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Feng shui
Fengshui Compass.jpg
A Luopan, Feng shui compass.
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 風水
Simplified Chinese 风水
Literal meaning wind-water
Filipino name
Tagalog pungsoy
Japanese name
Kanji 風水
Hiragana ふうすい
Korean name
Hangul 풍수
Hanja 風水
Thai name
Thai ฮวงจุ้ย (Huang Jui)
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese Phong thủy

Feng shui (English pronunciation: /ˌfʌŋˈʃweɪ/ fung-SHWAY,[1] formerly /ˈfʌŋʃuː.i/ FUNG-shoo-ee;[2] Chinese: 風水, pronounced [fə́ŋʂwèi]) is an ancient Chinese system of aesthetics believed to use the laws of both Heaven (astronomy) and Earth (geography) to help one improve life by receiving positive qi.[3] The original designation for the discipline is Kan Yu (simplified Chinese: 堪舆traditional Chinese: 堪輿pinyin: kānyú; literally: Tao of heaven and earth).[4]

The term feng shui literally translates as "wind-water" in English. This is a cultural shorthand taken from the following passage of the Zangshu (Book of Burial) by Guo Pu of the Jin Dynasty:[5]

Qi rides the wind and scatters, but is retained when encountering water.[5]

Historically, feng shui was widely used to orient buildings – often spiritually significant structures such as tombs, but also dwellings and other structures – in an auspicious manner. Depending on the particular style of feng shui being used, an auspicious site could be determined by reference to local features such as bodies of water, stars, or a compass. Feng shui was suppressed in China during the cultural revolution in the 1960s, but has since seen an increase in popularity, particularly in the United States.

Contents

History

Origins

Currently Yangshao and Hongshan cultures provide the earliest evidence for the practice of feng shui. Until the invention of the magnetic compass, feng shui apparently relied on astronomy to find correlations between humans and the universe.[6]

In 4000 BC, the doors of Banpo dwellings were aligned to the asterism Yingshi just after the winter solstice—this sited the homes for solar gain.[7] During the Zhou era, Yingshi was known as Ding and used to indicate the appropriate time to build a capital city, according to the Shijing. The late Yangshao site at Dadiwan (c. 3500-3000 BC) includes a palace-like building (F901) at the center. The building faces south and borders a large plaza. It is on a north-south axis with another building that apparently housed communal activities. The complex may have been used by regional communities.[8]

A grave at Puyang (c. 4000 BC) that contains mosaics—actually a Chinese star map of the Dragon and Tiger asterisms and Beidou (the Big Dipper, Ladle or Bushel) -- is oriented along a north-south axis.[9] The presence of both round and square shapes in the Puyang tomb, at Hongshan ceremonial centers and the late Longshan settlement at Lutaigang,[10] suggests that gaitian cosmography (heaven-round, earth-square) was present in Chinese society long before it appeared in the Zhou Bi Suan Jing.[11]

Cosmography that bears a striking resemblance to modern feng shui devices and formulas was found on a jade unearthed at Hanshan and dated around 3000 BC. The design is linked by archaeologist Li Xueqin to the liuren astrolabe, zhinan zhen, and Luopan.[12]

Beginning with palatial structures at Erlitou,[13] all capital cities of China followed rules of feng shui for their design and layout. These rules were codified during the Zhou era in the Kaogong ji (simplified Chinese: 考工记traditional Chinese: 考工記; "Manual of Crafts"). Rules for builders were codified in the carpenter's manual Lu ban jing (simplified Chinese: 鲁班经traditional Chinese: 魯班經; "Lu ban's manuscript"). Graves and tombs also followed rules of feng shui, from Puyang to Mawangdui and beyond. From the earliest records, it seems that the rules for the structures of the graves and dwellings were the same.

Early instruments and techniques

A feng shui spiral at LA Chinatown's Metro station.

The history of feng shui covers 3,500+ years[14] before the invention of the magnetic compass. It originated in Chinese astronomy.[15] Some current techniques can be traced to Neolithic China,[16] while others were added later (most notably the Han dynasty, the Tang, the Song, and the Ming).[17]

The astronomical history of feng shui is evident in the development of instruments and techniques. According to the Zhouli the original feng shui instrument may have been a gnomon. Chinese used circumpolar stars to determine the north-south axis of settlements. This technique explains why Shang palaces at Xiaotun lie 10° east of due north. In some cases, as Paul Wheatley observed,[18] they bisected the angle between the directions of the rising and setting sun to find north. This technique provided the more precise alignments of the Shang walls at Yanshi and Zhengzhou. Rituals for using a feng shui instrument required a diviner to examine current sky phenomena to set the device and adjust their position in relation to the device.[19]

The oldest examples of instruments used for feng shui are liuren astrolabes, also known as shi. These consist of a lacquered, two-sided board with astronomical sightlines. The earliest examples of liuren astrolabes have been unearthed from tombs that date between 278 BC and 209 BC. Along with divination for Da Liu Ren[20] the boards were commonly used to chart the motion of Taiyi through the nine palaces.[21] The markings on a liuren/shi and the first magnetic compasses are virtually identical.[22]

The magnetic compass was invented for feng shui[23] and has been in use since its invention. Traditional feng shui instrumentation consists of the Luopan or the earlier south-pointing spoon (指南針 zhinan zhen)—though a conventional compass could suffice if one understood the differences. A feng shui ruler (a later invention) may also be employed.

Foundation theories

The goal of feng shui as practiced today is to situate the human built environment on spots with good qi. The "perfect spot" is a location and an axis in time.[24][25]

Qi (ch'i)

Qi (roughly pronounced as the sound 'chee' in English) is a movable positive or negative life force which plays an essential role in feng shui.[citation needed] In Chinese martial arts, it refers to 'energy', in the sense of 'life force' or élan vital.[citation needed] A traditional explanation of qi as it relates to feng shui would include the orientation of a structure, its age, and its interaction with the surrounding environment including the local microclimates, the slope of the land, vegetation, and soil quality.[citation needed]

The Book of Burial says that burial takes advantage of "vital qi." Wu Yuanyin[26] (Qing dynasty) said that vital qi was "congealed qi," which is the state of qi that engenders life. The goal of feng shui is to take advantage of vital qi by appropriate siting of graves and structures.[25]

One use for a Luopan is to detect the flow of qi.[27] Magnetic compasses reflect local geomagnetism which includes geomagnetically induced currents caused by space weather. [28] Professor Max Knoll suggested in a 1951 lecture that qi is a form of solar radiation.[29] As space weather changes over time,[30] and the quality of qi rises and falls over time,[25] feng shui with a compass might be considered a form of divination that assesses the quality of the local environment—including the effects of space weather.

Polarity

Polarity is expressed in feng shui as Yin and Yang Theory. Polarity expressed through yin and yang is similar to a magnetic dipole.[citation needed] That is, it is of two parts: one creating an exertion and one receiving the exertion. Yang acting and yin receiving could be considered an early understanding of chirality[citation needed]. The development of Yin Yang Theory and its corollary, Five Phase Theory (Five Element Theory), have also been linked with astronomical observations of sunspots.[31]

The five elements of feng shui (water, wood, fire, earth/soil, metal) are made of yin and yang in precise amounts (Greater wood has less yin than lesser wood, but not as much yin as water, and so forth).[citation needed] Earth is a buffer, or an equilibrium achieved when the polarities cancel each other.[citation needed] While the goal of Chinese medicine is to balance yin and yang in the body, the goal of feng shui has been described as aligning a city, site, building, or object with yin-yang force fields.[32]

Bagua (eight trigrams)

Two diagrams known as bagua (or pa kua) loom large in feng shui, and both predate their mentions in the Yijing (or I Ching). The Lo (River) Chart (Luoshu, or Later Heaven Sequence) was developed first.[33] The Luoshu and the River Chart (Hetu, or Early Heaven Sequence) are linked to astronomical events of the sixth millennium BC, and with the Turtle Calendar from the time of Yao.[34] The Turtle Calendar of Yao (found in the Yaodian section of the Shangshu or Book of Documents) dates to 2300 BC, plus or minus 250 years.[35]

In Yaodian, the cardinal directions are determined by the marker-stars of the mega-constellations known as the Four Celestial Animals.[35]

East: the Green Dragon (Spring equinox)—Niao (Bird), α Hydrae

South: the Red Phoenix (Summer solstice)—Huo (Fire), α Scorpionis

West: the White Tiger (Autumn equinox)—Xu (Emptiness, Void), α Aquarii, β Aquarii

North: the Dark Turtle (Winter solstice)—Mao (Hair), η Tauri (the Pleiades)

The diagrams are also linked with the sifang (four directions) method of divination used during the Shang dynasty.[36] The sifang is much older, however. It was used at Niuheliang, and figured large in Hongshan culture's astronomy. And it is this area of China that is linked to Huangdi, the Yellow Emperor, who allegedly invented the south-pointing spoon.[37]

A building in Hong Kong with a hollow middle hole, maximizing on fengshui benefits

School

A school or stream is a set of techniques or methods. The term should not be confused with an actual school—there are many masters who run schools.

Some claim[38] that authentic masters impart their genuine knowledge only to selected students, such as relatives.

Techniques

Archaeological discoveries from Neolithic China and the literature of ancient China together give us an idea of the origins of feng shui techniques. In premodern China, Yin feng shui (for tombs) had as much importance as Yang feng shui (for homes).[24] For both types one had to determine direction by observing the skies (what Wang Wei called the Ancestral Hall Method; later identified by Ding Juipu as Liqi pai, which westerners mistakenly label "compass school"),[25] and to determine the Yin and Yang of the land (what Wang Wei called the Kiangxi method and Ding Juipu called Xingshi pai, which westerners mistakenly label "form school").[25]

Feng shui is typically associated with the following techniques. This is not a complete list; it is merely a list of the most common techniques.[39][40]

Xingshi Pai ("Forms" Methods)

  • Luan Dou Pai, 峦头派, Pinyin: luán tóu pài, (environmental analysis without using a compass)
  • Xing Xiang Pai, 形象派 or 形像派, Pinyin: xíng xiàng pài, (Imaging forms)
  • Xingfa Pai, 形法派, Pinyin: xíng fǎ pài

Liqi Pai ("Compass" Methods)

San Yuan Method, 三元派 (Pinyin: sān yuán pài)

  • Dragon Gate Eight Formation, 龍門八法 (Pinyin: lóng mén bà fǎ)
  • Xuan Kong, 玄空 (time and space methods)
  • Xuan Kong Fei Xing 玄空飛星 (Flying Stars methods of time and directions)
  • Xuan Kong Da Gua, 玄空大卦 ("Secret Decree" or 64 gua relationships)

San He Method, 三合派 (environmental analysis using a compass)

  • Accessing Dragon Methods
  • Ba Zhai, 八宅 (Eight Mansions)
  • Water Methods, 河洛水法
  • Local Embrace

Others

  • Four Pillars of Destiny, 四柱命理 (a form of hemerology)
  • Major & Minor Wandering Stars (Constellations)
  • Five phases, 五行 (relationship of the five phases or wuxing)

Modern developments

One of the grievances mentioned when the anti-Western Boxer Rebellion erupted was that Westerners were violating the basic principles of feng shui in their construction of railroads and other conspicuous public structures throughout China. At the time, Westerners had little idea of, or interest in, such Chinese traditions. After Richard Nixon journeyed to the People's Republic of China in 1972, feng shui became somewhat of an industry in the USA.

It has since been reinvented by New Age entrepreneurs for Western consumption. Feng shui speaks to the profound role of magic, mystery, and order in American life.[41] The following list does not exhaust the modern varieties.

Black Sect—also called BTB Feng Shui—does not match documentary or archaeological evidence, or what is known of the history of Tantra in China.[42] It relies on "transcendental" methods, the concept of clutter as metaphor for life circumstances, and the use of affirmations or intentions to achieve results. The BTB Ba gua was developed by Lin Yun. Each of the eight sectors that were once aligned to compass points now represents a particular area of one's life.

In contemporary China, practitioners of the divination systems of Qi Men Dun Jia and Da Liu Ren adopt these modes of divination for highly detailed and analytic problem-solving in Feng Shui.[citation needed]

Feng shui today

Today, feng shui is practiced not only by the Chinese, but also by Westerners. However, with the passage of time and feng shui's popularization in the West, much of the knowledge behind it has been lost in translation, not paid proper attention to, frowned upon, or scorned.

Robert T. Carroll sums up what feng shui has become in some cases:

"... feng shui has become an aspect of interior decorating in the Western world and alleged masters of feng shui now hire themselves out for hefty sums to tell people such as Donald Trump which way his doors and other things should hang. Feng shui has also become another New Age "energy" scam with arrays of metaphysical products ... offered for sale to help you improve your health, maximize your potential, and guarantee fulfillment of some fortune cookie philosophy."[43]

Others have noted how, when feng shui is not applied properly, or rather, without common sense, it can even harm the environment, such as was the case of people planting "lucky bamboo" in ecosystems that could not handle them.[44] Still others are simply skeptical.

Nevertheless, even modern feng shui is not always looked at as a superstitious scam. Many people believe it is important and very helpful in living a prosperous and healthy life either avoiding or blocking negative energies that might otherwise have bad effects. Many of the higher-level forms of feng shui are not so easily practiced without either connections, or a certain amount of wealth because the hiring of an expert, the great altering of architecture or design, and the moving from place to place that is sometimes necessary requires a lot of money. Because of this, some people of the lower classes lose faith in feng shui, saying that it is only a game for the wealthy.[45] Others, however, practice less expensive forms of Feng Shui, including hanging special (but cheap) mirrors, forks, or woks in doorways to deflect negative energy.[46]

Even today feng shui is so important to some people that they use it for healing purposes, separate from western medical practice, in addition to using it to guide their businesses and create a peaceful atmosphere in their homes.[47] In 2005, even Disney acknowledged feng shui as an important part of Chinese culture by shifting the main gate to Hong Kong Disneyland by twelve degrees in their building plans, among many other actions suggested by the master planner of architecture and design at Walt Disney Imagineering, Wing Chao, in an effort to incorporate local culture into the theme park.[48]

The practice of Feng Shui is diverse and multi-faceted. There are many different schools and perspectives. The International Feng Shui Guild (IFSG) is a non-profit professional organization that presents the full diversity of Feng Shui.

At Singapore Polytechnic and other institutions like the New York College of Health Professions, many students (including engineers and interior designers) take courses on feng shui every year and go on to become feng shui (or geomancy) consultants.[49]

Feng Shui in the News

Some articles concerning feng shui that have made the news are listed below; in addition, feng shui has its own page in the New York Time's "Times Topics.":

Criticism

Modern criticism

Feng shui today is widely considered a pseudoscience, and has been criticised by many organisations devoted to investigating paranormal claims. For example, James Randi describes feng shui as "an ancient form of claptrap"[50], while SkepticsSA describe it as "complete nonsense, nothing more than ancient Chinese superstitions". Evidence for its effectiveness is based on anecdote, and there is a lack of a plausible method of action; this leads to conflicting advice from different practitioners of feng shui. Feng shui practitioners use this as evidence of variations or different schools; critical analysts have described it thus: "Feng shui has always been based upon mere guesswork."[51]

Penn & Teller did an episode of their television show Bullshit! that featured several feng shui practitioners in the US, and was highly critical of the inconsistent (and frequently odd) advice. In the show, the entertainers argue that if feng shui is a science (as the American Institute of Feng Shui, for example, claim[52]), it should feature a consistent method.[53]

A travelogue-type article from the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry explained feng shui initially as "a commonsense alignment of structures to conform to the shape of the land, an idea shared by any sensible architect in a land fraught with typhoons and torrential rains." However, after reading two books (one by field researcher Ole Bruun), the writer's conclusion was that feng shui "is more of a mystical belief in cosmic harmony."[54]

Modern criticism differentiates between feng shui as a traditional proto-religion and the modern practice: "A naturalistic belief, it was originally used to find an auspicious dwelling place for a shrine or a tomb. However, over the centuries it... has become distorted and degraded into a gross superstition."[55] There has been little systematic scientific research into feng shui, since the general scientific consensus is that it is superstition.

Historical criticism

Matteo Ricci (1552–1610), one of the founding fathers of Jesuit China missions, may have been the first European to write about feng shui practices. His account in De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas... tells about feng shui masters (geologi, in Latin) studying prospective construction sites or grave sites "with reference to the head and the tail and the feet of the particular dragons which are supposed to dwell beneath that spot". As a Catholic missionary, Ricci strongly criticized the "recondite science" of geomancy along with astrology as yet another superstitio absurdissima of the heathens: "What could be more absurd than their imagining that the safety of a family, honors, and their entire existence must depend upon such trifles as a door being opened from one side or another, as rain falling into a courtyard from the right or from the left, a window opened here or there, or one roof being higher than another?"[56]

Victorian-era commentators on feng shui were generally ethnocentric, and as such skeptical and derogatory of what they knew of feng shui.[57]

In 1896 at a meeting of the Educational Association of China, Rev. P.W. Pitcher railed at the "rottenness of the whole scheme of Chinese architecture," and urged fellow missionaries "to erect unabashedly Western edifices of several stories and with towering spires in order to destroy nonsense about fung-shuy."[58]

Sycee-shaped incense used in feng shui

Some modern Christians have a similar opinion of feng shui.[59]

It is entirely inconsistent with Christianity to believe that harmony and balance result from the manipulation and channeling of nonphysical forces or energies, or that such can be done by means of the proper placement of physical objects. Such techniques, in fact, belong to the world of sorcery.[60]

After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, feng shui has been officially deemed as a "feudalistic superstitious practice" and a "social evil" according to the state's ideology and discouraged or even banned outright at times.[61][62]

Persecution was the most severe during the Cultural Revolution, when feng shui was classified as a custom under the so-called Four Olds to be wiped out. Feng shui practitioners were beaten and abused by Red Guards and their works burned. After the death of Mao Zedong and the end of the Cultural Revolution, the official attitude became more tolerant but restrictions on feng shui practice are still in place in today's China. It is legal in the PRC today to register feng shui consultation as a business and similarly advertising feng shui practice is banned, and there have been frequent crackdowns on feng shui practitioners on the grounds of "promoting feudalistic superstitions" such as one in Qingdao in early 2006 when the city's business and industrial administration office shut down an art gallery converted into a feng shui practice.[63] Some communist officials who had consulted feng shui were sacked and were to be expelled from the Communist Party.[64]

Partly because of the Cultural Revolution, in today's mainland China less than one-third of the population believe in feng shui, and the proportion of believers among young urban Chinese is said to be much lower.[65] Learning feng shui is still somewhat considered taboo in today's China.[66] Nevertheless, it is reported that feng shui has gained adherents among Communist Party officials according to a BBC Chinese news commentary in 2006,[67] and since the beginning of Chinese economic reforms the number of feng shui practitioners are increasing. A number of Chinese academics permitted to research on the subject of feng shui are anthropologists or architects by trade, studying the history of feng shui or historical feng shui theories behind the design of heritage buildings, such as Cao Dafeng, the Vice-President of Fudan University,[68] and Liu Shenghuan of Tongji University.

Feng shui practitioners have been skeptical of claims and methods in the "cultural supermarket."[69] Mark Johnson[70] made a telling point:

This present state of affairs is ludicrous and confusing. Do we really believe that mirrors and flutes are going to change people's tendencies in any lasting and meaningful way? ... There is a lot of investigation that needs to be done or we will all go down the tubes because of our inability to match our exaggerated claims with lasting changes.

Current developments

A modern "feng shui fountain" at Taipei 101, Taiwan

A growing body of research exists on the traditional forms of feng shui used and taught in Asia.

Landscape ecologists find traditional feng shui an interesting study.[71] In many cases, the only remaining patches of old forest in Asia are "feng shui woods,"[72] often associated with cultural heritage, historical continuity, and the preservation of species.[73] Some researchers interpret the presence of these woods as indicators that the "healthy homes,"[74] sustainability[75] and environmental components of ancient feng shui should not be easily dismissed.[76][77]

Environmental scientists and landscape architects have researched traditional feng shui and its methodologies.[78][79][80]

Architects study feng shui as an ancient and uniquely Asian architectural tradition.[81][82][83][84]

Geographers have analyzed the techniques and methods to help locate historical sites in Victoria, Canada,[85] and archaeological sites in the American Southwest, concluding that ancient Native Americans considered astronomy and landscape features.[86]

See also

References

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  58. ^ Chang Liang (pseudoym), 14 January 2005, What Does Superstitious Belief of 'Feng Shui' Among School Students Reveal? http://zjc.zjol.com.cn/05zjc/system/2005/01/14/003828695.shtml
  59. ^ Tao Shilong, 3 April 2006, The Crooked Evil of 'Feng Shui' Is Corrupting The Minds of Chinese People http://blog.csdn.net/taoshilong/archive/2006/04/03/649650.aspx
  60. ^ Chen Xintang Art Gallery Shut by the Municipality's Business and Industrial Department After Converting to 'Feng Shui' Consultation Office Banduo Daoxi Bao, Qingdao, January 19, 2006 http://gwzz.blogbus.com/logs/2006/01/1854093.html
  61. ^ BBC, 9 March 2001, Feng Shui Superstitions Troubles Chinese Authorities http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/chinese/news/newsid_1210000/12108792.stm
  62. ^ Debate on Feng Shui http://www.yuce49.com/showjs.asp?js_id=45
  63. ^ Beware of Scams Among the Genuine Feng Shui Practitioners http://jiugu861sohu.blog.sohu.com/58913151.html
  64. ^ Jiang Xun, From Voodoo Dolls to Feng Shui Superstitions, BBC Chinese service, 11 April 2006, http://news.bbc.co.uk/chinese/trad/hi/newsid_4870000/newsid_4872500/4872542.stm
  65. ^ Cao Dafeng http://www.fudan.edu.cn/new_genview/now_caidafeng.htm
  66. ^ Jane Mulcock. Creativity and Politics in the Cultural Supermarket: synthesizing indigenous identities for the r-evolution of spirit. Continuum. 15:2. July 2001, 169-185.
  67. ^ "Reality Testing in Feng Shui." Qi Journal. Spring 1997
  68. ^ Bo-Chul Whang and Myung-Woo Lee. Landscape ecology planning principles in Korean Feng-Shui, Bi-bo woodlands and ponds. J. Landscape and Ecological Engineering. 2:2, November, 2006. 147-162.
  69. ^ Bixia Chen (February 2008). "A Comparative Study on the Feng Shui Village Landscape and Feng Shui Trees in East Asia." PhD dissertation, United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Kagoshima University (Japan)
  70. ^ Marafa L. "Integrating natural and cultural heritage: the advantage of feng shui landscape resources." International Journal of Heritage Studies, Volume 9, Number 4, December 2003 , pp. 307-323(17)
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  72. ^ Stephen Siu-Yiu Lau, Renato Garcia, Ying-Qing Ou, Man-Mo Kwok, Ying Zhang, Shao Jie Shen, Hitomi Namba. Sustainable design in its simplest form: Lessons from the living villages of Fujian rammed earth houses. Structural Survey. 2005, 23:5, 371-385
  73. ^ Xue Ying Zhuang, Richard T. Corlett. Forest and Forest Succession in Hong Kong, China. J. of Tropical Ecology, 13:6 (Nov., 1997), 857
  74. ^ Marafa, L. M. Integrating Natural and Cultural Heritage: the advantage of feng shui landscape resources. Intl. J. Heritage Studies. 2003, 9: Part 4, 307-324
  75. ^ Chen, B. X. and Nakama, Y. A summary of research history on Chinese Feng-shui and application of feng shui principles to environmental issues. Kyusyu J. For. Res. 57. 297-301 (2004).
  76. ^ Xu, Jun. 2003. A framework for site analysis with emphasis on feng shui and contemporary environmental design principles. Blacksburg, Va: University Libraries, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
  77. ^ Lu, Hui-Chen. 2002. A Comparative analysis between western-based environmental design and feng-shui for housing sites. Thesis (M.S.). California Polytechnic State University, 2002.
  78. ^ Park, C.-P. Furukawa, N. Yamada, M. A Study on the Spatial Composition of Folk Houses and Village in Taiwan for the Geomancy (Feng-Shui). J. Arch. Institute of Korea. 1996, 12:9, 129-140.
  79. ^ Xu, P. Feng-Shui Models Structured Traditional Beijing Courtyard Houses. J. Architectural and Planning Research. 1998, 15:4, 271-282.
  80. ^ Hwangbo, A. B. An Alternative Tradition in Architecture: Conceptions in Feng Shui and Its Continuous Tradition. J. Architectural and Planning Research. 2002, 19:2, pp 110-130.
  81. ^ Su-Ju Lu; Peter Blundell Jones. House design by surname in Feng Shui. J. of Architecture. 5:4 December 2000, 355-367.
  82. ^ Chuen-Yan David Lai. A Feng Shui Model as a Location Index. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 64 (4), 506-513.
  83. ^ Xu, P. Feng-shui as Clue: Identifying Ancient Indian Landscape Setting Patterns in the American Southwest. Landscape Journal. 1997, 16:2, 174-190.

Further reading

  • Ole Bruun. "Fengshui and the Chinese Perception of Nature," in Asian Perceptions of Nature: A Critical Approach, eds. Ole Bruun and Arne Kalland (Surrey: Curzon, 1995) 173-88
  • Ole Bruun. Fengshui in China: Geomantic Divination between State Orthodoxy and Popular Religion. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2003.
  • Ole Bruun. An Introduction to Feng Shui. Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  • Yoon, Hong-key. Culture of Fengshui in Korea: An Exploration of East Asian Geomancy, Lexington Books, 2006.
  • "Magnetic alignment in grazing and resting cattle and deer," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences published ahead of print August 25, 2008, doi:10.1073/pnas.0803650105
  • Xie, Shan Shan' Chinese Geographic Feng Shui Theories and Practices National Multi-Attribute Institute Publishing, Oct. 2008, ISBN 978-159261-0048


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Feng Shui (which means “wind and water”) is the ancient art of placement. It is an Eastern philosophy that, among other things, determines how you can position and structure the items that make up your personal living space to achieve maximum benefits in terms of health, mental peace, financial success, job satisfaction and spiritual fulfillment.

But it was never the intention of the Chinese masters who developed the philosophy of Feng Shui thousands of years ago to suggest that all these wonderful benefits could be achieved by a simple rearrangement of the things of your physical world.

Rather, the ancients believed that equal attention should be paid to the inner person in terms of lifestyle factors, such as exercise and diet, channeling the natural energy forces, and working with the powerful influence of the stars.

This internalized approach to health is known as ‘inner Feng Shui’ incorporating inner and outer Feng Shui into your daily life may therefore be seen as a journey of enlightenment and one that also takes in other important spiritual approaches along the way.

Feng Shui, like Indian Vaastu Shastra, believes that the directions play an important role in the luck of an individual. Each direction represents a certain aspiration. It also represents a certain element. This means that when the elements in each direction are in perfect balance, the place has the potential to produce the best luck for the persons staying there.

In addition to the directions, Feng Shui also gives a special importance to the various positions in the house irrespective of the direction. This thought has given rise to the form school of Feng Shui. Here we can correct the house problems without considering the directions.

But the fact remains that each direction has its own energies and we cannot ignore it. We have to give due importance to them.

The form school is good for correcting the Feng Shui of things that have no specific direction, i.e. the moving things like cars or advertisement banners or hoardings etc. at other places the remedies applied just with form school are seen to show only temporary effect.

Then comes the compass school that gives due importance to both. Also we have personal Feng Shui that can help us get the best of all schools. Let us see more of Feng Shui in the later pages.

Contents

History of Feng Shui

Feng Shui was practiced in china for several years. We can trace the use of this science as back as the Tang dynasty. It was used mainly in the imperial court practice. Those days the Feng Shui masters were either highly honored or put to death in order to ensure that they do not give the benefit of their knowledge to others. Chinese folk tales are full of stories about the Feng Shui practitioners.

It is believed that the first Ming emperor Chu Yuan Chaun could overthrow the last Mongol emperor with the help of an extremely auspicious Feng Shui of his father’s grave. But this ungrateful emperor ordered the killing of all the Feng Shui masters on gaining power. He was also instrumental in making and distributing fake Feng Shui literature in the public.

The third Ming emperor suffered due to this fake literature as he had a new capital created in the place that is presently known as the Forbidden City in Beijing. This was created as per this fake Feng Shui and shortly after the palaces were built, they were burnt away. There were a number of mishaps during this time due to the wrong Feng Shui. Later when Manchus overthrew the Mings, they to succumbed to the effects of wrong Feng Shui. This continued till emperor Chien Lung took a personal interest in finding & introducing correct Feng Shui. His period was full of good luck and prosperity to his people. Later it was seen that even Mao Tse Tung and Deng Xioa Ping had benefited with the Feng Shui of the graves of their ancestors. Yet Mao Tse Tung did not allow the practice of Feng Shui during his rule as he was always having the fear to be overthrown.

All this shows that Feng Shui was always away from the reach of common man in the ancient China. But today even a common man is able to use this science for making his life better. Feng Shui traveled to the other countries with the masters who left the motherland to settle in other countries. These countries include Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore.

Schools of Feng Shui

Different practitioners follow Feng Shui in different ways. On the basis of its use, Feng Shui has different schools. The main schools are the form school, the compass school & the I Ching.

The form school is the school that follows the concept that the areas in the premises with reference to the entrance determine different aspirations and can be corrected or enhanced just by placing the symbolic correcting of enhancing things. This symbolism has hardly anything to do with the elements. This can work well to things that have no fixed directions, but the total use of this school or houses is doubtful to produce accurate results. To begin with Feng Shui, form school is good as it is simpler, but in the long run it is always advisable to consider the compass school as well. This is because, there are times when the form school remedies may clash with the compass or personal Feng Shui remedies. This may cause problem in stead of help! The compass school is the school that considers the eight compass directions, the elements connected with these directions and the qualities of these elements. Here we generally consider the four main directions namely, East, West, North and South. The four sub-directions are, Northeast, Northwest, Southeast and Southwest. The sub-directions are further divided into eight parts namely, North Northeast, East Northeast, North Northwest, West Northwest, South Southeast, East Southeast, South Southwest and West Southwest. This means, the compass school eventually considers twelve directions. These directions correspond to the twelve animals. But still as far as the consideration to the elements is concerned, we do have eight directions.

The I Ching is the technique of studying the changes of the movements of the aspiration with time. This means that the I Ching studies the time dimension of things. In this view, the changing nature of all things is totally accepted. This view also accepts that in each good fortune, there is a hidden bad fortune and in each bad fortune, there is a hidden good fortune. We have to learn to tap the good fortune in each case without labeling the fortune as good or bad. The I Ching school is mainly used when we deal with personal Feng Shui and Feng Shui astrology. The consideration to this can make the use of Feng Shui more perfect with the best possible results. Of course, we cannot rule out the presence of the heaven luck that differs from person to person. Actually it is the heaven luck that causes the difference in the intensity and quality of results even though the same remedies are applied for two persons with the same number staying in similar conditions.

Rules of successful Feng Shui

When we want to use Feng Shui in the best possible way, we have to consider the compass, the form as well as the astrology based on Feng Shui. It is advisable to follow certain rules before you actually start the Feng Shui consultation. This will ensure best results for the persons who receive advice. Since Feng Shui is essentially about you and your life, luck and health, it is important to clearly establish ‘who you are’. All of us have a unique constitutional make up from an astrological perspective, which provides important insights into potential & capacity. Some regard this as our fate or our destiny. The kua number, character number & energy number determine this.

The kua number is found by calculating the total of all digits of the birth year & continuing to take the total of sums till we arrive at a single digit number. Then subtract this number from 11. This is the kua number. To get the character number we have to take the month of birth. Then take the group number of the kua number. Subtract the month number from the group number of kua number. This is the character number. On getting the character number, we have to see the trigram of that number and locate the position of kua number in it with reference to the regular lo shu with 5 in the center. This is the energy number. (for more details, refer to chapter on personal Feng Shui.)

Then you have to determine where you are. This can be quite simply known when we begin to study our own unique nature and place or the premises ‘where we are’ within the cycles of time and space. It is always necessary to establish ‘who’ the client is and ‘where he or she is with reference to his or her astrology, when we study their problem and suggest a remedy to them. This can focus on their areas of vulnerability or success at the time. We also have to see what is placed in a certain area in the premises and see if it matches to relevant elements. If not, the area needs correction. This means we have to first study the whole plan of the premises where the client stays or works with all its interiors, its colour scheme and the materials used therein. This will give us the exact idea of the kind of energies present and the kind of energies actually required.

Then we can make a comparative study and locate the problems faced by the residents. Before we go to suggest the remedies, it is always advisable to cross check our observations regarding the problems. If the client says that he has exactly the same or similar problems as we have noticed, then we can say that our observation is accurate. Then we can go ahead and suggest remedies, which can work successfully with good results.

Wikimedia

See also

  • Search Wikiversity for Feng Shui

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Pronunciation

Noun

Feng Shui (uncountable)

  1. alternative spelling of feng shui

Dutch

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Dutch Wikipedia has an article on:
Feng Shui

Wikipedia nl

Pronunciation

  • IPA: [ˌfʌŋˈʃweɪ]

Noun

Feng Shui (uncountable)

  1. feng shui
    Al voor de eerste helft van de 15de eeuw was de gehele nieuwe stad klaar, geheel volgens de regels van Feng Shui.[1] — Already by the first half of the 15th century, the whole new city was completed, entirely according to the rules of feng shui.







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