBN 9780787984953
  32. ^ Haddad, Mimi, "Egalitarian Pioneers: Betty Friedan or Catherine Booth?" Priscilla Papers, Vol. 20, No. 4 (Autumn 2006)
  33. ^ Anderson, Pamela Sue and Beverley Clack, eds., Feminist philosophy of religion: critical readings (London: Routledge, 2004)
  34. ^ OCHS, CAROL (1977). Behind the Sex of God – "Toward a New Consciousness - Transcending Matriarchy and Patriarchy". Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon Press
  35. ^ II International Congress on Islamic Feminism
  36. ^ Al-Ahram Weekly | Culture | Islamic feminism: what's in a name?
  37. ^ Plaskow, Judith. "Jewish Feminist Thought" in Frank, Daniel H. & Leaman, Oliver. History of Jewish Philosophy, Routledge, first published 1997; this edition 2003.
  38. ^ Falcon River (2004) The Dianic Wiccan Tradition. From The Witches Voice. Retrieved 2007-05-23.

Sources

  • Humm, Maggie. 1978. The Dictionary of Feminist Theory. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
  • Humm, Maggie (ed). 1992. Modern Feminisms. New York: Columbia University Press.







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