The Full Wiki

Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ferdinand III
Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary, King of Bohemia, Archduke of Austria[1][1]
King of Hungary
Reign 1637 (1625)-1657
Coronation 8 December 1626, Sopron
Predecessor Ferdinand II
Successor Leopold I
King of Bohemia
Reign 1637 (1627)-1657
Coronation 21 November 1627, Prague
Predecessor Ferdinand II
Successor Leopold I
King of the Romans (King of Germany)
Reign 22 December 1636-1657
Coronation 30 December 1636, Regensburg
Predecessor Ferdinand II
Successor Leopold I
Holy Roman Emperor, Archduke of Austria
Reign 1637-1657
Predecessor Ferdinand II
Successor Leopold I
Spouse Maria Anna of Spain
Maria Leopoldine of Austria
Eleanor of Mantua
Issue
Ferdinand IV of Hungary
Mariana, Queen of Spain
Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
Archduke Charles Joseph
Eleanora Maria Josepha, Queen of Poland
Maria Anna Josepha, Electress Palatine
House House of Habsburg
Father Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor
Mother Maria Anna of Bavaria
Born 13 July 1608
Graz
Died 2 April 1657
Vienna

Ferdinand III (13 July 1608 – 2 April 1657) was Holy Roman Emperor 15 February 1637 – 1657. King of Hungary, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria.

Contents

Life

Eldest son of Emperor Ferdinand II from the house of Habsburg and his first wife, Maria Anna of Bavaria. Made King of Hungary in 1625, King of Bohemia in 1627, Archduke of Austria in 1621 and succeeded his father King of the Romans in 1636, and thence Holy Roman Emperor 1637.

Following the death of Wallenstein in 1634, he was made titular head of the Imperial Army in the Thirty Years' War, and later that year joined with his cousin the Cardinal-Infante to defeat the Swedes at Nördlingen. Leader of the peace party at court, he helped negotiate the Peace of Prague with the Protestant States, especially Saxony in 1635.

He succeeded his father as Holy Roman Emperor in 1637. He hoped to be able to make peace soon with France and Sweden, but the war dragged on for another 11 years, finally coming to an end with the Peace of Westphalia (Treaty of Münster with France, Treaty of Osnabrück with Sweden) in 1648, both negotiated by his envoy Maximilian von und zu Trauttmansdorff, a successful diplomat who had been made a count in 1623 by his father Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor.

During the last dreadful period of the war, in 1644 Ferdinand III gave to all rulers of German states the right to conduct their own foreign policy (ius belli ac pacis). This way the emperor was trying to gain more allies in the negotiations with France and Sweden. This very edict contributed to the gradual erosion of the imperial authority in the Holy Roman Empire.

In the Peace of Westphalia, his full titles are given as: "Ferdinand the Third, elected Roman Emperor, always August, King of Germany, Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Margrave of Moravia, Duke of Luxemburg, of the Higher and Lower Silesia, of Wurtemburg and Teck, Prince of Swabia, Count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Kyburg and Goritia, Marquess of the Sacred Roman Empire, Burgovia, the Higher and Lower Lusace, Lord of the Marquisate of Slavonia, of Port Naon and Salines."

Marriages and children

On 20 February 1631 Ferdinand III married his first wife Maria Anna of Spain. She was the youngest daughter of Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria. They were first cousins as Maria Anna's mother was a sister of Ferdinand's father. They were parents to six children:

In 1648, Ferdinand III married his second wife Maria Leopoldine, Archduchess of Austria. She was a daughter of Leopold V, Archduke of Austria and Claudia de' Medici. They were first cousins as male-line grandchildren of Charles II, Archduke of Austria and Maria Anna of Bavaria. They had a single son:

In 1651, Ferdinand III married Eleonora of Mantua (Gonzaga). She was a daughter of Charles IV Gonzaga, Duke of Rethel. They were parents to four children:

Music

Ferdinand III was a well-known patron of music and a composer. He studied music under Giovanni Valentini, who bequeathed his musical works to him, and had close ties with Johann Jakob Froberger, one of the most important keyboard composers of the 17th century. Froberger lamented the emperor's death and dedicated to him one of his most celebrated works, Lamentation faite sur la mort très douloureuse de Sa Majesté Impériale, Ferdinand le troisième; a tombeau for Ferdinand III's death was composed by the renowned violinist Johann Heinrich Schmelzer. Some of Ferdinand's own compositions survive in manuscripts: masses, motets, hymns and other sacred music, as well as a few secular pieces. His Drama musicum was praised by Athanasius Kircher, and the extant works, although clearly influenced by Valentini, show a composer with an individual style and a solid technique.[2]

Ancestors

Titles

Ferdinand III, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany, King of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, etc. Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Margrave of Moravia, Duke of Luxemburg, of the Higher and Lower Silesia, of Wurtemburg and Teck, Prince of Swabia, Count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Kyburg and Goritia, Marquess of the Holy Roman Empire, Burgovia, the Higher and Lower Lusace, Lord of the Marquisate of Slavonia, of Port Naon and Salines, etc. etc.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Ferdinand III (Holy Roman Empire) - MSN Encarta". Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwc6KEY7.  
  2. ^ Lederer, Josef-Horst. "Ferdinand III", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed 16 December 2006), grovemusic.com (subscription access).

External links

Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
Born: 13 July 1608 Died: 2 April 1657
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ferdinand II
King of Bohemia
1627–1646
Succeeded by
Ferdinand IV
King of Hungary
1625–1647
King in Germany
(formally King of the Romans)

1636–1653
Holy Roman Emperor (elect)
1637–1657
Succeeded by
Leopold I
Archduke of Austria
1637–1657
German nobility
Preceded by
Ferdinand IV
Duke of Teschen
1654-1657
Succeeded by
Leopold I
Advertisements

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message